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Sample records for cerevisiae cytokinetic apparatus

  1. Isolation of Cytokinetic Actomyosin Rings from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, Saravanan; Chew, Ting Gang; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division, through which cellular constituents of mother cells are partitioned into two daughter cells resulting in the increase in cell number. In animal and fungal cells cytokinesis is mediated by an actomyosin contractile ring, which is attached to the overlying cell membrane. Contraction of this ring after chromosome segregation physically severs the mother cell into two daughters. Here we describe methods for the isolation and partial purification of the actomyosin ring from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can serve as in vitro systems to facilitate biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of cytokinesis in these genetically tractable model systems. PMID:26519310

  2. Ara-C cytokinetic studies in normal tissues in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Gray, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of including normal tissues in the design of cytokinetic-based chemotherapeutic schedules is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the lack of rapid analytical techniques to obtain quantitative cytokinetic data on target subpopulations in heterogenous normal tissues, such as the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic system, has limited the inclusion of these tissues in therapy design. Once target subpopulations are identified and/or discriminated, flow cytometry in conjunction with radioactivity measurements by liquid scintillation counting can be used to rapidly obtain quantitative cytokinetic data during drug therapy. The present paper reviews our current cytokinetic techniques and the applications and limitations of these techniques in the analysis of Ara-C induced perturbations in the small intestine and hematopoetic system. Cell cycle information both prior to and 30 hrs following a single Ara-C treatment was obtained in the intestinal crypts and femoral marrow population using radioactive precursor uptake and flow cytometric techniques. In addition, the relationship between crypt cell survival and animal lethality following Ara-C treatment was determined to better understand the impact of a damage to a regenerative population on the ''clinical endpoint'' of animal survival. Understanding the principles behind the normal tissue toxicity which occurs during multidose treatment will hopefully allow modulation of this toxicity through the rational design of optimal chemotherapeutic schedules.

  3. Ara-C cytokinetic studies in normal tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, M G; Gray, J W

    1982-01-01

    The importance of including normal tissues in the design of cytokinetic-based chemotherapeutic schedules is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the lack of rapid analytical techniques to obtain quantitative cytokinetic data on target subpopulations in heterogenous normal tissues, such as the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic system, has limited the inclusion of these tissues in therapy design. Once target subpopulations are identified and/or discriminated, flow cytometry in conjunction with radioactivity measurements by liquid scintillation counting can be used to rapidly obtain quantitative cytokinetic data during drug therapy. The present paper reviews our current cytokinetic techniques and the applications and limitations of these techniques in the analysis of Ara-C-induced perturbations in the small intestine and hematopoietic system. Cell cycle information both prior to and 30 hrs following a single Ara-C treatment was obtained in the intestinal crypts and femoral marrow population using radioactive precursor uptake and flow cytometric techniques. In addition, the relationship between crypt cell survival and animal lethality following Ara-C treatment was determined to better understand the impact of a damage to a regenerative population on the "clinical endpoint" of animal survival. Understanding the principles behind the normal tissue toxicity which occurs during multidose treatment will hopefully allow modulation of this toxicity through the rational design of optimal chemotherapeutic schedules.

  4. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheen Fei Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.

  5. TOR complex 2 localises to the cytokinetic actomyosin ring and controls the fidelity of cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen; Kirkham, Sara; Halova, Lenka; Atkin, Jane; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Cobley, David; Krug, Karsten; Maček, Boris; Mulvihill, Daniel P; Petersen, Janni

    2016-07-01

    The timing of cell division is controlled by the coupled regulation of growth and division. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling network synchronises these processes with the environmental setting. Here, we describe a novel interaction of the fission yeast TOR complex 2 (TORC2) with the cytokinetic actomyosin ring (CAR), and a novel role for TORC2 in regulating the timing and fidelity of cytokinesis. Disruption of TORC2 or its localisation results in defects in CAR morphology and constriction. We provide evidence that the myosin II protein Myp2 and the myosin V protein Myo51 play roles in recruiting TORC2 to the CAR. We show that Myp2 and TORC2 are co-dependent upon each other for their normal localisation to the cytokinetic machinery. We go on to show that TORC2-dependent phosphorylation of actin-capping protein 1 (Acp1, a known regulator of cytokinesis) controls CAR stability, modulates Acp1-Acp2 (the equivalent of the mammalian CAPZA-CAPZB) heterodimer formation and is essential for survival upon stress. Thus, TORC2 localisation to the CAR, and TORC2-dependent Acp1 phosphorylation contributes to timely control and the fidelity of cytokinesis and cell division.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Dependent on Vesicular Traffic between the Golgi Apparatus and the Vacuole When Inositolphosphorylceramide Synthase Aur1 Is Inactivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynova, Natalia S; Roubaty, Carole; Vazquez, Hector M; Mallela, Shamroop K; Ejsing, Christer S; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) and its mannosylated derivatives are the only complex sphingolipids of yeast. Their synthesis can be reduced by aureobasidin A (AbA), which specifically inhibits the IPC synthase Aur1. AbA reportedly, by diminishing IPC levels, causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, an increase in cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen production, and mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis. We found that when Aur1 is gradually depleted by transcriptional downregulation, the accumulation of ceramides becomes a major hindrance to cell survival. Overexpression of the alkaline ceramidase YPC1 rescues cells under this condition. We established hydroxylated C26 fatty acids as a reliable hallmark of ceramide hydrolysis. Such hydrolysis occurs only when YPC1 is overexpressed. In contrast, overexpression of YPC1 has no beneficial effect when Aur1 is acutely repressed by AbA. A high-throughput genetic screen revealed that vesicle-mediated transport between Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and vacuole becomes crucial for survival when Aur1 is repressed, irrespective of the mode of repression. In addition, vacuolar acidification becomes essential when cells are acutely stressed by AbA, and quinacrine uptake into vacuoles shows that AbA activates vacuolar acidification. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine does not improve cell growth on AbA, indicating that reactive oxygen radicals induced by AbA play a minor role in its toxicity. AbA strongly induces the cell wall integrity pathway, but osmotic support does not improve the viability of wild-type cells on AbA. Altogether, the data support and refine current models of AbA-mediated cell death and add vacuolar protein transport and acidification as novel critical elements of stress resistance.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown...... pathways including the protein kinase A and a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Advanced genetic tools and resources have been developed for S. cerevisiae including a deletion mutant-strain collection in a biofilm-forming strain background and GFP-fusion protein collections. Furthermore, S....... cerevisiae biofilm is well applied for confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorophore tagging of proteins, DNA and RNA. These techniques can be used to uncover the molecular mechanisms for biofilm development, drug resistance and for the study of molecular interactions, cell response to environmental...

  8. ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control cytokinetic abscission during germline stem cell division in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund H Eikenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo.

  9. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  10. The Aurora Kinase in Trypanosoma brucei plays distinctive roles in metaphase-anaphase transition and cytokinetic initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyin Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B kinase is an essential regulator of chromosome segregation with the action well characterized in eukaryotes. It is also implicated in cytokinesis, but the detailed mechanism remains less clear, partly due to the difficulty in separating the latter from the former function in a growing cell. A chemical genetic approach with an inhibitor of the enzyme added to a synchronized cell population at different stages of the cell cycle would probably solve this problem. In the deeply branched parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, an Aurora B homolog, TbAUK1, was found to control both chromosome segregation and cytokinetic initiation by evidence from RNAi and dominant negative mutation. To clearly separate these two functions, VX-680, an inhibitor of TbAUK1, was added to a synchronized T. brucei procyclic cell population at different cell cycle stages. The unique trans-localization pattern of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC, consisting of TbAUK1 and two novel proteins TbCPC1 and TbCPC2, was monitored during mitosis and cytokinesis by following the migration of the proteins tagged with enhanced yellow fluorescence protein in live cells with time-lapse video microscopy. Inhibition of TbAUK1 function in S-phase, prophase or metaphase invariably arrests the cells in the metaphase, suggesting an action of TbAUK1 in promoting metaphase-anaphase transition. TbAUK1 inhibition in anaphase does not affect mitotic exit, but prevents trans-localization of the CPC from the spindle midzone to the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone for cytokinetic initiation. The CPC in the midzone is dispersed back to the two segregated nuclei, while cytokinesis is inhibited. In and beyond telophase, TbAUK1 inhibition has no effect on the progression of cytokinesis or the subsequent G1, S and G2 phases until a new metaphase is attained. There are thus two clearly distinct points of TbAUK1 action in T. brucei: the metaphase-anaphase transition and

  11. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  12. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  13. [Proliferative activity parameters and their correlation with genetic damage of blood lymphocytes during cultivation under the conditions of cytokinetic block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', F I; Iurchenko, V V; Gus'kov, A S; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2006-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 15 volunteers aged 22 to 25 years, who underwent 25 air ionization sessions. The effects of genome instability were evaluated, and correlations between indicators of genome damage (lesions of micronuclei and nucleoplasmatic bridges) and parameters of proliferative and replicative activity (mitotic index, proliferative pool, the fraction of rapidly dividing cells, and replication index) of blood lymphocytes in the culture were studied. In order to establish the associations between the parameters, the parallel cultures were exposed to 0.07 mM of the standard mutagen MNNG during 5 hours. The study showed that the course of air ionization did not induce the micronuclei and nucleoplasmatic bridges in binuclear cells, but increased proliferative cell activity. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of rapidly dividing cells among all the dividing cells, and an increase in the dispersion of all proliferation parameters. MNNG induced a constant level of micronuclei in binuclear cells during the whole course, but not before the beginning of air ionization. The changes in the parameter "the fraction of dividing cells" (proliferative pool) were the most prominent manifestation of the suppression of proliferation by MNNG. MNNG loading inhibited the formation of binuclear cells most of all. The results demonstrate a non-random character of the correlation between the level of micronuclei in binuclear cells and proliferative activity parameters during cell cultivation under the conditions of cytokinetic block.

  14. Identification of the SlmA active site responsible for blocking bacterial cytokinetic ring assembly over the chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbaek Cho

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells use chromosome-associated division inhibitors to help coordinate the processes of DNA replication and segregation with cytokinesis. SlmA from Escherichia coli, a member of the tetracycline repressor (TetR-like protein family, is one example of this class of regulator. It blocks the assembly of the bacterial cytokinetic ring by interfering with the polymerization of the tubulin-like FtsZ protein in a manner that is dramatically stimulated upon specific DNA binding. Here we used a combination of molecular genetics and biochemistry to identify the active site of SlmA responsible for disrupting FtsZ polymerization. Interestingly, this site maps to a region of SlmA that in the published DNA-free structure is partially occluded by the DNA-binding domains. In this conformation, the SlmA structure resembles the drug/inducer-bound conformers of other TetR-like proteins, which in the absence of inducer require an inward rotation of their DNA-binding domains to bind successive major grooves on operator DNA. Our results are therefore consistent with a model in which DNA-binding activates SlmA by promoting a rotational movement of the DNA-binding domains that fully exposes the FtsZ-binding sites. SlmA may thus represent a special subclass of TetR-like proteins that have adapted conformational changes normally associated with inducer sensing in order to modulate an interaction with a partner protein. In this case, the adaptation ensures that SlmA only blocks cytokinesis in regions of the cell occupied by the origin-proximal portion of the chromosome where SlmA-binding sites are enriched.

  15. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  16. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  18. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  19. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  20. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  1. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  2. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  3. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  4. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  5. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  6. Membrane trafficking in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-09

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  7. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  8. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  9. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  10. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  11. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  12. levadura Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aguilar Uscanga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La pared celular de levaduras representa entre 20 a 30 % de la célula en peso seco. Está compuesta de polisacáridos complejos de β-glucanos, manoproteínas y quitina. Se estudió la composición de los polisacáridos contenidos en la pared celular de la Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113 y se observó el efecto de la variación de la fuente carbono (glucosa, sacarosa, galactosa, maltosa, manosa, etanol y pH (3, 4, 5, 6 en un medio mineral “cell factory”. Las células fueron recolectadas en fase exponencial y se extrajo la pared celular. Los extractos de pared se hidrolizaron con H2SO4 al 72% y las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía HPLC. Se realizó una prueba de resistencia al rompimiento celular con una β(1,3-glucanasa, y las células cultivadas a diferentes fuentes carbono y pH. Los resultados del análisis por HPLC, mostraron que la composición de los polisacáridos en la pared celular, varía considerablemente con las modificaciones del medio de cultivo. Se observó que las levaduras cultivadas en sacarosa tienen mayor porcentaje de pared celular (25% y mayor cantidad de glucanos (115µg/mg peso seco y mananos (131µg/mg peso seco, que aquellas levaduras cultivadas en etanol (13% en peso seco. Las levaduras cultivadas a pH 5 presentaron 19% de pared celular en peso seco, mientras que a pH 6 el porcentaje fue menor (14%. El análisis de resistencia al rompimiento celular, mostró que las células cultivadas en etanol y galactosa fueron resistentes al rompimiento enzimático. Se comparó este resultado con el contenido de polisacáridos en la pared celular y concluimos que la resistencia de la célula al rompimiento, no está ligada con la cantidad de β-glucanos contenidos en la pared celular, sino que va a depender del número de enlaces β(1,3 y β(1,6-glucanos, los cuales juegan un rol importante durante el ensamblaje de la pared

  13. Novel filaments 5 nm in diameter constitute the cytosolic ring of the plastid division apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishima, S; Takahara, M; Kuroiwa, T

    2001-03-01

    The plastid division apparatus (called the plastid-dividing ring) has been detected in several plant and algal species at the constricted region of plastids by transmission electron microscopy. The apparatus is composed of two or three rings: an outer ring in the cytosol, an inner ring in the stroma, and a middle ring in the intermembrane space. The components of these rings are not clear. FtsZ, which forms the bacterial cytokinetic ring, has been proposed as a component of both the inner and outer rings. Here, we present the ultrastructure of the outer ring at high resolution. To visualize the outer ring by negative staining, we isolated dividing chloroplasts from a synchronized culture of a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and lysed them with nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40. Nonidet P-40 extracted primarily stroma, thylakoids, and the inner and middle rings, leaving the envelope and outer ring largely intact. Negative staining revealed that the outer ring consists of a bundle of 5-nm filaments in which globular proteins are spaced 4.8 nm apart. Immunoblotting using an FtsZ-specific antibody failed to show immunoreactivity in the fraction containing the filament. Moreover, the filament structure and properties are unlike those of known cytoskeletal filaments. The bundle of filaments forms a very rigid structure and does not disassemble in 2 M urea. We also identified a dividing phase-specific 56-kD protein of chloroplasts as a candidate component of the ring. Our results suggest that the main architecture of the outer ring did not descend from cyanobacteria during the course of endosymbiosis but was added by the host cell early in plant evolution.

  14. Proteomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Organelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiederhold, Elena; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Poolman, Bert; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the subcellular localization of proteins is indispensable to understand their physiological roles. In the past decade, 18 studies have been performed to analyze the protein content of isolated organelles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we integrate the data sets and compare them wi

  15. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  16. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  17. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  18. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik D D Possner

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be α-1,2-mannosyltransferases or α-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-α-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or α-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution.

  19. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  20. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  1. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluc......Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration...... and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...

  2. A dual approach for improving homogeneity of a human-type N-glycan structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen, Mari A; Boer, Harry; de Ruijter, Jorg C; Frey, Alexander D

    2016-04-01

    N-glycosylation is an important feature of therapeutic and other industrially relevant proteins, and engineering of the N-glycosylation pathway provides opportunities for developing alternative, non-mammalian glycoprotein expression systems. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most established host organism used in therapeutic protein production and therefore an interesting host for glycoengineering. In this work, we present further improvements in the humanization of the N-glycans in a recently developed S. cerevisiae strain. In this strain, a tailored trimannosyl lipid-linked oligosaccharide is formed and transferred to the protein, followed by complex-type glycan formation by Golgi apparatus-targeted human N-acetylglucosamine transferases. We improved the glycan pattern of the glycoengineered strain both in terms of glycoform homogeneity and the efficiency of complex-type glycosylation. Most of the interfering structures present in the glycoengineered strain were eliminated by deletion of the MNN1 gene. The relative abundance of the complex-type target glycan was increased by the expression of a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter from Kluyveromyces lactis, indicating that the import of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into the Golgi apparatus is a limiting factor for efficient complex-type N-glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. By a combination of the MNN1 deletion and the expression of a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter, a strain forming complex-type glycans with a significantly improved homogeneity was obtained. Our results represent a further step towards obtaining humanized glycoproteins with a high homogeneity in S. cerevisiae.

  3. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  4. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  5. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  6. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  7. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  8. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  9. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  10. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic...

  11. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  12. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  13. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  14. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  15. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  16. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  17. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  18. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  19. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek;

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...

  20. Effects of pentamidine isethionate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, G.; Williams, J M; Li, Y.; Staben, C

    1994-01-01

    We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system in which to examine the mechanism of action of the anti-Pneumocystis drug pentamidine. Pentamidine at low concentrations inhibited S. cerevisiae growth on nonfermentable carbon sources (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 1.25 micrograms/ml in glycerol). Pentamidine inhibited growth on fermentable energy sources only at much higher concentrations (IC50 of 250 micrograms/ml in glucose). Inhibition at low pentamidine concentrations in glycer...

  1. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  2. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  3. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  4. Compositions and methods for modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactants to a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions, a constraint set for the plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions......, and commands for determining a distribution of flux through the reactions that is predictive of a S. cerevisiae physiological function. A model of the invention can further include a gene database containing information characterizing the associated gene or genes. The invention further provides methods...... for making an in silica S. cerevisiae model and methods for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function using a model of the invention. The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S...

  5. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  6. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  7. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  8. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  9. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  10. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  11. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  12. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  13. Projeto e construção de um bioreator para síntese orgânica assimétrica catalisada por saccharomyces cerevisiae (fermento biológico de padaria Project and construction of a bioreactor for reactions catalyzed by baker's yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Souza Pereira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A model for the construction of a simple and cheap apparatus to be used as bioreactor for reactions catalyzed by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The bioconversion and separation of cells from products and residual substrates are obtained at the same time. The reactions carried out in this type of reactor are faster than those catalyzed by immobilized cells. Yeast cells can be cultivated in this bioreactor operating with cell recycling at appropriated conditions using glucose and other nutrients.

  14. Integral Membrane Protein Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Casteel, Rebba C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Stroud, Robert M; Hays, Franklin A

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic integral membrane proteins are challenging targets for crystallography or functional characterization in a purified state. Since expression is often a limiting factor when studying this difficult class of biological macromolecules, the intent of this chapter is to focus on the expression of eukaryotic integral membrane proteins (IMPs) using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae is a prime candidate for the expression of eukaryotic IMPs because it offers the convenience of using episomal expression plasmids, selection of positive transformants, posttranslational modifications, and it can properly fold and target IMPs. Here we present a generalized protocol and insights based on our collective knowledge as an aid to overcoming the challenges faced when expressing eukaryotic IMPs in S. cerevisiae.

  15. Transfer RNA pseudouridine synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, T; Olsson, M

    1990-05-25

    A transfer RNA lacking modified nucleosides was produced by transcription in vitro of a cloned gene that encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycine tRNA. At least three different uridines (in nucleotide positions 13, 32, and 55) of this transcript tRNA are modified to pseudouridine by an extract of S. cerevisiae. Variants of the RNA substrate were also constructed that each had only one of these sites, thus allowing specific monitoring of pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis, enzymes producing this nucleoside were purified from an extract of S. cerevisiae. The activities corresponding to positions 13, 32, and 55 in the tRNA substrate could all be separated chromatographically, indicating that there is a separate enzyme for each of these sites. The enzyme specific for position 55 (denoted pseudouridine synthase 55) was purified approximately 4000-fold using a combination of DEAE-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite.

  16. Characteristics of sterol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, R T; Rodriguez, R J; Lewis, T A; Parks, L W

    1986-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae sterol auxotroph, FY3 (alpha hem1 erg7 ura), was used to probe the characteristics of sterol uptake in S. cerevisiae. The steady-state cellular concentration of free sterol at the late exponential phase of growth could be adjusted within a 10-fold range by varying the concentration of exogenously supplied sterol. When cultured on 1 microgram of sterol ml-1, the cells contained a minimal cellular free-cholesterol concentration of 0.85 nmol/mg (dry weight) and were te...

  17. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  18. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  20. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  1. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  2. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  3. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  4. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  5. Flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tup1 mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying a mutation in the TUP1 locus exhibited calcium-dependent flocculation. The flocculation had none of the characteristics of sexual agglutination. The flocculation differed from that exhibited by a FLO1 strain in the effect of pH on cation dependence and sensitivity to chemical inactivation.

  6. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  7. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  8. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  9. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  10. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  11. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  12. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  13. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  14. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  15. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  16. Elucidating TOR Signaling and Rapamycin Action: Lessons from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, José L; Hall, Michael N.

    2002-01-01

    TOR (target of rapamycin) is a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein kinase that controls cell growth in response to nutrients. Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug that acts by inhibiting TOR. The modes of action of TOR and rapamycin are remarkably conserved from S. cerevisiae to humans. The current understanding of TOR and rapamycin is derived largely from studies with S. cerevisiae. In this review, we discuss the contributions made by S. cerevisiae to understanding r...

  17. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Famili, I.; Fu, P.;

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments...... containing 1175 metabolic reactions and 584 metabolites. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to similar to16% of all characterized ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Using the reconstructed network, the metabolic capabilities of S. cerevisiae were calculated and compared...

  18. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fossati

    Full Text Available Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S-reticuline starting from (R,S-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS, salutaridine reductase (PsSAR and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  20. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  1. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-09-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  2. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  3. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  4. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  5. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  6. Investigation of autonomous cell cycle oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Skov

    2007-01-01

    Autonome Oscillationer i kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae Udgangspunktet for dette Ph.d. projekt var at søge at forstå, hvad der gør det muligt at opnå multiple statiske tilstande ved kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae med glukose som begrænsende substrat...

  7. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  8. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan;

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  9. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar...

  10. Isocitrate lyase localisation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R S; Herrero, P; Ordiz, I; Angeles del Brio, M; Moreno, F

    1997-10-01

    The isocitrate lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was only located in the cell cytoplasm. This protein was found not to be associated with cell organelles, even under growth conditions that induce peroxisome proliferation. This conclusion is supported by experiments carried out by damaging the protoplast plasma membrane with DEAE-dextran, by differential centrifugation of osmotically lysed protoplast and by using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria as a reporter fusion tag to localise the subcellular compartment to which isocitrate lyase is targeted.

  11. Efficient screening of environmental isolates for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are suitable for brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Hidehiko; Hino, Mika; Takashita, Hideharu; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Keiko; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    We developed an efficient screening method for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from environmental isolates. MultiPlex PCR was performed targeting four brewing S. cerevisiae genes (SSU1, AWA1, BIO6, and FLO1). At least three genes among the four were amplified from all S. cerevisiae strains. The use of this method allowed us to successfully obtain S. cerevisiae strains.

  12. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  13. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  15. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  16. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements,...

  18. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  19. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  20. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E;

    2007-01-01

    Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...... NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria....

  1. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  2. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    of translation of FLO11. In conclusion, I have conducted the first global study of the genetic program for yeast biofilm formation on polystyrene. This work provide several target genes as good basis for further research of biofilm, that I believe can contribute to fields such as cell biology, genetics, system......In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  3. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  4. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Reed B; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in the expression of viral components. Here, we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast.

  5. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.;

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... sugar found in lignocelluloses. Significant research efforts have focused on the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for fast and efficient xylose utilization. This study aims to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae, such that it can consume xylose as the exclusive substrate while maximizing carbon......-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling...

  6. Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Beck, Vibe; Højlund Christensen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal...

  7. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  8. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  9. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2014-01-01

    steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has...... been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae....

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  11. Apparatus for the compact cooling of modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-07

    An apparatus for the compact cooling of modules. The apparatus includes a clip, a first cover plate coupled to a first side of the clip, a second cover plate coupled to a second side of the clip opposite to the first side of the clip, a first frame thermally coupled to the first cover plate, and a second frame thermally coupled to the second cover plate. Each of the first frame and the second frame may include a plurality of channels for passing coolant through the first frame and the second frame, respectively. Additionally, the apparatus may further include a filler for directing coolant through the plurality of channels, and for blocking coolant from flowing along the first side of the clip and the second side of the clip.

  12. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  13. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  14. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  15. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  16. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  17. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  18. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  19. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  20. The Compartmental Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between structure and function of the Golgi apparatus are emerging from recent laboratory work on this cellular organelle which modifies proteins, sorts them, and packages them for delivery. The structure's three specialized compartments are explained through discussions of the glycosylation pathway, density-gradient experiments,…

  1. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  2. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus... results of such inspection recorded as provided by § 229.29(a). When a locomotive with automatic...

  3. Apparatus and method of navigating an instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, N.H.; Den Heeten, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus to be used with navigating an instrument in a vascular tree of a patient, comprises a patient's examination table, a C-arm, mounted to which is an X-ray source and an image recorder for registering first X-ray images of the patient, obtained by the use of the X-ray source, and a process

  4. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1971-01-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein. PMID:5543404

  5. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  6. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  7. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  8. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  9. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  10. ABOUT THE BASICS OF HUMAN THINKING APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mikhailovich AMIRBEGOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of our research is the integrity of the thinking apparatus of humans with its extremes, one of which is known to us as cause-effect materiality, denoted by the term ―brain‖, and the other extreme is unknown but is supposed as an immaterial cause of the motion needed to ―revitalize‖ the material extreme in response to revitalizing effects, reacting with changes the order and direction of which are realized by light streams (oscillation spectrum in the range of light waves and sounds of different tones (oscillation spectrum in the range of sound waves. But for realization of light streams and sound streams into images and words is needed not only information streams regulator (dominant factor, changing their vectors in the integrity of the human thinking apparatus, but also verifier of oscillations is needed which requires philosophical comprehension.While modeling the thinking apparatus of humans by dialectical method of reasoning, we had to abandon the conventional opinions about reality, matter, motion, and take on trust the opinions which have not been confirmed but are logically essential – a divine spark of Aristotle and permanent impacts taking the material world out of a cold death…, what led to the solution of the problem: as a result was found the second, immaterial extreme of the integrity of human thinking apparatus and the dominant factor focusing the flow of information in the CNS and having the significance of the status of the monarch. Actually, the proposed model of human thinking apparatus, which has no analogue, presents the novelty of the worldview which answers the question: what is thinking, why and how, and what is realized by us, our mortal body and immortal soul identifying our ―I‖.

  11. Metabolic engineering of ammonium assimilation in xylose-fermenting Saccharomyes cerevisiae improves ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Cofactor imbalance impedes xylose assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has been metabolically engineered for xylose utilization. To improve cofactor use, we modified ammonia assimilation in recombinant S. cerevisiae by deleting GDH1, which encodes an NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase...

  12. Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, J.; Daran, J.M.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemosta

  13. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  14. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors--II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations. [For Part I, see EJ912907.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section....307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all... mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  17. Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaever, Guri; Chu, Angela M; Ni, Li; Connelly, Carla; Riles, Linda; Véronneau, Steeve; Dow, Sally; Lucau-Danila, Ankuta; Anderson, Keith; André, Bruno; Arkin, Adam P; Astromoff, Anna; El-Bakkoury, Mohamed; Bangham, Rhonda; Benito, Rocio; Brachat, Sophie; Campanaro, Stefano; Curtiss, Matt; Davis, Karen; Deutschbauer, Adam; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Flaherty, Patrick; Foury, Francoise; Garfinkel, David J; Gerstein, Mark; Gotte, Deanna; Güldener, Ulrich; Hegemann, Johannes H; Hempel, Svenja; Herman, Zelek; Jaramillo, Daniel F; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L; Kötter, Peter; LaBonte, Darlene; Lamb, David C; Lan, Ning; Liang, Hong; Liao, Hong; Liu, Lucy; Luo, Chuanyun; Lussier, Marc; Mao, Rong; Menard, Patrice; Ooi, Siew Loon; Revuelta, Jose L; Roberts, Christopher J; Rose, Matthias; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Scherens, Bart; Schimmack, Greg; Shafer, Brenda; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Sookhai-Mahadeo, Sharon; Storms, Reginald K; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Valle, Giorgio; Voet, Marleen; Volckaert, Guido; Wang, Ching-yun; Ward, Teresa R; Wilhelmy, Julie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Yang, Yonghong; Yen, Grace; Youngman, Elaine; Yu, Kexin; Bussey, Howard; Boeke, Jef D; Snyder, Michael; Philippsen, Peter; Davis, Ronald W; Johnston, Mark

    2002-07-25

    Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics.

  18. Arsenate and phosphate interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Chun-nu; ZHU Yong-guan

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, arsenate(As(Ⅴ)) and phosphate(P(Ⅴ)) interactions were investigated in growth, uptake and RNA content in yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast grew slowly with As(Ⅴ) concentrations increasing in the medium. However, the maximal population density was almost the same among different As(Ⅴ) treatments. It was in the late log phase that yeast growth was augmented by low As(Ⅴ), which was maybe due to the fact that methionine metabolism was stressed by vitamin B6 deprivation, so As(Ⅴ)treatments did not affect maximal population density. However, with P (Ⅴ) concentrations increasing, the maximal population density increased. Therefore, the maximal population density was determined by P (Ⅴ) concentrations in the medium but not by As (Ⅴ)concentrations in the medium. Ycf1p(a tonoplast transpor) transports As(GS)3 into the vacuole, but arsenic(As) remaining in the thalli was 1.27% with As(Ⅴ) exposure for 60 h, from which it can be speculated that the percentage of As transported into vacuole should be lower than 1.27%. However, the percentage of As pumped out of cell was 71.49% with As (Ⅴ) exposure for 68 h. Although two pathways (extrusion and sequestration) were involved in As detoxification in yeast, the extrusion pathway played a major role in As detoxification. RNA content was the highest in the early-log phase and was reduced by As(Ⅴ).

  19. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A; Magnes, Christoph; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate acetylation stoichiometry and found that the vast majority of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylation had a very low stoichiometry. However, mitochondrial acetylation occurred at a significantly higher basal level than cytoplasmic acetylation, consistent with the distinct acetylation dynamics and higher acetyl-CoA concentration in mitochondria. High stoichiometry acetylation occurred mostly on histones, proteins present in histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase complexes, and on transcription factors. These data show that a majority of acetylation occurs at very low levels in exponentially growing yeast and is uniformly affected by exposure to acetyl-CoA.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Permissive for Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Frazer, Ian H

    2002-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae protoplasts can take up bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) virions and that viral episomal DNA is replicated after uptake. Here we demonstrate that BPV virus-like particles are assembled in infected S. cerevisiae cultures from newly synthesized capsid proteins and also package newly synthesized DNA, including full-length and truncated viral DNA and S. cerevisiae-derived DNA. Virus particles prepared in S. cerevisiae are able to convey pa...

  1. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  2. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a starter culture in Mycella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T K; Tempel, T V; Cantor, M D; Jakobsen, M

    2001-09-19

    The potential use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FB7 as an additional starter culture for the production of Mycella, a Danish Gorgonzola type cheese, was investigated. Two dairy productions of Mycella, each containing batches of experimental cheeses with S. cerevisiae added and reference cheeses without yeast added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cheeses, chemical analysis (pH, a(w), NaCl, water and fat content) were carried out during the ripening period, but no significant differences were found. The evolution of lactic acid bacteria was almost identical in both the experimental and reference cheeses and similar results were found for the number of yeast. S. cerevisiae FB7 was found to be predominant in the core of the experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period, while Debaryomyces hansenii dominated in the reference cheese and on the surface of the experimental cheeses. In the cheeses with S. cerevisiae FB7, an earlier sporulation and an improved growth of Penicillium roqueforti was observed compared to the reference cheeses. Furthermore, in the experimental cheese, synergistic interactions were also found in the aroma analysis, the degradation of casein and by the sensory analysis. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of Mycella by S. cerevisiae FB7.

  4. Genetic mapping of quantitative phenotypic traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2012-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a favorite production organism in industrial biotechnology presenting new challenges to yeast engineers in terms of introducing advantageous traits such as stress tolerances. Exploring subspecies diversity of S. cerevisiae has identified strains that bear industrially relevant phenotypic traits. Provided that the genetic basis of such phenotypic traits can be identified inverse engineering allows the targeted modification of production strains. Most phenotypic traits of interest in S. cerevisiae strains are quantitative, meaning that they are controlled by multiple genetic loci referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). A straightforward approach to identify the genetic basis of quantitative traits is QTL mapping which aims at the allocation of the genetic determinants to regions in the genome. The application of high-density oligonucleotide arrays and whole-genome re-sequencing to detect genetic variations between strains has facilitated the detection of large numbers of molecular markers thus allowing high-resolution QTL mapping over the entire genome. This review focuses on the basic principle and state of the art of QTL mapping in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore we discuss several approaches developed during the last decade that allow down-scaling of the regions identified by QTL mapping to the gene level. We also emphasize the particular challenges of QTL mapping in nonlaboratory strains of S. cerevisiae.

  5. An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study...... many genes and gene products from higher eukaryotes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because many genes and biological processes are homologous or similar in lower and in higher eukaryotes. The highly developed methods of genetics and molecular biology greatly facilitates studies of higher eukaryotic...... processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system...

  6. Functional expression and evaluation of heterologous phosphoketolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Alexandra; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoketolases catalyze an energy-and redox-independent cleavage of certain sugar phosphates. Hereby, the two-carbon (C2) compound acetyl-phosphate is formed, which enzymatically can be converted into acetyl-CoA-a key precursor in central carbon metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does...... C5 and C6 sugars towards C2-synthesis. Nine phosphoketolase candidates were expressed in S. cerevisiae of which seven produced significant amounts of acetyl-phosphate after provision of sugar phosphate substrates in vitro. The candidates showed differing substrate specificities, and some...... demonstrated activity levels significantly exceeding those of candidates previously expressed in yeast. The conducted studies also revealed that S. cerevisiae contains endogenous enzymes capable of breaking down acetyl-phosphate, likely into acetate, and that removal of the phosphatases Gpp1 and Gpp2 could...

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Lucília; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity.

  8. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  9. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  10. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  11. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  12. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  13. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  14. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  15. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  16. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  17. Membrane Traffic Within the Golgi Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Benjamin S; Nakano, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry the secretory cargoes forward, and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional E...

  18. Method and apparatus for continuous electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack S.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting continuous separation of substances by electrophoresis are disclosed. The process involves electrophoretic separation combined with couette flow in a thin volume defined by opposing surfaces. By alternating the polarity of the applied potential and producing reciprocating short rotations of at least one of the surfaces relative to the other, small increments of separation accumulate to cause substantial, useful segregation of electrophoretically separable components in a continuous flow system.

  19. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  20. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  1. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  2. The Prototype of GAMMA-400 Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Runtso, M. F.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    Scientific project GAMMA-400 (Gamma-Astronomy Multifunction Modules Apparatus) relates to the new generation of space observatories for investigation of cosmic γ-emission in the energy band from ∼20 MeV up to several TeV, electron/positron fluxes from ∼1 GeV up to ∼10 TeV and cosmic-ray nuclei fluxes with energies up to ∼1015 eV by means of GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope represents the core of the scientific complex. The investigation of gamma ray bursts in the energy band of 10 keV-15 MeV are possible too by means of KONUS-FG apparatus included in the complex. For γ-rays in the energy region from 10 to 100 GeV expected energy resolution changes from ∼3% to ∼1% and angular resolution from ∼0.1% to ∼ 0.01% respectively, γ/protons rejection factor is ∼5·105. The GAMMA-400 satellite will be launched at the beginning of the next decade on the high apogee orbit with following initial parameters: apogee altitude ∼300000 km, perigee altitude ∼500 km, rotation period ∼7 days, inclination to the equator plane 51.4°. The active functioning interval will be 7-10 years. The scientific complex will have next main technical parameters: total weight ∼4100 kg, power consumption ∼2000 W, information quote 100 GByte/day. During the project development, the prototype of apparatus was created for working-off of the main apparatus construction units in laboratory conditions. The main distinctive features of the prototype are presented.

  3. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  4. Twin-image elimination apparatus and method

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The twin-image elimination apparatus of the present invention comprises (a) a scanning light source for emitting a scanning light beam; (b) an interference device which converts the scanning light beam from the scanning light source into a spherical wave and a plane wave having temporal frequencies different from each other and combines the spherical and plane waves together; (c) a scanner for scanning an object with the combined light beam from the interference device; (d) a photodetector fo...

  5. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn;

    2013-01-01

    a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming...... to improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis...

  6. Expression and secretion of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文清; 何鸣; 罗进贤

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus niger glucoamylase GA 1 cDNA was inserted in between the yeast PGK promoter and terminator on plasmid pMA91. The resultant plasmid pMAG69 was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRF18 by protoplast transformation. The A niger GA I cDNA was expressed efficiently under the contiol of PGK promoter and 99% of the gene products were secreted into the culture medium using its own signal sequence The recombmant yeast can digest 87% of starch in 2 d in the medium containing 10% starch. The recombinant plasmid pMAG69 can exist stably in 5. cerevisiae.

  7. Genetic mapping of Ty elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, H L; Petes, T. D.

    1984-01-01

    We used transformation to insert a selectable marker at various sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome occupied by the transposable element Ty. The vector CV9 contains the LEU2+ gene and a portion of the repeated element Ty1-17. Transformation with this plasmid resulted in integration of the vector via a reciprocal exchange using homology at the LEU2 locus or at the various Ty elements that are dispersed throughout the S. cerevisiae genome. These transformants were used to map genetical...

  8. Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2011-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus.

  9. Apparatus and techniques for measuring bedload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, David Wellington

    1964-01-01

    The need for accurate determinations of the total sediment discharge of particles of bedload size has prompted this investigation of available and possible measuring apparatus and procedures. The accuracy of measurements of sediment discharge made with trap-type samplers is affected by the variability of sampler efficiency, by the oscillatory variation of bedload discharge, and by sampler placement. Equations that were developed for determining total discharge from measured bedioad discharge and measured suspended-sediment discharge are simplest if the bedload apparatus measures only the true bedload. Early bedload samplers are generally unsatisfactory. Recently developed or suggested apparatus include various improved samplers of the pressure-difference type, a pumping sampler, a magnetic sampler, acoustical instruments that measure the magnitude of the sound of particle collisions, an ultrasonic bedload sampler designed to measure and integrate electronically the concentration and velocity, and a tiltmeter designed to measure the total sediment discharge from the ground tilt that results from the passage of flow. All the pressure-difference samplers are improvements over early samplers, but none are void of the inherent shortcomings of trap-type apparatus; probably the Sphinx (Dutch) and VUV (Hungarian) samplers are the most satisfactory. The acoustical instruments are capable of measuring only the relative discharge. The ultrasonic sampler and the tiltmeter are not adequate without further development. Some new possible apparatus and means for measuring or aiding in measuring bedload discharge are small pit samplers, ultrasonic sounders, pressure transducers, and photography. A small pit sampler for measuring bedload discharge was designed to provide self-placement and portability ; however, its practicability and efficiency are undetermined. Exploratory films show that by using slowmotion photography the discharge of particles larger than about pea size can be

  10. Inspection apparatus and replaceable door for a vacuum chamber of such an inspection apparatus and a method for operating an inspection apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.; Zonnevylle, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    An inspection apparatus is provided comprising in combination at least an optical microscope and an ion- or electron microscope equipped with a source for emitting a primary beam of radiation to a sample in a sample holder. The apparatus may comprise a detector for detection of secondary radiation b

  11. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-03

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation.

  12. Recycling carbon dioxide during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we introduced the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) into an engineered S. cerevisiae (SR8) harboring the XR/XDH pathway and up-regulated PPP 10, to enable CO2 recycling through a synthetic rPPP during xylose fermentation (Fig. 1). ...

  13. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  14. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    HASSAN TAJIK; KHALIL TABATABAEIAN; MAHMOOD SHAHBAZI

    2006-01-01

    The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic), magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt) (10:1:1:50) in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering.

  16. Adsorption and Interfacial Electron Transfer of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Boisen, Anja; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption and electron-transfer dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) iso-l-cytochrome c adsorbed on Au(lll) electrodes in aqueous phosphate buffer media. This cytochrome possesses a thiol group dos e to the protein surface (Cysl02) suitable for linking the protein...

  17. 2μ plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2μ plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2μ, we identified three distinct classes of 2μ. We identified 2μ presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2μ. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2μ sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2μ integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2μ. We identified extrachromosomal 2μ in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2μ in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2μ in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2μ, consistent with interspecific transfer.

  18. Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernis, L.; Piskur, Jure; Diffley, J.F.X.

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well...

  19. The Plasma Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Structure, Function, and Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERREST, ME; KAMMINGA, AH; NAKANO, A; ANRAKU, Y; POOLMAN, B; KONINGS, WN

    1995-01-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extens

  20. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective,

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  2. Enhanced lysosomal activity by overexpressed aminopeptidase Y in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jihee; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains vacuoles corresponding to lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Lysosomes are dynamic (not silent) organelles in which enzymes can be easily integrated or released when exposed to stressful conditions. Changes in lysosomal enzymes have been observed due to oxidative stress, resulting in an increased function of lysosomes. The protein profiles from H2O2- and NH4Cl-treated lysosomes showed different expression patterns, observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The aminopeptidase Y protein (APE3) that conspicuously enhanced antimicrobial activity than other proteins was selected for further studies. The S. cerevisiae APE3 gene was isolated and inserted into pYES2.0 expression vector. The GFP gene was inserted downstream to the APE3 gene for confirmation of APE3 targeting to lysosomes, and S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP. The APE3 did not enter in lysosomes and formed an inclusion body at 30 °C, but it inserted to lysosomes as shown by the merger of GFP with lysosomes at 28 °C. Antimicrobial activity of the cloned S. cerevisiae increased about 5 to 10 % against eight strains, compared to normal cells, and galactose induction is increased more two folds than that of normal cells. Therefore, S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP, accumulating a large amount of APE3, resulting in increased lysosomal activity. Increase in endogenous levels of lysosomes and their activity following genetic modification can lead to its use in applications such as antimicrobial agents and apoptosis-inducing materials for cancer cells, and consequently, it may also be possible to use the organelles for improving in vitro functions.

  3. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  4. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  5. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  6. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  8. Apparatus for cooling an electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Pepe; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shen, Xiaochun; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Salasoo, Lembit

    2013-07-16

    Provided is an apparatus, for example, for use with a rotating electric machine, that includes a housing. The housing can include a housing main portion and a housing end portion. The housing main portion can be configured to be disposed proximal to a body portion of a stator section of an electric machine. The housing main portion can define a main fluid channel that is configured to conduct fluid therethrough. The housing end portion can receive fluid from said main fluid channel and direct fluid into contact with a winding end portion of a conductive winding of the stator section.

  9. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  10. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  11. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  12. Cryogenic Active Magnetic Regenerator Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, A.; Roszmann, J.; Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.

    2006-04-01

    An AMR Test Apparatus (AMRTA) used in experiments near room-temperature required a number of modifications to allow for testing at cryogenic temperatures and with a 5 T magnetic field. The impacts of parasitic heat leaks, frictional heat generation, and eddy current heating in the AMRTA are analyzed. A low temperature gas circulation (LTGC) system to control the operating temperature was developed. The LTGC consists of a GM cryocooler coupled to a compressor and helium circuit which circulates fluid through a set of heat exchangers and flexible transfer lines connected to the AMRTA. Design features are discussed as is some initial test data.

  13. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnis, Darin N. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  14. Apparatus and Methods Using Highly Optically Dispersive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    of two-beam interferometers , such as, e.g., a Michelson interferometer , a Twyman-Green interferometer , and others known in the art. An alternative...guiding fiber . 20 32. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is a spectroscopic interferometer . 33. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the...Zhimin et a!. "Enhancing the spectral sensitivity of interferometers using slow-light media". Optics Letters, vol. 32, No. 8, Apr. 15, 2007, pp. 915

  15. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  16. A Simple, Inexpensive Acoustic Levitation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappe, R. Scott; Barbosa, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic levitation uses a resonant ultrasonic standing wave to suspend small objects; it is used in a variety of research disciplines, particularly in the study of phase transitions and materials susceptible to contamination, or as a stabilization mechanism in microgravity environments. The levitation equipment used for such research is quite costly; we wanted to develop a simple, inexpensive system to demonstrate this visually striking example of standing waves. A search of the literature produced only one article relevant to creating such an apparatus, but the authors' approach uses a test tube, which limits the access to the standing wave. Our apparatus, shown in Fig. 1, can levitate multiple small (1-2 mm) pieces of expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) using components readily available to most instructors of introductory physics. Acoustic levitation occurs in small, stable equilibrium locations where the weight of the object is balanced by the acoustic radiation force created by an ultrasonic standing wave; these locations are slightly below the pressure nodes. The levitation process also creates a horizontal restoring force. Since the pressure nodes are also velocity antinodes, this transverse stability may be analogous to the effect of an upward air stream supporting a ball.

  17. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  18. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  19. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  20. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  1. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  2. Performances of a portable electrospinning apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Groszkowski, Lukasz; Ye, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate that portable electrospinning devices can spin a wide range of polymers into submicron fibres and provide a mesh quality comparable to those produced with benchtop machines. We have designed a small, battery-operated electrospinning apparatus which enables control over the voltage and the flow rate of the polymer solution via a microcontroller. It can be used to electrospin a range of commonly used polymers including poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(p-dioxanone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl acohol) and poly(vinyl butyral). Moreover, electrospun meshes are produced with a quality comparable to a benchtop machine. We also show that the portable apparatus is able to electrospray beads and microparticles. Finally, we highlight the potential of the device for wound healing applications by demonstrating the possibility of electrospinning onto pig and human skins. Portable electrospinning devices are still at an early stage of development but they could soon become an attractive alternative to benchtop machines, in particular for uses that require mobility and a higher degree of flexibility, such as for wound healing applications.

  3. Laboratory apparatus to evaluate microalgae production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. S. Gris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of microalgae for energy purposes and CO2 biomitigation continues to present a number of challenges, including the optimization of culture conditions. The application of experimental designs for microalgae cultivation is difficult, since experiments involving such microorganisms generally last days or weeks. This work proposes a multipurpose laboratory apparatus for the optimization of microalgae experimental conditions that simultaneously enables the evaluation of variables such as temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and CO2 concentration in the aeration stream, as well as variables related to the concentration of culture media nutrients. A case study is also presented in which temperature, concentration of f/2 medium sodium nitrate and the effects of incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid content are evaluated. Experiments were carried out following central composite designs, in batch cultivation within an airlift photobioreactor apparatus. The best experimental result was obtained at 21 ºC, 119 mg/L NaNO3 and 137 µE.m-2.s-1, corresponding to 41.8% lipids and 211.9 mg.L-1 final lipid concentrations.

  4. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  5. The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. 862.2485 Section 862.2485 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Instruments § 862.2485 Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. (a) Identification. An...

  8. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  9. 49 CFR 234.227 - Train detection apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.227 Train detection apparatus. (a) Train detection apparatus shall be maintained to detect a train or railcar in any part of a train detection circuit,...

  10. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yang, Bin; Perry, Steven T.; Mazanec, Terry; Arora, Ravi; Daly, Francis P.; Long, Richard; Yuschak, Thomas D.; Neagle, Paul W.; Glass, Amanda

    2011-08-16

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also described. An apparatus design that minimizes heat transfer to the apparatus' exterior is also described.

  11. Apparatus for the production of methane from organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, H.

    1980-07-23

    CH/sub 4/ is manufactured by fermentation of organic wastes in an apparatus comprising a fermentation container and a post-fermentation container. Both containers are connected via a conduit, and the gas formed is collected in the upper part of the fermentation container. Additional features and components of the apparatus are illustrated.

  12. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  13. An Apparatus for Growth of Small Crystals From Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Mico M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for crystal growth that was designed to study growth kinetics of small crystals from solutions and to obtain crystals of various substances. Describes the use of the apparatus in laboratory practical experiments in the field of crystal growth physics within the course "Solid State Physics". (JRH)

  14. Isolation of the catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by functional complementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Spevak, W; Fessl, F; Rytka, J; Traczyk, A; Skoneczny, M; Ruis, H

    1983-01-01

    The catalase T structural gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned by functional complementation of a mutation causing specific lack of the enzyme (cttl). Catalase T-deficient mutants were obtained by UV mutagenesis of an S. cerevisiae strain bearing the cas1 mutation, which causes insensitivity of catalase T to glucose repression. Since the second catalase protein of S. cerevisiae, catalase A, is completely repressed on 10% glucose, catalase T-deficient mutant colonies could be detected u...

  15. Characterization of oligosaccharides from an antigenic mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F

    1998-08-01

    Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  17. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent...... the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  18. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  19. Investigation of nutrient sensing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre-transportører (di......Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre...

  20. Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and

  1. YPA: an integrated repository of promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the Yeast Promoter Atlas (YPA, http://ypa.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ or http://ypa.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/) database, which aims to collect comprehensive promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YPA integrates nine kinds of promoter features including promoter sequences, genes’ transcription boundaries—transcription start sites (TSSs), five prime untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) and three prime untranslated regions (3′UTRs), TATA boxes, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), nucleo...

  2. Cellular Memory of Acquired Stress Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria “remembering” prior nutritional status and amoeba “learning” to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H2O2. We set out to characterize ...

  3. Sucrose And Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: A Relationship Most Sweet.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk,Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is f...

  4. Interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with gold: toxicity and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamushka, V I; Gadd, G M

    1999-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of ionic gold on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as determined by long-term (growth in gold-containing media) and short-term interactions (H+ efflux activity). An increasing gold concentration inhibited growth and at gold concentration used. Both Ca and Mg enhanced the inhibitory effect of gold on the yeast cells with Ca showing a stronger inhibitory effect than Mg.

  5. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. The concentration of ammonia regulates nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Schure, E G; Silljé, H H; Verkleij, A J; Boonstra, J; Verrips, C T

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in a continuous culture at a single dilution rate with input ammonia concentrations whose effects ranged from nitrogen limitation to nitrogen excess and glucose limitation. The rate of ammonia assimilation (in millimoles per gram of cells per hour) was approximately constant. Increased extracellular ammonia concentrations are correlated with increased intracellular glutamate and glutamine concentrations, increases in levels of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydro...

  7. Calcium dependence of Eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen K Roberts; Martin McAinsh; Hanna Cantopher; Sean Sandison

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. ...

  8. Antiproliferative effects of Matricaria chamomilla on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinpour Maryam; Mobini-Dehkordi Mohsen; Saffar Behnaz; Teimori Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Matricaria chamomilla plant is one of the most important plants used for the therapeutic purposes. More than 120 chemical constituents have been identified in Matricaria chamomile plant including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids. This plant has a variety of therapeutic applications including the treatment of diabetes, eczema, wounds and gastrointestinal diseases. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is a non-pathogenic organism that is used as a model for pathogenic yeasts in o...

  9. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amore, T; C.J. Panchal; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

  10. Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Dušanka J.; Došanović Irena S.; Popov Stevan D.; Suturović Zvonimir J.; Ranković Jovana A.; Dodić Siniša N.; Dodić Jelena M.; Vučurović Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough). The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was ...

  11. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  12. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  13. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  14. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  15. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  16. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  17. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  18. Pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; George, E.V.; Miller, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-11-09

    A pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus (10) for time compressing the output of a laser (14). A pump pulse (46) is separated from a seed pulse (48) by a first polarized beam splitter (20) according to the orientation of a half wave plate (18). The seed pulse (48) is directed into an SBS oscillator (44) by two plane mirrors (22, 26) and a corner mirror (24), the corner mirror (24) being movable to adjust timing. The pump pulse (46) is directed into an SBS amplifier 34 wherein SBS occurs. The seed pulse (48), having been propagated from the SBS oscillator (44), is then directed through the SBS amplifier (34) wherein it sweeps the energy of the pump pulse (46) out of the SBS amplifier (34) and is simultaneously compressed, and the time compressed pump pulse (46) is emitted as a pulse output (52). A second polarized beam splitter (38) directs any undepleted pump pulse 58 away from the SBS oscillator (44).

  19. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  20. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  1. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  2. Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the wine yeast, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of everything is everywhere. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  3. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  4. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontano Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. Results We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. Conclusions Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  5. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

    KAUST Repository

    Grassi, Luigi

    2011-10-14

    BACKGROUND: The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. RESULTS: We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  6. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  7. Early manifestations of replicative aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim I. Sorokin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully used as a model organism to find genes responsible for lifespan control of higher organisms. As functional decline of higher eukaryotes can start as early as one quarter of the average lifespan, we asked whether S. cerevisiae can be used to model this manifestation of aging. While the average replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae mother cells ranges between 15 and 30 division cycles, we found that resistances to certain stresses start to decrease much earlier. Looking into the mechanism, we found that knockouts of genes responsible for mitochondriato-nucleus (retrograde signaling, RTG1 or RTG3, significantly decrease the resistance of cells that generated more than four daughters, but not of the younger ones. We also found that even young mother cells frequently contain mitochondria with heterogeneous transmembrane potential and that the percentage of such cells correlates with replicative age. Together, these facts suggest that retrograde signaling starts to malfunction in relatively young cells, leading to accumulation of heterogeneous mitochondria within one cell. The latter may further contribute to a decline in stress resistances.

  8. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for terminal alkene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Lee, Dong-Yup; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-09-01

    Biological production of terminal alkenes has garnered a significant interest due to their industrial applications such as lubricants, detergents and fuels. Here, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce terminal alkenes via a one-step fatty acid decarboxylation pathway and improved the alkene production using combinatorial engineering strategies. In brief, we first characterized eight fatty acid decarboxylases to enable and enhance alkene production. We then increased the production titer 7-fold by improving the availability of the precursor fatty acids. We additionally increased the titer about 5-fold through genetic cofactor engineering and gene expression tuning in rich medium. Lastly, we further improved the titer 1.8-fold to 3.7 mg/L by optimizing the culturing conditions in bioreactors. This study represents the first report of terminal alkene biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, and the abovementioned combinatorial engineering approaches collectively increased the titer 67.4-fold. We envision that these approaches could provide insights into devising engineering strategies to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biochemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  9. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  10. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  11. Antiproliferative effects of Matricaria chamomilla on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpour Maryam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Matricaria chamomilla plant is one of the most important plants used for the therapeutic purposes. More than 120 chemical constituents have been identified in Matricaria chamomile plant including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids. This plant has a variety of therapeutic applications including the treatment of diabetes, eczema, wounds and gastrointestinal diseases. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is a non-pathogenic organism that is used as a model for pathogenic yeasts in order to identify compounds with antifungal properties and also to identify functional mechanism of these compounds. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal effect of Matricaria chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract on S. cerevisiae yeast. Methods: In this study Matricaria chamomilla extract was prepared by maceration method. In order to study the extract effect on growth and survival rate of the yeast cell, the spectrophotometry and methylene blue staining methods were used. Excel and SPSS 11 softwares were used to determine amounts and to infer the difference between control and treatment samples. Results: Results obtained from spectrophotometry and analyses of methylene blue staining showed that the Matricaria chamomilla extract at the concentration of 3000 μg/ml caused a significant decrease in the yeast growth and reduced the cells survival rate up to 48% (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Results of this research confirm that the hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla has antiproliferative effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Whisk(ey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M. Walker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whisk(ey is a major global distilled spirit beverage. Whiskies are produced from cereal starches that are saccharified, fermented and distilled prior to spirit maturation. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employed in whisky fermentations is crucially important not only in terms of ethanol yields, but also for production of minor yeast metabolites which collectively contribute to development of spirit flavour and aroma characteristics. Distillers must therefore pay very careful attention to the strain of yeast exploited to ensure consistency of fermentation performance and spirit congener profiles. In the Scotch whisky industry, initiatives to address sustainability issues facing the industry (for example, reduced energy and water usage have resulted in a growing awareness regarding criteria for selecting new distilling yeasts with improved efficiency. For example, there is now a desire for Scotch whisky distilling yeasts to perform under more challenging conditions such as high gravity wort fermentations. This article highlights the important roles of S. cerevisiae strains in whisky production (with particular emphasis on Scotch and describes key fermentation performance attributes sought in distiller’s yeast, such as high alcohol yields, stress tolerance and desirable congener profiles. We hope that the information herein will be useful for whisky producers and yeast suppliers in selecting new distilling strains of S. cerevisiae, and for the scientific community to stimulate further research in this area.

  13. Ciclohexadespipeptide beauvericin degradation by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, G; Zhou, T; Li, X Z; Ritieni, A; Mañes, J

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA) and 9 yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae named LO9, YE-2, YE5, YE-6, YE-4, A34, A17, A42 and A08 was studied. The biological degradations were carried out under aerobic conditions in the liquid medium of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 25°C for 48 h and in a food/feed system composed of corn flour at 37°C for 3 days, respectively. BEA present in fermented medium and corn flour was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry detector in tandem (LC-MS/MS) and the BEA degradation products produced during the fermentations were determined using the technique of the liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap (LIT). Results showed that the S. cerevisiae strains reduced meanly the concentration of the BEA present in PDB by 86.2% and in a food system by 71.1%. All the S. cerevisiae strains used in this study showed a significant BEA reduction during the fermentation process employed.

  14. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.

    1993-07-13

    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  15. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  16. PRODUCTION, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE VGSH-2 INULINASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Shuvaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Experimental data on an acid and thermal inactivation of a high refined inulinase (2,1-β-D- fructanfructanohydrolase, KF 3.2.17, produced by the race of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VGSh-2 yeast are presented. The strain of S. cerevisiae VGSh-2 was produced by the method of the induced mutagenesis and deposited to the collection of pure cultures of the chair of biochemistry and biotechnology of Voronezh state university of engineering technologies. The cells of source culture (S. cerevisiae XII were affected step-by-step by the ultra-violet radiation (UFR and UFR in a complex with a chemical mutagen (etilenimine. The culture was grown up by the method of liquid-phase deep cultivation on a constant nutrient medium. Refining conditions for inulinase are sorted out. Activity of enzyme dependence on physical and chemical factors (рН and temperature is obtained and numerical values of the main kinetic constants – Km and Vmax are determined. The structure of enzyme molecule is studied by an infrared-spectroscopy method: the type and relative quantity of elements of secondary structure of protein are defined. Substrate binding groups of the active center of an inulinase are found. The comparative analysis of the ability to hydrolysis of inulin in several enzyme preparations from Jerusalem artichoke and to the subsequent their fermentation by the VGSh-2 and XI S. cerevisiae yeasts is carried out. Optimum conditions of enzyme hydrolysis of inulin are selected. Research of the fermentation process of starchcontaining raw materials by yeasts of VGSh-2 and XI races is done. It is established that the using of VGSh-2 S. cerevisiae yeast for a grain wort and the Jerusalem artichoke fermentation, allows to increase an extraction of ethyl alcohol comparing to control race, to improve its quality characteristics, and also allows to predict the using of new race in the food industry for production ethanol from grain raw materials and a fermentation of

  17. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  18. Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlund, M.

    1998-09-01

    In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of

  19. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  20. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  1. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaric

  2. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation suggests its broad regulatory scope in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Wagner, Sebastian Alexander; Weinert, Brian Tate;

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation plays important regulatory roles in living cells. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used unicellular eukaryotic model organism in biomedical research. S. cerevisiae contains several evolutionary conserved lysin...

  3. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  4. Portable pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation

    CERN Document Server

    Avilov, E A; Kanunov, I M

    2001-01-01

    There are presented the data on development,investigation and application of a pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation.There are described circuit and design solutions for a 90 kV apparatus to be used in medical X-ray diagnostics and 200 kV apparatus to be applied for the researches of high-speed processes.There are demonstrated the advantages of using gas under pressure as insulating medium.There are presented basic output characteristics of the devices.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1246 Section 180.1246 Protection of... Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This regulation establishes an... Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food commodities when applied/used for the management...

  6. Invertase SUC2 Is the Key Hydrolase for Inulin Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-li

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

  7. Physiological impact and context dependency of transcriptional responses: a chemostat study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tai, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a compilation of a four-year PhD project on bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Since the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence became available in 1996, DNA-microarray analysis has become a popular high-information-density tool for analyzing gene expression in this important ind

  8. Biopharmaceutical protein production bySaccharomyces cerevisiae: current state and future prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    tasks with low cost, high productivity and proper post-translational modifications. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of these preferred cell factories as it meets many of the requirements. There are several reports on improvement of recombinant protein production by S. cerevisiae through...

  9. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  10. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T

    OpenAIRE

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K.; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K.; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1T.

  12. [Morphological and biochemical characteristics of new isolates Saccharomyces cerevisiae U-503].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Sh A; Kotenko, S Ts; Aliverdieva, D A

    1997-01-01

    Compared with S. cerevisiae N73, its laser irradiation-induced mutant S. cerevisiae U-503 exhibited a significantly higher respiration rate. Electron microscopic changes consistent with this finding were found in the mitochondrial system of mutant cells. The mutant strain retained its physiological and biochemical properties over a nine-year storage period.

  13. The centrosome-Golgi apparatus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rosa M

    2014-09-05

    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells.

  14. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted.

  15. Apparatuses in the manufacture of mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, J.; Moisala, T.

    1991-01-08

    In a process for manufacturing mineral wool, at the discharge section of the tapping spout to the spinning machine, at least one oxy-fuel burner is disposed. The burner is located at a predetermined distance and in a predetermined direction so that the discharge section of the tapping spout and a first portion of the tapping jet departing from the spout are heated by the burner flame, and the impulse of the burner is of such a size that the configuration and position of the tapping jet will remain unaffected. Employment of the apparatus of the invention will prevent molten mineral material in the spout jet from solidifying and accumulating on the tapping spout. This minimizes cleaning of the tapping spout, and an even and uniform spout jet will be continually led down towards the spinning wheels in the spinning machine, which results in a more uniform and even production in the spinning operation and a higher yield in the spinning process. Furthermore, because of the even, continuous jet of molten material, wear on the spinning wheels will be reduced and the working life of the spinning machine will be lengthened. 2 figs.

  16. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  17. Sputtering process and apparatus for coating powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  18. Microwave Medical Treatment Apparatus and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); George, W. Rflfoul (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods, simulations, and apparatus are provided that may be utilized for medical treatments which are especially suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In a preferred embodiment, a plurality of separate microwave antennas are utilized to heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. By utilizing constructive and destructive interference of the microwave transmission, the energy can be deposited on the tissues to be necrosed while protecting other tissues such as the urethra. Saline injections to alter the conductivity of the tissues may also be used to further focus the energy deposits. A computer simulation is Provided that can be used to Predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of one or more catheters and the methods of applying microwave energy, a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillie, P.W.; Ramras, D.M.

    1984-05-29

    A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to flood the chamber and maximize both the contact area and contact time of the two reactants. Throughout the reaction the chamber is subjected to high vacuum imposed by an eductor which exhausts the chlorine dioxide gas and spent reactants. For use of the chlorine dioxide to produce potable water or treat foodstuffs, the chlorine dioxide and spent reactants are exhausted from the chamber separately by respective eductors substantially balanced with respect to each other to impose comparable vacuums upon the chamber. Because of the high efficency of the reaction, substantial heat is generated therefrom which is absorbed by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. The flow rate of the coolant and flow rate of the reactants into the chamber are porportional due to the dependency of the reactant flow rate on the coolant flow rate.

  20. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  1. Method of and apparatus for modeling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Kent G.

    2004-01-13

    A method and apparatus for modeling interactions can accurately model tribological and other properties and accommodate topological disruptions. Two portions of a problem space are represented, a first with a Lagrangian mesh and a second with an ALE mesh. The ALE and Lagrangian meshes are constructed so that each node on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh is in a known correspondence with adjacent nodes in the ALE mesh. The interaction can be predicted for a time interval. Material flow within the ALE mesh can accurately model complex interactions such as bifurcation. After prediction, nodes in the ALE mesh in correspondence with nodes on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh can be mapped so that they are once again adjacent to their corresponding Lagrangian mesh nodes. The ALE mesh can then be smoothed to reduce mesh distortion that might reduce the accuracy or efficiency of subsequent prediction steps. The process, from prediction through mapping and smoothing, can be repeated until a terminal condition is reached.

  2. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

    2014-12-02

    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  3. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A.

  4. Oral administration of myostatin-specific recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongtian; Zhou, Gang; Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Yan, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-04-29

    Yeast is considered as a simple and cost-effective host for protein expression, and our previous studies have proved that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can deliver recombinant protein and DNA into mouse dendritic cells and can further induce immune responses as novel vaccines. In order to know whether similar immune responses can be induced in rabbit by oral administration of such recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine, we orally fed the rabbits with heat-inactivated myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae for 5 weeks, and then myostatin-specific antibody in serum was detected successfully by western blotting and ELISA assay. The rabbits treated with myostatin-recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine grew faster and their muscles were much heavier than that of the control group. As a common experimental animal and a meat livestock with great economic value, rabbit was proved to be the second animal species that have been successfully orally immunized by recombinant S. cerevisiae vaccine after mice.

  5. Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates cannot cross the epithelial barrier in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Jespersen, Lene; Fernández-Espinar, Teresa; Querol, Amparo

    2012-06-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce human infections in immunodeficient patients. Previously it has been shown that the administration of S. cerevisiae clinical isolates can lead to systemic infections, reaching several organs in murine systems. In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae clinical isolates in an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. The results showed that, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans, S. cerevisiae was not able to cross the intestinal barrier. We concluded that S. cerevisiae can only perform opportunistic or passive crossings when epithelial barrier integrity is previously compromised.

  6. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  7. Simple homemade apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lins Ulysses

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms is described. This apparatus consists of a glass container with two openings. A large opening on the topside is used to introduce the sediment and water. The sediment and water are previously stored in loosely capped bottles previously tested for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria. The apparatus is exposed to a properly aligned magnetic field of a homemade coil and the bacteria are removed through the capillary end of the second opening of the container. Harvested bacteria can then be used to ultrastrucutral studies using electron spectroscopic imaging. Large numbers of magnetotactic bacteria consisting of cocci and rod-shaped cells were efficiently collected from different environments. This apparatus is useful for microbiological studies on uncultured magnetotactic bacteria, especially in molecular approaches for phylogenetic investigations that give information on the natural diversity of microbial communities.

  8. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  9. Improved apparatus for continuous culture of hydrogen-fixing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. F.; Litchfield, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Improved apparatus permits the continuous culture of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. System incorporates three essential subsystems - /1/ environmentally isolated culture vessel, /2/ analytical system with appropriate sensors and readout devices, /3/ control system with feedback responses to each analytical measurement.

  10. Immunochemical studies of 22S protein from isolated mitotic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1969-05-01

    Evidence is presented that the "22S protein" of mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs is not microtubule protein. An antibody preparation active against 22S protein is described, and immunochemical studies of the distribution of 22S protein in various cellular fractions and among morphological features of mitotic apparatus are reported. The protein is ubiquitous in the metaphase egg fractions that were tested but is not found in sperm flagella. It is immunologically distinct from proposed microtubule protein isolated from mitotic apparatus by the method of Sakai, and from proposed microtubule protein obtained after extraction with mild acid. It exists in nontubule material of isolated mitotic apparatus but is not detectable in microtubules.

  11. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  12. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  13. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  14. An improved method of xylose utilization by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tien-Yang; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Hsu, Teng-Chieh; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to optimize expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes to improve xylose utilization capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A xylose-utilizing recombinant S. cerevisiae strain YY2KL, able to express nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH)-dependent xylose reductase (XR), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and xylulokinase (XK), showed a low ethanol yield and sugar consumption rate. To optimize xylose utilization by YY2KL, a recombinant expression plasmid containing the XR gene was transformed and integrated into the aur1 site of YY2KL. Two recombinant expression plasmids containing an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent XDH mutant and XK genes were dually transformed and integrated into the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites of YY2KL. This procedure allowed systematic construction of an S. cerevisiae library with different ratios of genes for xylose-metabolizing enzymes, and well-grown colonies with different xylose fermentation capacities could be further selected in yeast protein extract (YPX) medium (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone, and 2 % xylose). We successfully isolated a recombinant strain with a superior xylose fermentation capacity and designated it as strain YY5A. The xylose consumption rate for strain YY5A was estimated to be 2.32 g/gDCW/h (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h), which was 2.34 times higher than that for the parent strain YY2KL (0.99 g/gDCW/h). The ethanol yield was also enhanced 1.83 times by this novel method. Optimal ratio and expression levels of xylose-metabolizing enzymes are important for efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol. This study provides a novel method that allows rapid and effective selection of ratio-optimized xylose-utilizing yeast strains. This method may be applicable to other multienzyme systems in yeast.

  15. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  16. Can yeast (S. cerevisiae metabolic volatiles provide polymorphic signaling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Roman Arguello

    Full Text Available Chemical signaling between organisms is a ubiquitous and evolutionarily dynamic process that helps to ensure mate recognition, location of nutrients, avoidance of toxins, and social cooperation. Evolutionary changes in chemical communication systems progress through natural variation within the organism generating the signal as well as the responding individuals. A promising yet poorly understood system with which to probe the importance of this variation exists between D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae. D. melanogaster relies on yeast for nutrients, while also serving as a vector for yeast cell dispersal. Both are outstanding genetic and genomic models, with Drosophila also serving as a preeminent model for sensory neurobiology. To help develop these two genetic models as an ecological model, we have tested if - and to what extent - S. cerevisiae is capable of producing polymorphic signaling through variation in metabolic volatiles. We have carried out a chemical phenotyping experiment for 14 diverse accessions within a common garden random block design. Leveraging genomic sequences for 11 of the accessions, we ensured a genetically broad sample and tested for phylogenetic signal arising from phenotypic dataset. Our results demonstrate that significant quantitative differences for volatile blends do exist among S. cerevisiae accessions. Of particular ecological relevance, the compounds driving the blend differences (acetoin, 2-phenyl ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol are known ligands for D. melanogasters chemosensory receptors, and are related to sensory behaviors. Though unable to correlate the genetic and volatile measurements, our data point clear ways forward for behavioral assays aimed at understanding the implications of this variation.

  17. Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Zi, Jiachen; Wang, Siyuan; Gage, David; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

    2013-07-01

    Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules.

  18. Heterologous expression of cellulase genes in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Steffi A; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme cost is a major impediment to second-generation (2G) cellulosic ethanol production. One strategy to reduce enzyme cost is to engineer enzyme production capacity in a fermentative microorganism to enable consolidated bio-processing (CBP). Ideally, a strain with a high secretory phenotype, high fermentative capacity as well as an innate robustness to bioethanol-specific stressors, including tolerance to products formed during pre-treatment and fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates should be used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust fermentative yeast but has limitations as a potential CBP host, such as low heterologous protein secretion titers. In this study, we evaluated natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains for superior secretion activity and other industrially relevant characteristics needed during the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production. Individual cellulases namely Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Cel3A (β-glucosidase), Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (cellobiohydrolase), and Trichoderma reesei Cel5A (endoglucanase) were utilized as reporter proteins. Natural strain YI13 was identified to have a high secretory phenotype, demonstrating a 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher Cel7A and Cel5A activity, respectively, compared to the reference strain S288c. YI13 also demonstrated other industrially relevant characteristics such as growth vigor, high ethanol titer, multi-tolerance to high temperatures (37 and 40 °C), ethanol (10 % w/v), and towards various concentrations of a cocktail of inhibitory compounds commonly found in lignocellulose hydrolysates. This study accentuates the value of natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains to serve as potential robust and highly productive chassis organisms for CBP strain development.

  19. Non-coding RNA prediction and verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Kavanaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA (ncRNA play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13, while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5' or 3' untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

  20. Local isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocompetitive agent of Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusumaningtyas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a toxigenic fungus that contaminates feed and influences the animal health. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a biocompetitive agent to control the contamination. The ability of local isolate of S. cerevisiae as a biocompetitive agent for A. flavus was evaluated. A. flavus (30ml was swept on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, while S. cerevisiae was swept on its left and right. Plates were incubated at 28oC for nine days. Lytic activity of S. cerevisiae was detected by pouring its suspension on the centre of the cross streaks of A. flavus. Plates were incubated at 28oC for five days. Growth inhibition of A. flavus by S. cerevisiae was determined by mixing the two fungi on Potato dextrose broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 hours. Total colony of A. flavus were then observed at incubation time of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours by pour plates method on the SDA plates and incubated on 28oC for two days. Growth of hyphae of A. flavus sweep were inhibited with the swept of S. cerevisiae. The width of A. flavus colony treated with S. cerevisiae is narrower (3,02 cm than that of control ( 4,60 cm. The growth of A. flavus was also inhibited on the centre of cross streak where the S. cerevisiae poured. S. cerevisiae gradually reduced the colony number of A. flavus in the mixed culture of broth fungi ie. 14 x 103 CFU/ml while colony number of control is 80 x 103 CFU/ml. Results showed that S. cerevisiae could be used as biocompetitive agent of A. flavus.

  1. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  2. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  3. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  4. Microwave/Sonic Apparatus Measures Flow and Density in Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the rate of flow and the mass density of a liquid or slurry includes a special section of pipe instrumented with microwave and sonic sensors, and a computer that processes digitized readings taken by the sensors. The apparatus was conceived specifically for monitoring a flow of oil-well-drilling mud, but the basic principles of its design and operation are also applicable to monitoring flows of other liquids and slurries.

  5. Fluid-phase endocytosis in yeasts other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, N; Puente, P; Leal, F

    1990-05-01

    A FITC-dextran internalization assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as positive control was used to determine whether fluid-phase endocytosis is a general characteristic of yeasts. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia polymorpha, Kluyveromyces phaseolosporus, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida albicans were clearly positive, whereas results obtained with Debaryomyces marama were inconclusive. In all cases internalized FITC-dextran was found to be localized in the vacuoles and the process was always time- and temperature-dependent. Lower eucaryotes, particularly yeasts, appear to have the ability to incorporate substances from the extracellular medium through fluid-phase endocytosis.

  6. Origin of Endogenous DNA Abasic Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites are among the most frequent endogenous lesions in DNA and present a strong block to replication. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an apn1 apn2 rad1 triple mutant is inviable because of its incapacity to repair AP sites and related 3′-blocked single-strand breaks (M. Guillet and S. Boiteux, EMBO J. 21:2833, 2002). Here, we investigated the origin of endogenous AP sites in yeast. Our results show that the deletion of the UNG1 gene encoding the uracil DNA glycosylase suppresses the...

  7. Magnetically altered ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Corghill Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of static magnetic fields on ethanol production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST using sugar cane molasses during the fermentation in an enclosed bioreactor. Two static NdFeB magnets were attached to a cylindrical tube reactor with their opposite poles (north to south, creating 150 mT magnetic field inside the reactor. Comparable differences emerged between the results of these two experimental conditions. We found ethanol productivity to be 15% higher in the samples exposed to 150 mT magnetic field.

  8. Directed Evolution towards Increased Isoprenoid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Simon; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    diversity. The most common way of producing these compounds is by organic synthesis. Organic synthesis does however have several disadvantages for production of secondary metabolites such as low yields due to the complex structures, which makes this way of production economically unfeasible. Microbial...... population of S. cerevisiae clones will afterwards be screened using the isoprenoid molecule lycopene as a model compound, hereby enabling the isolation of phenotypes producing higher amounts of isoprenoid. The property making lycopene ideal for screening is its system of 11 conjugated double bonds, which...

  9. Nitrogen catabolite repression of asparaginase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, P C; Meyer, G M; Roon, R J

    1980-01-01

    The biosynthesis of asparaginase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is subject to strong catabolite repression by a variety of nitrogen compounds. In the present study, asparaginase II synthesis was examined in a wild-type yeast strain and in strains carrying gdhA, gdhCR, or gdhCS mutations. The following effects were observed: (i) In the wild-type strain, the biosynthesis of asparaginase II was strongly repressed when either 10 mM ammonium sulfate or various amino acids (10 mM) served as the sou...

  10. Adsorption and Interfacial Electron Transfer of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thanulov

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption and electron-transfer dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) iso-l-cytochrome c adsorbed on Au(lll) electrodes in aqueous phosphate buffer media. This cytochrome possesses a thiol group dos e to the protein surface (Cysl02) suitable for linking the protein...... negative ofthe equilibrium potential of YCC, where the protein is electrochemically functional. The MCS data show tensile differential stress signals when YCC is adsorbed on a gold-coate d MCS, with distinguishable adsorption phases in the time range from

  11. Differential repair of UV damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terleth, C; van Sluis, C A; van de Putte, P

    1989-06-26

    Preferential repair of UV-induced damage is a phenomenon by which mammalian cells might enhance their survival. This paper presents the first evidence that preferential repair occurs in the lower eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover an unique approach is reported to compare identical sequences present on the same chromosome and only differing in expression. We determined the removal of pyrimidine dimers from two identical alpha-mating type loci and we were able to show that the active MAT alpha locus is repaired preferentially to the inactive HML alpha locus. In a sir-3 mutant, in which both loci are active this preference is not observed.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing 3HP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Oberg, Fredrik;

    2012-01-01

    and the market for acrylate products exceeds USD 100 billion. As an alternative to oil and gas derived acrylic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic (3HP) acid produced from renewable sources is highly desired, because 3HP can easily be converted into acrylic acid. We are setting out to produce 3HP in yeast Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae. One main reason for selecting Baker's yeast as host organism is that yeast has a high tolerance towards low pH in comparison to bacteria, e.g. E. coli. Hence, it lowers the consumption of base for neutralization of growth media when compared to bacteria. The preferred engineered pathway towards 3...

  13. STUDY ON COMPUETD APPARATUS FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; MENG Fanhang; ZHU Shouzeng

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To make and study computed apparatus for external cardiac massage and observe its clinieal effect. Method The apparatus was made and was applied. Result The apparatus was effective. Conclusion The apparatus was a effective equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  15. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  16. Effects of low-intensity ultrasound on the growth, cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunhua; Xiong, Feng; He, Ronghai; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Haile

    2017-05-01

    Effects of low-intensity ultrasound (at different frequency, treatment time and power) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different growth phase were evaluated by the biomass in the paper. In addition, the cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of sonicated Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also researched. The results revealed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased by 127.03% under the optimum ultrasonic conditions such as frequency 28kHz, power 140W/L and ultrasonic time 1h when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured to the latent anaphase. And the membrane permeability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in latent anaphase enhanced by ultrasound, resulting in the augment of extracellular protein, nucleic acid and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) contents. In addition, sonication could accelerate the damage of high concentration alcohol to Saccharomyces cerevisiae although the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was not affected significantly by ultrasound.

  17. Production of recombinant Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzi, Chiara; Bleve, Gianluca; Spagnolo, Stefano; Perrotta, Carla; Grieco, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme.

  18. Characteristics of Zn2+ Biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of Zn2+ biosorption and the release of cations during the process of Zn2+biosorption by intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods The batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. Zn2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) AAS 6.Vario. Results When the initial concentration of Zn2+ ranged between 0.08 and 0.8 mmol/L, the initial pH was natural (about 5.65), the sorbent concentration was about 1 g/L and the capacity of Zn2+ biosorption was from 74.8 to 654.8 μmol/g. The pH value increased by 0.55-1.28 and the intracellular cations (K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+) of the cells were released during the process of Zn2+ biosorption. Conclusion Ion exchange was one of the mechanisms for Zn2+ biosorption. The biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential biosorbent for the removal of Zn2+ from aqueous solution. More work needs to be done before putting it into practical application.

  19. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol.

  20. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering.

  1. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance.

  2. Phosphite disrupts the acclimation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A E; Niere, J O; Plaxton, W C

    2001-11-01

    The influence of phosphite (H2PO3-) on the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to orthophosphate (HPO4(2-); Pi) starvation was assessed. Phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase (rAPase) derepression and cell development were abolished when phosphate-sufficient (+Pi) yeast were subcultured into phosphate-deficient (-Pi) media containing 0.1 mM phosphite. By contrast, treatment with 0.1 mM phosphite exerted no influence on rAPase activity or growth of +Pi cells. 31P NMR spectroscopy revealed that phosphite is assimilated and concentrated by yeast cultured with 0.1 mM phosphite, and that the levels of sugar phosphates, pyrophosphate, and particularly polyphosphate were significantly reduced in the phosphite-treated -Pi cells. Examination of phosphite's effects on two PHO regulon mutants that constitutively express rAPase indicated that (i) a potential target for phosphite's action in -Pi yeast is Pho84 (plasmalemma high-affinity Pi transporter and component of a putative phosphate sensor-complex), and that (ii) an additional mechanism exists to control rAPase expression that is independent of Pho85 (cyclin-dependent protein kinase). Marked accumulation of polyphosphate in the delta pho85 mutant suggested that Pho85 contributes to the control of polyphosphate metabolism. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that phosphite obstructs the signaling pathway by which S. cerevisiae perceives and responds to phosphate deprivation at the molecular level.

  3. The evolution of gene expression QTL in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ronald

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence patterns of gene expression variation will provide insights into the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity. To date, studies of gene expression evolution have primarily been made by analyzing how gene expression levels vary within and between species. However, the fundamental unit of heritable variation in transcript abundance is the underlying regulatory allele, and as a result it is necessary to understand gene expression evolution at the level of DNA sequence variation. Here we describe the evolutionary forces shaping patterns of genetic variation for 1206 cis-regulatory QTL identified in a cross between two divergent strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that purifying selection against mildly deleterious alleles is the dominant force governing cis-regulatory evolution in S. cerevisiae and estimate the strength of selection. We also find that essential genes and genes with larger codon bias are subject to slightly stronger cis-regulatory constraint and that positive selection has played a role in the evolution of major trans-acting QTL.

  4. Investigation of the Best Saccharomyces cerevisiae Growth Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Roshanak; Salari, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as one of the useful yeasts which are utilized in baking and other industries. It can be easily cultured at an economic price. Today the introduction of safe and efficient carriers is being considered. Due to its generally round shape, and the volume that is enclosed by its membrane and cell wall, it is used to encapsulate active materials to protect them from degradation or to introduce a sustained release drug delivery system. Providing the best conditions in order to achieve the best morphological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a carrier. Methods In this research, the most suitable growth condition of yeast cells which provides the best size for use as drug carriers was found by a bioreactor in a synthetic culture medium. Yeast cell reproduction and growth curves were obtained, based on pour plate colony counting data and UV/Visible sample absorption at 600 nm. Yeast cell growth patterns and growth rates were determined by Matlab mathematical software. Results Results showed that pH=4 and dissolving oxygen (DO) 5% was the best condition for yeast cells to grow and reproduce. This condition also provided the largest size (2 × 3 μ) yeast cells. Conclusion Owing to the yeast cells’ low-cost production and their structural characteristics, they could be used as potent drug carriers. Funding This work was supported by a grant from the Vice Chancellor of Research of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. PMID:28243411

  5. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Owen W; Poddar, Snigdha; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing that results in scarless and marker-free integrations of DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. DNA integration results from cotransforming (1) a single plasmid (pCAS) that coexpresses the Cas9 endonuclease and a uniquely engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette and (2) a linear DNA molecule that is used to repair the chromosomal DNA damage by homology-directed repair. For target specificity, the pCAS plasmid requires only a single cloning modification: replacing the 20-bp guide RNA sequence within the sgRNA cassette. This CRISPR-Cas9 protocol includes methods for (1) cloning the unique target sequence into pCAS, (2) assembly of the double-stranded DNA repair oligonucleotides, and (3) cotransformation of pCAS and linear repair DNA into yeast cells. The protocol is technically facile and requires no special equipment. It can be used in any S. cerevisiae strain, including industrial polyploid isolates. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas9-based DNA integration protocol is achievable by virtually any yeast genetics and molecular biology laboratory.

  6. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in orange juice using high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Escolà-Hernández, Joan; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert C; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2004-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often associated with the spoilage of fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment on the survival of S. cerevisiae suspended in orange juice. Commercial heat-sterilized orange juice was inoculated with S. cerevisiae (CECT 1319) (10(8) CFU/ml) and then treated by HIPEFs. The effects of HIPEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, pulse polarity, frequency, and pulse width) were evaluated and compared to those of heat pasteurization (90 degrees C/min). In all of the HIPEF experiments, the temperature was kept below 39 degrees C. S. cerevisiae cell damage induced by HIPEF treatment was observed by electron microscopy. HIPEF treatment was effective for the inactivation of S. cerevisiae in orange juice at pasteurization levels. A maximum inactivation of a 5.1-log (CFU per milliliter) reduction was achieved after exposure of S. cerevisiae to HIPEFs for 1,000 micros (4-micros pulse width) at 35 kV/cm and 200 Hz in bipolar mode. Inactivation increased as both the field strength and treatment time increased. For the same electric field strength and treatment time, inactivation decreased when the frequency and pulse width were increased. Electric pulses applied in the bipolar mode were more effective than those in the monopolar mode for destroying S. cerevisiae. HIPEF processing inactivated S. cerevisiae in orange juice, and the extent of inactivation was similar to that obtained during thermal pasteurization. HIPEF treatments caused membrane damage and had a profound effect on the intracellular organization of S. cerevisiae.

  7. Correlation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA in intestinal mucosal samples and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in serum of patients with IBD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RC Mallant-Hent; M Mooij; BME von Blomberg; RK Linskens; AA van Bodegraven; PHM Savelkoul

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between ASCA and presence of mucosal S. cerevisiae DNA in a population of CD, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and controls.METHODS: S. cerevisiae-specific primers and a fluorescent probe were designed for a 5' exonuclease real time PCR (TaqManTM) assay, which is a homogenous system using a fluorescent-labelled probe for the detection of PCR product in real time. We analyzed the relation of the PCR results with the ASCA findings in a group of 76inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients (31 CD, 45UC) and 22 healthy controls (HC).RESULTS: ASCA (IgA or IgG) were positive in 19 (61%)patients with CD, 12 (27%) with UC and none of the HC. PCR amplification was inhibited and excluded from the final results in 10 (22%) UC patients, 7 (22%) CD patients, and 6 (30%) HC. In only 15 of the mucosal samples, S. cerevisiae DNA was detected by real time PCR, including 7 (29%) in CD, 7 (19%) in UC, 1 (6%)in HC. In 4 CD and in 4 UC patients, ASCA and mucosal S. cerevisiae were positive. Mucosal S. cerevisiae was present in combination with negative ASCA IgA and IgG in 3 UC, and 3 CD patients.CONCLUSION: We conclude that since the presence of S. cerevisiae in colonic mucosal biopsy specimens is very rare, ASCA is unlikely to be explained by continuous exposure to S. cerevisiae in the mucosa. Therefore,ASCA formation must occur earlier in life and levels remain relatively stable thereafter in immunological susceptible persons.

  8. Overexpression of Sbe2p, a Golgi Protein, Results in Resistance to Caspofungin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Osherov, Nir; May, Gregory S.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Kontoyiannis, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    Caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of 1, 3-β-d-glucan, an essential cell wall target in fungi. Genetic studies in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that mutations in FKS1 and FKS2 genes result in caspofungin resistance. However, direct demonstration of the role of gene overexpression in caspofungin resistance has been lacking. We transformed wild-type S. cerevisiae with an S. cerevisiae URA3-based GAL1 cDNA library and selected transformants in glucose synthetic complete pla...

  9. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  10. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by

  11. High concentration of calcium ions in Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUESHAOBAI; M.ROBERTNICOUD; 等

    1994-01-01

    The interphase NIH3T3 cells were vitally fluorescentstained with calcium indicator fluo-3 and Glogi probe C6-NBD-ceramide,and then the single cells were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCFM) for subcellular distributions of Ca2+ and the location of Golgi apparatus.In these cells,the intracellular Ca2+ were found to be highly concentrated in the Golgi apparatus.The changes of distribution of cytosolic high Ca2+ region and the Golgi apparatus coincided with the cell cycle phase.In calcium free medium,when the plasma membrane of the cells which had been loaded with fluo-3/AM were permeated by digitonin,the fluorescence of the Golgi region decreased far less than that of the cytosol.Our results indicated that the Glogi lumen retained significantly high concentration of free calcium.

  12. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2017-02-23

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

  13. Growth of the Mammalian Golgi Apparatus during Interphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Alex T-W; Harrison, Rene E

    2016-09-15

    During the cell cycle, genetic materials and organelles are duplicated to ensure that there is sufficient cellular content for daughter cells. While Golgi growth in interphase has been observed in lower eukaryotes, the elaborate ribbon structure of the mammalian Golgi apparatus has made it challenging to monitor. Here we demonstrate the growth of the mammalian Golgi apparatus in its protein content and volume during interphase. Through ultrastructural analyses, physical growth of the Golgi apparatus was revealed to occur by cisternal elongation of the individual Golgi stacks. By examining the timing and regulation of Golgi growth, we established that Golgi growth starts after passage through the cell growth checkpoint at late G1 phase and continues in a manner highly correlated with cell size growth. Finally, by identifying S6 kinase 1 as a major player in Golgi growth, we revealed the coordination between cell size and Golgi growth via activation of the protein synthesis machinery in early interphase.

  14. Crosstalk of small GTPases at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschieri, Francesco; Farhan, Hesso

    2012-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate a wide range of homeostatic processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics, organelle homeostasis, cell migration and vesicle trafficking, as well as in pathologic conditions such as carcinogenesis and metastatic spreading. Therefore, it is important to understand the regulation of small GTPase signaling, but this is complicated by the fact that crosstalk exists between different GTPase families and that we have to understand how they signal in time and space. The Golgi apparatus represents a hub for several signaling molecules and its importance in this field is constantly increasing. In this review we will discuss small GTPases signaling at the Golgi apparatus. Then, we will highlight recent work that contributed to a better understanding of crosstalk between different small GTPase families, with a special emphasis on their crosstalk at the Golgi apparatus. Finally, we will give a brief overview of available methods and tools to investigate spatio-temporal small GTPase crosstalk.

  15. Apparatus comprising magnetically actuated valves and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thayne L.; Harper, Jason C.

    2016-07-12

    The present invention, in part, relates to an apparatus having a single-use, normally-closed fluidic valve that is initially maintained in the closed position by a valve element bonded to an adhesive coating. The valve is opened using a magnetic force. The valve element includes a magnetic material or metal. In some examples, the valve is opened by bringing a magnet in proximity to the valve element to provide a magnetic force that delaminates the valve element from the adhesive coating. In particular, the apparatus can be useful for on-chip amplification and/or detection of various targets, including biological targets and any amplifiable targets. Such apparatuses and methods are useful for in-field or real-time detection of targets, especially in limited resource settings.

  16. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  17. Apparatus and method for the electrolysis of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for the electrolytic splitting of water into hydrogen and/or oxygen, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least one lithographically-patternable substrate having a surface; (ii) a plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes embedded in said surface; (iii) at least one counter electrode in proximity to but not on said surface; (iv) means for collecting evolved hydrogen and/or oxygen gas; (v) electrical powering means for applying a voltage across said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode; and (vi) a container for holding an aqueous electrolyte and housing said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode. Electrolytic processes using the above electrolytic apparatus or functional mimics thereof are also described.

  18. Apparatus and method for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus is introduced for the use of enhancing tissue repair in mammals. The apparatus includes a sleeve; an electrically conductive coil; a sleeve support; an electrical circuit configured to supply the coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss. When in use, the sleeve of the apparatus is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss is generated on the mammalian body for an extended period of time so that the tissue is encouraged to be regenerated in the mammalian body part at a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate relative to regeneration without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  19. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  20. Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.

    1996-03-26

    Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of butanol isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Schadeweg, Virginia; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has decisive advantages in industrial processes due to its tolerance to alcohols and fermentation conditions. Butanol isomers are considered as suitable fuel substitutes and valuable biomass-derived chemical building blocks. Whereas high production was achieved with bacterial systems, metabolic engineering of yeast for butanol production is in the beginning. For isobutanol synthesis, combination of valine biosynthesis and degradation, and complete pathway re-localisation into cytosol or mitochondria gave promising results. However, competing pathways, co-factor imbalances and FeS cluster assembly are still major issues. 1-Butanol production via the Clostridium pathway seems to be limited by cytosolic acetyl-CoA, its central precursor. Endogenous 1-butanol pathways have been discovered via threonine or glycine catabolism. 2-Butanol production was established but was limited by B12-dependence.

  2. Metabolic impact of redox cofactor perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Lages, Nuno; Oldiges, M.

    2009-01-01

    Redox cofactors play a pivotal role in coupling catabolism with anabolism and energy generation during metabolism. There exists a delicate balance in the intracellular level of these cofactors to ascertain an optimal metabolic output. Therefore, cofactors are emerging to be attractive targets...... to induce widespread changes in metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the impact of perturbations in redox cofactors in the cytosol or mitochondria on glucose and energy metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to aid metabolic engineering decisions that involve cofactor engineering. We enhanced NADH...... production, while decreasing mitochondrial NADH lowered ethanol production. However, when these reactions were coupled with NADPH production, the metabolic changes were more moderated. The direct consequence of these perturbations could be seen in the shift of the intracellular concentrations...

  3. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.

  4. Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-I Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. α-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the α-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events.

  5. The concentration of ammonia regulates nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Schure, E G; Silljé, H H; Verkleij, A J; Boonstra, J; Verrips, C T

    1995-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in a continuous culture at a single dilution rate with input ammonia concentrations whose effects ranged from nitrogen limitation to nitrogen excess and glucose limitation. The rate of ammonia assimilation (in millimoles per gram of cells per hour) was approximately constant. Increased extracellular ammonia concentrations are correlated with increased intracellular glutamate and glutamine concentrations, increases in levels of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity and its mRNA (gene GDH2), and decreases in levels of NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity and its mRNA (gene GDH1), as well as decreases in the levels of mRNA for the amino acid permease-encoding genes GAP1 and PUT4. The governing factor of nitrogen metabolism might be the concentration of ammonia rather than its flux.

  6. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  7. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP.

  8. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  9. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  10. Preferentially quantized linker DNA lengths in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Ping; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne; Xi, Liqun; Tsai, Guei-Feng; Segal, Eran; Widom, Jonathan

    2008-09-12

    The exact lengths of linker DNAs connecting adjacent nucleosomes specify the intrinsic three-dimensional structures of eukaryotic chromatin fibers. Some studies suggest that linker DNA lengths preferentially occur at certain quantized values, differing one from another by integral multiples of the DNA helical repeat, approximately 10 bp; however, studies in the literature are inconsistent. Here, we investigate linker DNA length distributions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, using two novel methods: a Fourier analysis of genomic dinucleotide periodicities adjacent to experimentally mapped nucleosomes and a duration hidden Markov model applied to experimentally defined dinucleosomes. Both methods reveal that linker DNA lengths in yeast are preferentially periodic at the DNA helical repeat ( approximately 10 bp), obeying the forms 10n+5 bp (integer n). This 10 bp periodicity implies an ordered superhelical intrinsic structure for the average chromatin fiber in yeast.

  11. Preferentially quantized linker DNA lengths in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available The exact lengths of linker DNAs connecting adjacent nucleosomes specify the intrinsic three-dimensional structures of eukaryotic chromatin fibers. Some studies suggest that linker DNA lengths preferentially occur at certain quantized values, differing one from another by integral multiples of the DNA helical repeat, approximately 10 bp; however, studies in the literature are inconsistent. Here, we investigate linker DNA length distributions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, using two novel methods: a Fourier analysis of genomic dinucleotide periodicities adjacent to experimentally mapped nucleosomes and a duration hidden Markov model applied to experimentally defined dinucleosomes. Both methods reveal that linker DNA lengths in yeast are preferentially periodic at the DNA helical repeat ( approximately 10 bp, obeying the forms 10n+5 bp (integer n. This 10 bp periodicity implies an ordered superhelical intrinsic structure for the average chromatin fiber in yeast.

  12. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ENZYME IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažena Lavová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS with reactive nitrogen species (RNS are known to play dual role in biological systems, they can be harmful or beneficial to living systems. ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids termed as oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes protect the organism against the oxidative damage caused by active oxygen forms. The role of superoxide dismutase (SOD is to accelerate the dismutation of the toxic superoxide radical, produced during oxidative energy processes, to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, SOD activity of three yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. It was found that SOD activity was the highest (23.7 U.mg-1 protein in strain 612 after 28 hours of cultivation. The lowest SOD activity from all tested strains was found after 56 hours of cultivation of strain Gyöng (0.7 U.mg-1 protein.

  13. Extreme calorie restriction and energy source starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent distinct physiological states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, L.G.M.; Almering, M.J.H.; Dijk, M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation methods used to investigate microbial calorie restriction often result in carbon and energy starvation. This study aims to dissect cellular responses to calorie restriction and starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using retentostat cultivation. In retentostats, cells are continuousl

  14. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    damage response (Chapter 5). When DNA damage is repaired, cells restart the cell cycle and resume growth. This process is called damage recovery. In S. cerevisiae, the molecular mechanism of recovery relies on dephosphorylation of Rad53 by protein phosphatases (PPs), that, in case of recovery from MMS......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...

  15. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, N.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Cueto Rojas, H.F.; Wahl, A.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential pl

  16. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve succinic acid production based on metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuma; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We performed metabolic engineering on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced production of succinic acid. Aerobic succinic acid production in S. cerevisiae was achieved by disrupting the SDH1 and SDH2 genes, which encode the catalytic subunits of succinic acid dehydrogenase. Increased succinic acid production was achieved by eliminating the ethanol biosynthesis pathways. Metabolic profiling analysis revealed that succinic acid accumulated intracellularly following disruption of the SDH1 and SDH2 genes, which suggests that enhancing the export of intracellular succinic acid outside of cells increases succinic acid production in S. cerevisiae. The mae1 gene encoding the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malic acid transporter was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and as a result, succinic acid production was successfully improved. Metabolic profiling analysis is useful in producing chemicals for metabolic engineering of microorganisms.

  18. Opportunistic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential risk sold in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto ePérez-Torrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, fungal infections have emerged as an important health problem associated with more people who present deficiencies in the immune system, such as HIV or transplanted patients. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the emerging fungal pathogens with a unique characteristic: its presence in many food products. S. cerevisiae has an impeccably good food safety record compared to other microorganisms like virus, bacteria and some filamentous fungi. However, humans unknowingly and inadvertently ingest large viable populations of S. cerevisiae (home-brewed beer or dietary supplements that contain yeast. In the last few years, researchers have studied the nature of S. cerevisiae strains and the molecular mechanisms related to infections. Here we review the last advance made in this emerging pathogen and we discuss the implication of using this species in food products.

  19. Removal of Strontium Ions by Immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel biosorbent, immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in magnetic chitosan microspheres was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of Sr2+ from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of immobilized S. cerevisiae before and after Sr2+adsorption were observed using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could be used to describe the Sr2+ adsorption onto immobilized S. cerevisiae microspheres. The maximal adsorption capacity (qm was calculated to be 81.96 mg/g by the Langmuir model. Immobilized S. cerevisiae was an effective adsorbent for the Sr2+ removal from aqueous solution.

  20. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  1. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.

  2. Septins localize to microtubules during nutritional limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez de Aldana Carlos R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation stimulates diploid cells to undergo DNA replication and meiosis, followed by the formation of four haploid spores. Septins are a family of proteins that assemble a ring structure at the mother-daughter neck during vegetative growth, where they control cytokinesis. In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. Results Here, we demonstrate that nutrient limitation triggers a change in the localization of at least two vegetative septins (Cdc10 and Cdc11 from the bud neck to the microtubules. The association of Cdc10 and Cdc11 with microtubules persists into meiosis, and they are found associated with the meiotic spindle until the end of meiosis II. In addition, the meiosis-specific septin Spr28 displays similar behavior, suggesting that this is a common feature of septins. Septin association to microtubules is a consequence of the nutrient limitation signal, since it is also observed when haploid cells are incubated in sporulation medium and when haploid or diploid cells are grown in medium containing non-fermentable carbon sources. Moreover, during meiosis II, when the nascent prospore membrane is formed, septins moved from the microtubules to this membrane. Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. Conclusion Nutrient limitation in S. cerevisiae triggers the sporulation process, but it also induces the disassembly of the septin bud neck ring and relocalization of the septin subunits to the nucleus. Septins remain associated with microtubules during the meiotic divisions and later, during spore morphogenesis, they are detected associated to the nascent prospore membranes surrounding each nuclear lobe. Septin association to microtubules also occurs during growth in non-fermentable carbon sources.

  3. Apparatus and method for the characterization of respirable aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Douglas K.; Hodges, Bradley W.; Bush, Jesse D.; Mishima, Jofu

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus for the characterization of respirable aerosols, including: a burn chamber configured to selectively contain a sample that is selectively heated to generate an aerosol; a heating assembly disposed within the burn chamber adjacent to the sample; and a sampling segment coupled to the burn chamber and configured to collect the aerosol such that it may be analyzed. The apparatus also includes an optional sight window disposed in a wall of the burn chamber such that the sample may be viewed during heating. Optionally, the sample includes one of a Lanthanide, an Actinide, and a Transition metal.

  4. Physical design of positronium time of flight spectroscopy apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-Pan; ZHANG Zi-Liang; QIN Xiu-Bo; YU Run-Sheng; WANG Bao-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Positronium time of flight spectroscopy(Ps-TOF)is an effective technique for porous material research.It has advantages over other techniques for analyzing the porosity and pore tortuosity of materials.This paper describes a design for Ps-TOF apparatus based on the Beijing intense slow positron beam,supplying a new material characterization technique.In order to improve the time resolution and increase the count rate of the apparatus,the detector system is optimized.For 3 eV o-Ps,the time broadening is 7.66 ns and the count rate is 3 cps after correction.

  5. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  6. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  7. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...... source into the proximal ends of the first optical fibers, wherein the first optical coupler comprises a plurality of lens elements including a first lens element and a second lens element, each of the plurality of lens elements comprising a primary surface facing a distal end of the first optical...... coupler, and a secondary surface facing a proximal end of the first optical coupler....

  8. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  9. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  10. Pulse radiolysis apparatus for monitoring at 2000 Å

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.C.; Nilsson, G.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1969-01-01

    increased luminance; (2) a fast electronic switch that cut out the signal due to the Cerenkov radiation; (3) a secondary emission chamber that allowed the simultaneous measurement of the current and the direction of the pulsed electron beam; and (4) a system for remote controlled change of liquid samples......A pulse radiolysis apparatus with photometric monitoring has been built around an 11 MeV, 250 mA peak current, linac that delivers single 0.25 to 4 μsec pulses. The novel features of the apparatus include (1) a 450 W xenon lamp as the analyzing light source which in pulsed operation had a 25 times...

  11. Structure of reproductive apparatus of Gracilarial Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Di; ZHU JianYi; HE Yang; CHENG XiaoJie; ZHANG WenYan; ZHANG XueCheng

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive apparatus of GracilarialGracilariopsis lemaneiformis collected from Qingdao city were studied with a light and a transmission electron microscope. The special superficial arrangement of spermatangium for this species was clearly observed, and the ultrastructure of spermatangial development revealed the similar cytodynamic pattern followed by all the Giracilariaceae members developed from spermatangial mother cells to spermatangium. The female reproductive apparatus before fertilization was also observed and trichogyne was found protruding above the cortex, contrary to the earlier reports. Tetrasporangium was formed by an outer cortical cell and the tetraspores became spherical and expended after being released.

  12. From Perceptual Apparatus to Immersive Field of Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    , or orchestrators of emotions, many of these apparatuses were meant to be vehicles for regaining the consciousness of the body and the environment. Apparatuses that expand into space complete this particular genealogy – space itself becoming a mediating and conductive device capable of engendering these embedding...... situations, Sloterdijk remarks. Situated within the field of trans-disciplinary collaborations, the oeuvre of Werner Ruhnau comes to the fore as paradigmatic for illustrating these aspects. The joint projects with philosopher, artist and educator Hugo Kükelhaus, or artists such as Yves Klein and Adolf Luther...

  13. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  14. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  15. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  16. The sampling apparatus of volatile organic compounds for wood composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJun; ZHAOLin-bo; LIUYu

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, benzene, and toluene are the important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood composites. A sampling apparatus of VOCs for wood composites was designed and manufactured by Northeast Forestry University in China.The concentration of VOCs derived from wood based materials, such as flooring, panel wall, finishing, and furniture can be sampled in a small stainless steel chambers. A protocol is also developed in this study to sample and measure the new and representative specimens. Preliminary research showed that the properties of the equipment have good stability. The sort and the amount of different components can be detected from it. The apparatus is practicable.

  17. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  18. Lycopene overproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through combining pathway engineering with host engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan; Xiao, Wenhai; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong; Li, Xia; Yuan, Yingjin

    2016-01-01

    Background Microbial production of lycopene, a commercially and medically important compound, has received increasing concern in recent years. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regarded as a safer host for lycopene production than Escherichia coli. However, to date, the lycopene yield (mg/g DCW) in S. cerevisiae was lower than that in E. coli and did not facilitate downstream extraction process, which might be attributed to the incompatibility between host cell and heterologous pathway. Therefore, ...

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Ammonium Assimilation in Xylose-Fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improves Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Christophe; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Cofactor imbalance impedes xylose assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has been metabolically engineered for xylose utilization. To improve cofactor use, we modified ammonia assimilation in recombinant S. cerevisiae by deleting GDH1, which encodes an NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, and by overexpressing either GDH2, which encodes an NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, or GLT1 and GLN1, which encode the GS-GOGAT complex. Overexpression of GDH2 increased ethanol yield from...

  20. [Expression of inulinase genes in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, G G; Karpechenko, N A

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in inulin, sucrose, and glucose metabolism in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus was studied. The exon-intron structure of the relevant genes was identified and the primers for quantitative PCR were optimized. Expression of the genes was found to depend on the carbon source. Glucose was shown to exhibit a repressive effect on inulinase synthesis by K. marxianus, while in S. cerevisiae glucose and sucrose were inulinase inducer and repressor, respectively.

  1. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought......-direction of carbon fluxes in S. cerevisiae, and hence show proof of concept that this is a potentially attractive cell factory for over-producing different platform chemicals....

  2. Selection of Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Kutjevo Wine Growing Area at the Laboratoy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sandi Orlić; Nenad Očić; Ana Jeromel; Katarina Huić; Sulejman Redžepović

    2005-01-01

    The use of selected yeasts for winemaking has clear advantages over traditional spontaneous fermentation. Selection of wine yeasts is usually carried out within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Yeast strains produce different amount of secondary compounds that impart specific characteristics to the wines. This suggests that it is necessary to isolate naturally occuring autochthone strains, which exhibit a metabolic profile that corresponds to each wine. Twenty two strains of S.cerevisiae...

  3. Involvement of heme biosynthesis in control of sterol uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, T A; Taylor, F R; Parks, L W

    1985-01-01

    Wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not accumulate exogenous sterols under aerobic conditions, and a mutant allele conferring sterol auxotrophy (erg7) could be isolated only in strains with a heme deficiency. delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) fed to a hem1 (ALA synthetase-) erg7 (2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase-) sterol-auxotrophic strain of S. cerevisiae inhibited sterol uptake, and growth was negatively affected when intracellular sterol was depleted. The inhibition of sterol uptake (and growth o...

  4. Candida zemplinina can reduce acetic acid produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sweet wine fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ~0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response.

  5. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG A-905 in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiago, F C P; Porto, B A A; Ribeiro, N S; Moreira, L M C; Arantes, R M E; Vieira, A T; Teixeira, M M; Generoso, S V; Nascimento, V N; Martins, F S; Nicoli, J R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the protective potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG A-905 was evaluated in a murine model of acute ulcerative colitis (UC). Six groups of Balb/c mice were used: not treated with yeast and not challenged with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) (control); treated with S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 (905); treated with the non-probiotic S. cerevisiae W303 (W303); challenged with DSS (DSS); treated with S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 and challenged with DSS (905 + DSS); and treated with S. cerevisiae W303 and challenged with DSS (W303 + DSS). Seven days after induction of UC, mice were euthanised to remove colon for enzymatic, immunological, and histopathological analysis. In vivo intestinal permeability was also evaluated. An improvement of clinical manifestations of experimental UC was observed only in mice of the 905 + DSS group when compared to animals from DSS and W303 + DSS groups. This observation was confirmed by histological and morphometrical data and determination of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase activities, intestinal permeability and some pro-inflammatory cytokines. S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 showed to be a potential alternative treatment for UC when used in an experimental animal model of the disease.

  6. Mechanisms of appearance of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: inactivation of sugar transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, R; Dominguez, C; Busturia, A; Sáez, M J

    1982-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not show a noticeable Pasteur effect (activation of sugar catabolism by anaerobiosis) when growing with an excess of sugar and nitrogen source, but it does do so after exhaustion of the nitrogen source in the medium (resting state). We have found that this different behavior of growing and resting S. cerevisiae seems due to differences in the contribution of respiration to catabolism under both states. Growing S. cerevisiae respired only 3 to 20% of the catabolized sugar, depending on the sugar present; the remainder was fermented. In contrast, resting S. cerevisiae respired as much as 25 to 100% of the catabolized sugar. These results suggest that a shift to anaerobiosis would have much greater energetic consequences in resting than in growing S. cerevisiae. In resting S. cerevisiae anaerobiosis would strongly decrease the formation of ATP; as a consequence, various regulatory mechanisms would switch on, producing the observed increase of the rate of glycolysis. The greater significance that respiration reached in resting cells was not due to an increase of the respiratory capacity itself, but to a loss of fermentation which turned respiration into the main catabolic pathway. The main mechanism involved in the loss of fermentation observed during nitrogen starvation was a progressive inactivation of the sugar transport systems that reduced the rate of fermentation to less than 10% of the value observed in growing cells. Inactivation of the sugar transports seems a consequence of the turnover of the sugar carriers whose apparent half-lives were 2 to 7 h.

  7. PRODUKSI ETANOL DARI TETES TEBU OLEH Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEMBENTUK FLOK (NRRL – Y 265 (Ethanol Production from Cane Molasses by Flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL – Y 265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Krisna Wardani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of sugar cane molasses by flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production was investigated. In order to minimize the negative effect of calcium on yeast growth, pretreated sugar cane molasses with dilute acid was performed. The influence of process parameters such as sugar concentration and inoculum concentration were evaluated for enhancing bioethanol production. Result showed that maximum ethanol concentration of 8,792% (b/v was obtained at the best condition of inoculum concentration 10% (v/v and sugar concentration 15% (b/v. Based on the experimental data, maximum yield of ethanol production of 65% was obtained. This result demonstrated the potential of molasses as promising biomass resources for ethanol production. Keywords: Ethanol, preteated cane molasses, flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation   ABSTRAK Efisiensi produksi bioetanol diperoleh melalui ketepatan pemilihan jenis mikroorganisme, bahan baku, dan kontrol proses fermentasi. Alternatif proses untuk meminimalisasi biaya produksi etanol adalah dengan mengeliminasi tahap pemisahan sentrifugasi sel dari produk karena memerlukan biaya instalasi dan biaya perawatan yang tinggi. Proses sentrifugasi merupakan tahapan penting untuk memisahkan sel mikroba dari medium fermentasi pada produksi bioetanol. Untuk meminimalisir biaya produksi akibat proses tersebut digunakan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan tetes tebu sebagai sumber gula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi penambahan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan konsentrasi sumber gula dalam tetes tebu yang tepat dalam produksi etanol yang maksimum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sebanyak 5%, 10%, dan 15% (v/v diinokulasikan pada medium tetes tebu hasil pretreatment dengan kandungan gula 15%, 20%, dan 25% (b/v pada pH 5. Fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30°C dan agitasi 100 rpm selama 72 jam. Etanol tertinggi didapat pada kondisi konsentrasi inokulum

  8. A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzenski, Jessica; Darveau, Scott A.; Gindt, Yvonne; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    A novel apparatus that strengthens the connection between research and teaching laboratories and serves multiple purposes is described. A versatile laser apparatus suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory that may serve as polarimeter, nephelometer or fluorimeter is designed.

  9. Development of Portable Uranium Enrichment Measurement Apparatus With CdZnTe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A portable uranium enrichment measurement apparatus with CdZnTe detector manufactured by "eV Products" company was tested in this work. The apparatus consists of a co-planar grid detector based on

  10. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  11. Molecular Pathway of Microtubule Organization at the Golgi Apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jingchao; de Heus, Cecilia; Liu, Qingyang; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Noordstra, Ivar; Jiang, Kai; Hua, Shasha; Martin, Maud; Yang, Chao; Grigoriev, Ilya; Katrukha, Eugene A; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Qi, Robert Z; Klumperman, Judith; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus controls the formation of non-centrosomal microtubule arrays important for Golgi organization, polarized transport, cell motility, and cell differentiation. Here, we show that CAMSAP2 stabilizes and attaches microtubule minus ends to the Golgi through a complex of AKAP450 and myo

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  13. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovotaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2002-07-23

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  14. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  15. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  16. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, John S.; Dowson, Scott T.; Hart, Michelle L.; Hatley, Wes L.

    2008-05-13

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  17. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  18. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  19. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned...

  20. A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougal, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Peltier, or thermoelectric effect, which provides a way of cooling a system by coupling it thermally to the junction of two materials suitably chosen, shaped, and connected to a d.c. current. Describes an apparatus which simply and inexpensively demonstrates this effect. (MLH)

  1. Coacervate droplets, proteinoid microspheres, and the genetic apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Differences between typical coacervate droplets and typical proteinoid microspheres are examined. It is pointed out that coacervate droplets are produced from polymers obtained from contemporary organisms. The microspheres considered are aggregates of proteinoid formed from monomeric amino acids under geologically relevant conditions. Aspects regarding the primordial sequence are discussed along with the origin of the genetic apparatus and the genetic code.

  2. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  3. Processes And Apparatus For Inhibiting Membrane Bio-fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2012-12-20

    Certain embodiments are directed to a process and apparatus for cleaning and/or regeneration of permeable or semipermeable membranes comprising modulating pressure of a feed stream feeding the permeable or semipermeable membrane and providing intermittent pressure pulses for cleaning and/or regeneration of the permeable or semipermeable membrane.

  4. New testing plausibilities of the danish triaxial apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Danish triaxial apparatus can test soil specimens with isotropic stress states. Isotropic stress produces isotropic yielding - the shear zone is distributed equally across the whole volume of a specimen. This prevents localized fracture cracking) and bulging. As the soil specimen remain intact...

  5. Real-time self-networking radiation detector apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Edward; Lemley, James; Tsang, Thomas Y.; Milian, Laurence W.

    2007-06-12

    The present invention is for a radiation detector apparatus for detecting radiation sources present in cargo shipments. The invention includes the features of integrating a bubble detector sensitive to neutrons and a GPS system into a miniaturized package that can wirelessly signal the presence of radioactive material in shipping containers. The bubble density would be read out if such indicated a harmful source.

  6. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: A Versatile Projectile Motion Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert B.; Korda, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and use of a projectile motion apparatus to illustrate a variety of projective motion results typically discussed in an introductory course. They include independence of horizontal (constant speed) and vertical (constant acceleration) motions, parabolic path shape, and other types of motion. (JN)

  7. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  8. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully.

  9. Use of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of scrap-material of a first group from magnetic pieces of scrap- material of a second group, wherein a mixture of pieces of scrap-material from the first group and from the second group is collectively transported with a conveyor to a separating

  10. Apparatus Measures Friction In Vacuum Or Pressurized Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    Friction-testing apparatus in small test chamber contains special atmosphere, which could include vacuum or pressurized gas. Provides readings indicative of friction between pin specimen and plate specimen sliding under pin in reciprocating linear motion. Pin and plate specimens made of same or different material.

  11. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  12. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation is Species and Strain Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine or glutamine were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  13. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  14. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced...

  15. The Effects of Using Scientific and Household Apparatus on the Results of a Primary School Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Ridge, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of using scientific apparatus versus household objects on the accuracy of primary school children in a simple titration exercise. Indicates no significant difference between the accuracy obtained using the two types of apparatus at the beginning, but improved performance for children using scientific apparatus by the end.…

  16. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  17. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  18. Prevalence reduction of pathogens in poultry fed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The growth of new antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens represents a huge problem in poultry rearing. There is evidence that dietary yeast could be effective in the protection against a variety of pathogens that can affect poultry health and cause foodborne diseases in humans. Since still few or contradictory information are available for this topic. Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of live yeast supplementation in broiler chickens on Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni content in feces, cecum, and skin. Method. Supplemented yeast consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell® SB20, type boulardii I-1079, Lallemand, France and was administered at a rate of 1 x 106 CFU·g-1 of feed. On day ten of life, birds were orally challenged with S. enteritidis (1 x 105 CFU/bird and C. jejuni (3 x 105 CFU/bird. Growth performance, and coliforms, yeasts and lactobacilli enumeration were evaluated on day 0, 10, 20 and 38. Ten and eighteen days post infection (PI, 10 animals per replicate were slaughtered and pooled ceca content were analyzed for yeast enumeration and Salmonella and Campylobacter frequency and enumeration. The presence and the enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in neck and breast skin were performed on one subject per replicate. Results. Dietary S. cerevisiae increased yeast and lactobacilli (p = 0.01 count, while Salmonella enumeration and frequency significantly decreased in neck (p = 0.03 and tended to decrease in cecum (p = 0.06, feces (p = 0.06, and breast (p = 0.08. On 10d PI Campylobacter presence was decreased in cecum (p = 0.01, feces (p < 0.01, breast skin (p = 0.04 and neck skin (p < 0.01, while the enumeration was found to be lower in feces (p < 0.01 and neck skin (p = 0.05. At the end of the trial the frequency of this pathogen was decreased in feces (p < 0.01, and breast skin (p = 0.02, while the enumeration was diminished in cecum (p

  19. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  20. Ethanol fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah; Syahidah Ku Ismail, Ku

    2004-05-01

    Fermentation of sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of ethanol in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was successfully carried out to improve the performance of the fermentation process. The fermentation set-up was comprised of a column packed with beads of immobilized cells. The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was simply performed by the enriched cells cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase. The fixed cell loaded ICR was carried out at initial stage of operation and the cell was entrapped by calcium alginate. The production of ethanol was steady after 24 h of operation. The concentration of ethanol was affected by the media flow rates and residence time distribution from 2 to 7 h. In addition, batch fermentation was carried out with 50 g/l glucose concentration. Subsequently, the ethanol productions and the reactor productivities of batch fermentation and immobilized cells were compared. In batch fermentation, sugar consumption and ethanol production obtained were 99.6% and 12.5% v/v after 27 h while in the ICR, 88.2% and 16.7% v/v were obtained with 6 h retention time. Nearly 5% ethanol production was achieved with high glucose concentration (150 g/l) at 6 h retention time. A yield of 38% was obtained with 150 g/l glucose. The yield was improved approximately 27% on ICR and a 24 h fermentation time was reduced to 7 h. The cell growth rate was based on the Monod rate equation. The kinetic constants (K(s) and mu(m)) of batch fermentation were 2.3 g/l and 0.35 g/lh, respectively. The maximum yield of biomass on substrate (Y(X-S)) and the maximum yield of product on substrate (Y(P-S)) in batch fermentations were 50.8% and 31.2% respectively. Productivity of the ICR were 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 g/lh for 25, 35, 50 g/l of glucose concentration, respectively. The productivity of ethanol in batch fermentation with 50 g/l glucose was calculated as 0.29 g/lh. Maximum production of ethanol in ICR when compared to batch reactor has shown to increase

  1. Three-dimensional shape of the Golgi apparatus in different cell types: serial section scanning electron microscopy of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies of the Golgi apparatus structure have been performed by light and electron microscopy, the full shape of the Golgi apparatus remained unclear due to the technical limitations of the previously applied microscopy techniques. In this study, we used serial section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the morphological study of the Golgi apparatus. This method is useful for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures without requiring specialized instruments, unlike focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and serial block face SEM (SBF-SEM). Using the serial section SEM method developed by our laboratory, we investigate the 3D shape of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus in rat epididymal cells, pancreatic acinar cells and gonadotropes. The combination of serial section SEM and a 3D reconstruction technique enabled us to elucidate the entire shape of the Golgi apparatus in these cells. The full shape of the Golgi apparatus in epididymal cells formed a basket-like structure with oval-shaped cisterns, while the Golgi apparatus in an acinar cell from the pancreas was composed of elongated ribbon-like structures that were connected to each other, making a coarse network. The overall image of the Golgi apparatus cisterns from a gonadotrope looked like a spherical cage. This study has clearly shown that entire 3D shape of the Golgi apparatus varies depending on the cell type and that the Golgi cisterns network appears as a single mass located in the large region of the cytoplasm.

  2. Traffic through the Golgi apparatus as studied by radioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G; Wild, G

    1991-02-01

    The ability to radiolabel biological molecules, in conjunction with radioautographic or cell fractionation techniques, has brought about a revolution in our knowledge of dynamic cellular processes. This has been particularly true since the 1940's, when isotopes such as 35S and 14C became available, since these isotopes could be incorporated into a great variety of biologically important compounds. The first dynamic evidence for Golgi apparatus involvement in biosynthesis came from light microscope radioautographic studies by Jennings and Florey in the 1950's, in which label was localized to the supranuclear Golgi region of goblet cells soon after injection of 35S-sulfate. When the low energy isotope tritium became available, and when radioautography could be extended to the electron microscope level, a great improvement in spatial resolution was achieved. Studies using 3H-amino acids revealed that proteins were synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, migrated to the Golgi apparatus, and thence to secretion granules, lysosomes, or the plasma membrane. The work of Neutra and Leblond in the 1960's using 3H-glucose provided dramatic evidence that the Golgi apparatus was involved in glycosylation. Work with 3H-mannose (a core sugar in N-linked side chains), showed that this sugar was incorporated into glycoproteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, providing the first radioautographic evidence that glycosylation of proteins did not occur solely in the Golgi apparatus. Studies with the tritiated precursors of fucose, galactose, and sialic acid, on the other hand, showed that these terminal sugars are mainly added in the Golgi apparatus. With its limited spatial resolution, radioautography cannot discriminate between label in adjacent Golgi saccules. Nonetheless, in some cell types, radioautographic evidence (along with cytochemical and cell fractionation data) has indicated that the Golgi is subcompartmentalized in terms of glycosylation, with galactose and

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Hafiza Sumara; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Mahmood, Shahid; Anwer, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129), very important food azo dyes used in food, drug, paper, cosmetic and textile industries, were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. Comet assay was standardized by with different concentration of H(2)O(2). Concentrations of Amaranth and Allura red were maintained in sorbitol buffer starting from 9.76 to 5,000 μg/mL and 1 × 10(4) cells were incubated at two different incubation temperatures 28 and 37°C. Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) were found to exhibit their genotoxic effect directly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. At 37°C the minimum concentration of Amaranth and Allura red at which significant DNA damage observed through comet assay was 1,250 μg/mL in 2nd h post exposure time. The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking.

  4. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to “ postdict ” the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  6. Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1990-12-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

  7. Biotransformation of malachite green by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J P; Govindwar, S P

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, use of microbial biomass for decolourization of textile industry wastewater is becoming a promising alternative in which some bacteria and fungi are used to replace present treatment processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463 decolourized the triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, cotton blue, methyl violet and crystal violet) by biosorption, showing different decolourization patterns. However, malachite green decolourized by biosorption at the initial stage and further biodegradation occurred, about 85% in plain distilled water within 7 h, and about 95.5% in 5% glucose medium within 4 h, under aerobic conditions and at room temperature. Decolourization of malachite green depends on various conditions, such as concentration of dye, concentration of cells, composition of medium and agitation. HPLC, UV-VIS, FTIR and TLC analysis of samples extracted with ethyl acetate from decolourized culture flasks confirmed the biodegradation of malachite green into several metabolites. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of malachite green in the control and cells obtained after decolourization showed the activities of laccase, lignin peroxidase, NADH-DCIP reductase, malachite green reductase and aminopyrine N-demethylase in control cells. A significant increase in the activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and MG reductase was observed in the cells obtained after decolourization, indicating a major involvement of reductases in malachite green degradation.

  8. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2003-01-01

    in the rat7–1 strain colocalize predominantly with nucleolar antigens. Bulk poly(A)+ RNA, on the other hand, is localized primarily to the nuclear rim. Interestingly, the RNA binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Npl3p shows strong colocalization with bulk poly(A)+ RNA, regardless of its nuclear location...... in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal...... site of transcription, and known S. cerevisiae nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and the nucleolar body. Our results show that retained SSA4 RNA localizes to an area in close proximity to the SSA4 locus. On deletion of Rrp6p and release from the genomic locus, heat shock mRNAs produced...

  9. YPA: an integrated repository of promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Chi-Yeh; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Yeast Promoter Atlas (YPA, http://ypa.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ or http://ypa.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/) database, which aims to collect comprehensive promoter features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YPA integrates nine kinds of promoter features including promoter sequences, genes' transcription boundaries-transcription start sites (TSSs), five prime untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) and three prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs), TATA boxes, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), nucleosome occupancy, DNA bendability, transcription factor (TF) binding, TF knockout expression and TF-TF physical interaction. YPA is designed to present data in a unified manner as many important observations are revealed only when these promoter features are considered altogether. For example, DNA rigidity can prevent nucleosome packaging, thereby making TFBSs in the rigid DNA regions more accessible to TFs. Integrating nucleosome occupancy, DNA bendability, TF binding, TF knockout expression and TFBS data helps to identify which TFBS is actually functional. In YPA, various promoter features can be accessed in a centralized and organized platform. Researchers can easily view if the TFBSs in an interested promoter are occupied by nucleosomes or located in a rigid DNA segment and know if the expression of the downstream gene responds to the knockout of the corresponding TFs. Compared to other established yeast promoter databases, YPA collects not only TFBSs but also many other promoter features to help biologists study transcriptional regulation.

  10. Cellular memory of acquired stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2012-10-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria "remembering" prior nutritional status and amoeba "learning" to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H(2)O(2). We set out to characterize the retention of acquired tolerance and in the process uncovered two distinct aspects of cellular memory. First, we found that H(2)O(2) resistance persisted for four to five generations after cells were removed from the prior salt treatment and was transmitted to daughter cells that never directly experienced the pretreatment. Maintenance of this memory did not require nascent protein synthesis after the initial salt pretreatment, but rather required long-lived cytosolic catalase Ctt1p that was synthesized during salt exposure and then distributed to daughter cells during subsequent cell divisions. In addition to and separable from the memory of H(2)O(2) resistance, these cells also displayed a faster gene-expression response to subsequent stress at >1000 genes, representing transcriptional memory. The faster gene-expression response requires the nuclear pore component Nup42p and serves an important function by facilitating faster reacquisition of H(2)O(2) tolerance after a second cycle of salt exposure. Memory of prior stress exposure likely provides a significant advantage to microbial populations living in ever-changing environments.

  11. Sulfate assimilation mediates tellurite reduction and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Lars-Göran; Logg, Katarina; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Sunnerhagen, Per; Käll, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2010-10-01

    Despite a century of research and increasing environmental and human health concerns, the mechanistic basis of the toxicity of derivatives of the metalloid tellurium, Te, in particular the oxyanion tellurite, Te(IV), remains unsolved. Here, we provide an unbiased view of the mechanisms of tellurium metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring deviations in Te-related traits of a complete collection of gene knockout mutants. Reduction of Te(IV) and intracellular accumulation as metallic tellurium strongly correlated with loss of cellular fitness, suggesting that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity are causally linked. The sulfate assimilation pathway upstream of Met17, in particular, the sulfite reductase and its cofactor siroheme, was shown to be central to tellurite toxicity and its reduction to elemental tellurium. Gene knockout mutants with altered Te(IV) tolerance also showed a similar deviation in tolerance to both selenite and, interestingly, selenomethionine, suggesting that the toxicity of these agents stems from a common mechanism. We also show that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity in yeast is partially mediated via a mitochondrial respiratory mechanism that does not encompass the generation of substantial oxidative stress. The results reported here represent a robust base from which to attack the mechanistic details of Te(IV) toxicity and reduction in a eukaryotic organism.

  12. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  13. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Nogueira Moysés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review.

  14. An overview of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, B

    1995-12-01

    All eukaryotic cells contain a wide variety of proteins embedded in the plasma and internal membranes, which ensure transmembrane solute transport. It is now established that a large proportion of these transport proteins can be grouped into families apparently conserved throughout organisms. This article presents the data of an in silicio analysis aimed at establishing a preliminary classification of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was conducted at a time when about 65% of all yeast genes were available in public databases. In addition to approximately 60 transport proteins whose function was at least partially known, approximately 100 deduced protein sequences of unknown function display significant sequence similarity to membrane transport proteins characterized in yeast and/or other organisms. While some protein families have been well characterized by classical genetic experimental approaches, others have largely if not totally escaped characterization. The proteins revealed by this in silicio analysis also include a putative K+ channel, proteins similar to aquaporins of plant and animal origin, proteins similar to Na+-solute symporters, a protein very similar to electroneural cation-chloride cotransporters, and a putative Na+-H+ antiporter. A new research area is anticipated: the functional analysis of many transport proteins whose existence was revealed by genome sequencing.

  15. Systematic analysis of S. cerevisiae chromosome VIII genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenthal, R; Riles, L; Güldener, U; Klein, S; Johnston, M; Hegemann, J H

    1999-12-01

    To begin genome-wide functional analysis, we analysed the consequences of deleting each of the 265 genes of chromosome VIII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For 33% of the deletion strains a growth phenotype could be detected: 18% of the genes are essential for growth on complete glucose medium, and 15% grow significantly more slowly than the wild-type strain or exhibit a conditional phenotype when incubated under one of 20 different growth conditions. Two-thirds of the mutants that exhibit conditional phenotypes are pleiotropic; about one-third of the mutants exhibit only one phenotype. We also measured the level of expression directed by the promoter of each gene. About half of the promoters direct detectable transcription in rich glucose medium, and most of these exhibited only low or medium activity. Only 1% of the genes are expressed at about the same level as ACT1. The number of active promoters increased to 76% upon growth on a non-fermentable carbon source, and to 93% in minimal glucose medium. The majority of promoters fluctuated in strength, depending on the medium.

  16. Asparaginyl deamidation in two glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuna, Alexander; Quezada, Héctor; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; González, Alicia

    2005-03-25

    The non-enzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous damage of several proteins under physiological conditions. In many cases, deamidation and isoaspartyl formation alters the biological activity or stability of the native polypeptide. Rates of deamidation of particular residues depend on many factors including protein structure and solvent exposure. Here, we investigated the spontaneous deamidation of the two NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have different kinetic properties and are differentially expressed in this yeast. Our results show that Asn54, present in Gdh3p but missing in the GDH1-encoded homologue, is readily deamidated in vitro under alkaline conditions. Relative to the native enzyme, deamidated Gdh3p shows reduced protein stability. The different deamidation rates of the two isoenzymes could explain to some extent, the relative in vivo instability of the allosteric Gdh3p enzyme, compared to that of Gdh1p. It is thus possible that spontaneous asparaginyl modification could play a role in the metabolic regulation of ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis.

  17. Regulation by ammonium of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogonez, E; Satrústegui, J; Machado, A

    1985-06-01

    The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.4.1.4; NADP-GDH) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is decreased under conditions in which intracellular ammonia concentrations increases. A high internal ammonia concentration can be obtained (a) by increasing the ammonium sulphate concentration in the culture medium, and (b) by growing the yeast either in acetate + ammonia media, where the pH of the medium rises during growth, or in heavily buffered glucose + ammonia media at pH 7.5. Under these conditions cellular oxoglutarate concentrations do not vary and changes in NADP-GDH activity appear to provide a constant rate of oxoglutarate utilization. The following results suggest that the decrease in NADP-GDH activity in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells is brought about by repression of synthesis: (i) after a shift to high ammonium sulphate concentrations, the number of units of activity per cell decreased as the inverse of cell doubling; and (ii) the rate of degradation of labelled NADP-GDH was essentially the same in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells and in controls, whereas the synthesis constant was much lower in the ammonia-accumulating cells than in the controls.

  18. Rapid Identification of Chemical Genetic Interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, David; Nelson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described. PMID:25867090

  19. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions.

  20. D-xylulose fermentation to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.C.; Gong, C.S.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-08-01

    Commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used to study the conversion of D-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of D-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for D-xylulose fermentation was 35 degrees Celcius, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of D-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of D-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of D-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from D-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. (Refs. 21).

  1. mRNA quality control pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satarupa Das; Biswadip Das

    2013-09-01

    Efficient production of translation-competent mRNAs involves processing and modification events both in the nucleus and cytoplasm which require a number of complex machineries at both co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Mutations in the genomic sequence sometimes result in the formation of mutant non-functional defective messages. In addition, the enormous amounts of complexities involved in the biogenesis of mRNPs in the nucleus very often leads to the formation of aberrant and faulty messages along with their functional counterpart. Subsequent translation of these mutant and defective populations of messenger RNAs could possibly result in the unfaithful transmission of genetic information and thus is considered a threat to the survival of the cell. To prevent this possibility, mRNA quality control systems have evolved both in the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes to scrutinize various stages of mRNP biogenesis and translation. In this review, we will focus on the physiological role of some of these mRNA quality control systems in the simplest model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. Direct mating between diploid sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinji; Aritomi, Kazuo; Minohara, Takafumi; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Hoshida, Hisashi; Kashiwagi, Susumu; Akada, Rinji

    2006-02-01

    Various auxotrophic mutants of diploid heterothallic Japanese sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were utilized for selecting mating-competent diploid isolates. The auxotrophic mutants were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and crossed with laboratory haploid tester strains carrying complementary auxotrophic markers. Zygotes were then selected on minimal medium. Sake strains exhibiting a MATa or MATalpha mating type were easily obtained at high frequency without prior sporulation, suggesting that the UV irradiation induced homozygosity at the MAT locus. Flow cytometric analysis of a hybrid showed a twofold higher DNA content than the sake diploid parent, consistent with tetraploidy. By crossing strains of opposite mating type in all possible combinations, a number of hybrids were constructed. Hybrids formed in crosses between traditional sake strains and between a natural nonhaploid isolate and traditional sake strains displayed equivalent fermentation ability without any apparent defects and produced comparable or improved sake. Isolation of mating-competent auxotrophic mutants directly from industrial yeast strains allows crossbreeding to construct polyploids suitable for industrial use without dependence on sporulation.

  3. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, D D; Timmermans, V; Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1995-05-25

    The RAD16 gene product has been shown to be essential for the repair of the silenced mating type loci [Bang et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3925-3931]. More recently we demonstrated that the RAD16 and RAD7 proteins are also required for repair of non-transcribed strands of active genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Waters et al. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 28-32]. We have studied the regulation of the RAD16 gene and found that the RAD16 transcript levels increased up to 7-fold upon UV irradiation. Heat shock at 42 degrees C also results in elevated levels of RAD16 mRNA. In sporulating MAT alpha/MATa diploid cells RAD16 mRNA is also induced. The basal level of the RAD16 transcript is constant during the mitotic cell cycle. G1-arrested cells show normal induction of RAD16 mRNA upon UV irradiation demonstrating that the induction is not a secondary consequence of G2 cell cycle arrest following UV irradiation. However, in cells arrested in G1 the induction of RAD16 mRNA after UV irradiation is not followed by a rapid decline as occurs in normal growing cells suggesting that the down regulation of RAD16 transcription is dependent on progression into the cell cycle.

  4. Single-nucleosome mapping of histone modifications in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Long Liu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modification of histone proteins plays a role in virtually every process on eukaryotic DNA, from transcription to DNA repair. Many different residues can be covalently modified, and it has been suggested that these modifications occur in a great number of independent, meaningful combinations. Published low-resolution microarray studies on the combinatorial complexity of histone modification patterns suffer from confounding effects caused by the averaging of modification levels over multiple nucleosomes. To overcome this problem, we used a high-resolution tiled microarray with single-nucleosome resolution to investigate the occurrence of combinations of 12 histone modifications on thousands of nucleosomes in actively growing S. cerevisiae. We found that histone modifications do not occur independently; there are roughly two groups of co-occurring modifications. One group of lysine acetylations shows a sharply defined domain of two hypo-acetylated nucleosomes, adjacent to the transcriptional start site, whose occurrence does not correlate with transcription levels. The other group consists of modifications occurring in gradients through the coding regions of genes in a pattern associated with transcription. We found no evidence for a deterministic code of many discrete states, but instead we saw blended, continuous patterns that distinguish nucleosomes at one location (e.g., promoter nucleosomes from those at another location (e.g., over the 3' ends of coding regions. These results are consistent with the idea of a simple, redundant histone code, in which multiple modifications share the same role.

  5. MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

  6. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen K; McAinsh, Martin; Cantopher, Hanna; Sandison, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA) revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  7. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowers, Katie J; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2015-09-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xianan; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2013-11-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal herb and exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol is the aglycon of several dammarane-type ginsenosides, which also has anticancer activity. For microbial production of protopanaxadiol, dammarenediol-II synthase and protopanaxadiol synthase genes of Panax ginseng, together with a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 0.05 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol. Increasing squalene and 2,3-oxidosqualene supplies through overexpressing truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes, together with increasing protopanaxadiol synthase activity through codon optimization, led to 262-fold increase of protopanaxadiol production. Finally, using two-phase extractive fermentation resulted in production of 8.40 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol (1189 mg/L), together with 10.94 mg/g DCW dammarenediol-II (1548 mg/L). The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for production of ginsenosides in place of extraction from plant sources.

  9. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Roberts

    Full Text Available Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  10. Allosteric interactions of DNA and nucleotides with S. cerevisiae RSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Shuja Shafi; Rich, Evan; Viswanathan, Ramya; Cairns, Bradley R; Fischer, Christopher J

    2011-09-20

    RSC (remodel the structure of chromatin) is an essential chromatin remodeler of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has been shown to have DNA translocase properties. We studied the DNA binding properties of a "trimeric minimal RSC" (RSCt) of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex and the effect of nucleotides on this interaction using fluorescence anisotropy. RSCt binds to 20 bp fluorescein-labeled double-stranded DNA with a K(d) of ∼100 nM. The affinity of RSCt for DNA is reduced in the presence of AMP-PNP and ADP in a concentration-dependent manner with the addition of AMP-PNP having more pronounced effect. These differences in the magnitude at which the binding of ADP and AMP-PNP affects the affinity of DNA binding by RSCt suggest that the physical movement of the enzyme along DNA begins between the binding of ATP and its subsequent hydrolysis. Furthermore, the fact that the highest affinity for DNA binding by RSCt occurs in the absence of bound nucleotide offers a mechanistic explanation for the apparent low processivity of DNA translocation by the enzyme.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for caffeine and theobromine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g., tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for caffeine and theobromine production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jin

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g., tea (Camellia sinensis and coffee (Coffea arabica. Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed.

  13. The network architecture of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Hoang

    Full Text Available We propose a network-based approach for surmising the spatial organization of genomes from high-throughput interaction data. Our strategy is based on methods for inferring architectural features of networks. Specifically, we employ a community detection algorithm to partition networks of genomic interactions. These community partitions represent an intuitive interpretation of genomic organization from interaction data. Furthermore, they are able to recapitulate known aspects of the spatial organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, such as the rosette conformation of the genome, the clustering of centromeres, as well as tRNAs, and telomeres. We also demonstrate that simple architectural features of genomic interaction networks, such as cliques, can give meaningful insight into the functional role of the spatial organization of the genome. We show that there is a correlation between inter-chromosomal clique size and replication timing, as well as cohesin enrichment. Together, our network-based approach represents an effective and intuitive framework for interpreting high-throughput genomic interaction data. Importantly, there is a great potential for this strategy, given the rich literature and extensive set of existing tools in the field of network analysis.

  14. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  15. Metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae for branched-chain ester productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jifeng; Mishra, Pranjul; Ching, Chi Bun

    2016-12-10

    Medium branched-chain esters can be used not only as a biofuel but are also useful chemicals with various industrial applications. The development of economically feasible and environment friendly bio-based fuels requires efficient cell factories capable of producing desired products in high yield. Herein, we sought to use a number of strategies to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of branched-chain esters. Mitochondrion-based expression of ATF1 gene in a base strain with an overexpressed valine biosynthetic pathway together with expression of mitochondrion-relocalized α-ketoacid decarboxylase (encoded by ARO10) and alcohol dehydrogenase (encoded by ADH7) not only produced isobutyl acetate, but also 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate and 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate. Further segmentation of the downstream esterification step into the cytosol to utilize the cytosolic acetyl-CoA pool for acetyltransferase (ATF)-mediated condensation enabled an additional fold improvement of ester productions. The best titre attained in the present study is 260.2mg/L isobutyl acetate, 296.1mg/L 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate and 289.6mg/L 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate.

  16. Data on dynamic study of cytoophidia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data in this paper are related to the research article entitled “Filamentation of metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae” Q.J. Shen et al. (2016 [1]. Cytoophidia are filamentous structures discovered in fruit flies (doi:10.1016/S1673-8527(0960046-1 J.L. Liu (2010 [2], bacteria (doi:10.1038/ncb2087 M. Ingerson-Mahar et al. (2010 [3], yeast (doi:10.1083/jcb.201003001; doi:10.1242/bio.20149613 C. Noree et al. (2010 and J. Zhang, L. Hulme, J.L. Liu (2014 [4,5] and human cells (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029690; doi:10.1016/j.jgg.2011.08.004 K. Chen et al. (2011 and W.C. Carcamo et al. (2011 ( [6,7]. However, there is little research on the motility of the cytoophidia. Here we selected cytoophidia formed by 6 filament-forming proteins in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and performed living-cell imaging of cells expressing the proteins fused with GFP. The dynamic features of the six types of cytoophidia were analyzed. In the data, both raw movies and analysed results of the dynamics of cytoophidia are presented.

  17. Assembly of evolved ligninolytic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzymatic consortium produced by white-rot fungi is one of the most efficient oxidative systems found in nature, with many potential applications that range from the production of 2nd generation biofuels to chemicals synthesis. In the current study, two high redox potential oxidoreductase fusion genes (laccase -Lac- and versatile peroxidase -Vp-) that had been evolved in the laboratory were re-assembled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, cell viability and secretion were assessed after co-transforming the Lac and Vp genes into yeast. Several expression cassettes were inserted in vivo into episomal bi-directional vectors in order to evaluate inducible promoter and/or terminator pairs of different strengths in an individual and combined manner. The synthetic white-rot yeast model harboring Vp(GAL1/CYC1)-Lac(GAL10/ADH1) displayed up to 1000 and 100 Units per L of peroxidase and laccase activity, respectively, representing a suitable point of departure for future synthetic biology studies. PMID:24830983

  18. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora.

  19. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics...... than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative...... northern blots further revealed that AIM1, ASG1, AVT1, DRN1, ELP4, FLO8, FMP10, HMT1, KAR5, MIT1, MRPL32, MSS11, NCP1, NPR1, PEP5, PEX25, RIM8, RIM101, RGT1, SNF8, SPC2, STB6, STP22, TEC1, VID24, VPS20, VTC3, YBL029W, YBL029C-A, YFL054C, YGR161W-C, YIL014C-A, YIR024C, YKL151C, YNL200C, YOR034C-A, and YOR...

  20. Capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina frente ao dano oxidativo induzido em linhagens mutantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Laylson da Silva Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é um tipo de flavonoide encontrado nas plantas e de grande interesse farmacológico, já que muitas propriedades têm sido atribuídas a rutina, incluindo antialérgica, anti-inflamatória, antitumoral e principalmente antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi proporcionar um maior conhecimento sobre a capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina utilizando linhagens de S. cerevisiae proficiente e deficiente em defesas antioxidantes. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1∆, Sod2∆, Sod1∆Sod2∆, Cat1∆, Sod1∆Cat1∆ foram expostas as várias concentrações da rutina em três diferentes condições de tratamento (pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento e assim verificar se a rutina inibe o efeito oxidativo do peróxido de hidrogênio, permitindo o aumento da sobrevivência das linhagens testadas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a rutina diminui significativamente os danos oxidativos nas linhagens de S. cerevisiae nas condições de pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento, demonstrando que a rutina apresenta uma elevada capacidade antioxidante celular, sendo importante na proteção ao estresse oxidativo induzido.Palavras-chave: Rutina. S. cerevisiae. capacidade antioxidante. ABSTRACTCellular antioxidant capacity of rutin against the oxidative damage induced in mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeRutin is a type of flavonoid found in plants and of great pharmacological interest since many properties have been attributed rutin, including antiallergic, antiinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant primarily. The aim of this study was to provide greater insight into the cellular antioxidant capacity of rutin using strains of S. cerevisiae proficient and deficient in antioxidant defenses. The strains of S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1Δ, Sod2Δ, Sod1ΔSod2Δ, Cat1Δ, Sod1ΔCat1Δ were exposed to various concentrations of rutin in three different conditions of treatment (pre-treatment, co-treatment and post

  1. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking.

  2. Bioethanol production from Gracilaria verrucosa using Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapted to NaCl or galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, InYung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-12-18

    This study examined the pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of the red macroalgae Gracilaria verrucosa using adapted saccharomyces cerevisiae to galactose or NaCl for the increase of bioethanol yield. Pretreatment with thermal acid hydrolysis to obtain galactose was carried out with 11.7% (w/v) seaweed slurry and 373 mM H2SO4 at 121 °C for 59 min. Glucose was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic saccharification was performed with a mixture of 16 U/mL Celluclast 1.5L and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation in 11.7% (w/v) seaweed hydrolysate was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted or non-adapted to high concentrations of galactose or NaCl. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 was used, the ethanol productivity was 0.09 g/(Lh) with an ethanol yield of 0.25. Ethanol productivity of 0.16 and 0.19 g/(Lh) with ethanol yields of 0.43 and 0.48 was obtained using S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted to high concentrations of galactose and NaCl, respectively. Adaptation of S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 to galactose or NaCl increased the ethanol yield via adaptive evolution of the yeast.

  3. Screening of Non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Tolerance to Formic Acid in Bioethanol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshoma, Cyprian E; Greetham, Darren; Louis, Edward J; Smart, Katherine A; Phister, Trevor G; Powell, Chris; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is one of the major inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic materials, the presence of which can significantly hamper the efficiency of converting available sugars into bioethanol. This study investigated the potential for screening formic acid tolerance in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which could be used for the development of advanced generation bioethanol processes. Spot plate and phenotypic microarray methods were used to screen the formic acid tolerance of 7 non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. S. kudriavzeii IFO1802 and S. arboricolus 2.3319 displayed a higher formic acid tolerance when compared to other strains in the study. Strain S. arboricolus 2.3319 was selected for further investigation due to its genetic variability among the Saccharomyces species as related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and availability of two sibling strains: S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 in the lab. The tolerance of S. arboricolus strains (2.3317, 2.3318 and 2.3319) to formic acid was further investigated by lab-scale fermentation analysis, and compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC2592. S. arboricolus 2.3319 demonstrated improved formic acid tolerance and a similar bioethanol synthesis capacity to S. cerevisiae NCYC2592, while S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 exhibited an overall inferior performance. Metabolite analysis indicated that S. arboricolus strain 2.3319 accumulated comparatively high concentrations of glycerol and glycogen, which may have contributed to its ability to tolerate high levels of formic acid.

  4. Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyma, Katie E; Fay, Justin C

    2013-06-01

    Humans have had a significant impact on the distribution and abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through its widespread use in beer, bread and wine production. Yet, similar to other Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae has also been isolated from habitats unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide are genetically differentiated from strains isolated from oak-tree bark, exudate and associated soil in North America. However, the causes and consequences of this differentiation have not yet been resolved. Historical differentiation of these two groups may have been influenced by geographic, ecological or human-associated barriers to gene flow. Here, we make use of the relatively recent establishment of vineyards across North America to identify and characterize any active barriers to gene flow between these two groups. We examined S. cerevisiae strains isolated from grapes and oak trees within three North American vineyards and compared them to those isolated from oak trees outside of vineyards. Within vineyards, we found evidence of migration between grapes and oak trees and potential gene flow between the divergent oak-tree and vineyard groups. Yet, we found no vineyard genotypes on oak trees outside of vineyards. In contrast, Saccharomyces paradoxus isolated from the same sources showed population structure characterized by isolation by distance. The apparent absence of ecological or genetic barriers between sympatric vineyard and oak-tree populations of S. cerevisiae implies that vineyards play an important role in the mixing between these two groups.

  5. Effects of sequential mixed cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on apple cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mengqi; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2014-09-01

    The fermentation of cider by mixed cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to study their effect on the cider quality. The results showed that growth of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae was affected by each other during co-fermentation process. All the mixed cultures produced statistically the same level of ethanol as S. cerevisiae monoculture. The mixed fermentation could produce more variety and higher amounts of acetate esters, ethyl esters, higher alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that ciders obtained from co-fermentation with W. anomalus gained higher scores than ciders fermented by pure S. cerevisiae, especially the co-fermentation cultures WS3, WS4, WS6, and WS8. Only 3 days of fermentation with W. anomalus in sequential mixtures were enough to improve the quality of cider. Wickerhamomyces anomalus could be used in association with S. cerevisiae to improve the quality of cider. The modulation of inoculation time may provide an effective means of manipulating cider aroma for different characteristics.

  6. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G

    2014-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  7. Implications of the Golgi apparatus in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Toshiro; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    The classical view of the Golgi apparatus is of a small membranous organelle involved in protein transport and secretion. Recent descriptions of the molecular network connecting the Golgi to other organelles demonstrate the essential roles of the Golgi in cellular activities as a stress sensor, apoptosis trigger, lipid/protein modifier, mitotic checkpoint, and a mediator of malignant transformation. Thus, the Golgi function should have a fundamental impact on cancer cell survival. Prostate cancer is initially responsive to androgenic hormones; however, it almost invariably progresses to a castration-refractory or hormone-insensitive state. Nevertheless, androgen signaling remains active at this stage and is important as a therapeutic target. Certain Golgi-associated molecules have recently been demonstrated to be regulated by androgen action, and the Golgi is emerging as a new therapeutic target in prostate cancer. The key Golgi-associated molecules essential for prostate cancer development and the potential therapeutic options targeting the Golgi apparatus are discussed.

  8. Collective communications apparatus and method for parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Allan D.; Keppel, David Pardo; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Fryman, Joshua B.

    2016-10-25

    A collective communication apparatus and method for parallel computing systems. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises a plurality of processor elements (PEs); collective interconnect logic to dynamically form a virtual collective interconnect (VCI) between the PEs at runtime without global communication among all of the PEs, the VCI defining a logical topology between the PEs in which each PE is directly communicatively coupled to a only a subset of the remaining PEs; and execution logic to execute collective operations across the PEs, wherein one or more of the PEs receive first results from a first portion of the subset of the remaining PEs, perform a portion of the collective operations, and provide second results to a second portion of the subset of the remaining PEs.

  9. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  10. Method of stabilizing a laser apparatus with wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling beam quality and stability of a laser apparatus, the laser apparatus comprising, a diode laser (10) providing first radiation of at least a first wavelength, and a frequency conversion unit (12) configured to frequency-convert the first radiation from the diode laser......) into the first section (222), a second contact (221) for injecting a second current (I2) into the second section (223), and means for controlling a temperature of the diode laser; wherein the method comprises monitoring a first parameter indicative of the power content of a dominant lobe of the first radiation......; iteratively determining a combination of respective values of the first current, the second current and the temperature at which combination of respective values the monitored first parameter and a stability parameter indicative of a fluctuation over time of the monitored first parameter each fulfils...

  11. The SHIVA Project: Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, Jim; Rogers, Jan; Witherow, William; Coimbra, Carlos; Rangel, Roger; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The poster summarizes theoretical and experimental concepts used in the development of the proposed NASA flight experiment SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus). SHIVA exploits a unique holography-based, diagnostics tools to understand the behavior of small particles subjected to transient accelerations. Flight experiment protocols and apparatus will test model equations, characterize the acceleration environment and other microgravity phenomena. The primary objective of SHIVA is to enhance the current understanding of complex dynamics of small particles subjected to transient microgravity conditions. Existing theory did not fully describe the movement of particles in fluids in the microgravity environment. Results from recent ground-based experiments and comparison with the model recently developed by Rangel and Coimbra are presented.

  12. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  13. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  14. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Thomson, Judi R.; Harvey, William J.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Whiting, Mark A.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Chappell, Alan R.; Butner, R. Scott

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  15. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S. (Jamal); Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  16. Apparatus and method for mapping an area of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Torsten A. Cohen, Daniel L.; Feller, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for mapping an area of interest using polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates. The apparatus includes a range finder, an azimuth angle measuring device to provide a heading and an inclinometer to provide an angle of inclination of the range finder as it relates to primary reference points and points of interest. A computer is provided to receive signals from the range finder, inclinometer and azimuth angle measurer to record location data and calculate relative locations between one or more points of interest and one or more primary reference points. The method includes mapping of an area of interest to locate points of interest relative to one or more primary reference points and to store the information in the desired manner. The device may optionally also include an illuminator which can be utilized to paint the area of interest to indicate both points of interest and primary points of reference during and/or after data acquisition.

  17. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  18. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  19. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  20. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.