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Sample records for cerevisiae cytokinetic apparatus

  1. Components of S. cerevisiae proteosynthetic apparatus form transient heat-shock aggregates which are diminished by cycloheximide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Filip; Vašicová, Pavla; Ivanov, P.; Vojtová, Jana; Hašek, Jiří

    Dorchester: Wiley, 2007, s. 48-48. [International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology /23./. Melbourne (AU), 01.07.2007-06.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0838 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Cytokinetic behavior of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in monocytopenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytokinetic behavior of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) was studied by pulse labeling with 3HTdB in mice made monocytopenic by a single intravenous injection of the bone-seeking isotope strontium-89 (99Sr). In the presence or absence of blood monocytes, PAM population size was unchanged for up to 1 month of chronic, severe monocytopenia. Pulse-labeling studies performed during monocytopenia show that in control mice PAM population half-times were 17.8 days with a potential doubling time of 39 days, whereas T1/2 was 14.8 days with a 28.5 day population doubling time for PAM in 99Sr-treated mice. Analysis of the halving times of the PAM mean grain count and the halving times of the most highly pulse-labeled cohorts suggested that PAM cell cycle times (Tc) were 5.1 days with a PAM rate of disappearance of 10.8%/day in 99Sr-treated mice and Tc of 6.6 days with a PAM rate of disappearance of 11.4%/day in 99Sr-treated mice. As measured by 3HTdR-labeling techniques, these cytokinetic values are in close approximation to each other, suggesting that 99Sr treatment did not significantly alter either PAM population size or cytokinetic behavior. Employing experimental values it was possible to construct a simple model of PAM population growth that supports the concept that the PAM population is self-renewing in the adult mouse. Taken together, the data show that a major portion of the resident PAM need not depend on the daily influx of peripheral blood monocytes to maintain themselves in a kinetically steady state

  3. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  4. Cytokinetic Control Mechanisms in Ehrlich Ascites Tumour Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich ascites tumour in mice was studied as a model system to elucidate the cytokinetic mechanisms controlling growth of cell populations. The basis for a retardation in growth rate during tumour development was determined with the aid of 3H-thymidine labelling and autoradiography. Three possible cytokinetic variables in growth regulation, namely, duration of the mitotic cell cycle, fraction of the cycling cells in the population (growth fraction) and rate of cell loss, were measured at different stages of growth. It was concluded that a deceleration in growth was a result of (1) a gradual prolongation of the cell cycle and its components and (2) a progressive decline in the growth fraction. Rate of cell loss did not appreciably change during most of the growth. It was also found that the total cell mass rather than the tumour age dictated the growth rate at any instant over a considerable range of growth. Non-cycling cells were found to resume cycle when a fraction of an old tumour was transplanted in new hosts, 3H-thymidine labelling combined with microspectrophotometric estimates of cellular DNA was utilized to locate the stages at which a cell cycle could be suspended or resumed. It was found that decycling or recycling could occur only after mitosis and before DNA synthesis; non-cycling (G0) state resembled G1, which was absent in the proliferating tumour cells. These findings are relevant to a further understanding of the molecular events leading to the initiation or suspension of a cell cycle. They are also pertinent to formulating a rationale for tumour therapy — for example with radiation — when coupled with the existing knowledge of the relative sensitivity of cells at different stages of cycle. (author)

  5. Characterization of Cytokinetic Mutants Using Small Fluorescent Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smertenko, Andrei; Moschou, Panagiotis; Zhang, Laining; Fahy, Deirdre; Bozhkov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis is a powerful paradigm for addressing fundamental questions of plant biology including molecular mechanisms of development, cell division, cell signaling, membrane trafficking, cell wall synthesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. Genetics was instrumental in identification of proteins regulating cytokinesis. Characterization of mutant lines generated using forward or reverse genetics includes microscopic analysis for defects in cell division. Typically, failure of cytokinesis results in appearance of multinucleate cells, formation of cell wall stubs, and isotropic cell expansion in the root elongation zone. Small fluorescent probes served as a very effective tool for the detection of cytokinetic defects. Such probes stain living or formaldehyde-fixed specimens avoiding complex preparatory steps. Although resolution of the fluorescence probes is inferior to electron microscopy, the procedure is fast, easy, and does not require expensive materials or equipment. This chapter describes techniques for staining DNA with the probes DAPI and SYTO82, for staining membranes with FM4-64, and for staining cell wall with propidium iodide. PMID:26659964

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown t...... cues, cell-to-cell variation and niches in S. cerevisiae biofilm. Being closely related to Candida species, S. cerevisiae is a model to investigate biofilms of pathogenic yeast....

  7. Resolving new ultrastructural features of cytokinetic abscission with soft-X-ray cryo-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Shachar; Kirchenbuechler, David; Nachmias, Dikla; Tamir, Adi; Werner, Stephan; Elbaum, Michael; Elia, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cytokinetic abscission is mediated by the ESCRT membrane fission machinery. While much has been clarified on the topology and kinetics of abscission through high-resolution microscopy, key questions regarding the mechanism of abscission remain open. Here we apply cryogenic soft-X-ray tomography to elucidate new ultrastructural details in the intercellular membrane bridge connecting cells undergoing abscission. In particular, we resolve defined ring-like structures inside the midbody dark zone that have been inaccessible to EM, and identify membrane extrusions at the abscission sites. In cells at late stages of abscission we resolve a complex array of helical spirals, extending the structural information obtained by EM. Our results highlight the advantages of soft-X-ray tomography and emphasize the importance of using complementary approaches for characterizing cellular structures. Notably, by providing new structural data from intact cells we present a realistic view on the topology of abscission and suggest new mechanistic models for ESCRT mediated abscission. PMID:27282220

  8. Heterogeneity in cytokinetic, clonogenic, and radiation response induced by nutrient deprivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grdina, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Williamson, K.D.; Johnson, T.S. (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA)); Sigdestad, C.P. (Louisville Univ., KY (USA). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1986-01-01

    A murine fibrosarcoma cell line (FSA 1233), with a capability to grow in vitro, was used to study biophysical heterogeneity induced by nutrient deprivation. Cell sub-populations were isolated by centrifuging cells through linear Renografin-density gradients. The effects of cell growth to late plateau phase on the cytokinetic, clonogenic, and radiation-survival characteristics were studied. It was observed that with increasing age of the cell culture, an increase in the proportion of relatively dense cells was associated with a decrease in plating efficiency. Cells collected at p=1.08 g/cm{sup 3} have a plating efficiency of 0.2% compared with 0.01% for those isolated at p=1.16 g/cm{sup 3}. Discrepancies were also seen between the tritiated thymidine labeling index (LI) and flow cytometry (FCM, % S phase) for cells collected throughout the gradient. The radiation sensitivities of selected cell populations isolated by density gradient centrifugation were determined and compared with data from a control plateau phase population. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. ALIX and ESCRT-III Coordinately Control Cytokinetic Abscission during Germline Stem Cell Division In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund H.; Malerød, Lene; Christensen, Anette Lie; Steen, Chloé B.; Mathieu, Juliette; Nezis, Ioannis P.; Liestøl, Knut; Huynh, Jean-René; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC) division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo. PMID:25635693

  10. Heterogeneity in cytokinetic, clonogenic, and radiation response induced by nutrient deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A murine fibrosarcoma cell line (FSA 1233), with a capability to grow in vitro, was used to study biophysical heterogeneity induced by nutrient deprivation. Cell sub-populations were isolated by centrifuging cells through linear Renografin-density gradients. The effects of cell growth to late plateau phase on the cytokinetic, clonogenic, and radiation-survival characteristics were studied. It was observed that with increasing age of the cell culture, an increase in the proportion of relatively dense cells was associated with a decrease in plating efficiency. Cells collected at p=1.08 g/cm3 have a plating efficiency of 0.2% compared with 0.01% for those isolated at p=1.16 g/cm3. Discrepancies were also seen between the tritiated thymidine labeling index (LI) and flow cytometry (FCM, % S phase) for cells collected throughout the gradient. The radiation sensitivities of selected cell populations isolated by density gradient centrifugation were determined and compared with data from a control plateau phase population. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus for decontaminating radioactive components consists of an attachment mechanism for completely suspending the apparatus from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator, a first drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a first direction, a second drive mechanism for pivoting the apparatus in a second direction, and a third drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a third independent direction. The apparatus also has a dual nozzle arrangement attached to the third drive mechanism for directing a water-grit mixture toward the component to be decontaminated. The apparatus provides a mechanism for remotely decontaminating the channel head of a nuclear steam generator so as to allow working personnel to enter therein. It is likely that less than 0.001 inches of metal surface will be removed from the steam generator using alumina or magnetite grit

  12. Vitrification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitrification apparatus was installed on November 1981 in No.2 cell of Waste Safty Testing Facility(WASTEF) in order to prepare samples for safety performance tests of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long-term storage and disposal. The apparatus is capable to make a vitrified product of 5 litters in maximum volume and of 50,000 Ci in maximum radioactivity including actual HLW. On November 1982 the hot operation of the apparatus has been started after cold test oparations of 53 runs. The report describes outlines of the design and results of the performance tests. (author)

  13. Radioimmunoassay apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for performing a quantitative radioimmunoassay comprising: a substantially spherical bead for carrying an antibody and a gripper for gripping said bead, said gripper comprising an integrally formed unit having a single elongate handle portion and a plurality of resilient fingers arranged at the base of the handle so that when said bead is secured within said fingers, said bead may be freely rotated about any diametric axis of the bead. In particular the invention relates to an apparatus for a two site immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin in human blood samples. (author)

  14. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  15. The Cytokinetic inhibitors Boi1 and Boi2 are required for activation of the exocyst complex by Rho GTPases

    OpenAIRE

    Masgrau Fortuny, Aina, 1986-

    2014-01-01

    Tant el creixement com la divisi?? cel??lular requereix el transport de membrana i altresfactors a la superf??cie cel??lular. En c??l??lules de S. cerevisiae, aquests processos necessiten eltransport de ves??cules de secreci?? a trav??s dels cables d???actina fins a les zones decreixement actiu, on es fusionen. Les Rho GTPases regulen la polaritzaci?? de l???actina i lafusi?? de ves??cules, per?? es desconeix com les GTPases senyalitzen els diversos efectors icom regulen els dos tipus de func...

  16. Molecular cloning of the Golgi apparatus uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Abeijon, C; Robbins, P W; Hirschberg, C B

    1996-01-01

    The mannan chains of Kluyveromyces lactis mannoproteins are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae except that they lack mannose phosphate and have terminal alpha1-->2-linked N-acetylglucosamine. The biosynthesis of these chains probably occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, by analogy to S. cerevisiae. The sugar donors, GDP-mannose and UDP-GlcNAc, must first be transported from the cytosol, their site of synthesis, via specific Golgi membrane transporters into the lumen where the...

  17. Drying apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate material, eg. fuel pellets for a nuclear reactor, is moved along a spiral path during drying by vibration of the path structure. Preferred apparatus comprises a hollow cone with a conical flight defining a path of travel having an inlet for the material and an outlet. The cone is heated by a radiant heater within the cone which itself is vibrated or oscillated about column. A cone provides an air space in which air can circulate and leave by convection through chimney. The flight may have a pile providing a fibrous surface for engaging the material. (author)

  18. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  20. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  1. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S.

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransfer...

  2. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  3. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik D D Possner

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be α-1,2-mannosyltransferases or α-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-α-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or α-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution.

  4. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  5. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic...

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  7. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  8. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the...... application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  9. Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walfridsson, M.

    1996-04-01

    Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pichia stipitis XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase (XR). The in-vivo reduction and the following excretion of xylitol, requires a co-substrate for maintenance and cofactor regeneration. Xylitol yields close to 100% were obtained with the XYL1 containing S. cerevisiae. Introducing P. stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, enabled S. cerevisiae to convert xylose to xylulose, via xylitol. During the screening work of P. stipitis XDH gene, another gene encoding a polyol dehydrogenase was isolated and cloned in S. cerevisiae. The gene was identified as a D-arabinitol dehydrogenase gene. In P. stipitis it may function as a redox sink by reducing D-ribulose to D-arabinitol. The metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was enhanced by over-expressing the native genes TKL1 and TAL1 encoding transketolase and transaldolase, respectively, resulting in improved xylose utilisation. The XR and XDH activities in recombinant S. cerevisiae were produced at different levels by constructing yeast vectors in which the PGK1 and ADHI promoters controlled XYL1 and XYL2. With higher XDH than XR activities, less by-products, in the form of xylitol and glycerol, were formed by the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding a thermostable xylose isomerase was cloned and expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant xylose isomerase was actively produced and a new functional metabolic pathway was established in S. cerevisiae resulting in ethanol production from xylose. 150 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  11. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  12. Glycolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Malhotra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by chloroform and methanol (2:1. Glycolipids were separated from total lipids by silicic acid chromatography. Glycolipid’s constituent sugars and fatty acids were analyzed by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Galactose was the prominent sugar followed by mannose. Relative concentrations of fucose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the glycolipid were 5.3, 35.2, 55.1 and 4.2%. 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 were the major fatty acids of the total glycolipids. Oleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by linoliec acid. They were separated into different fractions by using DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Glycolipids were fractionated and identified as cerebrosides, ceramide polyhexosides, sulfatides, monoglucosyldiglycerides and diglucosyldiglycerides. Ceramide polyhexosides were present in higher concentration as compared to other fractions.

  13. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and...... gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...... on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression....

  14. Methionine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpète, Philippe; Duthoit, Olivier; De Maeyer, Simon; Imray, Louise; Lawton, Andrew I; Stavropoulos, Konstantinos E; Gitonga, Virginia W; Hewlins, Michael J E; Dickinson, J Richard

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of methionine to methionol and methanethiol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using (13)C NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, enzyme assays and a number of mutants. Methionine is first transaminated to alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate. Methionol is formed by a decarboxylation reaction, which yields methional, followed by reduction. The decarboxylation is effected specifically by Ydr380wp. Methanethiol is formed from both methionine and alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate by a demethiolase activity. In all except one strain examined, demethiolase was induced by the presence of methionine in the growth medium. This pathway results in the production of alpha-ketobutyrate, a carbon skeleton, which can be re-utilized. Hence, methionine catabolism is more complex and economical than the other amino acid catabolic pathways in yeast, which use the Ehrlich pathway and result solely in the formation of a fusel alcohol. PMID:16423070

  15. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  16. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chuna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...

  17. TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Blažena Lavová; Dana Urminská

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase or catalase. The total antioxidant activity (mmol Trolox equivalent – TE.g-1 d.w.) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by 2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) during the yeas...

  18. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  19. SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize of independent variables as temperature, time and reaction ratio to output parameter of simultaneous enzyme saccharification and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of pretreated wheat straw as model substrate via RSM (response surface methodology approach. As dependent variable, it was chosen ethanol yields characterizing effectivity of process. The optimal conditions were approximately temperature 100 °C, time 1 hour and reaction ratio 26 mL to 1 g of treated wheat straw with ethanol yields 141.9 mg.g-1. After calculating the optimal values, the validation analyze was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variable was in agreement with the optimal parameters (~ 95 %. Proposed model was tested for three lignocellulosic materials (winter wheat straw, alfalfa hay and maize straw as wheat straw used as model substrate and it was confirmed the possibility of its use for other agricultural residues with similar content of lignocellulose.

  20. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  1. Fluidized bed apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus invented features and envelope with a cooling sleeve containing a treatment chamber with an escape duct, vacuum pump and intake pipes for a coating gas and a conveyor gas; these gases are sent into a special nozzle provided with a central passage for the coating gas and an annular outer passage for the conveyor gas which is heated on its way through, the nozzle being so designed that the gases do not mix until immediately before injection into the chamber. Such an apparatus can be used in particular to form coatings holding back fission products on nuclear fuel nuclei

  2. Compositions and methods for modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactants to a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions, a constraint set for the plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions, and...... commands for determining a distribution of flux through the reactions that is predictive of a S. cerevisiae physiological function. A model of the invention can further include a gene database containing information characterizing the associated gene or genes. The invention further provides methods for...... making an in silica S. cerevisiae model and methods for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function using a model of the invention. The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S...

  3. Floating decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is disclosed for decontaminating a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. It comprises a buoyant annular frame which descends into the vessel as the water level within it is lowered. Spray nozzles move around the frame on trolleys in a reciprocating fashion and spray water under high pressure on the inner surface of the vessel wall, resulting in automatic washdown of the reactor vessel

  4. Apparatus for obstacle traversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann

    2004-08-10

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

  5. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  6. A monostrain test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, J. C.; Hill, W. L.; Pontius, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Test apparatus is designed for determining tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation, and thermal coefficient of contraction or expansion of uniformly shaped plastics, adhesives, and foam materials over temperature range of 700 to 90 K (800 to -300). Tests may be used in design quality control, and in evaluation of new adhesives and plastic materials.

  7. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  8. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  9. A dual approach for improving homogeneity of a human-type N-glycan structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen, Mari A; Boer, Harry; de Ruijter, Jorg C; Frey, Alexander D

    2016-04-01

    N-glycosylation is an important feature of therapeutic and other industrially relevant proteins, and engineering of the N-glycosylation pathway provides opportunities for developing alternative, non-mammalian glycoprotein expression systems. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most established host organism used in therapeutic protein production and therefore an interesting host for glycoengineering. In this work, we present further improvements in the humanization of the N-glycans in a recently developed S. cerevisiae strain. In this strain, a tailored trimannosyl lipid-linked oligosaccharide is formed and transferred to the protein, followed by complex-type glycan formation by Golgi apparatus-targeted human N-acetylglucosamine transferases. We improved the glycan pattern of the glycoengineered strain both in terms of glycoform homogeneity and the efficiency of complex-type glycosylation. Most of the interfering structures present in the glycoengineered strain were eliminated by deletion of the MNN1 gene. The relative abundance of the complex-type target glycan was increased by the expression of a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter from Kluyveromyces lactis, indicating that the import of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into the Golgi apparatus is a limiting factor for efficient complex-type N-glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. By a combination of the MNN1 deletion and the expression of a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter, a strain forming complex-type glycans with a significantly improved homogeneity was obtained. Our results represent a further step towards obtaining humanized glycoproteins with a high homogeneity in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26983412

  10. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  11. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  12. Radiation therapy imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table

  13. Tomogram forming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and, in particular, a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The scanner is characterized by its chassis carrying highly inwardly focused collimators around a scanning field and by several collimator rigs and translation and rotational drive systems

  14. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  15. Oscillations in glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloster, Antonina; Olsen, Lars Folke

    Wehave investigated the glycolytic oscillations, measured as NADH autofluorescence, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch reactor. Specifically, we have tested the effect of cell density and a number of inhibitors or activators of ATPase activity on the amplitude of the oscillations. The...

  16. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  17. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  18. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  19. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  20. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning apparatus is disclosed for use in computerized axial tomography systems. The apparatus includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Signal processing and conditioning means mounted on the assembly and movable therewith, receive the output signals from the detector means and amplify and convert same to digital form. Slip ring interconnection means rotatable with the assembly, receive the outputs from the signal processors and conditioners and interfeed these signals to a computerized image reconstruction station. Slip rings rotatable with the assembly also provide interconnection enabling power and control inputs to the radiation source and to other portions of the apparatus. The assembly is continuously rotatable through successive 360 degree rotations and the examination sequence may be initiated at any point in the rotation of the assembly. The detector comprises an array of elements and means are provided for adjusting the gains of each channel associated with the individual detector elements as an incident of the examination process, thereby enabling compensation for drift in the channels

  1. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  2. The ATHENA antihydrogen apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, cooling and handling of antiprotons; a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing an clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a ''nested'' Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons

  3. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  4. Smokestack emission control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smokestack emissions control device is mounted to a smokestack, or the like, to clean and cool the emissions from the stack. The apparatus includes a housing shaped to be mounted on top of an emission stack and has a liquid tank formed in the housing for supporting a liquid therein. The tank is mounted directly in the passageway of escaping emissions to force the emissions through the liquid. A tank baffle extends into the liquid tank and into a liquid therein to force the escaping emissions from the smokestack through the liquid. A reduced pressure chamber is located adjacent to the liquid tank to create a negative pressure on one side of the liquid in the tank to draw the smokestack emissions through the liquid. A separator is located near the base of the stack wit pipes connecting the separator to the liquid bath for circulating the liquid in the liquid tank. the liquid in the bath can be specially formulated for the particular emissions from the emission stack. Anti-foaming and bubbling means are included to prevent the liquid from forming out of the tank. The tank is lightweight and allows the entire apparatus to be placed on an existing exhaust stack

  5. Pulsed laser machining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method for directing a controlled number of laser pulses onto a work piece to be machined. More specifically, the laser machining apparatus includes an excitable laser and an excitation lamp for continuously exciting the laser to emit a sequence of laser pulses. The application of the laser pulses to the work piece is controlled by an inner-cavity shutter that is opened to permit a precise number of pulses to be directed onto the work piece. The frequency (REP RATE) and pulse width of the laser pulses are controlled by the excitation lamp and, in turn, are set to create a progressive weld of significant depth and structural integrity. In particular there is provided control means for counting the number of laser pulses applied to a machining site of the work piece, whereby a known controllable quantity of energy is imparted to each site. To this end, the counting of the laser pulses begins after the completion of a laser pulse, whereby the actuation of the inner-cavity shutter is not synchronized to the computer but rather to the laser emission so that only whole laser pulses will be applied to the site

  6. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies

  7. TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažena Lavová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g. fats, lipids, proteins and DNA from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sacchamomyces cerevisiae are know as organisms with very important antioxidative enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase or catalase. The total antioxidant activity (mmol Trolox equivalent – TE.g-1 d.w. of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by 2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid during the yeast cultivation. It was found that the total antioxidant activity was the highest (1.08 mmol TE.g-1 d.w. in the strain Kolín after 32 hours of cultivation and the lowest (0.26 mmol TE.g-1 d.w. in the strain Gyöng after 12 hours of cultivation.

  8. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Famili, I.; Fu, P.; Palsson, B.O.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments and the...... containing 1175 metabolic reactions and 584 metabolites. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to similar to16% of all characterized ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Using the reconstructed network, the metabolic capabilities of S. cerevisiae were calculated and compared with...

  9. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvat...

  10. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular compone...

  11. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E.; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant c...

  12. Identification of coated vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles were found in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and enriched from spheroplasts by a rapid procedure utilizing gel filtration on Sephacryl S-1000. The coated vesicles (62-nm diam) were visualized by negative stain electron microscopy and clathrin triskelions were observed by rotary shadowing. The contour length of a triskelion leg was 490 nm. Coated vesicle fractions contain a prominent band with molecular weight of approximately 185,000 when analyzed by SDS PAGE. The p...

  13. Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Lesage, Guillaume; Bussey, Howard

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular matrix composed of a layered meshwork of β-glucans, chitin, and mannoproteins encapsulates cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organelle determines cellular morphology and plays a critical role in maintaining cell integrity during cell growth and division, under stress conditions, upon cell fusion in mating, and in the durable ascospore cell wall. Here we assess recent progress in understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of cell wall synthesis and it...

  14. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  15. Apparatus for determining surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    System for studying capillary action uses pressure transducer and chart recorder instead of manometer. Apparatus enables measurements to be made under controlled atmospheres. It also may be remotely operated. These features are particularly useful when dealing with noxious liquids and for study of surface tension under high-pressure conditions that require use of all-metal apparatus.

  16. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  17. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  18. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  19. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  20. Catalytic cracking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skraba, F.W.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an apparatus comprising: (a) a catalyst lift pit having an upper end, a lower end, and a generally cylindrical sidewall having an interior surface defining a first diameter; (b) a riser-reactor connected to the upper end of the lift pot, the riser-reactor having a mouth defining a second diameter where it connects to the lift pot which is smaller than the lift pot first diameter; (c) a plug member extending axially into the lift pot from the lower end of the lift pot, the plug member being generally rotationally symmetric about its longitudinal axis and having an upper end surface which faces the mouth of the riser-reactor, the lift pot, the riser-reactor and the plug.

  1. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  2. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchnir-Moyses

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part ...

  3. Post-transcriptional regulation in the myo1Δ mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamine Pearl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae myosin type II-deficient (myo1Δ strains remain viable and divide, despite the absence of a cytokinetic ring, by activation of the PKC1-dependent cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP. Since the myo1Δ transcriptional fingerprint is a subset of the CWIP fingerprint, the myo1Δ strain may provide a simplified paradigm for cell wall stress survival. Results To explore the post-transcriptional regulation of the myo1Δ stress response, 1,301 differentially regulated ribosome-bound mRNAs were identified by microarray analysis of which 204 were co-regulated by transcription and translation. Four categories of mRNA were significantly affected - protein biosynthesis, metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and unknown functions. Nine genes of the 20 CWIP fingerprint genes were post-transcriptionally regulated. Down and up regulation of selected ribosomal protein and cell wall biosynthesis mRNAs was validated by their distribution in polysomes from wild type and myo1Δ strains. Western blot analysis revealed accumulation of the phosphorylated form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α-P and a reduction in the steady state levels of the translation initiation factor eIF4Gp in myo1Δ strains. Deletion of GCN2 in myo1Δ abolished eIF2αp phosphorylation, and showed a severe growth defect. The presence of P-bodies in myo1Δ strains suggests that the process of mRNA sequestration is active, however, the three representative down regulated RP mRNAs, RPS8A, RPL3 and RPL7B were present at equivalent levels in Dcp2p-mCh-positive immunoprecipitated fractions from myo1Δ and wild type cells. These same RP mRNAs were also selectively co-precipitated with eIF2α-P in myo1Δ strains. Conclusions Quantitative analysis of ribosome-associated mRNAs and their polyribosome distributions suggests selective regulation of mRNA translation efficiency in myo1Δ strains. Inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2α (e

  4. Site survey method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures

  5. Investigation of autonomous cell cycle oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Skov

    2007-01-01

    Autonome Oscillationer i kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae Udgangspunktet for dette Ph.d. projekt var at søge at forstå, hvad der gør det muligt at opnå multiple statiske tilstande ved kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae med glukose som begrænsende substrat...

  6. Kluyveromyces lactis maintains Saccharomyces cerevisiae intron-encoded splicing signals.

    OpenAIRE

    Deshler, J O; Larson, G P; Rossi, J J

    1989-01-01

    The actin (ACT) gene from the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene had a single intron 778 nucleotides in length which possessed the highly conserved splicing signals found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae introns. We demonstrated splicing of heterologous ACT transcripts in both K. lactis and S. cerevisiae.

  7. Effects of spaceflight on polysaccharides of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Tan, Sze-Sze

    2008-12-01

    Freeze-dried samples of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, FL01, FL03, 2.0016, and 2.1424, were subjected to spaceflight. After the satellite's landing on Earth, the samples were recovered and changes in yeast cell wall were analyzed. Spaceflight strains of all S. cerevisiae strains showed significant changes in cell wall thickness (P growth curve analysis showed spaceflight S. cerevisiae 2.0016 had a faster growth rate, shorter lag phase periods, higher final biomass, and higher content of beta-glucan. Genetic stability analysis showed that prolonged subculturing of spaceflight strain S. cerevisiae 2.0016 did not lead to the appearance of variants, indicating that the genetic stability of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 mutant could be sufficient for its exploitation of beta-glucan production. PMID:18797865

  8. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2-14C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  9. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  10. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  11. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  12. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  13. Apparatus for electrophoresis separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously performing electrophoresis separations on a plurality of slab gels containing samples of protein, protein subunits or nucleic acids. A reservoir of buffer solution is divided into three compartments by two parallel partitions having vertical slots spaced along their length. A sheet of flexible, electrically insulative material is attached to each partition and is provided with vertical slits aligned with the slots. Slab-gel holders are received within the slots with the flexible material folded outwardly as flaps from the slits to overlay portions of the holder surfaces and thereby act as electrical and liquid seals. An elongated, spaghetti-like gel containing a sample of specimen that was previously separated by isoelectric focusing techniques is vertically positioned along a marginal edge portion of the slab gel. On application of an electrical potential between the two outer chambers of buffer solution, a second dimensional electrophoresis separation in accordance with molecular weight occurs as the specimen molecules migrate across the slab gel.

  14. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  15. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part 3 contains a discussion on definition, measurements and errors. Part 4 gives a step-by-step description of the measurement procedure. Finally, Part 5 gives an example of results obtained recently on a Niobium sample for CKM cavities

  16. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  17. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  18. Biosorption of cesium by saccharomyces cerevisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of Cs+ biosorption by Saccharornyces cerevisia was investigated, including the biosorption kinetics, biosorption equilibrium, isotherm as well as the IR spectrum of biomass pre- and post-biosorption. The experimental results show that the process of Cs+ biosorption onto the biomass of Saccharornyces cerevisia can be devided into two stages, the first stage is physical sorption and the sorption equilibrium is very quickly reached (within 20 min). The biosorption kinetics can be described by the pseudo second-order equation quite well (R2=0.989), the kinetic parameters k2 and qe are 3.56 x 10-3 g/(mg·min) and 7.18 mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium isotherm data can be fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models, with the maximum biosorptive capacity of 10.13 mg/g. Both the IR spectra of the biomass pre- and post-biosorption almost are same, and it indicates that the biosorption of Cs+ does not change the structure of the biomass, however, some adsorptive peaks shift. (authors)

  19. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...... gene product had no PRPP synthase activity. In contrast, expression of five pairwise combinations of PRS genes resulted in the formation of active PRPP synthase. These combinations were PRS1 PRS2, PRS1 PRS3, and PRS1 PRS4, as well as PRS5 PRS2 and PRS5 PRS4. None of the remaining five possible pairwise...... combinations of PRS genes appeared to produce active enzyme. Extract of an E. coli strain containing a plasmid-borne PRS1 gene and a chromosome-borne PRS3 gene contained detectable PRPP synthase activity, whereas extracts of strains containing PRS1 PRS2, PRS1 PRS4, PRS5 PRS2, or PRS5 PRS4 contained no...

  20. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  1. The Qweak experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androić, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J. D.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D. B.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J. C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Dean, D. C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Echols, J. R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finelli, K. D.; Finn, J. M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D. J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J. R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J. P.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J. W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M. H.; McHugh, M. J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roberts, W. R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P. W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D. W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise e → p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 μA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Møller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8° and 11.6° were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cherenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2=0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~ 100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

  2. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  3. Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is predominantly found in association with human activities, particularly the production of alcoholic beverages. S. paradoxus, the closest known relative of S. cerevisiae, is commonly found on exudates and bark of deciduous trees and in associated soils. This has lead to the idea that S. cerevisiae is a domesticated species, specialized for the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and isolates of S. cerevisiae from other sources simply represent migrants from these fermentations. We have surveyed DNA sequence diversity at five loci in 81 strains of S. cerevisiae that were isolated from a variety of human and natural fermentations as well as sources unrelated to alcoholic beverage production, such as tree exudates and immunocompromised patients. Diversity within vineyard strains and within saké strains is low, consistent with their status as domesticated stocks. The oldest lineages and the majority of variation are found in strains from sources unrelated to wine production. We propose a model whereby two specialized breeds of S. cerevisiae have been created, one for the production of grape wine and one for the production of saké wine. We estimate that these two breeds have remained isolated from one another for thousands of years, consistent with the earliest archeological evidence for winemaking. We conclude that although there are clearly strains of S. cerevisiae specialized for the production of alcoholic beverages, these have been derived from natural populations unassociated with alcoholic beverage production, rather than the opposite.

  4. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  5. Probing glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Allan K.; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Brasen, Jens Christian; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated glycolytic oscillations under semi-anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of NADH fluorescence, measurements of intracellular glucose concentration, and mitochondrial membrane potential. The glucose concentration was measured using an optical nanosensor...

  6. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.;

    2012-01-01

    flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose...

  7. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  8. Biosorption of 241Am by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium-241 is one of the most serious radioactive contaminating nuclides due to its high toxicity and long half-life. The encouraging biosorption of 241Am from aqueous solutions by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been observed in our previous experiments. 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae and the effect of the various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the 241Am biosorption by immobilized S. cerevisiae is still very efficient, and immobilized S. cerevisiae can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 hours, and more than 92% of 241Am was removed by immobilized S. cerevisiae in the pH 1-4 range. No significant differences in 241Am biosorption were observed at 15-45 deg C. The immobilized S. cerevisiae, even after used repeatedly for 6 times, still could adsorb more than 90% of 241Am in solutions of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 μg/l). At this moment, the total adsorption capacity for 241Am was more than 63.3 KBq/g globe (0.5 μg/g), but has not reached saturation yet. The 241Am left in solutions with initial concentration of 1.08 MBq/l (8.5 μg/l) was noted as low as ∼10 Bq/l (∼8.0 x 10-5 μg/l) after adsorption by the immobilized S. cerevisiae for 3 times. (author)

  9. Research on biosorption of uranium by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pH and the granularity of S. cerevisiae on the biosorption capacity were examined in order to study the properties of the biosorption of uranium from effluent by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isotherm was drawn. From the isotherm, the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were achieved. The results showed the highest biosorption capacity was obtained when the pH value was about 6 and the granularity was 0.15-0.13 mm

  10. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2014-01-01

    steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has...... been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae....

  11. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol-induced growth inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker-Caprioglio, H M; Rodriguez, R J; Parks, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the in...

  12. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Šuranská; Dana Vránová; Jiřina Omelková

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typ...

  13. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were ...

  14. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  15. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  16. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  17. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  18. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13...... effects hence indicating that food-borne strains of S. cerevisiae may possess probiotic properties in spite of low adhesiveness. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  20. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  1. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  2. Fatty acids, redox balance and cytokinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    Brno, 2008. s. 24-25. ISBN 978-80-254-2004-1. [Joint Meeting of Cost Action B35 - WG 2 & 3, III. European Workshop on the Analysis of Phagocyte Functions. 22.05.2008-24.05.2008, Brno] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : oxidative metabolism * lipids * colon cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  3. Construction of shallow land simulation apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land simulation apparatuses in which natural soil can be used as testing soil have been constructed to investigate the migration characteristics of radionuclides in a disposal site. These apparatuses consist of aerated zone apparatus and aquifer zone one. In the aerated zone apparatus, aerated soil upon ground water level is contained in the soil column (d: 30cm x h: 120cm). In the aquifer zone apparatus, aquifer soil laying ground water level is contained in the soil vessel (b: 90cm x l: 270cm x h: 45cm). This report describes the outline of shallow land simulation apparatuses : function of apparatuses and specification of devices, analysis of obstructions, safety rules, analysis of accidents and operation manual. (author)

  4. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  5. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2013-01-08

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  6. Apparatus for detecting iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for detecting iodine isotopes in the exhaust gas of a nuclear installation includes a duct for a partial exhaust gas stream, which duct includes an absorption chamber which is disposed in a radiation shielding structure and through which the exhaust gas flows and which has associated therewith means for admitting absorption material and for removing it therefrom. Radiation detectors are supported in the radiation shielding structure at opposite sides of the absorption chamber for monitoring radiation of iodine isotopes collected therein, the cavity in the shielding structure in which the absorption chamber is disposed being larger than the absorption chamber and the absorption chamber being supported so as to be movable in the cavity relative to said detectors to permit calibrating the apparatus. (orig./HP)

  7. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  8. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  9. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Katie E Hyma; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Justin C Fay

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea t...

  10. Directed Evolution towards Increased Isoprenoid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Simon; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Kielland-Brandt, Morten;

    Due to declining drug discovery rates from organic synthetic libraries, pharmaceutical companies are turning their attention towards secondary metabolites. Isoprenoids, also known as terpenoids, constitute the largest known group of secondary metabolites isolated to date, encompassing more than 55...... pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate for large-scale microbial production of terpenoids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as production platform due to its widespread use in industrial production and the waste number of molecular biology tools which is available for its manipulation. The effort...... for discovering new genetic perturbations, which would results in and increased production of isoprenoids by S. cerevisiae has been very limited. This project is focus on creating diversity within a lycopene producing S. cerevisiae strain by construction of gDNA-, cDNA-, and transposon-libraries. The diversified...

  11. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Nielsen, Jen; Förster, Jochen; Borodina, Irina

    sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming to...... improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the...

  12. Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have reported preconcentration of 152Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

  13. Structure of Ynk1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of Ynk1, an NDPK from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been solved at 3.1 Å resolution. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. In addition to biochemical studies, a number of crystal structures of NDPK from various organisms, including both native proteins and complexes with nucleotides or nucleotide analogues, have been determined. Here, the crystal structure of Ynk1, an NDPK from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been solved at 3.1 Å resolution. Structural analysis strongly supports the oligomerization state of this protein being hexameric rather than tetrameric

  14. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  15. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  16. Scintillation camera brightness calibration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circuitry is described for calibrating the brightness of a cathode ray tube display and recording apparatus comprising: 1) intensity control means for adjusting the intensity of the cathode ray tube beam; 2) light sensitive means disposed to receive light emitted from the cathode ray tube and generating a first electrical signal having a magnitude dependent upon the intensity of the emitted light; 3) reference signal generating means for generating a second electrical signal of predetermined magnitude; and 4) electrical signal comparison means coupled to the light sensitive means and the reference signal generating means for comparing the magnitude of the first and second electrical signals. (author)

  17. Light ion irradiation creep apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental technique developed to measure the irradiation creep of metallic specimens subjected to light ion bombardment is described. The experimental apparatus has the capability to remotely set and control ion flux, stress and temperature. Specimen strain is measured continuously with a noncontracting laser extensometer developed for this application. A typical result obtained for the 17 MeV deuteron irradiation of a 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) thick nickel specimen is presented with an analysis of the source and magnitude of both systematic and random errors. (Auth.)

  18. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  19. Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material comprises at least one radiation detector in a housing serving as a first radiation shield and in which at least one groove is formed to expose at least a portion of a receptor surface of the detector. The groove extends transverse to the direction of movement of the material over the detector. A second radiation shield may be located between at least a portion of the first shield and the detector. The material of the second shield is inherently less contaminated and emits secondary excitation radiation of lower energy than the first material. (author)

  20. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  1. Genetiese manipulering van die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae betreffende polisakkariedbenutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretoruis

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Die gis Saccharomyces cerevisiae word wêreldwyd as die belangrikste kommersiële mikro-organisme bestempel en geniet sogenaamde ABAV-status (Algemeen Beskou As Veilig weens dié gis se eeue lange verbintenis met voedselproduksie (bv. brood, wyn, bier, proteienaanvulling en geurstowwe.

  2. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  3. Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernis, L.; Piskur, Jure; Diffley, J.F.X.

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well...

  4. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Lisby, Michael; Folkesson, Sven Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative...

  5. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering. PMID:26658003

  6. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  7. Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

  8. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective,

  9. Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbert, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

  10. Flagellar apparatus structure of choanoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Phylum choanoflagellata is the nearest unicellular neighbor of metazoa at the phylogenetic tree. They are single celled or form the colonies, can be presented by naked cells or live in theca or lorica, but in all cases they have a flagellum surrounded by microvilli of the collar. They have rather uniform and peculiar flagellar apparatus structure with flagellar basal body (FB) producing a flagellum, and non-flagellar basal body (NFB) lying orthogonal to the FB. Long flagellar transition zone contains a unique structure among eukaryotes, the central filament, which connects central microtubules to the transversal plate. Both basal bodies are composed of triplets and interconnected with fibrillar bridge. They also contain the internal arc-shaped connectives between the triplets. The FB has prominent transitional fibers similar to those of chytrid zoospores and choanocytes of sponges, and a radial microtubular root system. The ring-shaped microtubule organizing center (MTOC) produces radial root microtubules, but in some species a MTOC is represented by separate foci. The NFB has a narrow fibrillar root directed towards the Golgi apparatus in association with membrane-bounded sac. Prior to cell division, the basal bodies replicate and migrate to poles of elongated nucleus. The basal bodies serve as MTOCs for the spindle microtubules during nuclear division by semiopen orthomitosis. PMID:27148446

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  12. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  13. Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick L.; Barraclough, Bruce L.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus suitable for stabilizing hydrocarbon cores are given. Such stabilized cores have not previously been obtainable for laboratory study, and such study is believed to be required before the hydrate reserves can become a utilizable resource. The apparatus can be built using commercially available parts and is very simple and safe to operate.

  14. A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. To date, four flights have been completed during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated lunar gravity.

  15. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  16. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  17. Simple high-temperature thermal diffusivity apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.

    1984-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive thermal diffusivity apparatus is described for measurement up to 1600 K. The novel features of apparatus include a light pipe, a long furnace, and a differential thermocouple. A low heat-load sample holder for clamping the sample in a vertical position is also described. The results of measurements on AXM-5Q graphite are reported.

  18. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  19. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James J.

    1999-01-01

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  20. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  1. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device

  2. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  3. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  5. Drill pipe downhole unthreading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an apparatus for unthreading a threaded connection in a drill string. It comprises: an elongate shaft; fluid powered means for moving the shaft in repeated movement between first and second positions; upper and lower mandrels supporting the shaft and exposed to joints making up the drill string, the mandrels joining together to permit rotation therebetween; upper and lower pipe gripping means cooperatively engaging pipe joints in the drill string wherein the upper pipe gripping means engages a pipe joint above a threaded connection in the pipe string and the lower pipe gripping means engages a pipe joint below the threaded connection in the pipe string; and means coupling the shaft to impart repeated movement through the upper and lower mandrels and pipe gripping means to the pipe joints so that the threaded connection in the pipe string is rotated to unthread

  6. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  7. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  8. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature)

  9. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  10. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  11. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  12. Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

  13. Redesigned Air-Column Resonance Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbax; Graf, Erlend H.

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a redesigned air-column resonance apparatus that offers several advantages over the traditional one.2 It does away with water or the long rod to vary the length of the air column. Instead a specially designed piston is moved inside a plastic or glass tube by external magnets to vary the length of the air column. Plastic tubes of various sizes are commercially available,3 but we salvaged one from an old commercial resonance apparatus. The tube has 2.85-cm inner and 3.15-cm outer diameter, respectively. The redesigned resonance apparatus can be operated in either the horizontal or the vertical position.

  14. Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but requires a substantial amount of time to inflict damage. The fire control computer apparatus utilizes the weapon's status, dwell time, slow time and fuel limits to yield a weapon pointing sequence and weapon on-off times.

  15. Investigation of nutrient sensing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre-transportører (di......Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre...

  16. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo...... biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements...... need to be done. We have introduced the genes necessary for vanillin production in an identical manner in two different yeast strains S288c and CEN.PK,where comprehensive – omics datasets are available, hence, allowing vanillin production in the two strain backgrounds to be evaluated and compared in a...

  17. Membrane Protein Production in the Yeast, S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Mikaliunaite, Lina; Bill, Roslyn M

    2016-01-01

    The first crystal structures of recombinant mammalian membrane proteins were solved in 2005 using protein that had been produced in yeast cells. One of these, the rabbit Ca(2+)-ATPase SERCA1a, was synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All host systems have their specific advantages and disadvantages, but yeast has remained a consistently popular choice in the eukaryotic membrane protein field because it is quick, easy and cheap to culture, whilst being able to post-translationally process eukaryotic membrane proteins. Very recent structures of recombinant membrane proteins produced in S. cerevisiae include those of the Arabidopsis thaliana NRT1.1 nitrate transporter and the fungal plant pathogen lipid scramblase, TMEM16. This chapter provides an overview of the methodological approaches underpinning these successes. PMID:27485327

  18. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  19. L-Histidine Inhibits Biofilm Formation and FLO11-Associated Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flor Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Bou Zeidan; Giacomo Zara; Carlo Viti; Francesca Decorosi; Ilaria Mannazzu; Marilena Budroni; Luciana Giovannetti; Severino Zara

    2014-01-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of FLO11 which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling FLO11 alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevisiae strain S288c was used as the reference strain as it cannot produce FLO11p. The flor strains generally metabolized amino acids and ...

  20. Isolation of the catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by functional complementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Spevak, W; Fessl, F; Rytka, J; Traczyk, A; Skoneczny, M; Ruis, H

    1983-01-01

    The catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned by functional complementation of a mutation causing specific lack of the enzyme (cttl). Catalase T-deficient mutants were obtained by UV mutagenesis of an S. cerevisiae strain bearing the cas1 mutation, which causes insensitivity of catalase T to glucose repression. Since the second catalase protein of S. cerevisiae, catalase A, is completely repressed on 10% glucose, catalase T-deficient mutant colonies could be detected u...

  1. L-Histidine Inhibits Biofilm Formation and FLO11-Associated Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flor Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Bou Zeidan; Giacomo Zara; Carlo Viti; Francesca Decorosi; Ilaria Mannazzu; Marilena Budroni; Luciana Giovannetti; Severino Zara

    2014-01-01

    Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of Flo11p which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling Flo11p alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevisiae strain S288c was used as the reference strain as it cannot produce Flo11p. The flor strains generally metabolized amino acids and dipeptides...

  2. Construction of Killer Industrial Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hau-1 and its Fermentation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; S Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  3. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Bijender K.; S Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  4. Studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation under Oscillatory Mixing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M?ris Rikmanis; Stoyan Tzonkov; Uldis Viesturs; Andr?js B?rzi??

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under non-aerated conditions in a 5 l laboratory bioreactor. Using the experimental data and the regression analysis method, some mathematical correlations for stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency and the reaction of the yeast were established. It has been found that different growth parameters are influenced variously by stirrer rotational speed and stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency. Stirring oscillations can be among the methods...

  5. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amore, T; C.J. Panchal; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

  6. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, J.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of...

  7. Calcium dependence of Eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Stephen K.; Martin McAinsh; Hanna Cantopher; Sean Sandison

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. ...

  8. The plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: structure, function, and biogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Rest, M E; Kamminga, A H; Nakano, A.; Anraku, Y; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

    1995-01-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extensive flux of lipids from these organelles to the plasma membrane is required. Although the pathway of protein traffic to the plasma membrane is similar to that of most of the lipids, the bulk flow o...

  9. The Plasma Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Structure, Function, and Biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERREST, ME; KAMMINGA, AH; Nakano, A.; Anraku, Y; Poolman, B; KONINGS, WN

    1995-01-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extensive pur of lipids fi om these organelles to the plasma membrane is required. Although the pathway of protein traffic to the plasma membrane is similar to that of most of the lipids, the bulk flow o...

  10. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara; Kostadinović Ljiljana M.; Bojat Nenad C.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south), creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in...

  11. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    de Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João Verdial; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2009-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink which results from the fermentation of diluted honey. Yeasts used in mead production are, usually, wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Most of these yeasts are not adapted to the conditions of mead production namely, high sugar levels, low pH values and reduced nitrogen concentrations. The inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavorable stressful growth conditions, leads to several problems, such as lack of uniformity of the final ...

  12. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis orga...

  13. Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Schacherer, Joseph; Shapiro, Joshua A.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive identification of polymorphisms among individuals within a species is essential both for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic differences and for elucidating the evolutionary history of the species. Large-scale polymorphism surveys have recently been reported for human1, mouse2, and Arabidopsis thaliana3. Here we report a nucleotide-level survey of genome variation in a diverse collection of 63 S. cerevisiae strains sampled from different ecological niches (beer, bread, vine...

  14. Shuttle mutagenesis: a method of transposon mutagenesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, H S; Chen, E Y; So, M; Heffron, F

    1986-01-01

    We have extended the method of transposon mutagenesis to the eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A bacterial transposon containing a selectable yeast gene can be transposed into a cloned fragment of yeast DNA in Escherichia coli, and the transposon insertion can be returned to the yeast genome by homologous recombination. Initially, the cloned yeast DNA fragment to be mutagenized was transformed into an E. coli strain containing an F factor derivative carrying the transposable element. The c...

  15. Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems

    OpenAIRE

    DiCarlo, James; Norville, Julie; Mali, Prashant; Rios Villanueva, Xavier; Aach, John Dennis; Church, George McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity a...

  16. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward n‐butanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Swidah, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Biobutanol represents a second generation biofuel, which can be producedfrom renewable resources by microorganisms. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strainbearing the five butanol synthetic genes (hbd, adhe2, crt, ccr and ERG10) wasconstructed, where the hbd, adhe2, crt and ccr genes are derived from Clostridiumbeijerinckii, while ERG10 is a yeast gene. The genes were transformed individually onsingle cassettes, which integrated into specific chromosomal sites. The single integrantstrains were back...

  17. Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Beck, Vibe; Højlund Christensen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal ...... result of the adaptation. Determination of the level of mRNA encoding aprotinin and the plasmid copy number pointed to different mechanisms responsible for the decline in aprotinin yield in the different strains. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Hydrogen peroxide removal with magnetically responsive Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2008), s. 7925-7928. ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic alginate beads * catalase * magnetic separation * Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2008

  19. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. Regulation of Maltose Transport and Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Srđan; Zechner-Krpan, Vesna; Marić, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Maltose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great importance both for academic and industrial researchers. It requires the presence of at least one of five independent MAL loci: MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, MAL4 and MAL6. Each active locus is made of three genes: two structural genes that encode intracellular enzyme maltase and transport protein for maltose, and the third gene that encodes positive regulatory protein. Maltose is transported unchanged into the cell with the help of spe...

  1. A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster regi...

  2. Glucose induces rapid changes in the secretome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Giardina, Bennett J.; Stanley, Bruce A.; Chiang, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein secretion is a fundamental process in all living cells. Proteins can either be secreted via the classical or non-classical pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gluconeogenic enzymes are in the extracellular fraction/periplasm when cells are grown in media containing low glucose. Following a transfer of cells to high glucose media, their levels in the extracellular fraction are reduced rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the secretome were not restricted to gluconeoge...

  3. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast,” is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere.” Agricultural pract...

  4. Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x108 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 300C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RosannaTofalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast”, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere”. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  6. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  7. Early manifestations of replicative aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim I. Sorokin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully used as a model organism to find genes responsible for lifespan control of higher organisms. As functional decline of higher eukaryotes can start as early as one quarter of the average lifespan, we asked whether S. cerevisiae can be used to model this manifestation of aging. While the average replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae mother cells ranges between 15 and 30 division cycles, we found that resistances to certain stresses start to decrease much earlier. Looking into the mechanism, we found that knockouts of genes responsible for mitochondriato-nucleus (retrograde signaling, RTG1 or RTG3, significantly decrease the resistance of cells that generated more than four daughters, but not of the younger ones. We also found that even young mother cells frequently contain mitochondria with heterogeneous transmembrane potential and that the percentage of such cells correlates with replicative age. Together, these facts suggest that retrograde signaling starts to malfunction in relatively young cells, leading to accumulation of heterogeneous mitochondria within one cell. The latter may further contribute to a decline in stress resistances.

  8. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for terminal alkene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Lee, Dong-Yup; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-09-01

    Biological production of terminal alkenes has garnered a significant interest due to their industrial applications such as lubricants, detergents and fuels. Here, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce terminal alkenes via a one-step fatty acid decarboxylation pathway and improved the alkene production using combinatorial engineering strategies. In brief, we first characterized eight fatty acid decarboxylases to enable and enhance alkene production. We then increased the production titer 7-fold by improving the availability of the precursor fatty acids. We additionally increased the titer about 5-fold through genetic cofactor engineering and gene expression tuning in rich medium. Lastly, we further improved the titer 1.8-fold to 3.7 mg/L by optimizing the culturing conditions in bioreactors. This study represents the first report of terminal alkene biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, and the abovementioned combinatorial engineering approaches collectively increased the titer 67.4-fold. We envision that these approaches could provide insights into devising engineering strategies to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biochemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26164646

  9. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

    KAUST Repository

    Grassi, Luigi

    2011-10-14

    BACKGROUND: The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. RESULTS: We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  10. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs. PMID:26178758

  11. Can yeast (S. cerevisiae) metabolic volatiles provide polymorphic signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, J Roman; Sellanes, Carolina; Lou, Yann Ru; Raguso, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical signaling between organisms is a ubiquitous and evolutionarily dynamic process that helps to ensure mate recognition, location of nutrients, avoidance of toxins, and social cooperation. Evolutionary changes in chemical communication systems progress through natural variation within the organism generating the signal as well as the responding individuals. A promising yet poorly understood system with which to probe the importance of this variation exists between D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae. D. melanogaster relies on yeast for nutrients, while also serving as a vector for yeast cell dispersal. Both are outstanding genetic and genomic models, with Drosophila also serving as a preeminent model for sensory neurobiology. To help develop these two genetic models as an ecological model, we have tested if - and to what extent - S. cerevisiae is capable of producing polymorphic signaling through variation in metabolic volatiles. We have carried out a chemical phenotyping experiment for 14 diverse accessions within a common garden random block design. Leveraging genomic sequences for 11 of the accessions, we ensured a genetically broad sample and tested for phylogenetic signal arising from phenotypic dataset. Our results demonstrate that significant quantitative differences for volatile blends do exist among S. cerevisiae accessions. Of particular ecological relevance, the compounds driving the blend differences (acetoin, 2-phenyl ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) are known ligands for D. melanogasters chemosensory receptors, and are related to sensory behaviors. Though unable to correlate the genetic and volatile measurements, our data point clear ways forward for behavioral assays aimed at understanding the implications of this variation. PMID:23990899

  12. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25507473

  13. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the...

  14. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  15. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  16. Expression of native and mutant extracellular lipases fromYarrowia lipolytica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot produce extracellular lipase and utilize low‐cost lipid substrates. This study aimed to express extracellular lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica in S. cerevisiae, construct recombinant oily substrate consumer strains, and compare the roles of native and mutant Y. lipolytica extracellular lipases in S. cerevisiae. The LIP2 gene of Y. lipolytica DSM3286 and its mutant Y. lipolytica U6 were isolated and cloned by expression vector in S. cerevisiae. New recomb...

  17. Modeling of column apparatuses: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, M., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com; Popova-Krumova, P., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. St.Angelov str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents a review of the modeling method on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, which have been developed for processes in column apparatuses. This method includes diffusion type of model for modeling of mass transfer with chemical reaction in column apparatuses with and without circulation zones. The diffusion type of model is used for modeling of scale effect in column apparatuses too. The study concluded that the proposal method is possibility for investigation the influence of radial non uniformity of the velocity distribution on the process efficiency, influence of zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column. The method of the column apparatuses modeling can be used for modeling of physical and chemical absorption, chemical adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) chemical reactions, airlift reactors for chemical and photochemical reactions.

  18. A simple apparatus for electrostatic force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic attraction can explain as a first approximation the binding of ionic solids. One of the two reasons for constructing the apparatus described was to demonstrate that electrostatic forces can be large, thus giving at least some plausibility to the theory of ionic solids. Secondly, it is an attempt to create a cheap and simple apparatus for measuring these forces and relating them to other physical quantities. An apparatus giving similar results of some precision has already been described (Hale 1978a). That was constructed by skilled instrument makers for undergraduate teaching, cost several hundred pounds and needed a considerable amount of time to iron out the problems encountered. The present apparatus was made in a few hours largely from scrap and using only ordinary hand tools. Although it is somewhat crude, quite acceptable results can be obtained from it. It could be used to advantage in courses dealing with fields and potential for example Nuffield advanced physics, unit 3.

  19. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  20. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  1. X-ray diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A falling load type X-ray diagnostic apparatus comprises a low voltage power source, AC-DC converting means connected to the low voltage power source so as to apply a rectified low DC voltage, chopping means connected to the AC-DC converting means and chopping said DC voltage into a low AC voltage, high voltage applying means for transforming said low AC voltage into a high AC voltage, said high AC voltage being applied as a tube voltage to an X-ray tube from which X-rays are irradiated toward an object to be examined, means for controlling a filament heating power of the X-ray tube, programming means for supplying a control signal to said filament heating control means so as to reduce the emission current of said X-ray tube during the irradiation, and chopper control means for controlling the chopping ratio of said chopping means by evaluating said rectified DC voltage with a preset tube voltage generated in said programming means, said programming means compensating said tube voltage by receiving said control signal in such a manner that said tube voltage is maintained substantially constant during the irradiation by varying said preset tube voltage so as to control the chopping ratio based upon the reduction of the filament heating power for the X-ray tube

  2. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  3. Report upon inquiry into radiation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the committee has provided its assessment of the need and justification for the law to provide for the control of the provision of radiation apparatus, the planning needs for the provision of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, the location of such facilities, the appropriateness or otherwise of existing legislation, the necessity for any further legislative needs and the criteria governing the provision of such radiation apparatus

  4. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  5. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  6. Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlund, M.

    1998-09-01

    In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of

  7. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27070284

  8. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  9. Quantum behaviour of measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores the quantum behavior of measurement apparatus with illustrations in quantum optics. This is the first study of quantum properties of measurements performed by any kind of devices. We show that the quantum properties of a measurement, such as its projective or non-classical character, are revealed only by the quantum states of an unusual approach of quantum physics: the retrodictive approach. This approach involves retro-predictions about state preparations leading to a given measurement result, contrary to the predictive approach with which we usually make predictions about the results of an experiment. By clarifying the mathematical foundations of the retrodictive approach, we propose a general procedure for reconstructing the quantum states of this approach: the retrodicted states. We have realized these reconstructions for single-photon detectors, widely used in quantum cryptography for instance. This is the first tomography of quantum states totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices, contrary to usual reconstructions based on measurement results. These tomographies enabled us to study experimentally the noise influence on the quantum properties of measurements performed by these detectors, in particular their transition from a strongly quantum behavior into a more classical behavior. Finally, we propose a detector of Schroedinger's Cat states of light, which are superpositions of incompatible quasi-classical states of light. In a modern version of a thought experiment proposed by Eugene Wigner in 1961, such a device could allow the Wigner's Friend to detect a Schroedinger's Cat, contrary to human eyes for which we specify some quantum properties. We generalize the use of such a non-classical detector to an estimation protocol, totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices. Such a procedure could enable optimal estimations, by reaching the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, which is a very topical issue

  10. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  11. Identification of novel functional domains of Rad52 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plate, Iben

    2006-01-01

    . cerevisiae er desuden nem at manipulere genetisk og der eksisterer sofistikerede in vivo assays som muliggør visualisering af reparationsprocessen ved hjælp af fluorescensmikroskopi. Rad52 er et vigtigt protein til reparation af DNA DSB i S. cerevisiae og rad52Δ celler har en alvorlig fænotype med langsom...

  12. Engineering of carbon catabolite repression in recombinant xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Two xylose-fermenting glucose-derepressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed in order to investigate the influence of carbon catabolite repression on xylose metabolism. S. cerevisiae CPB.CR2 (Deltamig1, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) and CPB.MBH2 (Deltamig1, Deltamig2, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) were...

  13. Enhancing sesquiterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through in silico driven metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadollahi, Mohammadali; Maury, Jerome; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb;

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model was used to identify new target genes for enhanced biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of gene deletions on the flux distributions in the metabolic model of S. cerevisiae was assessed using OptGene as the modeling framewo...

  14. Functional co-operation between the nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mitochondria from other yeast species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Horvath, A.; Piskur, Jure;

    2000-01-01

    We elaborated a simple method that allows the transfer of mitochondria from collection yeasts to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protoplasts prepared from different yeasts were fused to the protoplasts of the ade2-1, ura3-52, kar1-1, rho (0) strain of S. cerevisiae and were selected for respiring cybrids...

  15. Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

  16. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  17. Oral administration of myostatin-specific recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongtian; Zhou, Gang; Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Yan, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-04-29

    Yeast is considered as a simple and cost-effective host for protein expression, and our previous studies have proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can deliver recombinant protein and DNA into mouse dendritic cells and can further induce immune responses as novel vaccines. In order to know whether similar immune responses can be induced in rabbit by oral administration of such recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine, we orally fed the rabbits with heat-inactivated myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae for 5 weeks, and then myostatin-specific antibody in serum was detected successfully by western blotting and ELISA assay. The rabbits treated with myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine grew faster and their muscles were much heavier than that of the control group. As a common experimental animal and a meat livestock with great economic value, rabbit was proved to be the second animal species that have been successfully orally immunized by recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine after mice. PMID:27005809

  18. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijender K. Bajaj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

  19. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  20. Human G protein-coupled receptor studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongfang; Wong, Winsy; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-08-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest families of membrane proteins, with approximately 800 different GPCRs in the human genome. Signaling via GPCRs regulates many biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. In addition, many receptors have a pivotal role in immunophysiology. Many hormones and neurotransmitters are ligands for these receptors, and hence it is not surprising that many drugs, either mimicking or blocking the action of the bodily substances, have been developed. It is estimated that 30-40% of current drugs on the market target GPCRs. Further identifying and elucidating the functions of GPCRs will provide opportunities for novel drug discovery, including for immunotherapy. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) is a very important and useful platform in this respect. There are many advantages of using a yeast assay system, as it is cheap, safe and stable; it is also convenient for rapid feasibility and optimization studies. Moreover, it offers a "null" background when studying human GPCRs. New developments regarding human GPCRs expressed in a yeast platform are providing insight into GPCR activation and signaling, and facilitate agonist and antagonist identification. In this review we summarize the latest findings regarding human G-protein-coupled receptors in studies using S. cerevisiae, ever since the year 2005 when we last published a review on this topic. We describe 11 families of GPCRs in detail, while including the principles and developments of each yeast system applied to these different GPCRs and highlight and generalize the experimental findings of GPCR function in these systems. PMID:26920251

  1. On cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike a similar network of Escherichia coli, it contains many cycles. We characterize properties of these cycles and their place in the regulatory mechanism of the cell. Results Almost all cycles in the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are contained in a single strongly connected component, which we call LSCC (L for "largest", except for a single cycle of two transcription factors. The fact that LSCC includes almost all cycles is well explained by the properties of a random graph with the same in- and out-degrees of the nodes. Among different physiological conditions, cell cycle has the most significant relationship with LSCC, as the set of 64 transcription interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle has overlap of 27 with the interactions of LSCC (of which there are 49. Conversely, if we remove the interactions that are active in all phases of the cell cycle (25% of interactions to transcription factors, the LSCC would have only three nodes and 5 edges, many fewer than expected. This subgraph of the transcription network consists mostly of interactions that are active only in the stress response subnetwork. We also characterize the role of LSCC in the topology of the network. We show that LSCC can be used to define a natural hierarchy in the network and that in every physiological subnetwork LSCC plays a pivotal role. Conclusion Apart from those well-defined conditions, the transcription network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is devoid of cycles. It was observed that two conditions that were studied and that have no cycles of their own are exogenous: diauxic shift and DNA repair, while cell cycle and sporulation are endogenous. We claim that in a certain sense (slow recovery stress response is endogenous as well.

  2. Heterologous expression of cellulase genes in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Steffi A; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme cost is a major impediment to second-generation (2G) cellulosic ethanol production. One strategy to reduce enzyme cost is to engineer enzyme production capacity in a fermentative microorganism to enable consolidated bio-processing (CBP). Ideally, a strain with a high secretory phenotype, high fermentative capacity as well as an innate robustness to bioethanol-specific stressors, including tolerance to products formed during pre-treatment and fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates should be used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust fermentative yeast but has limitations as a potential CBP host, such as low heterologous protein secretion titers. In this study, we evaluated natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains for superior secretion activity and other industrially relevant characteristics needed during the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production. Individual cellulases namely Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Cel3A (β-glucosidase), Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (cellobiohydrolase), and Trichoderma reesei Cel5A (endoglucanase) were utilized as reporter proteins. Natural strain YI13 was identified to have a high secretory phenotype, demonstrating a 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher Cel7A and Cel5A activity, respectively, compared to the reference strain S288c. YI13 also demonstrated other industrially relevant characteristics such as growth vigor, high ethanol titer, multi-tolerance to high temperatures (37 and 40 °C), ethanol (10 % w/v), and towards various concentrations of a cocktail of inhibitory compounds commonly found in lignocellulose hydrolysates. This study accentuates the value of natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains to serve as potential robust and highly productive chassis organisms for CBP strain development. PMID:27470141

  3. Mechanistic Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kinesin Kar3*S

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Andrew T.; Sproul, Lisa R.; Sontag, Christopher A.; Satterwhite, Lisa L.; Correia, John J.; Gilbert, Susan P.

    2004-01-01

    Kar3 is a minus-end-directed microtubule motor that is implicated in meiotic and mitotic spindle function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To date, the only truncated protein of Kar3 that has been reported to promote unidirectional movement in vitro is GSTKar3. This motor contains an NH2-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag followed by the Kar3 sequence that is predicted to form an extended α-helical coiled-coil. The α-helical domain leads into the neck linker and COOH-terminal motor doma...

  4. Studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation under Oscillatory Mixing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M?ris Rikmanis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under non-aerated conditions in a 5 l laboratory bioreactor. Using the experimental data and the regression analysis method, some mathematical correlations for stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency and the reaction of the yeast were established. It has been found that different growth parameters are influenced variously by stirrer rotational speed and stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency. Stirring oscillations can be among the methods for stimulation of biotechnological processes. The obtained results can be used for designing bioreactors and optimizing working conditions.

  5. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe;

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  6. Symmetric cell division in pseudohyphae of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kron, S J; Styles, C. A.; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dimorphic; in response to nitrogen starvation they switch from a yeast form (YF) to a filamentous pseudohyphal (PH) form. Time-lapse video microscopy of dividing cells reveals that YF and PH cells differ in their cell cycles and budding polarity. The YF cell cycle is controlled at the G1/S transition by the cell-size checkpoint Start. YF cells divide asymmetrically, producing small daughters from full-sized mothers. As a result, mothers and d...

  7. RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution (RAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-assisted genome evolution (RAGE) applies directed evolution principles to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. Here, we use acetic acid tolerance as a target trait to describe the key steps of RAGE. Briefly, iterative cycles of RNAi screening are performed to accumulate multiplex knockdown modifications, enabling directed evolution of the yeast genome and continuous improvement of a target phenotype. Detailed protocols are provided on the reconstitution of RNAi machinery, creation of genome-wide RNAi libraries, identification and integration of beneficial knockdown cassettes, and repeated RAGE cycles. PMID:27581294

  8. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south, creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

  9. Production of ethanol from blackstrap molasses by saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstrap molasses was analyzed for its composition and its fermentation was brought about by the yeast S. cerevisiae at predetermined optimal environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, Sugar concentration, and incubation period. The results revealed that sugar concentration 17%, pH 4.5, temperature 30 C and incubation period of 72 hours were the optimal conditions for producing maximum (73 g/l) ethanol. Clearance of molasses by 20% single superphosphate enhanced ethanol production by only 0.2%. (author)

  10. Determinants of Swe1p Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John N.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Bardes, Elaine S.G.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Swe1p, the sole Wee1-family kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is synthesized during late G1 and is then degraded as cells proceed through the cell cycle. However, Swe1p degradation is halted by the morphogenesis checkpoint, which responds to insults that perturb bud formation. The Swe1p stabilization promotes cell cycle arrest through Swe1p-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc28p until the cells can recover from the perturbation and resume bud formation. Swe1p degradation involves the...

  11. Non-Coding RNA Prediction and Verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanaugh, Laura A.; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2009-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics ...

  12. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Nielsen, Jen; Förster, Jochen; Borodina, Irina

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important platform chemical that can be converted into other valuable chemicals such as acrylic acid and its derivatives that are used in baby diap ers, various plastics, and paints. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnolo gy offers a sust...... evolved strains. Conseq uently, mechanism underlying 3HP tolerance will be investigated....... improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis of the...

  13. Identification of the mitochondrial receptor complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Moczko, Martin; Dietmeier, Klaus A.; Söllner, Thomas; Segui-Real, Bartolome; Steger, Heinrich F.; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein import involves the recognition of preproteins by receptors and their subsequent translocation across the outer membrane. In Neurospora crassa, the two import receptors, MOM19 and MOM72, were found in a complex with the general insertion protein, GIP (formed by MOM7, MOM8, MOM30 and MOM38) and MOM22. We isolated a complex out of S. cerevisiae mitochondria consisting of MOM38/ISP42, the receptor MOM72, and five new yeast proteins, the putative equivalents of N. crassa MOM...

  14. Use of bimolecular fluorescence complementation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, Kari-Pekka; Zhao, Xueqiang; Weber, Marion; Jantti, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of protein-protein interactions in vivo offers a powerful tool to resolve spatial and temporal aspects of cellular functions. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) makes use of nonfluorescent fragments of green fluorescent protein or its variants that are added as "tags" to target proteins under study. Only upon target protein interaction is a fluorescent protein complex assembled and the site of interaction can be monitored by microscopy. In this chapter, we describe the method and tools for use of BiFC in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19066026

  15. Local isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocompetitive agent of Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusumaningtyas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a toxigenic fungus that contaminates feed and influences the animal health. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a biocompetitive agent to control the contamination. The ability of local isolate of S. cerevisiae as a biocompetitive agent for A. flavus was evaluated. A. flavus (30ml was swept on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, while S. cerevisiae was swept on its left and right. Plates were incubated at 28oC for nine days. Lytic activity of S. cerevisiae was detected by pouring its suspension on the centre of the cross streaks of A. flavus. Plates were incubated at 28oC for five days. Growth inhibition of A. flavus by S. cerevisiae was determined by mixing the two fungi on Potato dextrose broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 hours. Total colony of A. flavus were then observed at incubation time of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours by pour plates method on the SDA plates and incubated on 28oC for two days. Growth of hyphae of A. flavus sweep were inhibited with the swept of S. cerevisiae. The width of A. flavus colony treated with S. cerevisiae is narrower (3,02 cm than that of control ( 4,60 cm. The growth of A. flavus was also inhibited on the centre of cross streak where the S. cerevisiae poured. S. cerevisiae gradually reduced the colony number of A. flavus in the mixed culture of broth fungi ie. 14 x 103 CFU/ml while colony number of control is 80 x 103 CFU/ml. Results showed that S. cerevisiae could be used as biocompetitive agent of A. flavus.

  16. Development of pellet melting temperature measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the extended fuel burn-up project of the light water reactor (LWR), the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels should be clarified. Data accumulation of thermal properties such as melting point of LWR fuel pellets is quite urgent from the view point of safety evaluation in the normal operation and accident conditions. In the department of Hot Laboratories, several apparatuses have been developed for investigating the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels under the consignment of the Science and Technology Agency since 1990. A pellet Melting Temperature measurement apparatus was developed as one of them. This paper describes outline and characteristic test of the apparatus, and measurements of melting point of unirradiated and irradiated UO2 pellets. (author)

  17. Apparatus for Ultra-Cold Fermion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Garcia, Aiyana; Desalvo, Brian

    2008-05-01

    We present progress on the construction of an apparatus for ultra-cold fermion interferometry experiments. The apparatus consists of two connected glass vacuum cells: Fermionic potassium (^40K) and bosonic rubidium (^87Rb) atoms are cooled and collected in a dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) in the first cell and are then transported magnetically to the second cell, where they are loaded into a micro-magnetic chip trap. We use radio-frequency (RF) evaporation to cool the rubidium atoms, which in turn sympathetically cool the potassium atoms. The apparatus takes advantage of the rapid cooling inherent to micro-magnetic traps, while also benefiting from the ultra high vacuum achievable with a two chamber vacuum system. In describing our experimental approach, we address the experimental challenges and possible force-sensing applications of fermion interferometers on chips.

  18. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  19. Apparatus For Tests Of Embrittlement By Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Rollin C.; Lycou, Peter P.

    1992-01-01

    Test apparatus exposes disk specimens to hydrogen in controlled, repeatable way simulating conditions in use. Disk specimen constitutes thin wall between pressure and vacuum chambers. Test proceeds until hydrogen weakens disk enough that it ruptures. Aluminum impact plate absorbs debris from ruptured disk. Apparatus replicates aspects of service environments relevant to embrittlement by hydrogen in such equipment as storage tanks, valves, and fluid-handling components containing hydrogen at high absolute or gauge pressure. Hydrogen inside permeates stressed material and produces gradient of concentration as hydrogen diffuses through material to low-pressure side.

  20. Programmers for diagnostic x-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel apparatus is described for providing a pre-programmed selection of various parameters in X-ray radiography. The equipment consists of push-buttons which prompt the radiographer to make decisions such as thickness of patient, part of the anatomy to be X-rayed etc. From these data the apparatus selects the appropriate parameters such as H.T. voltage, current, product of current and irradiation time etc. The values of these parameters are displayed to the radiographer and facilities are provided to override the programmed parameters at the radiographer's discretion. (U.K.)

  1. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2012-06-05

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  2. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  3. Airborne Laboratory Apparatus Draws Glass Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Glass-fiber-drawing apparatus designed for studies of effect of gravitation on drawing process. Clear plastic housing surrounds fiber-drawing equipment and some of associated electronic instrumentation. External rack holds video monitor, personal computer, keyboard, videotape recorder, and power switch panel. Mounted in research aircraft, apparatus makes continuous video recordings of formation of fiber at effective gravitational accelerations ranging from 0.001 to 2 times normal Earth gravitational acceleration as aircraft dives, then pulls out of dives. Also records pertinent process data on video image.

  4. Apparatus for handling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for handling control rod drives (CRD's) attached by detachable fixing means to housings mounted in a reactor pressure vessel and each coupled to one of control rods inserted in the reactor pressure vessel is described. The apparatus for handling the CRD's comprise cylindrical housing means, uncoupling means mounted in the housing means for uncoupling each of the control rods from the respective CRD, means mounted on the housing means for effecting attaching and detaching of the fixing means, means for supporting the housing means, and means for moving the support means longitudinally of the CRD

  5. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures

  6. Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus (LAA) was established in 2007. The aim of this decision was: 1. To intensify the activity of the institute in the field of astrophysical observations, 2. To increase the technical contribution of the institute to the national astrophysical network. The activity of LAA in 2008 was concentrated on three main projects: 1. The '' π of the Sky '' experiment (http://grb.fuw.edu.pl) has being carried out by our institute for many years in collaboration with several national and foreign institutes with the aim of detecting short optical counterparts (so called afterglows) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) and other short time scale (a few seconds) optical astrophysical phenomena. The continual observations are controlled over the Internet by robotized equipment installed in Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The instrumentation used in the project is systematically developed. In 2008, new versions of the electronics for the CCD cameras together with three containers for cameras were prepared. In collaboration with external firms, new cameras and robots were also manufactured. 2. The LAA is involved in a series of international observational projects aiming to understand the evolution of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe and its relation to the evolution of galaxies. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS, http://www.oamp.fr/virmos/) is an extensive imaging and redshift survey of the deep universe at redshift between 0 and 5, containing presently more than 50,000 redshifts in four 4-sq.-degree deep and wide fields. In 2008, ESO accepted the new large redshift survey - the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, which will cover 24 sq.-degrees in the sky and measure a few hundreds of thousands of redshifts of galaxies at z ∼ 1. The first observations are on-going now. Yet another important collaboration is with the AKARI project (http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/ASTRO-F/Outreach/index_e.html), a satellite performing a sky survey

  7. Characteristics of Zn2+ Biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of Zn2+ biosorption and the release of cations during the process of Zn2+biosorption by intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods The batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. Zn2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) AAS 6.Vario. Results When the initial concentration of Zn2+ ranged between 0.08 and 0.8 mmol/L, the initial pH was natural (about 5.65), the sorbent concentration was about 1 g/L and the capacity of Zn2+ biosorption was from 74.8 to 654.8 μmol/g. The pH value increased by 0.55-1.28 and the intracellular cations (K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+) of the cells were released during the process of Zn2+ biosorption. Conclusion Ion exchange was one of the mechanisms for Zn2+ biosorption. The biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential biosorbent for the removal of Zn2+ from aqueous solution. More work needs to be done before putting it into practical application.

  8. Reciprocal translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by nonhomologous end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Gabriel, Abram

    2004-02-01

    Reciprocal translocations are common in cancer cells, but their creation is poorly understood. We have developed an assay system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study reciprocal translocation formation in the absence of homology. We induce two specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) simultaneously on separate chromosomes with HO endonuclease and analyze the subsequent chromosomal rearrangements among surviving cells. Under these conditions, reciprocal translocations via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) occur at frequencies of approximately 2-7 x 10(-5)/cell exposed to the DSBs. Yku80p is a component of the cell's NHEJ machinery. In its absence, reciprocal translocations still occur, but the junctions are associated with deletions and extended overlapping sequences. After induction of a single DSB, translocations and inversions are recovered in wild-type and rad52 strains. In these rearrangements, a nonrandom assortment of sites have fused to the DSB, and their junctions show typical signs of NHEJ. The sites tend to be between open reading frames or within Ty1 LTRs. In some cases the translocation partner is formed by a break at a cryptic HO recognition site. Our results demonstrate that NHEJ-mediated reciprocal translocations can form in S. cerevisiae as a consequence of DSB repair. PMID:15020464

  9. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production. PMID:19481129

  10. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Owen W; Poddar, Snigdha; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing that results in scarless and marker-free integrations of DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. DNA integration results from cotransforming (1) a single plasmid (pCAS) that coexpresses the Cas9 endonuclease and a uniquely engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette and (2) a linear DNA molecule that is used to repair the chromosomal DNA damage by homology-directed repair. For target specificity, the pCAS plasmid requires only a single cloning modification: replacing the 20-bp guide RNA sequence within the sgRNA cassette. This CRISPR-Cas9 protocol includes methods for (1) cloning the unique target sequence into pCAS, (2) assembly of the double-stranded DNA repair oligonucleotides, and (3) cotransformation of pCAS and linear repair DNA into yeast cells. The protocol is technically facile and requires no special equipment. It can be used in any S. cerevisiae strain, including industrial polyploid isolates. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas9-based DNA integration protocol is achievable by virtually any yeast genetics and molecular biology laboratory. PMID:27250940

  11. Genetic determinants for enhanced glycerol growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Ho, Ping-Wei; Klein, Mathias; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally shows a low natural capability to utilize glycerol as the sole source of carbon, particularly when synthetic medium is used and complex supplements are omitted. Nevertheless, wild type isolates have been identified that show a moderate growth under these conditions. In the current study we made use of intraspecies diversity to identify targets suitable for reverse metabolic engineering of the non-growing laboratory strain CEN.PK113-1A. A genome-wide genetic mapping experiment using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis was conducted, and one major and several minor genetic loci were identified responsible for the superior glycerol growth phenotype of the previously selected S. cerevisiae strain CBS 6412-13A. Downscaling of the major locus by fine-mapping and reciprocal hemizygosity analysis allowed the parallel identification of two superior alleles (UBR2CBS 6412-13A and SSK1CBS 6412-13A). These alleles together with the previously identified GUT1CBS 6412-13A allele were used to replace the corresponding alleles in the strain CEN.PK113-1A. In this way, glycerol growth could be established reaching a maximum specific growth rate of 0.08h(-1). Further improvement to a maximum specific growth rate of 0.11h(-1) could be achieved by heterologous expression of the glycerol facilitator FPS1 from Cyberlindnera jadinii. PMID:26971668

  12. The evolution of gene expression QTL in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ronald

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence patterns of gene expression variation will provide insights into the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity. To date, studies of gene expression evolution have primarily been made by analyzing how gene expression levels vary within and between species. However, the fundamental unit of heritable variation in transcript abundance is the underlying regulatory allele, and as a result it is necessary to understand gene expression evolution at the level of DNA sequence variation. Here we describe the evolutionary forces shaping patterns of genetic variation for 1206 cis-regulatory QTL identified in a cross between two divergent strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that purifying selection against mildly deleterious alleles is the dominant force governing cis-regulatory evolution in S. cerevisiae and estimate the strength of selection. We also find that essential genes and genes with larger codon bias are subject to slightly stronger cis-regulatory constraint and that positive selection has played a role in the evolution of major trans-acting QTL.

  13. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:26344121

  14. Data on dynamic study of cytoophidia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Huang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Ye; Ye, Fangfu; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-09-01

    The data in this paper are related to the research article entitled "Filamentation of metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" Q.J. Shen et al. (2016) [1]. Cytoophidia are filamentous structures discovered in fruit flies (doi:10.1016/S1673-8527(09)60046-1) J.L. Liu (2010) [2], bacteria (doi:10.1038/ncb2087) M. Ingerson-Mahar et al. (2010) [3], yeast (doi:10.1083/jcb.201003001; doi:10.1242/bio.20149613) C. Noree et al. (2010) and J. Zhang, L. Hulme, J.L. Liu (2014) [4], [5] and human cells (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029690; doi:10.1016/j.jgg.2011.08.004) K. Chen et al. (2011) and W.C. Carcamo et al. (2011) ( [6], [7]. However, there is little research on the motility of the cytoophidia. Here we selected cytoophidia formed by 6 filament-forming proteins in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and performed living-cell imaging of cells expressing the proteins fused with GFP. The dynamic features of the six types of cytoophidia were analyzed. In the data, both raw movies and analysed results of the dynamics of cytoophidia are presented. PMID:27274529

  15. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. PMID:25545362

  16. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  17. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  18. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  19. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  20. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1976-11-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  1. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  2. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  3. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe

  4. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for constructing a two-dimensional picture of an object slice from linear projections of radiation not absorbed or scattered by the object, using convolution methods of data reconstruction, useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing. (U.K.)

  5. Great Experiments and Old Apparatus in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching atomic, nuclear, and particle physics using the history of the most important discoveries in that field. Uses the manuscripts, first publications, measurements and data of initial discoveries, and the photos of apparatus and of famous physicists to arouse student interest. Presents examples from the life and work…

  6. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Height, Murray J.; Howard, Jack B.; Vandersande, John B.

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  7. Apparatus and method for aerodynamic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John W. (Inventor); al-Darwish, Mohamad M. (Inventor); Cashen, Grant E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for the levitation of a liquid drop by a fluid flow comprising a profile generator, a fluid flow supply means operatively connected to the profile generator. The profile generator includes an elongate cylindrical shell in which is contained a profiling means for configuring the velocity profile of the fluid flow exiting the profile generator.

  8. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor is...

  9. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  10. Apparatus for detection and measurement of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the various types of apparatus which have been made in France for the purpose of detecting contamination and examines the limitations of the methods used. In addition to apparatus in common use, such as portable detectors, detectors for hand contamination, etc., mention is made of newer apparatus, specially designed for detecting certain aerosols or direct contamination of the human body. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable buoyant apparatus. 160.010-3 Section 160.010-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-3 Inflatable buoyant apparatus. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of buoyant apparatus. 160.010-6 Section 160.010-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-6 Capacity of buoyant apparatus. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use...

  14. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  15. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

  16. Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2009 the Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus (LAA) continued work on three main scientific projects: 1. The '' π of the Sky '' experiment (http://grb.fuw.edu.pl) has been carried out in our institute for many years in collaboration with several national and foreign institutes with the aim of detecting short optical counterparts (so-called afterglow) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) and other short time scale (a few seconds) optical astrophysics phenomena. The continual observations are carried out with the use of automated equipment remotely controlled over the Internet. In 2009: · Around 100 short optical flashes were registered. · A collaboration was established with the aim of looking for optical counterparts of alerts generated by the gravity wave detectors LIGO and VIRGO. The instrumentation used in the project is systematically developed. In 2009: · in cooperation with Warsaw University. Centre of Cosmic Research and CREOTECH the production of 24 cameras, 6 robots and Ethernet controlled power supply systems was continued. · the construction of a remotely controlled test station in Swierk was completed. · control software for robots was written and tested. · with the aim of improving system reliability the data acquisition software was modified and improved. 2. The LAA is involved in a series of international observational projects aiming at understanding the evolution of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe and its relation to the evolution of galaxies. · The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS, http: www.oamp.fr/virmos ) is an extensive imaging and spectroscopic survey of the deep universe, covering a redshift range between 0 and 5. Currently it contains more than 50.000 redshifts. Most of these data have already been made public (http: cencosnew.oamp.fr ); their detailed analysis is still on-going, · In 2009 the first spectroscopic observations of the new, larger, galaxy survey VIPERS (VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey) were started

  17. ABOUT THE BASICS OF HUMAN THINKING APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mikhailovich AMIRBEGOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of our research is the integrity of the thinking apparatus of humans with its extremes, one of which is known to us as cause-effect materiality, denoted by the term ―brain‖, and the other extreme is unknown but is supposed as an immaterial cause of the motion needed to ―revitalize‖ the material extreme in response to revitalizing effects, reacting with changes the order and direction of which are realized by light streams (oscillation spectrum in the range of light waves and sounds of different tones (oscillation spectrum in the range of sound waves. But for realization of light streams and sound streams into images and words is needed not only information streams regulator (dominant factor, changing their vectors in the integrity of the human thinking apparatus, but also verifier of oscillations is needed which requires philosophical comprehension.While modeling the thinking apparatus of humans by dialectical method of reasoning, we had to abandon the conventional opinions about reality, matter, motion, and take on trust the opinions which have not been confirmed but are logically essential – a divine spark of Aristotle and permanent impacts taking the material world out of a cold death…, what led to the solution of the problem: as a result was found the second, immaterial extreme of the integrity of human thinking apparatus and the dominant factor focusing the flow of information in the CNS and having the significance of the status of the monarch. Actually, the proposed model of human thinking apparatus, which has no analogue, presents the novelty of the worldview which answers the question: what is thinking, why and how, and what is realized by us, our mortal body and immortal soul identifying our ―I‖.

  18. Biosorption of 241Am by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Preliminary investigation on mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, 241Am is one of the most serious contamination concerns due to its high radiation toxicity and long half-life. The encouraging biosorption of 241Am from aqueous solutions by free or immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been observed in our previous experiments. In this study, the preliminary evaluation on mechanism was further explored via chemical or biological modification of S. cerevisiae, and using europium as a substitute for americium. The results indicated that the culture times of more than 16 hours for S. cerevisiae was suitable and the efficient adsorption of 241Am by the S. cerevisiae was able to achieve. The pH value in solutions decreased gradually with the uptake of 241Am in the S. cerevisiae, implying that H+ released from S. cerevisiae via ion-exchange. The biosorption of 241Am by the decomposed cell wall, protoplasm or cell membrane of S. cerevisiae was same efficient as by the intact fungus. However, the adsorption ratio for 241Am by the deproteinized or deacylated S. cerevisiae dropped obviously, implying that protein or carboxyl functional groups of S. cerevisiaece play an important role in the biosorption of 241Am. Most of the investigated acidic ions have no significant influence on the 241Am adsorption, while the saturated EDTA can strong inhibit the biosorption of 241Am on S. cerevisiae. When the concentrations of coexistent Eu3+, Nd3+ were 100 times more than that of 241Am, the adsorption ratios would decrease to 65% from more than 95%. It could be noted by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis that the adsorbed Eu is almost scattered in the whole fungus, while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis indicated that Ca in S. cerevisiae have been replaced by Eu via ion-exchange. All the results implied that the adsorption mechanism of 241Am on S. cerevisiae is very complicated and at least involved in ion exchange, complexation

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential biosorbent for biosorption of uranium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF. RAJESH DHANKHAR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biosorbing U (VI ion on nonliving biomass of specie in batch system with respect to pH, Biosorbent dose, Initial metal concentration, Contact time and Particle size. From the batch studies, it was found that the fungal biomass exhibited the optimum Uranium uptake at pH 5 and 100 μm particle size, adsorbent dose of 10g/L and initial metal concentration of 100mg/L. Maximum uptake was observed after the Contact time of 75 minutes. Sorption isotherms were interpreted interms of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir model and Uptake kinetic followed pseudo-second order model. Base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass. The mechanism of process was gained by FTIR and SEM. IR spectra analysis revealed that Carbonyl and amino groups have played important role in U (VI biosorption.

  20. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  1. Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-I Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. α-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the α-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events.

  2. Exposure to benzene metabolites causes oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Abhishek; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) are known benzene metabolites that form reactive intermediates such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study attempts to understand the effect of benzene metabolites (HQ and BQ) on the antioxidant status, cell morphology, ROS levels and lipid alterations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a reduction in the growth pattern of wild-type cells exposed to HQ/BQ. Exposure of yeast cells to benzene metabolites increased the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase but lead to a decrease in ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Increased triglyceride level and decreased phospholipid levels were observed with exposure to HQ and BQ. These results suggest that the enzymatic antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumptively, these enzymes are essential for scavenging the pro-oxidant effects of benzene metabolites. PMID:27016252

  3. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ENZYME IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažena Lavová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS with reactive nitrogen species (RNS are known to play dual role in biological systems, they can be harmful or beneficial to living systems. ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids termed as oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes protect the organism against the oxidative damage caused by active oxygen forms. The role of superoxide dismutase (SOD is to accelerate the dismutation of the toxic superoxide radical, produced during oxidative energy processes, to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, SOD activity of three yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. It was found that SOD activity was the highest (23.7 U.mg-1 protein in strain 612 after 28 hours of cultivation. The lowest SOD activity from all tested strains was found after 56 hours of cultivation of strain Gyöng (0.7 U.mg-1 protein.

  4. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27610566

  5. Functional attributes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic recombinase Dmc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busygina, Valeria; Gaines, William A; Xu, Yuanyuan; Kwon, Youngho; Williams, Gareth J; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chang, Hao-Yen; Chi, Peter; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sung, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The role of Dmc1 as a meiosis-specific general recombinase was first demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Progress in understanding the biochemical mechanism of ScDmc1 has been hampered by its tendency to form inactive aggregates. We have found that the inclusion of ATP during protein purification prevents Dmc1 aggregation. ScDmc1 so prepared is capable of forming D-loops and responsive to its accessory factors Rad54 and Rdh54. Negative staining electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction revealed that the ScDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament harbors 6.5 protomers per turn with a pitch of ∼106Å. The ScDmc1 purification procedure and companion molecular analyses should facilitate future studies on this recombinase. PMID:23769192

  6. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Lisby, Michael; Folkesson, Sven Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics...... than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative...... functioned specifically in biofilm and mat formation. In a tpk3 mutant, transcription of FLO11 was induced three-fold compared with wild-type, but biofilm development and cell–cell adhesion was absent, suggesting that Tpk3p regulates FLO11 positive posttranscriptionally and negative transcriptionally. The...

  7. Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralhan, Zeynep; Morais, Marcos A; Tai, Siew-Leng; Piper, Matthew D W; Pronk, Jack T

    2003-08-01

    Catabolism of amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway involves transamination to the corresponding alpha-keto acids, followed by decarboxylation to an aldehyde and then reduction to an alcohol. Alternatively, the aldehyde may be oxidized to an acid. This pathway is functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since during growth in glucose-limited chemostat cultures with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source, phenylethanol and phenylacetate were produced in quantities that accounted for all of the phenylalanine consumed. Our objective was to identify the structural gene(s) required for the decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, the first specific step in the Ehrlich pathway. S. cerevisiae possesses five candidate genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases that could encode this activity: YDR380w/ARO10, YDL080C/THI3, PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6. Phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity was present in cultures grown with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source but was absent from ammonia-grown cultures. Furthermore, the transcript level of one candidate gene (ARO10) increased 30-fold when phenylalanine replaced ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Analyses of phenylalanine catabolite production and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase enzyme assays indicated that ARO10 was sufficient to encode phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity in the absence of the four other candidate genes. There was also an alternative activity with a higher capacity but lower affinity for phenylpyruvate. The candidate gene THI3 did not itself encode an active phenylpyruvate decarboxylase but was required along with one or more pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6) for the alternative activity. The K(m) and V(max) values of the two activities differed, showing that Aro10p is the physiologically relevant phenylpyruvate decarboxylase in wild-type cells. Modifications to this gene could therefore be important for metabolic engineering

  8. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.

  9. Proteomic characterization of a wild-type wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabalzini, Lorenza; Paffetti, Alessandro; Ferro, Elisa; Scaloni, Andrea; Talamo, Fabio; Millucci, Lia; Martelli, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2003-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the optimal eukaryotic model system to study mammalian biological responses. At the same time Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also widely utilized as a biotechnological tool in the food industry. Enological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been so far routinely analyzed for their microbiological aspects. Nevertheless, wine yeasts are gaining an increasing interest in the last years since they strongly affect both the vinification process and the organoleptic properties of the final product wine. The protein repertoire is responsible of such features and, consequently, 2D-PAGE can be an useful tool to evaluate and select optimal wine yeast strains. We present here the first proteomic map of a wild-type wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain selected for the guided fermentation of very high quality wines. PMID:15141481

  10. Microbial cells as biosorbents for heavy metals: accumulation of Uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The rate and extent of accumulation were subject to environmental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and interference by certain anions and cations. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred intracellularly and was extremely rapid (<10 s), and no response to environmental parameters could be detected. Metabolism was not required for metal uptake by either organism. Cell-bound uranium reached a concentration of 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight, but only 32% of the S. cerevisiae cells and 44% of the P. aeruginosa cells within a given population possessed visible uranium deposits when examined by electron microscopy. Rates of uranium uptake by S. cerevisiae were increased by chemical pretreatment of the cells. Uranium could be removed chemically from S. cerevisiae cells, and the cells could then be reused as a biosorbent

  11. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...... contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high...... fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable...

  12. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  13. Investigation of fatty acid accumulation in the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae under nitrogen limited culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type strain and engineered strain with an overexpressed heterologous ATP-citrate lyase (acl) were cultured in medium with different carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and their fatty acid production levels were investigated. The results showed that when the S. cerevisiae engineered strain was cultivated under nitrogen limited culture condition, the yield of mono-unsaturated fatty acids showed higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition; with the carbon concentration increased, the accumulation become more apparent, whereas in the wild type strain, no such correlation was found. Besides, the citrate level in the S. cerevisiae under nitrogen limited condition was found to be much higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition, which indicated a relationship between the diminution of nitrogen and accumulation of citrate in the S. cerevisiae. The accumulated citrate could be further cleaved by acl to provide substrate for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24755317

  14. The Response to Heat Shock and Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Morano, Kevin A.; Grant, Chris M.; Moye-Rowley, W. Scott

    2012-01-01

    A common need for microbial cells is the ability to respond to potentially toxic environmental insults. Here we review the progress in understanding the response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to two important environmental stresses: heat shock and oxidative stress. Both of these stresses are fundamental challenges that microbes of all types will experience. The study of these environmental stress responses in S. cerevisiae has illuminated many of the features now viewed as central to ...

  15. Heat shock decrease Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 survival exposed to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Capela-Pires, JM; I. Alves-Pereira; Ferreira, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (NP-TiO2), because there are scarces studies to evaluate the toxic effects of NP-TiO2 in eukaryote cells. S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, wild-type yeast, belonging to the Enology laboratory collection of University of Evora

  16. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Renata Reis; Ana Paula Guarnieri Bassi; Jessica Carolina Gomes da Silva; Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    2014-01-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Ch...

  17. Fermentation Temperature Modulates Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylinositol Levels in the Cell Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Clark M.; Zeno, Wade F.; Lerno, Larry A.; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E.

    2013-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at “normal” temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fe...

  18. Mitotic Spindle Positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Accomplished by Antagonistically Acting Microtubule Motor Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cottingham, Frank R.; Hoyt, M. Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Proper positioning of the mitotic spindle is often essential for cell division and differentiation processes. The asymmetric cell division characteristic of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requires that the spindle be positioned at the mother–bud neck and oriented along the mother–bud axis. The single dynein motor encoded by the S. cerevisiae genome performs an important but nonessential spindle-positioning role. We demonstrate that kinesin-related Kip3p makes a major contribution to...

  19. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensiv...

  20. Optimization of feeding strategy for the ergosterol production by yeasts saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Mojmir Rychtera; Josef Cermak; Jaroslav Votruba; Jan Nahlik; Karel Melzoch; Christopher A. Kent; Estela Escalante, Waldir D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective of this study was to optimize ergosterol production by yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of computer controlled feeding of cultivation medium. Baker´s yeasts strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally modified and selected as mutant D7 was further applied in an industrial scale and also in this investigation. Composition of cultivation medium was optimized with the use of a modified Rosenbrock´s method with regard to following components: glucose, yeast extract, ...

  1. PHENOTYPES INVESTIGATION IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT GRAPE CULTIVARS FOLLOWIG FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar V. N.

    2012-01-01

    Micobiological investigation was carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures, which were isolated from different varieties of vintage grape harvested from the ―Koblevo‖ winery, Nikolaev region of Ukraine. It was determined that wild yeast cultures tend to be of one of three different phenotypes. For comparison and reference, investigation of test cultures was performed with previously known phenotypes and yeast cultures Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in wine industry. It was noted...

  2. The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2005-01-01

    During the last decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or for the production of biotechnological products (e.g....

  3. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A.; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The productio...

  4. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Letts, V A; Henry, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    chol mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. chol mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). We exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. ...

  5. Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – mannoprotein producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agafia USATII

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypical signs and chemical composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-19 yeast strains are described in this article. The presence of protein complexes with high content of irreplaceable amino acids and antioxidant enzymes, as well as polysaccharides with predominance of mannoproteins allow to recommend these yeast strains for the utilization in biotechnology. Results are of interest for the standard description of yeast strains offered as object for industrial appointment.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Biotin Biosynthesis Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong; Ito, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells generally cannot synthesize biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions. Although sake yeasts, which are used for Japanese sake brewing, are classified as S. cerevisiae, they do not require biotin for their growth. In this study, we identified a novel open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of one strain of sake yeast that we speculated to be involved in biotin synthesis. Homologs of this gene are widely distributed in the genomes of sake ye...

  7. Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucosidase That Hydrolyzes Flavonoid Glucosides▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-β-glucoside revealed considerable β-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cerevisiae genome database were overexpressed with His tags in yeast cells. Examination of these recombinant, partially purified polypeptides for hydrolytic activity with synthetic chromogenic α- or β-...

  8. Directed Evolution of Xylose Isomerase for Improved Xylose Catabolism and Fermentation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S.

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often r...

  9. Role of Nitrogen and Carbon Transport, Regulation, and Metabolism Genes for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Survival In Vivo†

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne M Kingsbury; Goldstein, Alan L.; McCusker, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is both an emerging opportunistic pathogen and a close relative of pathogenic Candida species. To better understand the ecology of fungal infection, we investigated the importance of pathways involved in uptake, metabolism, and biosynthesis of nitrogen and carbon compounds for survival of a clinical S. cerevisiae strain in a murine host. Potential nitrogen sources in vivo include ammonium, urea, and amino acids, while potential carbon sources include glucose, lactate,...

  10. Repair of UV-damaged incoming plasmid DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole-cell transformation assay was used for the repair of UV-damaged plasma DNA in highly-transformable haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different repair capabilities. The experiments described demonstrate that three epistasis groups (Friedberg 1988) are involved in the repair of UV-incoming DNA and that the repair processes act less efficiently on incoming DNA than they do on chromosomal DNA. The implications of these findings for UV repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed. (author)

  11. Rapid Identification and Enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells in Wine by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell, P.; Querol, A.; Fernández-Espinar, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the beneficial role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the food industry for food and beverage production, it is able to cause spoilage in wines. We have developed a real-time PCR method to directly detect and quantify this yeast species in wine samples to provide winemakers with a rapid and sensitive method to detect and prevent wine spoilage. Specific primers were designed for S. cerevisiae using the sequence information obtained from a cloned random amplified polymorphic DNA band that ...

  12. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  13. Apparatus and method for assembling fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel element assembling method and apparatus is preferably operable under programmed control unit to receive fuel rods from storage, arrange them into axially aligned stacks of closely monitored length, and transfer the stacks of fuel rods to a loading device for insertion into longitudinal passages in the fuel elements. In order to handle large numbers of one or more classifications of fuel rods or other cylindrical parts, the assembling apparatus includes at least two feed troughs each formed by a pair of screw members with a movable table having a plurality of stacking troughs for alignment with the feed troughs and with a conveyor for delivering the stacks to the loading device, the fuel rods being moved along the stacking troughs upon a fluid cushion. 23 claims, 6 figures

  14. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  15. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  16. Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Olsson, Roy H.

    2016-02-23

    Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies are described herein. Examples of tuning described herein including tuning using feedback from the resonator. Variable gain feedback for tuning of acoustic wave resonators is provided in some examples. An example apparatus may include a resonator and a feedback loop. The resonator may be configured to receive a tuning signal and to provide a feedback signal. The feedback signal may be based on the tuning signal. The feedback loop may be configured to receive the feedback signal from the resonator. The feedback loop further may be configured to provide the tuning signal to actively tune a center frequency of the resonator. The tuning signal may be based on the feedback signal.

  17. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  18. Ultrastructure of the egg apparatus of Spinacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Wilms

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The egg apparatus of Spinacia was studied from the time the embryo sac reaches its maximal size to just before fertilization, i.e., until about 8-9 hours after pollination. At maturity each synergid has a large elongated nucleus and prominent chalazal vacuoles, Numerous mitochondria, plastids, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER, and lipid bodies are present. The cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids and each cell has a distinct, striated filiform apparatus. In general, degeneration of one synergid starts after pollination. The egg cell has a spherical nucleus and nucleolus and a large micropylar vacuole. Numerous mitochondria, some plastids with starch grains, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, and HER are present. A continuous cell wall is absent around the chalazal end of the egg cell.

  19. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  20. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on ‘single proton tracking’ method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5×5 cm2 and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 105 events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  1. Gain stabilization for radioactivity well logging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gain stabilization is provided for well logging apparatus of the type having a scintillation crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier in a sonde to detect radiation in the borehole and formation elements in response to neutron bombardment. The gain stabilization apparatus includes a light emitting diode driven by a pulser to furnish regular scintillations to the photomultiplier, resulting in a stabilization pulse which is furnished to a spectrum stabilizer at the surface. The light emitting diode is provided with means for mounting the LED between the scintillation crystal and the photomultiplier, and for providing optical coupling such that the scintillations from the LED are sensed by and pass through the same system as the operative scintillations from the detector crystal. The mounting means may be provided with a groove for locating temperature-compensating elements. (author)

  2. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  3. Safety apparatus for serious radioactive accidents (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of a serious radioactive accident, radioactive dust and gases may be released into the atmosphere. It is therefore necessary to be able to evaluate rapidly the importance of the risk to the surrounding population, and to be able to ensure, even in the event of an evacuation of the Centre, the continuation of the radioactivity analyses and the decontamination of the personnel. For this, the Anti-radiation Protection Service at Marcoule has organised mobile detection teams and designed a mobile laboratory and a mobile shower-unit. After describing the duty of the mobile teams, the report gives a description of the apparatus which would be used at the Marcoule Centre in the case of a serious radioactive accident. The method of using this apparatus is given. (authors)

  4. Upgrade of the Magnetorotational Instability Experiment Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartman, E.; Gilson, E. P.; Edlund, E.; Goodman, J.; Ji, H.; Sloboda, P.; Wei, X.

    2014-10-01

    The Princeton MagnetoRotational Instability (MRI) Experiment was designed to investigate the MRI in a liquid gallium alloy Taylor-Couette flow generated between concentric spinning cylinders. To achieve magnetic Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to excite the MRI, flow velocities of order 20 m/s are required. Experimental operation at such velocities has been hampered by mechanical limitations of the apparatus. Dynamic pressures generated by the alloy cause distortion and binding, which is laborious to correct. High surface speeds lead to excessive seal wear. Modifications to the apparatus were implemented to enable extended operation at full design speed. The inner cylinder was also modified to carry diagnostics such as Doppler ultrasound, torque and magnetic field sensors. Details of the modifications will be presented. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, NASA and NSF.

  5. A steam separator-superheater apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a separator-superheater apparatus comprising an outer enclosure containing a separating-unit and a steam superheating unit according to the main patent. The present addition relates to an improvement in that apparatus, characterized in that the separating unit and the superheating unit, mounted in two distinct portions of the outer enclosure, are divided into the same number of sub-units of each unit being identical and operating in parallel, and in that to each separator sub-unit is associated a superheater sub-unit, said sub-units being mounted in series and located in one in the other of the enclosure two portions, respectively. This can be applied to the treatment of the exhaust steam of a turbine high pressure body, prior to re-injecting said steam into the low pressure body

  6. Method and apparatus for reading thermoluminescent phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly reading thermoluminescent phosphors to determine the amount of luminescent energy stored therein. The stored luminescent energy is interpreted as a measure of the total exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to ionizing radiation. The thermoluminescent phosphor reading apparatus uses a laser to generate a laser beam. The laser beam power level is monitored by a laser power detector and controlled to maintain the power level nearly constant. A shutter or other laser beam interrupting means is used to control exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to the laser beam. The laser beam can be equalized using an optical equalizer so that the laser beam has an approximately uniform power density across the beam. The heated thermoluminescent phosphor emits a visible or otherwise detectable luminescent emission which is measured as an indication of the radiation exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphors. Also disclosed are preferred signal processing and control circuits.

  7. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  8. Apparatus and method for treating waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is described for the packaging of waste material in a vessel, comprising: a vessel entry station having inlet and outlet doors; a filling station downstream of the vessel entry station and having a filling position to which vessels are transferred from the entry station through the outlet door, the filling station having filling means for introducing radioactive waste into the vessel; a mixing station having a mixing position to which a vessel is transferred from the filling position; a capping station having a capping position to which a vessel is transferred from the mixing position; and means for effecting transfer of a vessel through the apparatus. Radiation shielding is provided. (U.K.)

  9. Integrally heated electrochemical cell method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, J.A.; Kane, W.T.; Brouneus, H.A.; Layton, M.M.; Walsh, P.L.

    1987-04-21

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising: an electrolyte; integral cell electrode/heater means contacting the electrolyte and adapted for heating at least a portion of the electrolyte to an elevated temperature for ionic conduction operation; a pair of lead means each extending from a different location on the integral cell electrode/heater means for coupling the integral cell electrode/heater means in a circuit across an electric current source; a second cell electrode means separately contacting the electrolyte and adapted for developing an ionic conduction across the heated electrolyte and a related emf with the integral cell electrode/heater. A method is described of operating an apparatus for sensing a particular gaseous substance, the apparatus comprising an electrochemical cell heated to an elevated temperature for ionic conduction operation and circuit means for responding to ionic emf developed by the electrochemical cell.

  10. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  11. Singlet - oxygen therapy. 'MIT-S' apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described method is based on using singlet-oxygen mixture with antioxiding properties. This mixture is produced by photochemical sensibilization of air or water vapour in MIT-S apparatus. Technical parameters of MIT-S are presented. The method is used for therapy of different organs, for prophylactics, treatment and rehabilitation of a series of diseases (bronchial asthma, cardio-vascular, neurologic, sugar diabet, immune diseases)

  12. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  13. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

  14. Flash drive memory apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A memory apparatus includes a non-volatile computer memory, a USB mass storage controller connected to the non-volatile computer memory, the USB mass storage controller including a daisy chain component, a male USB interface connected to the USB mass storage controller, and at least one other interface for a memory device, other than a USB interface, the at least one other interface being connected to the USB mass storage controller.

  15. Apparatuses, Globalities, Assemblages: Third Cinema, Now

    OpenAIRE

    Benfield, Dalida Maria

    2011-01-01

    AbstractApparatuses, Globalities, Assemblages:Third Cinema, NowbyDalida Maria BenfieldDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic Studiesand the Designated Emphasis in Women, Gender and SexualityUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Trinh T. Minh-ha, ChairColonial wounds endure but are refigured in 21st century cinematic landscapes. These are spaces of memory and mourning, as well as sites of creativity and transformation. New assemblages of power emerge along with equally complex amalgams of resist...

  16. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  17. Development and Evolution of the Pharyngeal Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Frisdal, Aude; Trainor, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The oral or pharyngeal apparatus facilitates the dual functions of respiration and feeding. It develops during embryogenesis from transient structures called pharyngeal arches, which comprise a reiterated series of outgrowths on the lateral side of the head. The pharyngeal arches and their segmental arrangement are highly conserved throughout evolution from invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus, through to vertebrate agnathans including avians, squamates and mammals. The structural organiz...

  18. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  19. Method and apparatus for compressing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-23

    A method and apparatus for compressing ions inside an ion mobility device is disclosed. Ions are introduced into the mobility device. The ions are subjected to a non-constant electric field to form a potential gradient along a portion of the device so that ions with similar mobilities bunch together into sharper peaks while maintaining separation between other ions. The potential gradient progressively increases or decreases along the length of the device.

  20. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  1. A simplified apparatus for EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingchuan, Deng; Kuixiang, Wang; Weiqing, Xu

    1996-06-01

    A simple apparatus for sub-surface electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging of a cut sample is described. A two-dimensional EPR image corresponding to the electron spin-density distribution of the DPPH test sample has been obtained by using a marginally oscillating self-detecting microwave frequency EPR spectrometer. Higher spatial resolution is obtained by using a deconvolution algorithm and the image processing technique of inverse filtering.

  2. Method and apparatus for separating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for the separation of individual constituents from an aggregation of materials, for example, the separation of metals from non-metals or of different metals from one another using magnetic fields. It is claimed that the system is of particular use in the breakdown of scrap for recycling and disposal in particular for the automatic, safe sorting of radioactive waste prior to storage or disposal. (U.K.)

  3. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  4. Hijacking the translation apparatus by RNA viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Bushell, Martin; Sarnow, Peter

    2002-01-01

    As invading viruses do not harbor functional ribosomes in their virions, successful amplification of the viral genomes requires that viral mRNAs compete with cellular mRNAs for the host cell translation apparatus. Several RNA viruses have evolved remarkable strategies to recruit the host translation initiation factors required for the first steps in translation initiation by host cell mRNAs. This review describes the ways that three families of RNA viruses effectively usurp limiting translati...

  5. Morphological change and enhanced pigment production of monascus when cocultured with saccharomyces cerevisiae or aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin; Kim; Kim; Ju

    1998-09-01

    When a Monascus isolate, a producer of Monascus pigments, was cocultured with either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Aspergillus oryzae in a solid sucrose medium, there were significant morphological changes in Monascus culture. Cocultures exhibited cell mass increases of 2 times and pigment yield increases of 30 to 40 times compared to monocultures of Monascus. However, enhanced cell growth, an increase in pigment production, and morphological change did not occur in coculture with Bacillus cereus. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more effective at enhancing pigment production than Asp. oryzae. Enhanced cell growth and increased pigment production occurred only in conjunction with morphological changes. Culture filtrates of S. cerevisiae were also effective in inducing morphology change in Monascus, similar to culture broths of S. cerevisiae. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by S. cerevisiae, such as amylase, and chitinase, are thought to be the effectors. The commercial enzymes alpha-amylase and protease from Asp. oryzae both caused a morphological change in Monascus and were effective in enhancing pigment production. However, lysozyme, alpha-amylase and protease from Bacillus species, protease from Staphylococcus, and chitinase from Streptomyces were not effective. The hydrolytic enzymes which cause a morphological change of Monascus culture and enhancement of pigment production are thought to be capable of degrading Monascus cell walls. An approximate 10-fold increase in pigment production was observed in liquid cocultures with S. cerevisiae. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099374

  6. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area. PMID:27446054

  7. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area. PMID:27446054

  8. Pengaruh Media Tumbuh terhadap Kadar Protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae dalam Pembuatan Protein Sel Tunggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of difference growth media, i. e. tofu liquid waste, tofu solid waste, and coconut water in various composition and Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose (YEPD, to protein contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Single Cell Protein (SCP production. The framework of this research was that tofu liquid waste, tofu solid waste, and coconut water were containing a lot of carbons, nitrogens, minerals, and vitamin that could be used as growth medium of S. cerevisiae to produce SCP, which was commonly used. The medium from tofu liquid waste and the coconut water were made by ratio 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and added with tofu solid waste 1.5 g and 2.5 g. Then, the measurement of pH medium, the amount of cell, cell dried weight, and the protein content in S. cerevisiae was done. The measurement of protein content was done by Lowry method. The result of the research showed that growth media influenced protein content of S. cerevisiae. Protein content of S. cerevisiae cultured in tofu liquid waste- coconut water was lower then in YEPD medium. The protein content of S. cerevisiae cultured in tofu liquid waste and coconut water ratio 1:2, added with 2.5 g tofu solid waste was higher then in other medium composition.

  9. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  10. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  11. The Reacquisition of Biotin Prototrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Involved Horizontal Gene Transfer, Gene Duplication and Gene Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Charles; Dietrich, Fred S

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of biotin, a vitamin required for many carboxylation reactions, is a variable trait in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many S. cerevisiae strains, including common laboratory strains, contain only a partial biotin synthesis pathway. We here report the identification of the first step necessary for the biotin synthesis pathway in S. cerevisiae. The biotin auxotroph strain S288c was able to grow on media lacking biotin when BIO1 and the known biotin synthesis gene BIO6 were introduced t...

  12. Co-utilization of L-arabinose and D-xylose by laboratory and industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Boles Eckhard; Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel; Wiedemann Beate; Karhumaa Kaisa; Gorwa-Grauslund Marie-F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative for the production of bioethanol. Traditionally, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in industrial ethanol fermentations. However, S. cerevisiae is naturally not able to ferment the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose, which are present in high amounts in lignocellulosic raw materials. Results We describe the engineering of laboratory and industrial S. cerevisiae strains to co-ferment the pento...

  13. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27148191

  14. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  15. High frequency of microsatellites in S. cerevisiae meiotic recombination hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Joel PW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes but their function and evolution are not yet well understood. Their elevated mutation rate makes them ideal markers of genetic difference, but high levels of unexplained heterogeneity in mutation rates among microsatellites at different genomic locations need to be elucidated in order to improve the power and accuracy of the many types of study that use them as genetic markers. Recombination could contribute to this heterogeneity, since while replication errors are thought to be the predominant mechanism for microsatellite mutation, meiotic recombination is involved in some mutation events. There is also evidence suggesting that microsatellites could function as recombination signals. The yeast S. cerevisiae is a useful model organism with which to further explore the link between microsatellites and recombination, since it is very amenable to genetic study, and meiotic recombination hotspots have been mapped throughout its entire genome. Results We examined in detail the relationship between microsatellites and hotspots of meiotic double-strand breaks, the precursors of meiotic recombination, throughout the S. cerevisiae genome. We included all tandem repeats with motif length (repeat period between one and six base pairs. Long, short and two-copy arrays were considered separately. We found that long, mono-, di- and trinucleotide microsatellites are around twice as frequent in hot than non-hot intergenic regions. The associations are weak or absent for repeats with less than six copies, and also for microsatellites with 4–6 base pair motifs, but high-copy arrays with motif length greater than three are relatively very rare throughout the genome. We present evidence that the association between high-copy, short-motif microsatellites and recombination hotspots is not driven by effects on microsatellite distribution of other factors previously linked to both

  16. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  17. Biosorption of Americium-242 by saccharomyces cerevisiae: preliminary evaluation and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high radiation toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241Am from solution by a fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of various experimental conditions on the biosorption and the mechanism were explored. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1g/L (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 2.22MBq/L -555 MBq/L (Co). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. The culture times of more than 16 hours were suitable and the efficient adsorption of 241Am by the S. cerevisiae could be noted. The biosorption of 241Am by the decomposed cell wall, protoplasm or cell membrane of S. cerevisiae was same efficient as by the intact fungus, but the some components of S. cerevisiae, such as protein and acylation group had obvious effect on adsorption. When the concentrations of coexistent Eu3+, Nd3+ were 100 times more than that of 241Am, the adsorption rates would drop to 65%. However, most of the investigated acidic ions have no significant influence on the 241Am adsorption but minute change of pH value, while the saturated EDTA can strong inhibit the biosorption of 241Am.. (authors)

  18. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:26243947

  19. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described

  20. Apparatus for testing for infection by a retrovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, Scott P. (Los Angeles, CA); Beugelsdijk, Tony J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing specimens for infection by a retrovirus is described. The apparatus comprises a process controller including a communications module for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands and a means for communicating specimen test results to a user. The apparatus further comprises a test instrument suite including a means for treating the specimen to manifest an observable result and a detector for measuring the observable result.

  1. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS.... Highway-rail grade crossing warning system apparatus shall be secured against unauthorized entry....

  2. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  3. Calibration apparatus for a machine-tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention proposes a calibration apparatus for a machine-tool comprising a torque measuring device, where the tool is driven by a motor of which supply electric current is proportional to the torque applied upon the tool and can be controlled and measured, a housing having an aperture through which the rotatable tool can pass. This device alloys to apply a torque on the tool and to measure it from the supply current of the motor. The invention applies, more particularly to the screwing machines used for the mounting of the core containment plates

  4. Clad plates for construction of apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance of clad plates on the field of the construction of apparatus for the chemistry and petrol chemistry. Description of a cladding process to bond permanently and integrally ferritic steels and corrosion resistant and heat resistant materials by rolling. Information on available combinations of materials and gauge as well as on indispensable requirements to be met by the quality of the material. Results of tests carried out on the bond. Distribution of the elements between the clad and the base material. Bond properties, corrosion behaviour, toughness values and tensile properties of clad plates, heat treatment, cutting and welding of clad plates. Demonstration of applications. (orig.)

  5. Development of washing apparatus for respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Ikata Nuclear Power Station has a regulation that workers must wear a half-face respirator (referred to in figure 1) to avoid internal exposure at the work place through coming into contact with radioactive substances. The washing of these respirators, currently performed in the Station, is done by manually rubbing them with a cloth penetrated with ethyl alcohol. The workers are therefore often required to lobar for a long time under rigorous conditions. Under these circumstances, experimental work has been conducted with the aim of developing washing apparatus suitable for the most commonly used type to respirator in the Station. (author)

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  7. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  8. ABOUT THE BASICS OF HUMAN THINKING APPARATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Mikhailovich AMIRBEGOV

    2015-01-01

    The main subject of our research is the integrity of the thinking apparatus of humans with its extremes, one of which is known to us as cause-effect materiality, denoted by the term ―brain‖, and the other extreme is unknown but is supposed as an immaterial cause of the motion needed to ―revitalize‖ the material extreme in response to revitalizing effects, reacting with changes the order and direction of which are realized by light streams (oscillation spectrum in the range of light waves) and...

  9. Apparatus for electroplating particles of small dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Conrad M.; Illige, John D.

    1982-01-01

    The thickness, uniformity, and surface smoothness requirements for surface coatings of glass microspheres for use as targets for laser fusion research are critical. Because of their minute size, the microspheres are difficult to manipulate and control in electroplating systems. The electroplating apparatus (10) of the present invention addresses these problems by providing a cathode cell (20) having a cell chamber (22), a cathode (23) and an anode (26) electrically isolated from each other and connected to an electrical power source (24). During the plating process, the cathode (23) is controllably vibrated along with solution pulse to maintain the particles in random free motion so as to attain the desired properties.

  10. Apparatus for unloading a transportation container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is the apparatus for unloading a receptacle containing radioactive waste from a transportation drum in the unloading station of a shaft leading to a cavern. According to this invention, the transportation drum has a base which can be tilted when activated by a device forming part of the unloading station, so that the receptacle slides down the unloading chute in front of the transportation drum and into the cavern opening. After the unloading of the transportation drum, the tail switch releases the blocking mechanism of the transportation drum and re-seals the cavern with a hinged cover. (HP)

  11. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  12. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Joel H.; Frank, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H.sup.-), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (.lambda. = 8000 A for H.sup.- ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (.about. 85%) of neutralization.

  13. Process and apparatus for isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process and apparatus for separating an isotope of an element from other isotopes of the element in a compound, where the compound is deposited as a monolayer on small beads, and the coated beads entrained in a carrier gas containing a scavenger gas. The entrained, coated beads are exposed to light e.g. from a laser that excites the one isotopic compound and causes reaction thereof with the scavenger gas, to form a reaction product, while the other isotopic compounds remain stable. The other isotopic compounds are then separated from the reaction product and the reaction product removed from the beads to provide the desired isotope. (author)

  14. Method and apparatus for detecting concealed weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Fluck, Frederick D.

    2006-03-14

    Apparatus for classifying a ferromagnetic object within a sensing area may include a magnetic field sensor that produces magnetic field data. A signal processing system operatively associated with the magnetic field sensor includes a neural network. The neural network compares the magnetic field data with magnetic field data produced by known ferromagnetic objects to make a probabilistic determination as to the classification of the ferromagnetic object within the sensing area. A user interface operatively associated with the signal processing system produces a user-discernable output indicative of the probabilistic determination of the classification of the ferromagnetic object within a sensing area.

  15. Method and apparatus for simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A; Schroll, Cynthia A; Heineman, William R

    2013-11-19

    An apparatus and method of simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis is disclosed. A transparent surface is provided. An analyte solution on the transparent surface is contacted with a working electrode and at least one other electrode. Light from a light source is focused on either a surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution. The light reflected from either the surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution is detected. The potential of the working electrode is adjusted, and spectroscopic changes of the analyte solution that occur with changes in thermodynamic potentials are monitored.

  16. Coupling apparatus for ultrasonic medical diagnostic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for the ultrasonic scanning of a breast or other tissue is reported that contains a cavity for receiving the breast, a vacuum for drawing the breast into intimate contact with the walls of the cavity, and transducers coupled through a fluid to the cavity to transmit sound waves through the breast. Each transducer lies at the end of a tapered chamber which has flexible walls and which is filled with fluid, so that the transducer can be moved in a raster pattern while the chamber walls flex accordingly, with sound transmission always occurring through the fluid.

  17. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  18. Cycloheximide Chase Analysis of Protein Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Bryce W; Lloyd, Michael E; Engle, Sarah M; Rubenstein, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein abundance is crucial to virtually every cellular process. Protein abundance reflects the integration of the rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation. Many assays reporting on protein abundance (e.g., single-time point western blotting, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, or growth-based reporter assays) do not allow discrimination of the relative effects of translation and proteolysis on protein levels. This article describes the use of cycloheximide chase followed by western blotting to specifically analyze protein degradation in the model unicellular eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). In this procedure, yeast cells are incubated in the presence of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. Aliquots of cells are collected immediately after and at specific time points following addition of cycloheximide. Cells are lysed, and the lysates are separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for western blot analysis of protein abundance at each time point. The cycloheximide chase procedure permits visualization of the degradation kinetics of the steady state population of a variety of cellular proteins. The procedure may be used to investigate the genetic requirements for and environmental influences on protein degradation. PMID:27167179

  19. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora. PMID:17498234

  20. Effects of low X-ray doses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different capacities for repair of radiation damage (RAD, rad18, and rad52) have been tested for their colony forming ability (CFA) and growth rates after application of small X-ray doses from 3.8 mGy to 40 Gy. There was no reproducible increase in CFA observable after application of doses between 3.8 mGy and 4.7 Gy.X-ray doses of 40 Gy causing an inactivation of CFA from 90% to 50%, depending on the repair capacity of the strains used, caused a reduced increase in optical density during 2 h buffer treatment in comparison to unirradiated cells. This reduction however, is reversible as soon as the cells are transferred into nutrient medium. One hour after transfer into growh medium the portions of cells with large buds (Gs and M phase) and cells with small buds (S phase) are drastically different in irradiated cells from those obtained in unirradiated cells. The time necessary for separation of mother and daughter cells is prolonged by X-ray irradiation and the formation of new buds is retarded. (orig.)

  1. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Roberts

    Full Text Available Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  2. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  3. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata

    2008-01-01

    In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies....... Failure in the AMPK regulatory cascade leads to metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. The knowledge about the Snf1 protein kinase remains to be of much interest in studying yeast carbon metabolism and human biology. To investigate the effect of Snf1 kinase and its regulatory subunit Snf...... was the lack of reproducible sampling for proteins with low spectral counts. To reconstruct a regulatory map of the yeast Snf1 protein kinase, I used the abundances of 5716 mRNAs, 2388 proteins, and 44 metabolites measured for the wild-type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 strains. By integrating these...

  4. In vivo reconstitution of algal triacylglycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien eHung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  6. Systematic identification of balanced transposition polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Faddah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90 and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101 through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism.

  7. mRNA quality control pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satarupa Das; Biswadip Das

    2013-09-01

    Efficient production of translation-competent mRNAs involves processing and modification events both in the nucleus and cytoplasm which require a number of complex machineries at both co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Mutations in the genomic sequence sometimes result in the formation of mutant non-functional defective messages. In addition, the enormous amounts of complexities involved in the biogenesis of mRNPs in the nucleus very often leads to the formation of aberrant and faulty messages along with their functional counterpart. Subsequent translation of these mutant and defective populations of messenger RNAs could possibly result in the unfaithful transmission of genetic information and thus is considered a threat to the survival of the cell. To prevent this possibility, mRNA quality control systems have evolved both in the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes to scrutinize various stages of mRNP biogenesis and translation. In this review, we will focus on the physiological role of some of these mRNA quality control systems in the simplest model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  9. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Nogueira Moysés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review.

  10. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review. PMID:26927067

  11. Pressure treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in low-moisture environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Marwen; Espinasse, Vincent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the influence of cell hydration on the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 1171 to withstand extreme hydrostatic pressure in order to determine the mechanisms involved in cell resistance. Hydration conditions were modified in two different ways. We first modulated the chemical potential of water by adding glycerol in cell suspensions. Another procedure consisted in dehydrating cells aerobically and immersing them in perfluorooctane, an innocuous hydrophobic liquid used as a pressure-transmitting medium, prior to pressure treatments. This original method made it possible to transmit isostatic pressure to yeast powders without changing the initial water activity (aw) level at which cells had been equilibrated. The aw ranged between 0.11 and 0.99. Pressure treatments were applied at levels of up to 600 MPa for 10 min, 24 h, and 6 days. The dehydration of cells was found to strongly limit, or even prevent, cell inactivation under pressure. Notably, cells suspended in a water-glycerol mixture with aw levels of 0.71 or below were completely protected against all pressure treatments. Moreover, cells dehydrated aerobically survived for 6 days at 600 MPa even when aw levels were relatively high (up to 0.94). We highlighted the crucial role of water content in determining cellular damage under pressure. When water is available in a sufficient amount, high pressure induces membrane permeabilization, causing uncontrolled mass transfers that could lead to death during a prolonged holding under pressure. Possible mechanisms of membrane permeabilization are discussed. PMID:19633838

  12. Measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, N.; Cooperman, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in microorganisms has been shown to reach quite high levels, with profound implications for many aspects of cellular metabolism. They have modified the method of Heinonen et al., developed for studies on E. coli and based on selective precipitation of PPi by added Ca/sup 2 +/ and F/sup -/, to measure PPi levels in S. cerevisiae. Cells were lysed in acidic medium containing known amounts of added /sup 32/PPi by vortexing with glass beads. Yields of isolated PPi were calculated on the basis of recovered radioactivity. Measurement of the protein content of the lysate allowed a correction to be made for variability in the efficiency of cell lysis. The results show a remarkable variation in PPi levels along the growth curve. For cells grown with aeration on 2% glucose, the peak value, corresponding to an internal concentration of at least 5mM, is attained in mid- to late-log phase. Concentrations of PPi in early-log phase are at least 10-fold lower.

  13. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review. PMID:26927067

  14. Directed evolution of pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a C2-independent, glucose-tolerant, and pyruvate-hyperproducing yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Maris; J.M. Geertman; A. Vermeulen; M.K. Groothuizen; A.A. Winkler; M.D. Piper; J.P. van Dijken; J.T. Pronk

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe absence of alcoholic fermentation makes pyruvate decarboxylase-negative (Pdc(-)) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae an interesting platform for further metabolic engineering of central metabolism. However, Pdc(-) S. cerevisiae strains have two growth defects:

  15. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for supplying particles (20) to said separator drum (4), and a splitter element (14) provided downstream of the separator drum (4) for splitting the respective fractions (21,23), wherein the apparatus (...

  16. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking. PMID:26728020

  17. Xylose-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes transketolase and transaldolase.

    OpenAIRE

    Walfridsson, M; Hallborn, J; Penttilä, M.; Keränen, S; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered for xylose utilization. The Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genes XYL1 and XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase were cloned into S. cerevisiae. The gene products catalyze the two initial steps in xylose utilization which S. cerevisiae lacks. In order to increase the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, the S. cerevisiae TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding transketolase and transaldolase were overexpressed. A XYL1- and XYL2-con...

  18. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  19. Laboratory apparatus to evaluate microalgae production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. S. Gris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of microalgae for energy purposes and CO2 biomitigation continues to present a number of challenges, including the optimization of culture conditions. The application of experimental designs for microalgae cultivation is difficult, since experiments involving such microorganisms generally last days or weeks. This work proposes a multipurpose laboratory apparatus for the optimization of microalgae experimental conditions that simultaneously enables the evaluation of variables such as temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and CO2 concentration in the aeration stream, as well as variables related to the concentration of culture media nutrients. A case study is also presented in which temperature, concentration of f/2 medium sodium nitrate and the effects of incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid content are evaluated. Experiments were carried out following central composite designs, in batch cultivation within an airlift photobioreactor apparatus. The best experimental result was obtained at 21 ºC, 119 mg/L NaNO3 and 137 µE.m-2.s-1, corresponding to 41.8% lipids and 211.9 mg.L-1 final lipid concentrations.

  20. Method and apparatus for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard W.; Reeder, Paul L.; Wogman, Ned A.; Warner, Ray A.; Brite, Daniel W.; Richey, Wayne C.; Goldman, Don S.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention is a method for making and using an apparatus for detecting neutrons. Scintillating optical fibers are fabricated by melting SiO.sub.2 with a thermal neutron capturing substance and a scintillating material in a reducing atmosphere. The melt is then drawn into fibers in an anoxic atmosphere. The fibers may then be coated and used directly in a neutron detection apparatus, or assembled into a geometrical array in a second, hydrogen-rich, scintillating material such as a polymer. Photons generated by interaction with thermal neutrons are trapped within the coated fibers and are directed to photoelectric converters. A measurable electronic signal is generated for each thermal neutron interaction within the fiber. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation. When the fibers are arranged in an array within a second scintillating material, photons generated by kinetic neutrons interacting with the second scintillating material and photons generated by thermal neutron capture within the fiber can both be directed to photoelectric converters. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation.

  1. Geotechnical deep ocean research apparatus (DORA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the research programme on radioactive waste disposal in seabed geological formations, a Deep Ocean Research Apparatus (DORA) seabed machine has been conceptually designed and prototypes of principal subsystems built and tested by four DORA Project partners. The DORA is designed to operate in 6000 m of water and drive a string of test rods and a piezocone about 50 m into soft soil. Partner responsibility was Fugro for project management and the penetration apparatus; ISMES for data acquisition and control; Laboratorium voor Grondmechanica for the piezocone probe and its sensors; and Marine Structure Consultants for the mission profile and DORA handling requirements. The DORA will have a maximum thrust of 50 kN. The probe will measure cone resistance, sleeve friction, pore pressure and inclination. Stability on the seabed will be assisted by using a combination of polyester and polypropylene-nylon (double) braided rope. A continuous wheel-drive subsystem will drive the test rods. Gelled or lead-acid batteries can power a hydraulic powerpack. Acoustic data transmission will be used. Software for data processing automation has been tested with simulation of all input channels. Successful operation of subsystem prototypes indicates that a DORA can be constructed at any future time for use on fundamental or applied deep ocean science and seafloor engineering investigations by industry, government and universities

  2. Inverted pendulum control apparatus using transputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted pendulum control apparatus is structured which is controlled by a personal computer with transputer, analog-to-digital converter (A/D) and digital-to-analog converter (D/A) boards. For the apparatus, it is required to shorten the program processing time for input of data by A/D and output of calculation results by D/A. In order to implement control algorithms we investigated three programming methods for interfacing between the transputer and A/D or D/A converters; 1) by expanding I/O server, 2) by port-accessing using I/O server and 3) without use of I/O server. Each programming method is evaluated from the view point of their applicability to the inverted pendulum control which requires millisecond-order response. It is concluded that for the inverted pendulum control experiment the first method is the most suitable one because of the advantages of short processing time and easy programming of control algorithm in spite of the complexity of interface programming. These advantages are also confirmed by the control experiment. (author)

  3. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Marcella, James A.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  4. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  5. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  6. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  7. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these g

  8. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1999-05-18

    Optical apparatus is disclosed for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process. 24 figs.

  9. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yang, Bin (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH); Arora, Ravi (New Albany, OH); Daly, Francis P. (Delaware, OH); Long, Richard (New Albany, OH); Yuschak, Thomas D. (Lewis Center, OH); Neagle, Paul W. (Westerville, OH); Glass, Amanda (Galloway, OH)

    2011-08-16

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also described. An apparatus design that minimizes heat transfer to the apparatus' exterior is also described.

  10. Kinesthesia-1: Apparatus to Experience 1-D Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Hans; Laws, Priscilla

    1995-01-01

    Kinesthetic apparatus make physics learning experiences stimulating, memorable, and influential in helping students relate natural phenomena to the laws of physics. Describes a number of experiments and demonstrations that are possible with kinesthetic apparatus, which help eradicate some traditional student misconceptions and provide students…

  11. Apparatus For Eddy-Current Inspection Of Bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Jay M.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-current apparatus for inspection of bolts, studs, and other threaded fasteners detects flaws in threads, shanks, and head fillets. With help of apparatus, technician quickly inspects fasteners of various dimensions. Accommodates fasteners with diameters from 0.190 in. to 1 in. and with lengths up to 5 in. Basic design modified to accommodate fasteners of other sizes.

  12. Apparatus and method for inspecting a surface of a sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and method for inspecting a sample. The apparatus comprises a generator for generating an array of primary charged particle beams (33), and a charged particle optical system with an optical axis (38). The optical system comprises a first lens system (37, 310) fo

  13. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section 131.870 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly...

  14. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  15. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified...

  16. Parameter Optimization for Enhancement of Ethanol Yield by Atmospheric Pressure DBD-Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was exposed to dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) to improve its ethanol production capacity during fermentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the discharge-associated parameters of DBD for the purpose of maximizing the ethanol yield achieved by DBD-treated S. cerevisiae. According to single factor experiments, a mathematical model was established using Box-Behnken central composite experiment design, with plasma exposure time, power supply voltage, and exposed-sample volume as impact factors and ethanol yield as the response. This was followed by response surface analysis. Optimal experimental parameters for plasma discharge-induced enhancement in ethanol yield were plasma exposure time of 1 min, power voltage of 26 V, and an exposed sample volume of 9 mL. Under these conditions, the resulting yield of ethanol was 0.48 g/g, representing an increase of 33% over control. (plasma technology)

  17. Utilizing an endogenous pathway for 1-butanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Luo, Yunzi; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-03-01

    Microbial production of higher alcohols from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention thanks to its potential as a source for next-generation gasoline substitutes. Here we report the discovery, characterization and engineering of an endogenous 1-butanol pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Upon introduction of a single gene deletion adh1Δ, S. cerevisiae was able to accumulate more than 120 mg/L 1-butanol from glucose in rich medium. Precursor feeding, ¹³C-isotope labeling and gene deletion experiments demonstrated that the endogenous 1-butanol production was dependent on catabolism of threonine in a manner similar to fusel alcohol production by the Ehrlich pathway. Specifically, the leucine biosynthesis pathway was engaged in the conversion of key 2-keto acid intermediates. Overexpression of the pathway enzymes and elimination of competing pathways achieved the highest reported 1-butanol titer in S. cerevisiae (242.8 mg/L). PMID:24412568

  18. Cellular and molecular engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for advanced biobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Butanol is an attractive alternative energy fuel owing to several advantages over ethanol. Among the microbial hosts for biobutanol production, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a great potential as a microbial host due to its powerful genetic tools, a history of successful industrial use, and its inherent tolerance to higher alcohols. Butanol production by S. cerevisiae was first attempted by transferring the 1-butanol-producing metabolic pathway from native microorganisms or using the endogenous Ehrlich pathway for isobutanol synthesis. Utilizing alternative enzymes with higher activity, eliminating competitive pathways, and maintaining cofactor balance achieved significant improvements in butanol production. Meeting future challenges, such as enhancing butanol tolerance and implementing a comprehensive strategy by high-throughput screening, would further elevate the biobutanol-producing ability of S. cerevisiae toward an ideal microbial cell factory exhibiting high productivity of biobutanol. PMID:26712533

  19. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  20. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...... set of growth dependent genes by using a multi-factorial experimental design. Moreover, new insights into the metabolic response and transcriptional regulation of these genes have been provided by using systems biology tools (Chapter 3). One of the prerequisite of systems biology should be the...

  1. Two programmed replicative lifespans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinan; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Minjuan; Ao, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Cellular replicative capacity is a therapeutic target for regenerative medicine as well as cancer treatment. The mechanism of replicative senescence and cell immortality is still unclear. We investigated the diauxic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that the replicative capacity revealed by the yeast growth curve can be understood by using the dynamical property of the molecular-cellular network regulating S. cerevisiae. The endogenous network we proposed has a limit cycle when pheromone signaling is disabled, consistent with the exponential growth phase with an infinite replicative capacity. In the post-diauxic phase, the cooperative effect of the pheromone activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway with the cell cycle leads to a fixed point attractor instead of the limit cycle. The cells stop dividing after several generations counting from the beginning of the post-diauxic growth. By tuning the MAPK pathway, S. cerevisiae therefore programs the number of offsprings it replicates. PMID:24447585

  2. Monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation on thiol-modified planar gold microelectrodes using impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spegel, Christer F; Kostesha, Natalie;

    2008-01-01

    value of R,, showed over 560% increase with respect to the value obtained on the same thiol-modified electrode without cells. It was demonstrated that real-time monitoring of S. cerevisiae proliferation, with frequency-normalized imaginary admittance (real capacitance) as the indicator, was possible......An impedance spectroscopic study of the interaction between thiol-modified Au electrodes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae of strain EBY44 revealed that the cells formed an integral part of the interface, modulating the capacitive properties until a complete monolayer was obtained, whereas the charge...... transfer resistance (R-ct) to the redox process of [Fe(CN)6](3-14-) showed a linear relationship to the number of cells even beyond the monolayer coverage. R,, showed strong pH dependence upon increasing the pH of the utilized buffer to 7.2. Upon addition of S. cerevisiae cells at pH 7.2, the obtained...

  3. [Cytokinetics and keratins of keratinocytes from skin of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, A; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1989-11-15

    Regarding the keratin pattern of non-exposed skin, we found no significant qualitative or quantitative differences between 6 old persons (mean age 85 years) and 4 young adults (mean age 20 years). There was, however, a slight increase of proliferation keratins (K6, K16) in aged skin. In non-exposed skin taken from 6 old (mean age 70 years) and 5 young persons (mean age 37 years), longterm primary submersion cultures of keratinocytes did not show any significant differences as far as the classical parameters of growth behavior were concerned (i.e. plating efficiency, cell count, and labeled thymidine incorporation). In accordance with these findings, daily measurements of the thymidine kinase activity in the supernatants revealed discrete but not significant differences between keratinocytes in aged people and those in young persons. PMID:2481907

  4. Cytokinetic study of alveolar macrophage renewal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pools of alveolar macrophages and monocytes were measured by combining morphometry and the extraction of cells by lavage. The turnover rate of macrophages was evaluated by measuring the clearance rate of 59Fe2O3 previously administered by aerosols. The labeling index and S phase duration of cells in alveoli and lung capillaries were determined by autoradiography after 3H-labeled thymidine and 5-125Iododeoxyuridine incorporation. The disappearance rate was determined after specific incorporation of 125Iododeoxyuridine in deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of alveolar macrophages. Steady-state parameters are presented. Under healthy conditions there are almost no macrophages in the interstitium space. Lung capillaries must be considered as a maturation compartment for macrophages before the last dividing stage in the alveoli. This is consistent with the large enrichment of monocytes in the lung and the ability of some of these monocytes to divide inside the capillaries

  5. Microfluidic reactor for continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Astrid; Magdanz, Veronika; Rasch, Detlev; Demming, Stefanie; Aliasghar Zadeh, Shobeir; Segura, Rodrigo; Kähler, Christian; Radespiel, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 μL is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating online measurement technique for dissolved oxygen (DO) and optical density (OD). A further advantage is the broaden application for biological systems. The bioreactor geometry was chosen to achieve homogeneous flow during continuous process operation. The device consisted of a microstructured top layer made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which was designed and fabricated using UV-depth and soft lithography assembled with a glass bottom. CFD simulation data used for geometry design were verified via microparticle-image-velocimetry (μPIV). In the used microreactor geometry no concentration gradients occurred along the entire reaction volume because of rapid diffusive mixing, the homogeneous medium flow inside the growth chamber of the microreactor could be realized. Undesirable bubble formation before and during operation was reduced by using degassed medium as well as moistened and moderate incident air flow above the gas permeable PDMS membrane. Because of this a passive oxygen supply of the culture medium in the device is ensured by diffusion through the PDMS membrane. The oxygen supply itself was monitored online via integrated DO sensors based on a fluorescent dye complex. An adequate overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as well as mechanical stability of the device were accomplished for a membrane thickness of 300 μm. Experimental investigations considering measurements of OD (online) and several metabolite concentrations (offline) in a modified Verduyn medium. The used model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 tended to strong reactor wall growth resembling a biofilm. PMID:20945484

  6. Nanofiltration concentration of extracellular glutathione produced by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize extracellular glutathione production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain and to concentrate the extracellular glutathione by membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Synthetic defined (SD) medium containing 20 g L(-1) glucose was fermented for 48 h; the fermentation liquid was passed through an UF membrane to remove macromolecules. Glutathione in this permeate was concentrated for 48 h to 545.1 ± 33.6 mg L(-1) using the NF membrane; this was a significantly higher concentration than that obtained with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium following 96 h NF concentration (217.9 ± 57.4 mg L(-1)). This higher glutathione concentration results from lower cellular growth in SD medium (final OD600 = 6.9 ± 0.1) than in YPD medium (final OD600 = 11.0 ± 0.6) and thus higher production of extracellular glutathione (16.0 ± 1.3 compared to 9.2 ± 2.1 mg L(-1) in YPD medium, respectively). Similar fermentation and membrane processing of sweet sorghum juice containing 20 g L(-1) total sugars provided 240.3 ± 60.6 mg L(-1) glutathione. Increased extracellular production of glutathione by this engineered strain in SD medium and subsequent UF permeation and NF concentration in shortend time may help realize industrial recovery of extracellular glutathione. PMID:26105794

  7. Ergosterol production from molasses by genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Borun

    2007-05-01

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by fungi. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56(pHXA42) with increased capacity of ergosterol formation was constructed by combined overexpression of sterol C-24(28) reductase and sterol acyltransferase in the yeast strain YEH56. The production of ergosterol by this recombinant strain using cane molasses (CM) as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. An ergosterol content of 52.6 mg/g was obtained with 6.1 g/l of biomass from CM medium containing 60 g/l of total sugar in 30 h in shake flask. The ergosterol yield was enhanced through the increasing cell biomass by supplementation of urea to a concentration of 6 g/l in molasses medium. Fermentation was performed in 5-l bioreactor using the optimized molasses medium. In batch fermentation, the effect of agitation velocity on ergosterol production was examined. The highest ergosterol yield was obtained at 400 rpm that increased 60.4 mg/l in comparison with the shake flask culture. In fed-batch fermentation, yeast cells were cultivated, firstly, in the starting medium containing molasses with 20 g/l of total sugar, 1.68 g/l of phosphate acid, and 6 g/l of urea (pH 5.4) for 5 h, then molasses containing 350 g/l of total sugar was fed exponentially into the bioreactor to keep the ethanol level in the broth below 0.5%. After 40 h of cultivation, the ergosterol yield reached 1,707 mg/l, which was 3.1-fold of that in the batch fermentation. PMID:17225097

  8. Mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination and mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. 1. It was confirmed that from the six DNA polymerases discovered in yeast cells, only DNA polymerases δ, ε and ζ are engaged in dark repair of lesions caused by UV-light and MMS. DNA polymerase δ is involved in the repair of both types of lesions, while DNA polymerase ε and ζ only in lesions caused by UV and MMS, respectively. Other polymerases are not involved or play only a minor role in repair. The results obtained are being prepared for publication. 2. Studies on the involvement of the three replicative DNA polymerases in mitotic gene conversion induced by mono- and bifunctional psoralens (and also by UV- light or MMS) revealed that DNA polymerases α and δ are the main polymerases responsible for induced intragenic conversion. DNA polymerase ε seems to play minor role in this process. It is possible that DNA polymerase α may also be involved in DNA repair synthesis but only in cases when the opening of new replication forks is necessary for repair. 3. Studies on the influence of mutations in the replicative and nonreplicative DNA polymerases on adaptive mutations in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were continued. We found that thermosensitive mutation in the POL2 gene encoding DNA polymerase ε increased the frequency of adaptive mutation in a similar manner as found earlier for DNA polymerase δ. A similar effect was observed also in strains with deletions in the MSH3 gene responsible for mismatch repair. Mutations in other DNA polymerases, including the essential DNA polymerase α and the inessential DNA polymerases β and ζ revealed no effect on this process. Analysis of DNA sequences in the revertants showed that in all cases the obtained reversions resulted from a single nucleotide deletion most often in sequences having short homopolymer tracts. The results obtained suggest that errors arising during DNA elongation and their persistence in mutants deficient in mismatch repair activity seem to be the source of the adaptive

  9. [Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factories for lycopene production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Yu; Liu Yi; Wang, Dong; Lu, Fu-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-10-01

    For microbial production of lycopene, the lycopene synthetic genes from Pantoea agglomerans were integrated into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4742, to obtain strain ZD-L-000 for production of 0.17 mg · L(-1) lycopene. Improving supplies of isoprenoid precursors was then investigated for increasing lycopene production. Four key genes were chosen to be overexpressed, inclu- ding truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene (tHMG1), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, a mutated global regulatory factor gene (upc2.1), a fusion gene of FPP synthase (ERG20) and endogenous GGPP synthase (BTS1), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway, and GGPP synthase gene (SaGGPS) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Over-expression of upc2.1 could not improve lycopene production, while over-expression of tHMGI , BTS1-ERG20 and SaGGPS genes led to 2-, 16. 9- and20. 5-fold increase of lycopene production, respectively. In addition, three effective genes, tHMG1, BTS1-ERG20 and SaGGPS, were integrated into rDNA sites of ZD-L-000, resulting in strain ZD-L-201 for production of 13.23 mg · L(-1) lycopene, which was 77-fold higher than that of the parent strain. Finally, two-phase extractive fermentation was performed. The titer of lycopene increased 10-fold to 135.21 mg · L(-1). The engineered yeast strains obtained in this work provided the basis for fermentative production of lycopene. PMID:25751950

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of the SUL1 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Matthew S; Payen, Celia; Rubin, Alan F; Ong, Giang T; Sanchez, Monica R; Yachie, Nozomu; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fields, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beneficial mutations selected during sulfate-limited growth are typically amplifications of the SUL1 gene, which encodes the high-affinity sulfate transporter, resulting in fitness increases of >35% . Cis-regulatory mutations have not been observed at this locus; however, it is not clear whether this absence is due to a low mutation rate such that these mutations do not arise, or they arise but have limited fitness effects relative to those of amplification. To address this question directly, we assayed the fitness effects of nearly all possible point mutations in a 493-base segment of the gene's promoter through mutagenesis and selection. While most mutations were either neutral or detrimental during sulfate-limited growth, eight mutations increased fitness >5% and as much as 9.4%. Combinations of these beneficial mutations increased fitness only up to 11%. Thus, in the case of SUL1, promoter mutations could not induce a fitness increase similar to that of gene amplification. Using these data, we identified functionally important regions of the SUL1 promoter and analyzed three sites that correspond to potential binding sites for the transcription factors Met32 and Cbf1 Mutations that create new Met32- or Cbf1-binding sites also increased fitness. Some mutations in the untranslated region of the SUL1 transcript decreased fitness, likely due to the formation of inhibitory upstream open reading frames. Our methodology-saturation mutagenesis, chemostat selection, and DNA sequencing to track variants-should be a broadly applicable approach. PMID:26936925

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  12. Pulsed wire discharge apparatus for mass production of copper nanopowders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, H; Nishimura, S; Murai, K; Hayashi, Y; Suzuki, T; Nakayama, T; Jiang, W; Yamazaki, A; Seki, K; Niihara, K

    2007-05-01

    A pulsed wire discharge (PWD) apparatus for the mass production of nanopowders has been developed. The apparatus has a continuous wire feeder, which is operated in synchronization with a discharging circuit. The apparatus is designed for operation at a maximum repetition rate of 1.4 Hz at a stored energy of 160 J. In the present study, Cu nanopowder was synthesized using the PWD apparatus and the performance of the apparatus was examined. Cu nanopowder of 2.0 g quantity was prepared in N(2) gas at 100 kPa for 90 s. The particle size distribution of the Cu nanopowder was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and the mean surface diameter was determined to be 65 nm. The ratio of the production mass of the powder to input energy was 362 g/kW h. PMID:17552867

  13. Bubble column apparatus for gas-liquid heterogeneous chemistry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorter, J.A.; De Bruyn, W.J.; Hu, J.; Swartz, E.; Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Worsnop, D.R.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A bubble column apparatus has been designed to conduct time-resolved gas-liquid interaction studies of interest in atmospheric chemistry. In the apparatus, a low pressure gas flow, carrying trace gas diluted in helium carrier gas, is `bubbled` through a flask containing 3.5 L of temperature-controlled liquid. The outlet gas flow is then sampled by a differentially pumped mass spectrometer. The position of the bubble injector, which determines the gas-liquid contact time, is computer controlled by means of a stepping motor. Modeling of the gas uptake and the validation of the apparatus performance are described. The apparatus in the present configuration can measure Henry`s law coefficients (H) for nonreactive species in the range 0.01-2.0 M/atm. For reactive species (reaction rate k) the apparatus measures Hk{sup $HLF} values in the range 0.08-100 (M/atm) s{sup -HLF}. 43 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Quantum and classical descriptions of a measuring apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, O; Hay, Ori; Peres, Asher

    1998-01-01

    A measuring apparatus is described by quantum mechanics while it interacts with the quantum system under observation, and then it must be given a classical description so that the result of the measurement appears as objective reality. Alternatively, the apparatus may always be treated by quantum mechanics, and be measured by a second apparatus which has such a dual description. This article examines whether these two different descriptions are mutually consistent. It is shown that if the dynamical variable used in the first apparatus is represented by an operator of the Weyl-Wigner type (for example, if it is a linear coordinate), then the conversion from quantum to classical terminology does not affect the final result. However, if the first apparatus encodes the measurement in a different type of operator (e.g., the phase operator), the two methods of calculation may give different results.

  15. Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

  16. Análisis estructural y funcional de complejos con actividad histona acetiltransferasa en Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaleny Peralvo, Lorena E.

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Este trabajo estudió la acetilación postraduccional de una estructura dinámica implicada en un gran número de procesos celulares, la cromatina. Para ello se realizaron experimentos utilizando el organismo eucariota Sacharomyces cerevisiae (la levadura de la cerveza). En una primera parte se llevó a cabo el análisis bioquímico de complejos histona acetiltransferasa (HAT) en S. cerevisiae, detectándose una nueva actividad HAT con especificidad sobre la histona H3, y a partir de este ...

  17. Toxicity and biosorption of metals by saccharomyces cerevisiae, amorphotheca resinae and azolla filiculoides

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, Robert V.

    1998-01-01

    The value of H+ efflux in assessing and understanding metal interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated for its potential use as a rapid means of toxicity assessment for a range of metals Toxicity decreased in the order Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Co2+ > Sr2+. Toxic effects can be alleviated by external Ca2+. The effect of Cu2+ and Co2+ on S cerevisiae growth, and the intracellular localisation of Cu2+, were studied in order to gain a better understanding of their toxicity. S cer...

  18. Engineering the pentose phosphate pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ethanol and xylitol

    OpenAIRE

    Toivari, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    The baker s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a long tradition in alcohol production from D-glucose of e.g. starch. However, without genetic modifications it is unable to utilise the 5-carbon sugars D-xylose and L arabinose present in plant biomass. In this study, one key metabolic step of the catabolic D-xylose pathway in recombinant D-xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strains was studied. This step, carried out by xylulokinase (XK), was shown to be rate-limiting, because overexpression of the...

  19. Influence of Quinoxyfen Residues on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation of Grape Musts

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves López, Clemencia; Boselli, Emanuele; Piva, Andrea; Ndaghijimana, Maurice; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna; Mastrocola, Dino

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Quinoxyfen, a new pesticide against powdery mildew, on the fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been evaluated. When vines (Montepulciano d’Abruzzo, Trebbiano and Sangiovese) were treated with doses recommended by the producer (30 mL/hL of a suspension concentrate 250 g/L), Quinoxyfen was detected up to the concentration of 0.014 mg/L in the must. The S. cerevisiae growth parameters, μmax and lag phase, were not affected by this residual level during fermentation. Howeve...

  20. Sensitivity to Lovastatin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Deleted for Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR) Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The use of statins is well established in human therapy, and model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly used in studies of drug action at molecular and cellular levels. The investigation of the resistance mechanisms towards statins may suggest new approaches to improve therapy...... based on the use of statins. We investigated the susceptibility to lovastatin of S. cerevisiae strains deleted for PDR genes, responsible for exporting hydrophobic and amphi-philic drugs, such as lovastatin. Strains deleted for the genes tested, PDR1, PDR3, PDR5 and SNQ2, exhibited remarkably different...

  1. Expression of the major heat shock gene of Drosophila melanogaster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    de Banzie, J S; Sinclair, L; Lis, J T

    1986-01-01

    A copy of the gene which encodes the major heat shock protein (hsp70) of D. melanogaster was integrated in both orientations into the genome of S. cerevisiae at the leu2 locus. The level of transcript from the D. melanogaster gene was measured under both normal conditions and conditions which are known to give rise to the heat shock response in S. cerevisiae. In both orientations the D. melanogaster gene gave rise to an abundant transcript in uninduced cells. The level of this transcript was ...

  2. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto foram testados, send...

  3. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the...... development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  4. Biosorption of uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and surface interactions under culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Yan, Xiuying; Zeng, Wenming; Hou, Liangyu; Pang, Xiaofeng

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have focused on biosorption by microorganisms under culture conditions. To explore the biosorption of uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under culture conditions, the S. cerevisiae growth curve, biosorption capacity and surface interaction under batch culture conditions were investigated in this study. The growth curve showed that uranium (yeast cell surfaces, as well as culture medium, and produced uranium precipitate on cell surfaces. Fourier transformed infrared spectra revealed that cell walls were the major sorption sites, and -O--H, -C==O and -PO(2-) contributed to the major binding groups. PMID:20599379

  5. Individual-based observations and individual-based simulations to study Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Portell Canal, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Tesi per compendi de publicacions. La consulta íntegra de la tesi, inclosos els articles no comunicats públicament per drets d'autor, es pot realitzar prèvia petició a l'Arxiu de la UPC Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the yeasts with major economic, social, and health significance in human culture. Depending on the growth conditions experienced by the cell, S. cerevisiae growth can proceed via fermentative, respirative, or respirofermentative metabolism. Scar formation, unequal division...

  6. CrEdit: CRISPR mediated multi-loci gene integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Maury, Jerome; Jakociunas, Tadas;

    2015-01-01

    % for single gene integration using short homology arms down to 60 base pairs both with and without selection. This enables direct and cost efficient inclusion of homology arms in PCR primers. As a proof of concept, a non-native beta-carotene pathway was reconstructed in S. cerevisiae by simultaneous......Background: One of the bottlenecks in production of biochemicals and pharmaceuticals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is stable and homogeneous expression of pathway genes. Integration of genes into the genome of the production organism is often a preferred option when compared to expression from...

  7. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  8. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  9. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  10. Apparatus for Removing Remaining Adhesives of Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Large amount of ventilation filter was used at radiation areas not only in nuclear power plants but also in nuclear facilities. These spent ventilation filters are generated as radioactive waste and composed of a steel frame, glass fiber media and aluminum separator. When treated, the spent filter is separated into filter media for air purification and frame. After separation, while the filter media is collected using steel drum for reducing internal exposure, the filter frame is treated further to remove adhesives for recycling the frame as many as possible in order to reduce waste and cost and improve working conditions. Usually, the adhesives are separated from the filter frame manually. As a result, a lot of time and labor is required. So, the objective of this study is to develop a motor-driven apparatus for removing adhesives efficiently

  11. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the downsizing of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel glove boxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) slat were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. In this paper the details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium, in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  12. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  13. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; McJunkin, Timothy R.

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  14. Method and apparatus for subtraction image determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method for X-ray image processing subtracting two images obtained by X-ray radiography and stored in a memory. Using such an apparatus it is for instance possible to picture the blood circulation system of the human body by determining subtraction images of X-ray images before and after injection of contrast media. It has turned out that during the determination and display of the subtraction images on the TV monitor the gray-level fluctuates. The purpose of the invention is to reduce the ill effects of the changes of the X radiation and of the signal transfer in the BV-TV chain. (Auth.)

  15. PRIMA+: a proton computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method, based on the use of proton beams with kinetic energy of the order of 250 MeV, aimed to directly measure the stopping power distribution of tissues thus improving the present accuracy of treatment planning in hadron therapy. A pCT system should be capable to measure tissue electron density with an accuracy better than 1% and a spatial resolution better than 1 mm. The blurring effect due to multiple Coulomb scattering can be mitigated by single proton tracking technique. As a first step towards pCT the PRIMA+ Collaboration built a prototype capable to carry out a single radiography and a tomographic image of a rotating object. This apparatus includes a silicon microstrip tracker to identify the proton trajectory and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to measure the particle residual energy.

  16. Apparatus for waste collection and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jr., William E. (Inventor); Whitmore, Henry B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for collection of fecal matter designed to operate efficiently in a zero gravity environment. The system comprises a waste collection area within a body having a seat opening. Low pressure within the waste collection area directs fecal matter away from the user's buttocks and prevents the escape of undesirable gases. The user actuates a piston covered with an absorbent pad that sweeps through the waste collection area to collect fecal matter, scrub the waste collector area, press the waste against an end of the waste collection area and retracts, leaving the used pad. Multiple pads are provided on the piston to accommodate multiple uses of the system. Also a valve allows air to be drawn through the body, which valve will not be plugged with fecal matter. A sheet feeder feeds fresh sheets of absorbent pad to a face of the piston with each actuation.

  17. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  18. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  19. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  20. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  1. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  2. ELRA: The exposure-limiting robotic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of hot cells at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), used for examining spent fuel as part of on-going reactor research programs, are to be refurbished. The cells had become highly contaminated over the years and had accrued waste that had to be removed to support the upcoming cell refurbishment. To further complicate the situation, perchloric acid had been fumed into an acid scrubber system contained in one of the cells. This system did not function properly, and enough perchlorates had accumulated creating a real potential for explosion during removal of the system. A team of engineers was assembled to devise a cleanup method with two major concerns to be considered: personnel safety from the explosive nature of the perchlorates and minimizing personnel radiation exposure. The job presented an excellent opportunity to employ a robotic apparatus

  3. Radiation imaging apparatus with a slit collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In imaging apparatus comprising a slit collimator, means for imparting to said collimator a basic movement through a succession of different positions relative to a source of radiation, detector means for providing measurements of the radiation passing through the collimator in each of said positions, and means for processing data from said succession of measurements to gain information about said source, that improvement comprising means for superimposing upon said basic movement of said collimator a cyclic lateral movement of said collimator and said detector means transverse both to the direction of radiation transmission through said collimator and to the wall of said collimator defining said slits, and means for making a succession of said measurements during each cycle of said lateral movement

  4. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual temperature exchange apparatus, with a dual temperature stage having a hot processing tower and a cold processing tower, is provided with means for transferring heat from the hot processed gas to both liquid and gas being delivered to the hot processing tower. The heat exchange system provides means for effecting direct contact between the hot processed gas and the cold processed liquid being delivered to the hot tower, means for establishing a circulation of the resulting heated processed liquid, and means including an indirect contact exchanger for transferring heat from said circulation to condition the gas being supplied to the hot processing tower. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  5. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs

  6. Novel apparatus and method for drug reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Duvauchelle, Christine L

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of reinforcement have proven to be useful for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Operant drug self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures are expansively used in animal research to model various components of drug reinforcement, consumption, and addiction in humans. For this study, we used a novel approach to studying drug reinforcement in rats by combining traditional CPP and self-administration methodologies. We assembled an apparatus using two Med Associate operant chambers, sensory stimuli, and a Plexiglas-constructed neutral zone. These modifications allowed our experiments to encompass motivational aspects of drug intake through self-administration and drug-free assessment of drug/cue conditioning strength with the CPP test. In our experiments, rats self-administered cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/inj, i.v.) during either four (e.g., the "short-term") or eight (e.g., the "long-term") alternating-day sessions in an operant environment containing distinctive sensory cues (e.g., olfactory and visual). On the alternate days, in the other (differently-cued) operant environment, saline was available for self-infusion (0.1 ml, i.v.). Twenty-four hours after the last self-administration/cue-pairing session, a CPP test was conducted. Consistent with typical CPP findings, there was a significant preference for the chamber associated with cocaine self-administration. In addition, in animals undergoing the long-term experiment, a significant positive correlation between CPP magnitude and the number of cocaine-reinforced lever responses. In conclusion, this apparatus and approach is time and cost effective, can be used to examine a wide array of topics pertaining to drug abuse, and provides more flexibility in experimental design than CPP or self-administration methods alone. PMID:20811325

  7. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  8. Electrical stimulation of saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures Estimulação elétrica de células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Q.F. Araújo; Coelho, Maria Alice Z.; Isabel C.P. Margarit; Carlos A. Vaz-Junior; Maria Helena M. Rocha-Leão

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of cell endogenous membrane potential by an external electrical field influences the structure and function of membrane compartments, proteins and lipid bi-layer. In this work, the effects of applied potential on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were characterized through simple yet conclusive experiments. Cell growth time profile and cell division were investigated as macroscopic response to the electrical stimulation. Control experiments were conducted under identical conditions e...

  9. Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Gnd1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Cong-Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG. Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications. Results The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-α helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 μM for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 μM for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution. Conclusion The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not

  10. Low doses effects of ionizing radiation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of living cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induce in response the activation of cellular protection mechanisms against subsequent larger doses of radiation. This cellular adaptive response may vary depending on radiation intensity and time of exposure, and also on the testing probes used whether they were mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria and other organisms or cell types. The mechanisms involved are the genome activation, followed by DNA repair enzymes synthesis. Due to the prompt cell response, the cell cycle can be delayed, and the secondary detoxification of free radicals and/or activation of membrane bound receptors may proceed. All these phenomena are submitted to intense scientific research nowadays, and their elucidation will depend on the complexity of the organism under study. In the present work, the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (gamma rays) over a suspension of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was studied, mainly in respect to survival rate and radio-adaptive response. At first, the yeast surviving curve was assessed towards increasing doses, and an estimation of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was made. The irradiation tests were performed at LINAC (electrons Linear Accelerator) where electron energy reached approximately 2.65 MeV, and gamma-radiation was produced for bremsstrahlung process over an aluminium screen target. A series of experiments of conditioning doses was performed and an increment surviving fraction was observed when the dose was 2.3 Gy and a interval time between this and a higher dose (challenging dose) of 27 Gy was 90 minutes. A value of 58 ± 4 Gy was estimated for LD50, at a dose rate of 0.44 ± 0.03 Gy/min These quantities must be optimized. Besides data obtained over yeast survival, an unusual increasing amount of tiny yeast colonies appeared on the agar plates after incubation, and this number increased as increasing the time exposure. Preliminary results indicate these colonies as

  11. Determinants of Swe1p Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John N.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Bardes, Elaine S. G.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Swe1p, the sole Wee1-family kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is synthesized during late G1 and is then degraded as cells proceed through the cell cycle. However, Swe1p degradation is halted by the morphogenesis checkpoint, which responds to insults that perturb bud formation. The Swe1p stabilization promotes cell cycle arrest through Swe1p-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc28p until the cells can recover from the perturbation and resume bud formation. Swe1p degradation involves the relocalization of Swe1p from the nucleus to the mother-bud neck, and neck targeting requires the Swe1p-interacting protein Hsl7p. In addition, Swe1p degradation is stimulated by its substrate, cyclin/Cdc28p, and Swe1p is thought to be a target of the ubiquitin ligase SCFMet30 acting with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34p. The basis for regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unclear, and in order to elucidate that regulation we have dissected the Swe1p degradation pathway in more detail, yielding several novel findings. First, we show here that Met30p (and by implication SCFMet30) is not, in fact, required for Swe1p degradation. Second, cyclin/Cdc28p does not influence Swe1p neck targeting, but can directly phosphorylate Swe1p, suggesting that it acts downstream of neck targeting in the Swe1p degradation pathway. Third, a screen for functional but nondegradable mutants of SWE1 identified two small regions of Swe1p that are key to its degradation. One of these regions mediates interaction of Swe1p with Hsl7p, showing that the Swe1p-Hsl7p interaction is critical for Swe1p neck targeting and degradation. The other region did not appear to affect interactions with known Swe1p regulators, suggesting that other as-yet-unknown regulators exist. PMID:12388757

  12. "Ant" and "grasshopper" life-history strategies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Spor

    Full Text Available From the evolutionary and ecological points of view, it is essential to distinguish between the genetic and environmental components of the variability of life-history traits and of their trade-offs. Among the factors affecting this variability, the resource uptake rate deserves particular attention, because it depends on both the environment and the genetic background of the individuals. In order to unravel the bases of the life-history strategies in yeast, we grew a collection of twelve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different industrial and geographical origins in three culture media differing for their glucose content. Using a population dynamics model to fit the change of population size over time, we estimated the intrinsic growth rate (r, the carrying capacity (K, the mean cell size and the glucose consumption rate per cell. The life-history traits, as well as the glucose consumption rate, displayed large genetic and plastic variability and genetic-by-environment interactions. Within each medium, growth rate and carrying capacity were not correlated, but a marked trade-off between these traits was observed over the media, with high K and low r in the glucose rich medium and low K and high r in the other media. The cell size was tightly negatively correlated to carrying capacity in all conditions. The resource consumption rate appeared to be a clear-cut determinant of both the carrying capacity and the cell size in all media, since it accounted for 37% to 84% of the variation of those traits. In a given medium, the strains that consume glucose at high rate have large cell size and low carrying capacity, while the strains that consume glucose at low rate have small cell size but high carrying capacity. These two contrasted behaviors may be metaphorically defined as "ant" and "grasshopper" strategies of resource utilization. Interestingly, a strain may be "ant" in one medium and "grasshopper" in another. These life

  13. Method and apparatus for multispray emitter for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-12-14

    A method and apparatus that utilizes two or more emitters simultaneously to form an electrospray of a sample that is then directed into a mass spectrometer, thereby increasing the total ion current introduced into an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer, given a liquid flow rate of a sample. The method and apparatus are most conveniently constructed as an array of spray emitters fabricated on a single chip, however, the present invention encompasses any apparatus wherein two or more emitters are simultaneously utilized to form an electrospray of a sample that is then directed into a mass spectrometer.

  14. Apparatus for attaching a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for connecting a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator so that the tool can be used in contaminated areas on horizontal, vertical and sloped surfaces. The apparatus comprises a frame and a handle, with casters on the frame to facilitate movement. The handle is pivotally and releasibly attached to the frame at a preselected position of a plurality of attachment positions. The apparatus is specifically configured for the Kelly Vacuum System but can be modified for use with any standard mobile robot and cleaning tool. 14 figs

  15. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  16. PLC Control System of Microwave Drying Apparatus on Honeysuckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control system of microwave drying apparatus on Honeysuckle is designed in order to control microwave drying apparatus automatically according to microwave drying process on Honeysuckle and the designed 20 kW circular microwave drying apparatus. PLC which type is CP1E-X20DR-A of Omron Corporation is adopted as controller and program flow chart is designed, the control of temperature, humidity and drying speed is realized according to Honeysuckle drying process requirements. Practice has proved that: the control system designed can control Honeysuckle drying process completely.

  17. Glucose-induced monoubiquitination of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose transporter is sufficient to signal its internalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jaroslav; Wolf, D. H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 10 (2001), s. 3083-3088. ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0475; GA AV ČR IAA5011005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.984, year: 2001

  18. Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Double-Stranded RNA Virus L-A-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalovas, Aleksandras; Serviené, Elena; Serva, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the complete genome of the L-A-28 virus from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K28 killer strain. This sequence completes the set of currently identified L-A helper viruses required for expression of double-stranded RNA-originated killer phenotypes in baking yeast. PMID:27313294

  19. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  20. Mapping Condition-Dependent Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jewett, Michael Christopher; Workman, Christopher; Nookaew, Intawat; Pizarro, Francisco A; Agosin, Eduardo; Hellgren, Lars; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition-dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 13C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a three-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis...