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Sample records for cereus group genomes

  1. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  2. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  3. Differentiation of strains from the Bacillus cereus group by RFLP-PFGE genomic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus belong to the B. cereus group. The last three species are characterized by different phenotype features and pathogenicity spectrum, but it has been shown that these species are genetically closely related. The macrorestriction analysis of the genomic DNA with the NotI enzyme was used to generate polymorphism of restriction profiles for 39 food-borne isolates (B. cereus, B. mycoides) and seven reference strains (B. mycoides, B. thuringiensis, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. cereus). The PFGE method was applied to differentiate the examined strains of the B. cereus group. On the basis of the unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic mean method and Dice coefficient, the strains were divided into five clusters (types A-E), and the most numerous group was group A (25 strains). A total of 21 distinct pulsotypes were observed. The RFLP-PFGE analysis was successfully used for the differentiation and characterization of B. cereus and B. mycoides strains isolated from different food products.

  4. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  5. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  6. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens. PMID:22207744

  7. Characterization of a spore-specific protein of the Bacillus cereus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    From, C.; Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.; Granum, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bc1245 is a monocistronic chromosomal gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encoding a putative protein of 143 amino acids identified in this study to have a spore-related function in B. cereus. Bc1245 is highly conserved in the genome of members of the B. cereus group, indicating an important function

  8. Group II introns in the Bacillus cereus group with unusual splicing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stabell, Fredrik Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements have had, and still have an impact on the evolution of the genomes providing means for adaptation and structural organization. These elements are one of the major driving forces for the general evolution of all life forms. For the organisms and their genomes these elements are essential for development and adaptation to different environments. The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes the related species B. cereus (sensu stricto), B. thuringiensis, B. weihenst...

  9. Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family in the Bacillus cereus species-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyer David W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis. While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group. How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter selection. Thus, examining sigma factor divergence in these organisms would concurrently examine both regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks important for divergence. We began this examination by comparison to the sigma factor gene set of B. subtilis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the Bc species-group utilizing 157 single-copy genes of the family Bacillaceae suggests that several taxonomic revisions of the genus Bacillus should be considered. Within the Bc species-group there is little indication that the currently recognized species form related sub-groupings, suggesting that they are members of the same species. The sigma factor gene family encoded by the Bc species-group appears to be the result of a dynamic gene-duplication and gene-loss process that in previous analyses underestimated the true heterogeneity of the sigma factor content in the Bc species-group. Conclusions Expansion of the sigma factor gene family

  10. Genome Sequences of Three Novel Bacillus cereus Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne H Grose; Jensen, Jordan D.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Fisher, Joshua N. B.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group is an assemblage of highly related firmicute bacteria that cause a variety of diseases in animals, including insects and humans. We announce three high-quality, complete genome sequences of bacteriophages we isolated from soil samples taken at the bases of fruit trees in Utah County, Utah. While two of the phages (Shanette and JL) are highly related myoviruses, the bacteriophage Basilisk is a siphovirus.

  11. Genome characteristics of a novel phage from Bacillus thuringiensis showing high similarity with phage from Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Yuan

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs. It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the "late" region, the "lysogeny-lysis" region and the "early" region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus phage Wβ and some variants of Wβ, in genome organization and the amino acid sequences of structural proteins. There were two ORFs, ORF22 and ORF35, in the genome of BtCS33 that were also found in the genomes of B. cereus phage Wβ and may be involved in regulating sporulation of the host cell. Based on these observations and analysis of phylogenetic trees, we deduced that B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 and B. cereus phage Wβ may have a common distant ancestor.

  12. Emetic toxin-producing strains of Bacillus cereus show distinct characteristics within the Bacillus cereus group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlin, Frédéric; Fricker, Martina; Pielaat, Annemarie; Heisterkamp, Simon; Shaheen, Ranad; Salonen, Mirja Salkinoja; Svensson, Birgitta; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    One hundred representative strains of Bacillus cereus were selected from a total collection of 372 B. cereus strains using two typing methods (RAPD and FT-IR) to investigate if emetic toxin-producing hazardous B. cereus strains possess characteristic growth and heat resistance profiles. The strains

  13. Enterotoxigenic profiles and polymerase chain reaction detection of Bacillus cereus group cells and B. cereus strains from foods and food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y M; Sheu, S J; Chen, Y L; Tsen, H Y

    1999-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, including B. cereus strains isolated from foods and samples associated with food-poisoning outbreaks. For this investigation, the presence of enterotoxin genes, such as those of haemolysin BL, B. cereus enterotoxin T and enterotoxin FM, were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Meanwhile, their enterotoxin activities were assayed using the BCET-RPLA kit, haemolytic patterns on sheep blood agar and their cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that there were 12 enterotoxigenic profiles for the 98 B. cereus group strains collected. In addition, if any of the three types of enterotoxins was present in the B. cereus group cells, these cells were shown to be cytotoxic to the CHO cells. Similar enterotoxigenic profiles could be found among strains of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis. Thus, all B. cereus group strains may be potentially toxigenic and the detection of these cells in foods is important. We thus designed PCR primers, termed Ph1/Ph2, from the sphingomyelinase gene of B. cereus cells. These primers were specific for all B. cereus group strains and could be used for the detection of B. cereus cells contaminated in food samples.

  14. Metabolic capacity of Bacillus cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 interlinked with comparative genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, M.; Been, M.W.H.J. de; Zwietering, M.H.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen and spoilage organism. In this study, numerous phenotypes and the genomes of B.?cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed to compare their metabolic capacity and stress resistance potential. The growth performance of the two strains wa

  15. The Genetically Remote Pathogenic Strain NVH391-98 of the Bacillus cereus Group Represents the Cluster of Thermophilic Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Bidnenko, Elena; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Lapidus, Alla; Sorokin, Alexei

    2007-10-02

    Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group are known to cause food poisoning. A rare phylogenetically remote strain, NVH391-98, was recently characterized to encode a particularly efficient cytotoxin K presumably responsible for food poisoning. This pathogenic strain and its close relatives can be phenotypically distinguished from other strains of the B. cereus group by the inability to grow at temperatures below 17 degrees C and by the ability to grow at temperatures from 48 to 53 degrees C. A temperate phage, phBC391A2, residing in the genome of NVH391-98 allows us to distinguish the three known members of this thermophilic strain cluster.

  16. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Bacillus cereus group cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Leser, Thomas D.; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that members of the Bacillus cereus group carry genes which have the potential to cause gastrointestinal and somatic diseases. Although most cases of diseases caused by the B. cereus group bacteria are relatively mild, it is desirable to be able to detect members ...

  18. Genetic relationships between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, as revealed by rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula S Peruca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus is closely related to Bacillus thuringiensis, although any genetic relationship between the two strains is still in debate. Using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, we established the genetic relationships between Brazilian sympatric populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis simultaneously collected from two geographically separate sites. We observed the formation of both B. thuringiensis and B. cereus clusters, as well as strains of B. cereus that are more closely related to B. thuringiensis than to other B. cereus strains. In addition, lower genetic variability was observed among B. thuringiensis clusters compared to B. cereus clusters, indicating that either the two species should be categorized as separate or that B. thuringiensis may represent a clone from a B. cereus background.

  19. A genomic region involved in the formation of adhesin fibers in Bacillus cereus biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín eCaro-Astorga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a bacterial pathogen that is responsible for many recurrent disease outbreaks due to food contamination. Spores and biofilms are considered the most important reservoirs of B. cereus in contaminated fresh vegetables and fruits. Biofilms are bacterial communities that are difficult to eradicate from biotic and abiotic surfaces because of their stable and extremely strong extracellular matrix. These extracellular matrixes contain exopolysaccharides, proteins, extracellular DNA, and other minor components. Although B. cereus can form biofilms, the bacterial features governing assembly of the protective extracellular matrix are not known. Using the well-studied bacterium B. subtilis as a model, we identified two genomic loci in B. cereus, which encodes two orthologs of the amyloid-like protein TasA of B. subtilis and a SipW signal peptidase. Deletion of this genomic region in B. cereus inhibited biofilm assembly; notably, mutation of the putative signal peptidase SipW caused the same phenotype. However, mutations in tasA or calY did not completely prevent biofilm formation; strains that were mutated for either of these genes formed phenotypically different surface attached biofilms. Electron microscopy studies revealed that TasA polymerizes to form long and abundant fibers on cell surfaces, whereas CalY does not aggregate similarly. Heterologous expression of this amyloid-like cassette in a B. subtilis strain lacking the factors required for the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers revealed i the involvement of this B. cereus genomic region in formation of the air-liquid interphase pellicles and ii the intrinsic ability of TasA to form fibers similar to the amyloid-like fibers produced by its B. subtilis ortholog.

  20. Phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in Bacillus cereus after a short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Longxiang; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Jinwen; Cen, Zhong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Tao; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Yin, Sanjun; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Yuping; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    The environment in space could affect microorganisms by changing a variety of features, including proliferation rate, cell physiology, cell metabolism, biofilm production, virulence, and drug resistance. However, the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of a space environment on Bacillus cereus, a strain of B. cereus was sent to space for 398 h by ShenZhou VIII from November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011. A ground simulation with similar temperature conditions was simultaneously performed as a control. After the flight, the flight and control strains were further analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to explore the divergence of B. cereus in a space environment. The flight strains exhibited a significantly slower growth rate, a significantly higher amikacin resistance level, and changes in metabolism relative to the ground control strain. After the space flight, three polymorphic loci were found in the flight strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis was performed, and this analysis revealed that the flight strains had changes in genes/proteins relevant to metabolism. In addition, certain genes/proteins that are relevant to structural function, gene expression modification and translation, and virulence were also altered. Our study represents the first documented analysis of the phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes that occur in B. cereus during space flight, and our results could be beneficial to the field of space microbiology.

  1. 蜡状芽孢杆菌群中规律成簇间隔短回文重复序列的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics Analysis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) in the Genomes of Bacillus cereus Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 喻婵; 王阶平; 邱宁; 何进; 孙明; 张青叶

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR is a novel type of microbial defense system, which is unique in that it is invaderspecific, adaptive and heritable. It is a recent breakthrough in understanding host-virus interactions.Bioinformatics methods including BLAST, multiple sequence alignment, and RNA structure prediction was used to analyze the CRISPR structures of 24 Bacillus cereus group genomes. CRISPR existed in 42% strains. Two types of RNA secondary structures derived from the repeat sequences were predicted, and demonstrated that stemloop secondary structure might function in mediating the interaction between foreign genetic elements and CASencoded proteins. The sequence homologous among 31% spacer, phage, plasmid and the genomes of Bacillus cereus group further verified that spacer was likely to come from the exogenous mobile genetic factor. As most of the Bacillus cereus group strains contain multiple plasmids and prophages, the CRISPR research in Bacillus cereus group by this study would be help to reveal relationship between host strains with plasmid or host strains with phage.%规律成簇间隔短回文重复序列(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,CRISPR)是最近发现针对噬菌体等外源遗传物质的获得性和可遗传性的新型原核生物防御系统.通过BLAST、多序列比对、RNA二级结构预测等生物信息学方法对已经完成全基因组测序的蜡状芽孢杆菌群24个菌株进行CRISPR的系统分析,结果表明:42%的菌株含有该结构;8个CRISPR座位的正向重复序列可以形成RNA二级结构,提示正向重复序列可能介导外源DNA或RNA与CAS编码蛋白的相互作用;31%的间区序列与噬菌体、质粒、蜡状芽孢杆菌群基因组序列具有同源性,进一步验证间区序列很可能来源于外源可移动遗传因子.由于大部分蜡状芽孢杆菌群菌株含有多个前噬菌体和质粒,通过对蜡状芽孢杆菌群CRISPR的分析,为揭示其对宿主菌与噬菌体,以及宿主

  2. Intestinal carriage of Bacillus cereus: faecal isolation studies in three population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C; Kramer, J M

    1985-12-01

    The results of examinations of stools for Bacillus cereus among three unrelated groups of individuals are presented. The groups consisted of (1) healthy school-children aged 6-11 years in a rural region of South Africa examined during each of the four seasons of the year; (2) 15 healthy volunteers comprising staff of a London microbiology laboratory and their families examined on each of 3 consecutive weeks; (3) 75 unrelated young children, 2 months to 5 years of age, in a second rural region of South Africa examined during a pilot study of 1 week's duration on the aetiology of rural gastroenteritis. The stools of the last group were submitted as being related to present or recent diarrhoea in the respective children. In group 1, B. cereus isolation rates ranged from 24.3% at the autumn visit to 43% at the summer visit with a significantly higher rate of isolation in the summer than at other seasons of the year (P less than 0.05). B. cereus was isolated from 40% of group 2 volunteers on week 1, none on week 2 and 20% on week 3. The organism was detected in the 12 positive specimens at levels of approximately 10(2)/g and constituted 2.5-30% of the total aerobic spore-forming bacillus population in the stools. In group 3, B. cereus was recovered from 18.7% of the stool samples and was isolated consecutively with other pathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and rotavirus) on only five occasions. In groups 1 and 3, less than 5% of the stools had '3+' levels of B. cereus (greater than 10 colonies per direct plate culture). B. cereus was readily isolated from all of 10 food samples, representative of the typical diet of the group 1 individuals, and was present in substantial numbers (10(4) to 5.5 X 10(6)/g) in half of them. The isolation results, supported by serotyping, indicated that carriage of B. cereus in stools is transient and its presence at any one time reflects solely its intake with foods.

  3. The possibility of discriminating within the Bacillus cereus group using gyrB sequencing and PCR-RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gert B; Fisker, Niels; Sparsø, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    Based on a combination of PCR and restriction endonuclease (RE) digestion (PCR-RE digestion), we have examined the possibility of differentiating members of the Bacillus cereus group. Fragments of the gyrB gene (362 bp) from pure cultures of 12 B. cereus, 25 B. thuringiensis, 25 B. mycoides and two...

  4. From genome to toxicity: a combinatory approach highlights the complexity of enterotoxin production in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeßberger, Nadja; Krey, Viktoria M; Rademacher, Corinna; Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Mohr, Ann-Katrin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Scherer, Siegfried; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Bacillus cereus has gained increasing importance as a food poisoning pathogen. It is the eponymous member of the B. cereus sensu lato group that consists of eight closely related species showing impressive diversity of their pathogenicity. The high variability of cytotoxicity and the complex regulatory network of enterotoxin expression have complicated efforts to predict the toxic potential of new B. cereus isolates. In this study, comprehensive analyses of enterotoxin gene sequences, transcription, toxin secretion and cytotoxicity were performed. For the first time, these parameters were compared in a whole set of B. cereus strains representing isolates of different origin (food or food poisoning outbreaks) and of different toxic potential (enteropathogenic and apathogenic) to elucidate potential starting points of strain-specific differential toxicity. While toxin gene sequences were highly conserved and did not allow for differentiation between high and low toxicity strains, comparison of nheB and hblD enterotoxin gene transcription and Nhe and Hbl protein titers revealed not only strain-specific differences but also incongruence between toxin gene transcripts and toxin protein levels. With one exception all strains showed comparable capability of protein secretion and so far, no secretion patterns specific for high and low toxicity strains were identified. These results indicate that enterotoxin expression is more complex than expected, possibly involving the orchestrated interplay of different transcriptional regulator proteins, as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms plus additional influences of environmental conditions.

  5. From genome to toxicity: A combinatory approach highlights the complexity of enterotoxin production in Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eJessberger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Bacillus cereus has gained increasing importance as a food poisoning pathogen. It is the eponymous member of the B. cereus sensu lato group that consists of eight closely related species showing impressive diversity of their pathogenicity. The high variability of cytotoxicity and the complex regulatory network of enterotoxin expression have complicated efforts to predict the toxic potential of new B. cereus isolates. In this study, comprehensive analyses of enterotoxin gene sequences, transcription, toxin secretion and cytotoxicity were performed. For the first time, these parameters were compared in a whole set of B. cereus strains representing isolates of different origin (food or food poisoning outbreaks and of different toxic potential (enteropathogenic and apathogenic to elucidate potential starting points of strain-specific differential toxicity. While toxin gene sequences were highly conserved and did not allow for differentiation between high and low toxicity strains, comparison of nheB and hblD enterotoxin gene transcription and Nhe and Hbl protein titers revealed not only strain-specific differences but also incongruence between toxin gene transcripts and toxin protein levels. With one exception all strains showed comparable capability of protein secretion and so far, no secretion patterns specific for high and low toxicity strains were identified. These results indicate that enterotoxin expression is more complex than expected, possibly involving the orchestrated interplay of different transcriptional regulator proteins, as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms plus additional influences of environmental conditions.

  6. Toxin production in a rare and genetically remote cluster of strains of the Bacillus cereus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granum Per

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three enterotoxins are implicated in diarrhoeal food poisoning due to Bacillus cereus: Haemolysin BL (Hbl, Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, and Cytotoxin K (CytK. Toxin gene profiling and assays for detection of toxin-producing stains have been used in attempts to evaluate the enterotoxic potential of B. cereus group strains. B. cereus strain NVH 391/98, isolated from a case of fatal enteritis, was genetically remote from other B. cereus group strains. This strain lacked the genes encoding Hbl and Nhe, but contains CytK-1. The high virulence of this strain is thought to be due to the greater cytotoxic activity of CytK-1 compared to CytK-2, and to a high level of cytK expression. To date, only three strains containing cytK-1 have been identified; B. cereus strains NVH 391/98, NVH 883/00, and INRA AF2. Results A novel gene variant encoding Nhe was identified in these three strains, which had an average of 80% identity in protein sequence with previously identified Nhe toxins. While culture supernatants containing CytK and Nhe from NVH 391/98 and INRA AF2 were highly cytotoxic, NVH 883/00 expressed little or no CytK and Nhe and was non-cytotoxic. Comparative sequence and expression studies indicated that neither the PlcR/PapR quorum sensing system, nor theYvrGH and YvfTU two-component systems, were responsible for the observed difference in toxin production. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of 13 genes showed that NVH 391/98, NVH 883/00, and INRA AF2 comprise a novel cluster of strains genetically distant from other B. cereus group strains. Conclusion Due to its divergent sequence, the novel nhe operon had previously not been detected in NVH 391/98 using PCR and several monoclonal antibodies. Thus, toxigenic profiling based on the original nhe sequence will fail to detect the toxin in this group of strains. The observation that strain NVH 883/00 carries cytK-1 but is non-cytotoxic indicates that the detection of this gene

  7. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings.

  8. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  9. Germination and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus group members: diversity and role of germinant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abee, Tjakko; Groot, Masja Nierop; Tempelaars, Marcel; Zwietering, Marcel; Moezelaar, Roy; van der Voort, Menno

    2011-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming toxicogenic human pathogen. Endospores are highly specialized, metabolically dormant cell types that are resistant to extreme environmental conditions, including heat, dehydration and other physical stresses. B. cereus can enter a range of environments, and can in its spore form, survive harsh conditions. If these conditions become favorable, spores can germinate and grow out and reach considerable numbers in a range of environments including processed foods. Certainly the last decade, when consumer preferences have shifted to mildly processed food, new opportunities arose for spore-forming spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Only rigorous methods have been shown to be capable of destroying all spores present in food, thus a shift toward e.g., milder heat preservation strategies, may result in low but significant amounts of viable spores in food products. Hence, the need for a mild spore destruction strategy is eminent including control of spore outgrowth. Consequently, there is a large interest in triggering spore germination in foodstuffs, since germinated spores have lost the extreme resistance of dormant spores and are relatively easy to kill. Another option could be to prevent germination so that no dangerous levels can be reached. This contribution will focus on germination and outgrowth characteristics of B. cereus and other members of the B. cereus group, providing an overview of the niches these spore-formers can occupy, the signals that trigger germination, and how B. cereus copes with these wake-up calls in different environments including foods, during food processing and upon interaction with the human host.

  10. The role of SH and S-S groups in Bacillus cereus beta-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K; Yoneda, I; Nanmori, T; Shinke, R; Morita, Y; Mikami, B

    1995-12-01

    The properties of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (S-S) groups in Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 Spo III beta-amylase have been investigated to clarify their roles in the enzyme action. Two out of three cysteine residues in B. cereus beta-amylase were found to form an S-S bond, which was found to be located between Cys91 and Cys99 by the analysis of an S-S containing peptide. The replacement of the soybean beta-amylase model around L3 loop 1 revealed that the S-S bond is located at the root of this flexible loop that moves between open and closed forms during catalysis. The analysis of fluorescence labeled peptides revealed that the remaining free SH group was Cys331. Modification of Cys331 with N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB) caused inactivation of the enzyme. The rate constants for the reactions were consistent with those of Cys343 in soybean enzyme. The binding affinity of the PCMB-modified enzyme to maltose was also decreased. These results indicate that the modification of Cys331, which exists as a free SH group in B. cereus beta-amylase caused inactivation by a similar mechanism to that in the case of Cys343 in soybean beta-amylase as assumed from the sequence homology. This cysteine residue has a common role in beta-amylases irrespective their origin.

  11. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke R Klee

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as "B. cereus variety (var. anthracis".

  12. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette;

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil......, when possible, were collected. Soil from a well-characterized Danish farm soil (Hojbakkegaard) was collected for comparison. The Psudomonas spp. and B. cereus were chosen as representative for Gram-negative and Gram-positive indigenous soil bacteria to test the effect of spread of animal waste...... on selection of resistance among soil bacteria. No variations in resistance levels were observed between farms; but when the four differently treated soils were compared, resistance was seen for carbadox, chloramphenicol, nalidixan (nalidixic acid), nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline for Pseudomonas...

  13. Characterization and genomic analysis of chromate resistant and reducing Bacillus cereus strain SJ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Minyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a toxic heavy metal, which primarily exists in two inorganic forms, Cr(VI and Cr(III. Chromate [Cr(VI] is carcinogenic, mutational, and teratogenic due to its strong oxidizing nature. Biotransformation of Cr(VI to less-toxic Cr(III by chromate-resistant and reducing bacteria has offered an ecological and economical option for chromate detoxification and bioremediation. However, knowledge of the genetic determinants for chromate resistance and reduction has been limited so far. Our main aim was to investigate chromate resistance and reduction by Bacillus cereus SJ1, and to further study the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level using the obtained genome sequence. Results Bacillus cereus SJ1 isolated from chromium-contaminated wastewater of a metal electroplating factory displayed high Cr(VI resistance with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 30 mM when induced with Cr(VI. A complete bacterial reduction of 1 mM Cr(VI was achieved within 57 h. By genome sequence analysis, a putative chromate transport operon, chrIA1, and two additional chrA genes encoding putative chromate transporters that likely confer chromate resistance were identified. Furthermore, we also found an azoreductase gene azoR and four nitroreductase genes nitR possibly involved in chromate reduction. Using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR technology, it was shown that expression of adjacent genes chrA1 and chrI was induced in response to Cr(VI but expression of the other two chromate transporter genes chrA2 and chrA3 was constitutive. In contrast, chromate reduction was constitutive in both phenotypic and gene expression analyses. The presence of a resolvase gene upstream of chrIA1, an arsenic resistance operon and a gene encoding Tn7-like transposition proteins ABBCCCD downstream of chrIA1 in B. cereus SJ1 implied the possibility of recent horizontal gene transfer. Conclusion Our results indicate that expression of the chromate

  14. Enterotoxin production in natural isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Rebecca J; McKillip, John L

    2002-06-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. PCR amplicons were confirmed by restriction enzyme digest patterns compared to a positive control strain. Enterotoxin gene expression of each strain grown in a model food system (skim milk) was monitored by gene-specific reverse transcription-PCR and confirmed with the Oxoid RPLA and Tecra BDE commercial kits. Lecithinase production was noted on egg yolk-polymyxin B agar for all strains except B. lentimorbis, whereas discontinuous beta hemolysis was exhibited by all seven isolates grown on 5% sheep blood agar plates. The results of this study confirm the presence of enterotoxin genes in natural isolates of Bacillus spp. outside the B. cereus group and the ability of these strains to produce toxins in a model food system under aerated conditions at 32 degrees C.

  15. Finished Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain 03BB87, a Clinical Isolate with B. anthracis Virulence Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon L; Minogue, Timothy D; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen W; Shea, April A; Miner, Haven L; Wolcott, Mark J; Chain, Patrick S G

    2015-01-15

    Bacillus cereus strain 03BB87, a blood culture isolate, originated in a 56-year-old male muller operator with a fatal case of pneumonia in 2003. Here we present the finished genome sequence of that pathogen, including a 5.46-Mb chromosome and two plasmids (209 and 52 Kb, respectively).

  16. The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus Group (sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Helen; Pohl, Susanne; Navarro, Ferran; Miro, Elisenda; Jiménez, Guillermo; Blanch, Anicet R.; Harwood, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112T (NCIMB 14858T) has been widely used as an additive in animal nutrition for more than 30 years without reports of adverse toxigenic effects. However, this strain is resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline and it is generally considered inadvisable to introduce into the food chain resistance determinants capable of being transferred to other bacterial strains, thereby adding to the pool of such determinants in the gastro-enteric systems of livestock species. We therefore characterized the resistance phenotypes of this strain and its close relatives to determine whether they were of recent origin, and therefore likely to be transmissible. To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the presence of homologs in other members of the B. toyonensis taxonomic unit. Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance phenotypes. To understand the differences in the behaviors, we cloned and expressed the genes, together with their upstream regulatory regions, into Bacillus subtilis. The data showed that the genes encoded functional proteins, but were expressed inefficiently from their native promoters. B. toyonensis is a taxonomic unit member of the Bacillus cereus group (sensu lato). We therefore extended the analysis to determine the extent to which homologous chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes were present in other species within this group. This analysis revealed that homologous genes were present in nearly all representative species within the B. cereus group (sensu lato). The absence of known transposition elements and the observations that they are found at the same genomic locations, indicates that these chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes are of ancient origin and intrinsic to this taxonomic group, rather than recent acquisitions. In this context we

  17. The Identification of Intrinsic Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Members of the Bacillus cereus Group (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Helen; Pohl, Susanne; Navarro, Ferran; Miro, Elisenda; Jiménez, Guillermo; Blanch, Anicet R; Harwood, Colin R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112(T) (NCIMB 14858(T)) has been widely used as an additive in animal nutrition for more than 30 years without reports of adverse toxigenic effects. However, this strain is resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline and it is generally considered inadvisable to introduce into the food chain resistance determinants capable of being transferred to other bacterial strains, thereby adding to the pool of such determinants in the gastro-enteric systems of livestock species. We therefore characterized the resistance phenotypes of this strain and its close relatives to determine whether they were of recent origin, and therefore likely to be transmissible. To this end we identified the genes responsible for chloramphenicol (catQ) and tetracycline (tetM) resistance and confirmed the presence of homologs in other members of the B. toyonensis taxonomic unit. Unexpectedly, closely related strains encoding these genes did not exhibit chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance phenotypes. To understand the differences in the behaviors, we cloned and expressed the genes, together with their upstream regulatory regions, into Bacillus subtilis. The data showed that the genes encoded functional proteins, but were expressed inefficiently from their native promoters. B. toyonensis is a taxonomic unit member of the Bacillus cereus group (sensu lato). We therefore extended the analysis to determine the extent to which homologous chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes were present in other species within this group. This analysis revealed that homologous genes were present in nearly all representative species within the B. cereus group (sensu lato). The absence of known transposition elements and the observations that they are found at the same genomic locations, indicates that these chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes are of ancient origin and intrinsic to this taxonomic group, rather than recent acquisitions. In this context

  18. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group stains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products...... which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus......, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist....

  19. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality.

  20. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael B; Martin, Phyllis A W; Kuhar, Daniel; Farrar, Robert R; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2014-08-01

    Crystal-forming bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylogenetic groups known to be psychrotolerant, with very few isolates representing phylogenetic groups more typically associated with Bacillus thuringiensis. Isolates from the psychrotolerant groups were found to grow on solid media at 7 °C. Isolates of 11 highly related, novel sequence types (STs) from the psychrotolerant group that includes Bacillus weihenstephanensis were generally found at higher elevations, and were not associated with soils near streams. Isolates of two related STs from the second psychrotolerant group were nearly always found at the bottoms of ravines near streams, in areas abundant in earthworm castings.

  1. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  2. Diversity of Bacillus cereus group strains is reflected in their broad range of pathogenicity and diverse ecological lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises a highly versatile group of bacteria, which are of particular interest because of their capacity to cause disease. Emetic food poisoning is caused by the toxin cereulide produced during the growth of emetic B. cereus in food, while diarrhoeal food poisoning is the result of enterotoxin production by viable vegetative B. cereus cells in the small intestine, probably in the mucus layer and/or attached to the host's intestinal epithelium. The numbers of B. cereus causing disease are highly variable, depending on diverse factors linked to the host (age, diet, physiology and immunology), bacteria (cellular form, toxin genes and expression) and food (nutritional composition and meal characteristics). Bacillus cereus group strains show impressive ecological diversity, ranging from their saprophytic life cycle in soil to symbiotic (commensal and mutualistic) lifestyles near plant roots and in guts of insects and mammals to various pathogenic ones in diverse insect and mammalian hosts. During all these different ecological lifestyles, their toxins play important roles ranging from providing competitive advantages within microbial communities to inhibition of specific pathogenic organisms for their host and accomplishment of infections by damaging their host's tissues.

  3. Use of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and gyrB gene sequence analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships of Bacillus cereus group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayvkin, S. G.; Lysov, Y. P.; Zakhariev, V.; Kelly, J. J.; Jackman, J.; Stahl, D. A.; Cherni, A.; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Loyola Univ.; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Univ. of Washington

    2004-08-01

    In order to determine if variations in rRNA sequence could be used for discrimination of the members of the Bacillus cereus group, we analyzed 183 16S rRNA and 74 23S rRNA sequences for all species in the B. cereus group. We also analyzed 30 gyrB sequences for B. cereus group strains with published 16S rRNA sequences. Our findings indicated that the three most common species of the B. cereus group, B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, were each heterogeneous in all three gene sequences, while all analyzed strains of Bacillus anthracis were found to be homogeneous. Based on analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA sequence variations, the microorganisms within the B. cereus group were divided into seven subgroups, Anthracis, Cereus A and B, Thuringiensis A and B, and Mycoides A and B, and these seven subgroups were further organized into two distinct clusters. This classification of the B. cereus group conflicts with current taxonomic groupings, which are based on phenotypic traits. The presence of B. cereus strains in six of the seven subgroups and the presence of B. thuringiensis strains in three of the subgroups do not support the proposed unification of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis into one species. Analysis of the available phenotypic data for the strains included in this study revealed phenotypic traits that may be characteristic of several of the subgroups. Finally, our results demonstrated that rRNA and gyrB sequences may be used for discriminating B. anthracis from other microorganisms in the B. cereus group.

  4. Influence of multi-year Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on the abundance of B. cereus group populations in Swedish riparian wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Schneider, Salome; Tajrin, Tania;

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-born bacterium affiliated to the B. cereus group (Bcg, a group including the pathogens B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis) and used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae. However, knowledge is limited on how long...

  5. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products. In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from afitin (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist.

  6. The Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 Reveals Metabolic Adaptations and a Large Plasmid Related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    R.L. and Waites,K.B. (2003) Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41, 3441±3444. 9. Ginsburg,A.S., Salazar,L.G., True... bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus . J. Clin. Microbiol., 35, 504±507. 12. Okinaka,R., Cloud,K., Hampton,O., Hoffmaster,A., Hill,K., Keim,P...The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1 David A. Rasko

  7. gyrB as a phylogenetic discriminator for members of the Bacillus anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis group

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Agata, Norio; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the human disease anthrax, Bacillus cereus, a food-borne pathogen capable of causing human illness, and Bacillus thuringiensis, a well-characterized insecticidal toxin producer, all cluster together within a very tight clade (B. cereus group) phylogenetically and are indistinguishable from one another via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. As new pathogens are continually emerging, it is imperative to devise a system capable of rapidly and accurately differentiating closely related, yet phenotypically distinct species. Although the gyrB gene has proven useful in discriminating closely related species, its sequence analysis has not yet been validated by DNA:DNA hybridization, the taxonomically accepted "gold standard". We phylogenetically characterized the gyrB sequences of various species and serotypes encompassed in the "B. cereus group," including lab strains and environmental isolates. Results were compared to those obtained from analyses of phenotypic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence, DNA:DNA hybridization, and virulence factors. The gyrB gene proved more highly differential than 16S, while, at the same time, as analytical as costly and laborious DNA:DNA hybridization techniques in differentiating species within the B. cereus group.

  8. The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate whether resistance genes present in bacteria in manure could transfer to indigenous soil bacteria, resistant isolates belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis) were isolated from farm soil (72 isolates) and manure...

  9. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B. Thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C S; Xie, G; Challacombe, J F; Altherr, M R; Bhotika, S S; Bruce, D; Campbell, C S; Campbell, M L; Chen, J; Chertkov, O; Cleland, C; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M; Doggett, N A; Fawcett, J J; Glavina, T; Goodwin, L A; Hill, K K; Hitchcock, P; Jackson, P J; Keim, P; Kewalramani, A R; Longmire, J; Lucas, S; Malfatti, S; McMurry, K; Meincke, L J; Misra, M; Moseman, B L; Mundt, M; Munk, A C; Okinaka, R T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, L P; Richardson, P; Robinson, D L; Rubin, E; Saunders, E; Tapia, R; Tesmer, J G; Thayer, N; Thompson, L S; Tice, H; Ticknor, L O; Wills, P L; Gilna, P; Brettin, T S

    2005-10-12

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including B anthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  10. Enterotoxin Production in Natural Isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus Group

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Rebecca J.; McKillip, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis su...

  11. Accurate Localization of the Integration Sites of Two Genomic Islands at Single-Nucleotide Resolution in the Genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have identified two genomic islands, that is, BCEGI-1 and BCEGI-2, in the genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, based on comparative analysis with Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Furthermore, by using the cumulative GC profile and performing homology searches between the two genomes, the integration sites of the two genomic islands were determined at single-nucleotide resolution. BCEGI-1 is integrated between 159705 bp and 198000 bp, whereas BCEGI-2 is integrated between the end of ORF BCE4594 and the start of the intergenic sequence immediately following BCE4626, that is, from 4256803 bp to 4285534 bp. BCEGI-1 harbors two bacterial Tn7 transposons, which have two sets of genes encoding TnsA, B, C, and D. It is generally believed that unlike the TnsABC+E pathway, the TnsABC+D pathway would only promote vertical transmission to daughter cells. The evidence presented in this paper, however, suggests a role of the TnsABC+D pathway in the horizontal transfer of some genomic islands.

  12. Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B

    2013-08-01

    How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives.

  13. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  14. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Fujikura, Daisuke; Ohnuma, Miyuki; Ohnishi, Naomi; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mimuro, Hitomi; Ezaki, Takayuki; Mweene, Aaron S; Higashi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  15. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus LCR12, a Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from a Heavy Metal–Contaminated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Eleonora; Wood, Jennifer L.; Mathews, Elizabeth; Fox, Edward; Liu, Wuxing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus LCR12 is a plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium, isolated from a heavy metal–contaminated environment. The 6.01-Mb annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its potential application to remediate contaminated soils in association with plants. PMID:27688340

  17. Identification and Classification of bcl Genes and Proteins of Bacillus cereus Group Organisms and Their Application in Bacillus anthracis Detection and Fingerprinting▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Leski, Tomasz A.; Caswell, Clayton C.; Pawlowski, Marcin; Klinke, David J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Hart, Sean J.; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes three closely related species, B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, which form a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus. One of these species, B. anthracis, has been identified as one of the most probable bacterial biowarfare agents. Here, we evaluate the sequence and length polymorphisms of the Bacillus collagen-like protein bcl genes as a basis for B. anthracis detection and fingerprinting. Five genes, designated bclA to bclE, are p...

  18. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  19. Environmental factors determining the epidemiology and population genetic structure of the Bacillus cereus group in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Raymond

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8 in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have

  20. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Zwick

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  1. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Michael E; Kiley, Maureen P; Stewart, Andrew C; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D

    2008-07-02

    The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs) based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  2. Genomic adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Toh

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG, which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group.

  3. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  4. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  5. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  6. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  7. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  8. Identification of a Bacillus anthracis specific indel in the yeaC gene and development of a rapid pyrosequencing assay for distinguishing B. anthracis from the B. cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmod, Nadia Z; Gupta, Radhey S; Shah, Haroun N

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a potential source of bioterrorism. The existing assays for its identification lack specificity due to the close genetic relationship it exhibits to other members of the B. cereus group. Our comparative analyses of protein sequences from Bacillus species have identified a 24 amino acid deletion in a conserved region of the YeaC protein that is uniquely present in B. anthracis. PCR primers based on conserved regions flanking this indel in the Bacillus cereus group of species (viz. Bacillus cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. weihenstephnensis and B. pseudomycoides) specifically amplified a 282 bp fragment from all six reference B. anthracis strains, whereas a 354 bp fragment was amplified from 15 other B. cereus group of species/strains. These fragments, due to large size difference, are readily distinguished by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. In contrast to the B. cereus group, no PCR amplification was observed with any of the non-B. cereus group of species/strains. This indel was also used for developing a rapid pyrosequencing assay for the identification of B. anthracis. Its performance was evaluated by examining the presence or absence of this indel in a panel of 81 B. cereus-like isolates from various sources that included 39 B. anthracis strains. Based upon the sequence data from the pyrograms, the yeaC indel was found to be a distinctive characteristic of various B. anthracis strains tested and not found in any other species/strains from these samples. Therefore, this B. anthracis specific indel provides a robust and highly-specific chromosomal marker for the identification of this high-risk pathogen from other members of the B. cereus group independent of a strain's virulence. The pyrosequencing platform also allows for the rapid and simultaneous screening of multiple samples for the presence of this B. anthracis-specific marker.

  9. Bacteriophage PBC1 and its endolysin as an antimicrobial agent against Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for food poisoning and other, nongastrointestinal infections. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant B. cereus strains, the demand for alternative therapeutic options is increasing. To address these problems, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae virulent phage, PBC1, and its lytic enzymes. PBC1 showed a very narrow host range, infecting only 1 of 22 B. cereus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major capsid protein revealed that PBC1 is more closely related to the Bacillus clarkii phage BCJA1c and phages of lactic acid bacteria than to the phages infecting B. cereus. Whole-genome comparison showed that the late-gene region, including the terminase gene, structural genes, and holin gene of PBC1, is similar to that from B. cereus temperate phage 250, whereas their endolysins are different. Compared to the extreme host specificity of PBC1, its endolysin, LysPBC1, showed a much broader lytic spectrum, albeit limited to the genus Bacillus. The catalytic domain of LysPBC1 when expressed alone also showed Bacillus-specific lytic activity, which was lower against the B. cereus group but higher against the Bacillus subtilis group than the full-length protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulent phage PBC1 is a useful component of a phage cocktail to control B. cereus, even with its exceptionally narrow host range, as it can kill a strain of B. cereus that is not killed by other phages, and that LysPBC1 is an alternative biocontrol agent against B. cereus.

  10. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  11. Notes from the field: Contamination of alcohol prep pads with Bacillus cereus group and Bacillus species--Colorado, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    In October 2010, a child at The Children's Hospital (TCH) in Aurora, Colorado, with newly diagnosed leukemia developed clinical sepsis 24 hours after insertion of an implanted vascular access device. The child also developed extensive cellulitis at the insertion site, requiring surgical debridement, intensive care, antibiotics, prolonged wound management, and outpatient treatment. Cultures of the child's blood and tissue specimens grew Bacillus cereus. An investigation found neither breach of infection control procedures nor any violations of sterile surgical technique.

  12. Progress in food-related research focussing on Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Voort, van der M.; Schaik, van W.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium that occurs ubiquitously and is frequently isolated from soil and food products. When B. cereus is present in foods, it can cause spoilage and poisoning. The work of our group is focussed on several properties of B. cereus t

  13. BC4707 is a major facilitator superfamily multidrug resistance transport protein from Bacillus cereus implicated in fluoroquinolone tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Simm

    Full Text Available Transcriptional profiling highlighted a subset of genes encoding putative multidrug transporters in the pathogen Bacillus cereus that were up-regulated during stress produced by bile salts. One of these multidrug transporters (BC4707 was selected for investigation. Functional characterization of the BC4707 protein in Escherichia coli revealed a role in the energized efflux of xenobiotics. Phenotypic analyses after inactivation of the gene bc4707 in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 suggested a more specific, but modest role in the efflux of norfloxacin. In addition to this, transcriptional analyses showed that BC4707 is also expressed during growth of B. cereus under non-stressful conditions where it may have a role in the normal physiology of the bacteria. Altogether, the results indicate that bc4707, which is part of the core genome of the B. cereus group of bacteria, encodes a multidrug resistance efflux protein that is likely involved in maintaining intracellular homeostasis during growth of the bacteria.

  14. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  15. Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria and other B. cereus group members in a microbial community within the International Space Station: a challenge for rapid and easy molecular detection of virulent B. anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P van Tongeren

    Full Text Available For some microbial species, such as Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of the disease anthrax, correct detection and identification by molecular methods can be problematic. The detection of virulent B. anthracis is challenging due to multiple virulence markers that need to be present in order for B. anthracis to be virulent and its close relationship to Bacillus cereus and other members of the B. cereus group. This is especially the case in environments where build-up of Bacillus spores can occur and several representatives of the B. cereus group may be present, which increases the chance for false-positives. In this study we show the presence of B. anthracis-like bacteria and other members of the B. cereus group in a microbial community within the human environment of the International Space Station and their preliminary identification by using conventional culturing as well as molecular techniques including 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and real-time PCR. Our study shows that when monitoring the microbial hygiene in a given human environment, health risk assessment is troublesome in the case of virulent B. anthracis, especially if this should be done with rapid, easy to apply and on-site molecular methods.

  16. Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria and other B. cereus group members in a microbial community within the International Space Station: a challenge for rapid and easy molecular detection of virulent B. anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P; Roest, Hendrik I J; Degener, John E; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2014-01-01

    For some microbial species, such as Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of the disease anthrax, correct detection and identification by molecular methods can be problematic. The detection of virulent B. anthracis is challenging due to multiple virulence markers that need to be present in order for B. anthracis to be virulent and its close relationship to Bacillus cereus and other members of the B. cereus group. This is especially the case in environments where build-up of Bacillus spores can occur and several representatives of the B. cereus group may be present, which increases the chance for false-positives. In this study we show the presence of B. anthracis-like bacteria and other members of the B. cereus group in a microbial community within the human environment of the International Space Station and their preliminary identification by using conventional culturing as well as molecular techniques including 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and real-time PCR. Our study shows that when monitoring the microbial hygiene in a given human environment, health risk assessment is troublesome in the case of virulent B. anthracis, especially if this should be done with rapid, easy to apply and on-site molecular methods.

  17. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; van Leusden FM; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In het kader van een EU project zijn door de verschillende partners experimenten uitgevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in de variatie in eigenschappen van B. cereus-stammen welke bijdragen aan de mate van virulentie. Hiertoe zijn 100 B. cereus-stammen geselecteerd en eigenschappen zoals toxine-vorming,

  18. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  19. Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group%蜡状芽胞杆菌群代谢途径的分析和比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻婵; 王琰; 徐承晨; 何进; 张青叶; 喻子牛

    2011-01-01

    微生物基因组测序和高通量分析方法获得了大量的数据和信息,利用这些信息研究代谢网络成为当前的一个新热点.文章在比较和分析重构代谢网络不同方法的基础上,利用蜡状芽胞杆菌群中已测序的9株蜡状芽胞杆菌、6株炭疽芽胞杆菌、6株苏云金芽胞杆菌基因组,对它们的碳水化合物代谢途径、氨基酸代谢途径和能量代谢途径进行比较与分析,找出它们的共性和特性.这3种菌都存在必需的糖酵解、三羧酸循环、丙氨酸代谢、组氨酸代谢及能量代谢等途径;同时它们还存在特殊的代谢途径,蜡状芽胞杆菌对单糖的利用率较高;炭疽芽胞杆菌的氨基酸降解和转运途径较丰富;苏云金芽胞杆菌中存在催化谷氨酸转化的代谢旁路等.代谢途径的分析为深入研究它们的食物毒素、炭疽毒素和杀虫毒素提供了新思路.%A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hoispot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. Anthracis,,6 strain of B. Thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. Anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. Thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides

  20. Genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I and Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew T; Peck, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in whole genome sequencing have made a substantial contribution to understanding the genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I (proteolytic C. botulinum) and C. botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic C. botulinum). Two different approaches are used to study genomics in these bacteria; comparative whole genome microarrays and direct comparison of complete genome DNA sequences. The properties of the different types of neurotoxin formed, and different neurotoxin gene clusters found in C. botulinum Groups I and II are explored. Specific examples of botulinum neurotoxin genes are chosen for an in-depth discussion of neurotoxin gene evolution. The most recent cases of foodborne botulism are summarised.

  1. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa—Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M.; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R.; Klee, Silke R.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PMID:27607836

  2. Genomic characterization of Italian Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Francesco; Fillo, Silvia; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Gentile, Bernardina; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Ferdinando; Pittiglio, Valentina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Lista, Florigio

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive bacterium capable of producing the botulinum neurotoxin, a powerful poison that causes botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Its genome has been sequenced entirely and its gene content has been analyzed. To date, 19 full genomes and 64 draft genomes are available. The geographical origin of these genomes is predominantly from the US. In the present study, 10 Italian genomes of C. botulinum group I were analyzed and compared with previously sequenced group I genomes, in order to genetically characterize the Italian population of C. botulinum group I and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. Using the suites of software ClonalFrame and ClonalOrigin to perform genomic analysis, we demonstrated that Italian C. botulinum group I population is phylogenetically heterogeneous encompassing different and distant lineages including overseas strains, too. Moreover, a high recombination rate was demonstrated in the evolution of C. botulinum group I species. Finally, genome sequencing of the strain 357 led us to identify a novel botulinum neurotoxin subtype, F8.

  3. Comparative genomics of iron-transporting systems in Bacillus cereus strains and impact of iron sources on growth and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Siezen, Roland; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for bacterial viability, however it is not readily available in most environments. We studied the ability of 20 undomesticated food isolates of Bacillus cereus and two reference strains for capacity to use different (complex) iron sources for growth and biofilm format

  4. Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Oguma, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D strains are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic strains to non-toxigenic strains by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D strains has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic strains can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically.

  5. Genome plasticity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: microevolution of the 'pandemic group'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiumei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak of V. parahaemolyticus infections occurred since 1996 was linked to a proposed clonal complex, the pandemic group. The whole genome sequence provides an unprecedented opportunity for dissecting genome plasticity and phylogeny of the populations of V. parahaemolyticus. In the present work, a whole-genome cDNA microarray was constructed to compare the genomic contents of a collection of 174 strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Results Genes that present variably in the genome accounted for about 22% of the whole gene pool on the genome. The phylogenetic analysis of microarray data generated a minimum spanning tree that depicted the phylogenetic structure of the 174 strains. Strains were assigned into five complexes (C1 to C5, and those in each complex were related genetically and phylogenetically. C3 and C4 represented highly virulent clinical clones. C2 and C3 constituted two different clonal complexes 'old-O3:K6 clone' and 'pandemic clone', respectively. C3 included all the 39 pandemic strains tested (trh-, tdh+ and GS-PCR+, while C2 contained 12 pre-1996 'old' O3:K6 strains (trh+, tdh- and GS-PCR- tested herein. The pandemic clone (post-1996 'new' O3:K6 and its derivates O4:K68, O1:K25, O1:KUT and O6:K18 might be emerged from the old-O3:K6 clone, which was promoted by acquisition of toxRS/new sequence and genomic islands. A phylogenetic intermediate O3:K6 clade (trh-, tdh- and GS-PCR+ was identified between the pandemic and old-O3:K6 clones. Conclusion A comprehensive overview of genomic contents in a large collection of global isolates from the microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization data enabled us to construct a phylogenetic structure of V. parahaemolyticus and an evolutionary history of the pandemic group (clone of this pathogen.

  6. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  7. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart-Waco, Diana; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  8. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study

  9. 77 FR 75425 - Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomics (IWGPG): The National Plant Genome Initiative-What's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomics (IWGPG): The National Plant Genome Initiative--What's Next? AGENCY... Group on Plant Genomics (IWGPG). DATES: Saturday, January 12, 2013, 1:30 p.m. to 3:40 p.m. ADDRESSES... production, with a specific focus on the management of plant genomics data, metadata, and...

  10. rpoB作为蜡样芽胞杆菌群快速检测的标志基因的实验研究%Using real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of rpoB gene of Bacillus cereus group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱诗应; 何胜菲; 王文博; 赵平; 任浩; 戚中田

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a routine PCR and a real-time quantitative PCR(Q-PCR) assay for the detection of Bacillus cereus. Methods Genomic DNAs of various groups of Bacillus cereus were extracted. Specific primers for rpoB gene of Bacillus cereus were designed. The target rpoB gene fragment was amplified by a routine PCR and a SYBR green Q-PCR. The PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T plasmid vector and then sequenced. Results The rpoB gene fragment with a length of 174 bp was amplified from 4 species of Bacillus cereus. There was no non-specific amplification from the control bacterial strains by routine PCR or Q-PCR. Results from the sequencing of the amplified DNA fragment showed that there was 5 nucleotides diversity, and the sequence diversity was 2.88%. The sensitivity of routine PCR assay was 3.42 pg, while the sensitivity of the Q-PCR was 171 fg corresponding to (3.32×10±7.45×100) rpoB gene copies. Conclusions The developed Q-PCR method showed a good specificity and sensitivity for the detection of target rpoB gene. It may be used for rapid diagnosis of Bacillus cereus spp.%目的 探讨常规PCR和实时荧光定量PCR(Q-PCR)方法检测蜡样芽胞杆菌群rpoB基因的特异性和敏感性.方法 提取蜡样芽胞杆菌群和其他各种对照细菌的基因组DNA,合成蜡样芽胞杆菌群rpoB基因扩增引物,采用常规PCR和SYBR green实时定量PCR两种方法扩增rpoB基因片段,并将PCR产物克隆到pMD18-T载体后进行DNA测序.结果 常规PCR和Q-PCR均能扩增出蜡样芽胞杆菌群rpoB基因的174 bp DNA片段,而各种对照菌株均未见扩增.序列比对发现蜡样芽胞杆菌群细菌在该片段中存在5处核苷酸的不同,差异率为2.88%.以炭疽芽胞杆菌基因组DNA系列稀释作为扩增模板显示常规PCR最小检出量为3.42 pg,Q-PCR的敏感性达到171 fg,3次重复实验显示Q-PCR检测rpoB基因的灵敏度为(3.32×101±7.45×100)拷贝.结论 以rpoB基因为检测靶基因的Q-PCR方法具有

  11. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  12. Mechanisms used for genomic proliferation by thermophilic group II introns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Mohr

    Full Text Available Mobile group II introns, which are found in bacterial and organellar genomes, are site-specific retroelements hypothesized to be evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retrotransposons in higher organisms. Most bacteria, however, contain no more than one or a few group II introns, making it unclear how introns could have proliferated to higher copy numbers in eukaryotic genomes. An exception is the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, which contains 28 closely related copies of a group II intron, constituting approximately 1.3% of the genome. Here, by using a combination of bioinformatics and mobility assays at different temperatures, we identified mechanisms that contribute to the proliferation of T. elongatus group II introns. These mechanisms include divergence of DNA target specificity to avoid target site saturation; adaptation of some intron-encoded reverse transcriptases to splice and mobilize multiple degenerate introns that do not encode reverse transcriptases, leading to a common splicing apparatus; and preferential insertion within other mobile introns or insertion elements, which provide new unoccupied sites in expanding non-essential DNA regions. Additionally, unlike mesophilic group II introns, the thermophilic T. elongatus introns rely on elevated temperatures to help promote DNA strand separation, enabling access to a larger number of DNA target sites by base pairing of the intron RNA, with minimal constraint from the reverse transcriptase. Our results provide insight into group II intron proliferation mechanisms and show that higher temperatures, which are thought to have prevailed on Earth during the emergence of eukaryotes, favor intron proliferation by increasing the accessibility of DNA target sites. We also identify actively mobile thermophilic introns, which may be useful for structural studies, gene targeting in thermophiles, and as a source of thermostable reverse transcriptases.

  13. Comparative genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius group of animal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri eBen Zakour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of 3 closely-related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI between the 3 species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI, highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least 9 predicted reverse transcriptase (RT Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely-related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation.

  14. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mironczuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins

  15. Whole genome phylogeny of Prochlorococcus marinus group of cyanobacteria: genome alignment and overlapping gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Rai, Anil

    2014-06-01

    Prochlorococcus is the smallest known oxygenic phototrophic marine cyanobacterium dominating the mid-latitude oceans. Physiologically and genetically distinct P. marinus isolates from many oceans in the world were assigned two different groups, a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted and a divergent low-light (LL-) adapted clade. Phylogenetic analysis of this cyanobacterium on the basis of 16S rRNA and other conserved genes did not show consistency with its phenotypic behavior. We analyzed phylogeny of this genus on the basis of complete genome sequences through genome alignment, overlapping-gene content and gene-order approach. Phylogenetic tree of P. marinus obtained by comparing whole genome sequences in contrast to that based on 16S rRNA gene, corresponded well with the HL/LL ecotypic distinction of twelve strains and showed consistency with phenotypic classification of P. marinus. Evidence for the horizontal descent and acquisition of genes within and across the genus was observed. Many genes involved in metabolic functions were found to be conserved across these genomes and many were continuously gained by different strains as per their needs during the course of their evolution. Consistency in the physiological and genetic phylogeny based on whole genome sequence is established. These observations improve our understanding about the adaptation and diversification of these organisms under evolutionary pressure.

  16. Genome evolution in Reptilia, the sister group of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Daniel E; Organ, Christopher L; Fujita, Matthew K; Shedlock, Andrew M; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of birds and nonavian reptiles (Reptilia) are critical for understanding genome evolution in mammals and amniotes generally. Despite decades of study at the chromosomal and single-gene levels, and the evidence for great diversity in genome size, karyotype, and sex chromosome diversity, reptile genomes are virtually unknown in the comparative genomics era. The recent sequencing of the chicken and zebra finch genomes, in conjunction with genome scans and the online publication of the Anolis lizard genome, has begun to clarify the events leading from an ancestral amniote genome--predicted to be large and to possess a diverse repeat landscape on par with mammals and a birdlike sex chromosome system--to the small and highly streamlined genomes of birds. Reptilia exhibit a wide range of evolutionary rates of different subgenomes and, from isochores to mitochondrial DNA, provide a critical contrast to the genomic paradigms established in mammals.

  17. 蜡状芽胞杆菌群16S rDNA分析%Analysis of 16S rDNA in the Bacillus cereus Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹寰; 喻子牛; 孙明

    2008-01-01

    蜡状芽胞杆菌群主要包括炭疽芽胞杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、蜡状芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis).GenBank已有这个群的8个菌株完成了全基因组序列测定.对这8株蜡状芽胞杆菌群菌株中98条16S rDNA的序列进行相互BLAST比较,发现在同一基因组内各个16S rDNA拷贝全局相似度最低为96.47%,在不同基因组间16S rDNA局部片段比对最小相似度达到99.72%,对应片段长度也有1417 bp.这点充分说明,该群的细菌完全共用同一种16S rDNA,根据16S rDNA给细菌分类的特点,它们应该属于同一个种.在亲缘关系上,枯草芽胞杆菌离蜡状芽胞杆菌群最近.

  18. Incorporating group correlations in genome-wide association studies using smoothed group Lasso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge; Wang, Kai

    2013-04-01

    In genome-wide association studies, penalization is an important approach for identifying genetic markers associated with disease. Motivated by the fact that there exists natural grouping structure in single nucleotide polymorphisms and, more importantly, such groups are correlated, we propose a new penalization method for group variable selection which can properly accommodate the correlation between adjacent groups. This method is based on a combination of the group Lasso penalty and a quadratic penalty on the difference of regression coefficients of adjacent groups. The new method is referred to as smoothed group Lasso (SGL). It encourages group sparsity and smoothes regression coefficients for adjacent groups. Canonical correlations are applied to the weights between groups in the quadratic difference penalty. We first derive a GCD algorithm for computing the solution path with linear regression model. The SGL method is further extended to logistic regression for binary response. With the assistance of the majorize-minimization algorithm, the SGL penalized logistic regression turns out to be an iteratively penalized least-square problem. We also suggest conducting principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality within groups. Simulation studies are used to evaluate the finite sample performance. Comparison with group Lasso shows that SGL is more effective in selecting true positives. Two datasets are analyzed using the SGL method.

  19. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and meningitis in immunocompromised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A H; Patrick, C C; McCullers, J A; Flynn, P M; Pearson, T A; Razzouk, B I; Thompson, S J; Shenep, J L

    2001-05-15

    Two cases of Bacillus cereus meningitis in immunocompromised children at our hospital within a 2-month period prompted us to review B. cereus--related invasive disease. We identified 12 patients with B. cereus isolated in blood cultures from September 1988 through August 2000 at our institution. Three of these patients also had B. cereus isolated from CSF specimens; 1 additional patient had possible CNS involvement (33%, group A), whereas 8 patients had no evidence of CNS involvement (67%, group B). Patients in group A were more likely to have neutropenia at the onset of sepsis and were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. They were also more likely to have received intrathecal chemotherapy in the week before the onset of their illness. Two patients from group A died. One survived with severe sequelae. The fourth patient had mild sequelae at follow-up. No sequelae or deaths occurred among patients in group B. In patients with unfavorable outcomes, the interval from the time of recognition of illness to irreversible damage or death was short, which demonstrates a need for increased awareness, early diagnosis, and more-effective therapy, particularly that which addresses B. cereus toxins.

  20. Effects of Bacillus cereus Endospores on Free-Living Protist Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    We studied the predator-prey interactions between heterotrophic protists and endospores of Bacillus cereus group bacteria, in order to gain insight on survival and dispersal of B. cereus endospores in the environment. It has been hypothesised that the spore stage protects against digestion...

  1. Discrimination and phylogenomic classification of Bacillus anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis strains based on LC-MS/MS analysis of whole cell protein digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworzanski, Jacek P; Dickinson, Danielle N; Deshpande, Samir V; Snyder, A Peter; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2010-01-01

    Modern taxonomy, diagnostics, and forensics of bacteria benefit from technologies that provide data for genome-based classification and identification of strains; however, full genome sequencing is still costly, lengthy, and labor intensive. Therefore, other methods are needed to estimate genomic relatedness among strains in an economical and timely manner. Although DNA-DNA hybridization and techniques based on genome fingerprinting or sequencing selected genes like 16S rDNA, gyrB, or rpoB are frequently used as phylogenetic markers, analyses of complete genome sequences showed that global measures of genome relatedness, such as the average genome conservation of shared genes, can provide better strain resolution and give phylogenies congruent with relatedness revealed by traditional phylogenetic markers. Bacterial genomes are characterized by a high gene density; therefore, we investigated the integration of mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques with statistical methods for phylogenomic classification of bacterial strains. For this purpose, we used a set of well characterized Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from poisoned food to describe a method that relies on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides derived from whole cell digests. Peptides were identified and matched to a prototype database (DB) of reference bacteria with fully sequenced genomes to obtain their phylogenetic profiles. These profiles were processed for predicting genomic similarities with DB bacteria estimated by fractions of shared peptides (FSPs). FSPs served as descriptors for each food isolate and were jointly analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis methods for revealing relatedness among investigated strains. The results showed that phylogenomic classification of tested food isolates was in consonance with results from established genomic methods, thus validating our findings. In conclusion, the proposed approach could be

  2. Genomic signatures of evolutionary transitions from solitary to group living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapheim, Karen M.; Pan, Hailin; Li, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of ten bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings....

  3. A novel hybrid kinase is essential for regulating the sigma(B)-mediated stress response of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Been, Mark; Tempelaars, Marcel H; van Schaik, Willem; Moezelaar, Roy; Siezen, Roland J; Abee, Tjakko

    2010-03-01

    A common bacterial strategy for monitoring environmental challenges is to use two-component systems, which consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) is activated by the RR RsbY. Here we present strong indications that the PP2C-type phosphatase RsbY receives its input from the multi-sensor hybrid kinase BC1008 (renamed RsbK). Genome analyses revealed that, across bacilli, rsbY and rsbK are located in a conserved gene cluster. A B. cereus rsbK deletion strain was shown to be incapable of inducing sigma(B) upon stress conditions and was impaired in its heat adaptive response. Comparison of the wild-type and rsbK mutant transcriptomes upon heat shock revealed that RsbK was primarily involved in the activation of the sigma(B)-mediated stress response. Truncation of the RsbK RR receiver domain demonstrated the importance of this domain for sigma(B) induction upon stress. The domain architecture of RsbK suggests that in the B. cereus group and in other bacilli, environmental and intracellular stress signalling routes are combined into one single protein. This strategy is markedly different from the sigma(B) activation pathway in other low-GC Gram-positives.

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus Phages DirtyBetty and Kida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flounlacker, Kelly; Miller, Rachel; Marquez, Diana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of two bacteriophages of the Bacillus cereus group, DirtyBetty and Kida. These bacteriophages are double-stranded DNA-containing Myoviridae isolated from soil samples using Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki as their host bacteria. PMID:28280018

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Novel Escherichia coli Bacteriophages Belonging to New Phage Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstens, Alexander B; Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars H

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe the sequencing and genome annotations of a set of four Escherichia coli bacteriophages (phages) belonging to newly discovered groups previously consisting of only a single phage and thus expand our knowledge of these phage groups.......Here, we describe the sequencing and genome annotations of a set of four Escherichia coli bacteriophages (phages) belonging to newly discovered groups previously consisting of only a single phage and thus expand our knowledge of these phage groups....

  6. gerR, a novel ger operon involved in L-alanine- and inosine-initiated germination of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus cereus endospores germinate in response to particular nutrients. Spores are able to sense these nutrients in the environment by receptors encoded by the gerA family of operons. Analysis of the Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 genome revealed seven gerA family homologues. Using a transposon Tn917-

  7. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Streptococcus illuminates evolutionary implications of species groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yang Gao

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into "species groups". However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups.

  8. Probiotic Bacillus cereus Strains, a Potential Risk for Public Health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kui; Hölzel, Christina S; Cui, Yifang; Mayer, Ricarda; Wang, Yang; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Bassitta, Rupert; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important cause of foodborne infectious disease and food poisoning. However, B. cereus has also been used as a probiotic in human medicine and livestock production, with low standards of safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 15 commercial probiotic B. cereus preparations from China in terms of mislabeling, toxin production, and transferable antimicrobial resistance. Most preparations were incorrectly labeled, as they contained additional bacterial species; one product did not contain viable B. cereus at all. In total, 18 B. cereus group strains-specifically B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis-were isolated. Enterotoxin genes nhe, hbl, and cytK1, as well as the ces-gene were assessed by PCR. Enterotoxin production and cytotoxicity were confirmed by ELISA and cell culture assays, respectively. All isolated B. cereus group strains produced the enterotoxin Nhe; 15 strains additionally produced Hbl. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by microdilution; resistance genes were detected by PCR and further characterized by sequencing, transformation and conjugation assays. Nearly half of the strains harbored the antimicrobial resistance gene tet(45). In one strain, tet(45) was situated on a mobile genetic element-encoding a site-specific recombination mechanism-and was transferable to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis by electro-transformation. In view of the wide and uncontrolled use of these products, stricter regulations for safety assessment, including determination of virulence factors and transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, are urgently needed.

  9. Probiotic Bacillus cereus strains, a potential risk for public health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an important cause of foodborne infectious disease and food poisoning. However, B. cereus has also been used as a probiotic in human medicine and livestock production, with low standards of safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 15 commercial probiotic B. cereus preparations from China in terms of mislabeling, toxin production, and transferable antimicrobial resistance. Most preparations were incorrectly labeled, as they contained additional bacterial species; one product did not contain viable B. cereus at all. In total, 18 B. cereus group strains – specifically B. cereus and B. thuringiensis – were isolated. Enterotoxin genes nhe, hbl, and cytK1, as well as the ces-gene were assessed by PCR. Enterotoxin production and cytotoxicity were confirmed by ELISA and cell culture assays, respectively. All isolated B. cereus group strains produced the enterotoxin Nhe; 15 strains additionally produced Hbl. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by microdilution; resistance genes were detected by PCR and further characterized by sequencing, transformation and conjugation assays. Nearly half of the strains harbored the antimicrobial resistance gene tet(45. In one strain, tet(45 was situated on a mobile genetic element – encoding a site specific recombination mechanism – and was transferable to Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtilis by electro-transformation. In view of the wide and uncontrolled use of these products, stricter regulations for safety assessment, including determination of virulence factors and transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, are urgently needed.

  10. Bacillus cereus in Brazilian Ultra High Temperature milk Bacillus cereus em leite UHT brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana de Paula Pacheco-Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Ultra High Temperature (UHT milk consumption has increased during the last decade from 187 to 4,200 million liters. In the continuous UHT process, milk is submitted for 2-4 s to 130-150ºC, in a continuous flow system with immediate refrigeration and aseptical packing in hermetic packages. This research had the purpose to verify the incidence of B. cereus species from the B. cereus group, in UHT milk. In 1998 high indexes of these organisms were reported, reaching 34.14% of the analyzed samples. Beyond this fact, there was the need to establish methods and processes adjusted for correct identification of B. cereus. Thus, commercial sterility tests of 6,500 UHT milk packages were investigated in two assays, after ten days incubation at 37ºC and 7ºC to germinate all possible spores and/or to recuperate injured vegetative cells followed by pH measurement. Samples (1,300 packages each from five Brazilian UHT plants of whole UHT milk processed by direct steam injection, packaged in carton were investigated for the presence of Bacillus cereus through phenotypic and genetic (PCR tests. Values of pH were different for the samples, ranging between 6.57 and 6.73. After storage of the samples, only four packages with pH measurement below the lower limit of 6.5 were found and analyzed for the presence of B. cereus. This organism was not detected in any of the samples indicating that the five Brazilian UHT milk processors control pathogenic microorganisms and it can be said that the consumption of UHT milk does not present safety problems to consumers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and PCR tests were efficient and must be adopted to confirm the biochemical series for B. cereus.O consumo de leite ultra-alta temperatura (UHT brasileiro aumentou, durante a última década, de 187 milhões de litros para 4,200 milhões de litros. No processo contínuo de leite UHT o leite é submetido por 2-4 seg a 130-150ºC, em sistemas de

  11. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  12. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  13. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouami, Sabrina; Clair, Géremy; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  14. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Laouami

    Full Text Available The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  15. Phage morphology recapitulates phylogeny: the comparative genomics of a new group of myoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M Comeau

    Full Text Available Among dsDNA tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales, members of the Myoviridae family have the most sophisticated virion design that includes a complex contractile tail structure. The Myoviridae generally have larger genomes than the other phage families. Relatively few "dwarf" myoviruses, those with a genome size of less than 50 kb such as those of the Mu group, have been analyzed in extenso. Here we report on the genome sequencing and morphological characterization of a new group of such phages that infect a diverse range of Proteobacteria, namely Aeromonas salmonicida phage 56, Vibrio cholerae phages 138 and CP-T1, Bdellovibrio phage φ1422, and Pectobacterium carotovorum phage ZF40. This group of dwarf myoviruses shares an identical virion morphology, characterized by usually short contractile tails, and have genome sizes of approximately 45 kb. Although their genome sequences are variable in their lysogeny, replication, and host adaption modules, presumably reflecting differing lifestyles and hosts, their structural and morphogenesis modules have been evolutionarily constrained by their virion morphology. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that these phages, along with related prophage genomes, form a new coherent group within the Myoviridae. The results presented in this communication support the hypothesis that the diversity of phages may be more structured than generally believed and that the innumerable phages in the biosphere all belong to discrete lineages or families.

  16. A Pseudo-tRNA Modulates Antibiotic Resistance in Bacillus cereus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Theresa E; Ataide, Sandro F; Dare, Kiley

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial genomic islands are often flanked by tRNA genes, which act as sites for the integration of foreign DNA into the host chromosome. For example, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 contains a pathogenicity island flanked by a predicted pseudo-tRNA, tRNA(Other), which does not function in translation...

  17. Comparative transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of the responses of Bacillus cereus to various disinfectant treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, M.; Mols, J.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Ghelardi, E.; Senesi, S.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemicals are widely applied to clean and disinfect food-contacting surfaces. However, the cellular response of bacteria to various disinfectants is unclear. In this study, the physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 exposed to four differe

  18. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  19. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  20. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in Rabbits and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like...G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids. The Bacillus cereus group, of which Bacillus anthracis, Bacil- lus thuringiensis , and B... Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B

  1. The worldwide distribution of genetically and phylogenetically diverse Bacillus cereus isolates harbouring Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina Sylwia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Drewnowska, Justyna Malgorzata; Zambrowski, Grzegorz; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a close relative of B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax whose pathogenic determinants are located on pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids have been also noted among B. cereus, however, genetic features of B. cereus harbouring these elements remain largely undescribed, especially from the global perspective. Herein, we present the genetic polymorphism, population structure and phylogeny of B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids originating from Argentina, Kazakhstan, Kenya and Poland. The plasmids were found in about 17% of the isolates, but their frequencies and expression of replicons differed within and between populations. In the multi-locus sequence typing, the bacteria exhibited high genetic polymorphism reflected by 116 sequencing types, including 84 singletons and 10 clonal complexes, which mainly consisted of isolates of the same origin. The phylogenetic analysis of pXO1-/pXO2-like positive B. cereus isolates revealed six independent clades; in certain clades individual populations predominated. Generally, B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids did not indicate the genetic relationship with B. anthracis, and cannot be classified into an evolutionary independent anthrax line within the B. cereus group. Our report is of a crucial importance for discovering the genetic specificity and evolution of B. cereus bacilli.

  2. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.

  3. Association of Genotyping of Bacillus cereus with Clinical Features of Post-Traumatic Endophthalmitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hong

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.

  4. Distinct Roles of ComK1 and ComK2 in Gene Regulation in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mironczuk, Aleksandra; Maňu, Amagoia; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovacs, Akos

    2011-01-01

    The B. subtilis transcriptional factor ComK regulates a set of genes coding for DNA uptake from the environment and for its integration into the genome. In previous work we showed that Bacillus cereus expressing the B. subtilis ComK protein is able to take up DNA and integrate it into its own genome

  5. Whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism analysis for discrimination of Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Timme, Ruth; Raphael, Brian H; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a genetically diverse Gram-positive bacterium producing extremely potent neurotoxins (botulinum neurotoxins A through G [BoNT/A-G]). The complete genome sequences of three strains harboring only the BoNT/A1 nucleotide sequence are publicly available. Although these strains contain a toxin cluster (HA(+) OrfX(-)) associated with hemagglutinin genes, little is known about the genomes of subtype A1 strains (termed HA(-) OrfX(+)) that lack hemagglutinin genes in the toxin gene cluster. We sequenced the genomes of three BoNT/A1-producing C. botulinum strains: two strains with the HA(+) OrfX(-) cluster (69A and 32A) and one strain with the HA(-) OrfX(+) cluster (CDC297). Whole-genome phylogenic single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) analysis of these strains along with other publicly available C. botulinum group I strains revealed five distinct lineages. Strains 69A and 32A clustered with the C. botulinum type A1 Hall group, and strain CDC297 clustered with the C. botulinum type Ba4 strain 657. This study reports the use of whole-genome SNP sequence analysis for discrimination of C. botulinum group I strains and demonstrates the utility of this analysis in quickly differentiating C. botulinum strains harboring identical toxin gene subtypes. This analysis further supports previous work showing that strains CDC297 and 657 likely evolved from a common ancestor and independently acquired separate BoNT/A1 toxin gene clusters at distinct genomic locations.

  6. Classification of Italian isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi into three genomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M; De Giovannini, R; Fattorini, P; Florian, F; Graziosi, G

    1993-10-01

    In this study we investigated the genotypic characteristics of some locally isolated strains of B. burgdorferi by three different methodologies: restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), Southern blot hybridization with whole DNAs from Borrelia strains and Southern blot hybridization with rRNA 16 + 23S genes derived from E. coli. REA fingerprintings were evaluated by cluster analysis, according to the principles of numerical taxonomy. The genomas of the locally isolated strains were compared with borreliae originating from different countries of Europe, including Sweden and with the American reference strain B31. Among the European strains, some already described by Baranton (Baranton et al., 1992) as representatives of different genomic groups Borrelia sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii were used. By the different techniques the isolates were included in three genomic groups which could correspond to the three genospecies identified by Baranton, namely B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. group VS461: in fact two strains were included in a homogeneous group, probably corresponding to the VS461 genomic group, together with other European borreliae; one isolate was included in a group consisting of B31 and some other European strains already described as belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi in sensu stricto. Finally two isolates were ascribed to a third genomic group probably corresponding to the genospecies indicated as Borrelia garinii. These findings indicate that a small number of Borrelia strains isolated from a very restricted area can be genetically heterogeneous.

  7. Exoproteome analysis of a novel strain of Bacillus cereus implicated in disease resembling cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Neha; Goel, Ajay Kumar; Alam, Syed Imteyaz

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus cereus belongs to B. cereus sensu lato group, shared by six other related species including Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis is the causative agent for serious illness affecting a wide range of animals as well as humans and is a category A Biological and Toxin Warfare (BTW) agent. Recent studies indicate that a Bacillus species other than B. anthracis can cause anthrax-like disease and role of anthrax virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2) on the pathogenicity of B. cereus has been documented. B. cereus strain TF5 was isolated from the tissue fluid of cutaneous anthrax-like skin lesions of a human patient from an anthrax endemic area in India. The strain harboured a PA gene, however, presence of pXO1 or pXO2-like plasmids could not be ascertained using reported primers. Abundant exoproteome of the strain in the early stationary phase was elucidated using a 2-DE MS approach and compared with that from a reference B. cereus strain. Analysis of proteins showing qualitative and quantitative differences between the two strains indicated an altered regulatory mechanism and putative role of S-layer protein and sphingomyelinase in the pathogenesis of strain TF5. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-layer protein indicated close affiliation of the strain with anthracis-like B. cereus strains such as B. cereus var. anthracis strain CI; whereas sphingomyelinase exhibited specific relationship with all the strains of B. anthracis apart from that with anthracis-like B. cereus strains.

  8. Whole genome sequencing as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of clinical strains of Mitis group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L H; Dargis, R; Højholt, K; Christensen, J J; Skovgaard, O; Justesen, U S; Rosenvinge, F S; Moser, C; Lukjancenko, O; Rasmussen, S; Nielsen, X C

    2016-10-01

    Identification of Mitis group streptococci (MGS) to the species level is challenging for routine microbiology laboratories. Correct identification is crucial for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, identification of treatment failure, and/or infection relapse. Eighty MGS from Danish patients with infective endocarditis were whole genome sequenced. We compared the phylogenetic analyses based on single genes (recA, sodA, gdh), multigene (MLSA), SNPs, and core-genome sequences. The six phylogenetic analyses generally showed a similar pattern of six monophyletic clusters, though a few differences were observed in single gene analyses. Species identification based on single gene analysis showed their limitations when more strains were included. In contrast, analyses incorporating more sequence data, like MLSA, SNPs and core-genome analyses, provided more distinct clustering. The core-genome tree showed the most distinct clustering.

  9. Novel bacteriophages containing a genome of another bacteriophage within their genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud M Swanson

    Full Text Available A novel bacteriophage infecting Staphylococus pasteuri was isolated during a screen for phages in Antarctic soils. The phage named SpaA1 is morphologically similar to phages of the family Siphoviridae. The 42,784 bp genome of SpaA1 is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with 3' protruding cohesive ends. The SpaA1 genome encompasses 63 predicted protein-coding genes which cluster within three regions of the genome, each of apparently different origin, in a mosaic pattern. In two of these regions, the gene sets resemble those in prophages of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki str. T03a001 (genes involved in DNA replication/transcription, cell entry and exit and B. cereus AH676 (additional regulatory and recombination genes, respectively. The third region represents an almost complete genome (except for the short terminal segments of a distinct bacteriophage, MZTP02. Nearly the same gene module was identified in prophages of B. thuringiensis serovar monterrey BGSC 4AJ1 and B. cereus Rock4-2. These findings suggest that MZTP02 can be shuttled between genomes of other bacteriophages and prophages, leading to the formation of chimeric genomes. The presence of a complete phage genome in the genome of other phages apparently has not been described previously and might represent a 'fast track' route of virus evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Another phage (BceA1 nearly identical in sequence to SpaA1, and also including the almost complete MZTP02 genome within its own genome, was isolated from a bacterium of the B. cereus/B. thuringiensis group. Remarkably, both SpaA1 and BceA1 phages can infect B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, but only one of them, SpaA1, can infect S. pasteuri. This finding is best compatible with a scenario in which MZTP02 was originally contained in BceA1 infecting Bacillus spp, the common hosts for these two phages, followed by emergence of SpaA1 infecting S. pasteuri.

  10. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sanchis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O, haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK. Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined.

  11. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  12. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 - a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin K Kroeger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the unknown major facilitator family 2 (UMF 2. BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in E. coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105 in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF 2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria.

  13. Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Gregory E.; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome phylogeny of the Escherichia coli/Shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (FFP) method. This alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. We present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of E. coli/Shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping and relationship among the organisms and (ii) the other based on the compositions of core features with low frequency and low variability (∼0.56 million features), which account for ∼69% of all commonly shared features among 38 taxa examined and are likely to have genome-wide lineal evolutionary signal. Shigella appears as a single clade when all possible features are used without filtering of noncore features. However, results using core features show that Shigella consists of at least two distantly related subclades, implying that the subclades evolved into a single clade because of a high degree of convergence influenced by mobile genetic elements and niche adaptation. In both FFP trees, the basal group of the E. coli/Shigella phylogeny is the B2 phylogroup, which contains primarily uropathogenic strains, suggesting that the E. coli/Shigella ancestor was likely a facultative or opportunistic pathogen. The extant commensal strains diverged relatively late and appear to be the result of reductive evolution of genomes. We also identify clade distinguishing features and their associated genomic regions within each phylogroup. Such features may provide useful information for understanding evolution of the groups and for quick diagnostic identification of each phylogroup. PMID:21536867

  14. Genome Editing via Mobile Group-II Introns and Cre/lox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, P. E.; Perutka, J.; Dao, M.; Ellington, A. E.

    2010-04-01

    Mobile group-II introns and the Cre/lox systems are combined to allow large segments of DNA to be removed or transferred within/between bacterial genomes. Planned applications include metabolic optimization and development of novel dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria.

  15. Virulence of Bacillus cereus: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaard, J; Delfederico, L; Vasseur, V; Hollmann, A; Rolny, I; Semorile, L; Pérez, P F

    2007-05-10

    Biological activity and presence of DNA sequences related to virulence genes were studied in 21 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. The activity of spent culture supernatants and the effect of infection by vegetative bacterial cells were assessed on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). The effect of extracellular factors on the detachment, necrosis and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of cultured human enterocytes was studied. Hemolytic activity on rabbit red blood cells was also evaluated and the effect of direct procaryotic-eucaryotic interactions was assessed in infection assays with vegetative bacterial cells. Concerning virulence genes, presence of the DNA sequences corresponding to the genes entS, entFM, nhe (A, B and C), sph, hbl (A, B, C and D), piplC and bceT was assessed by PCR. Ribopatterns were determined by an automated riboprinting analysis after digestion of the DNA with EcoRI. Principal component analysis and biplots were used to address the relationship between variables. Results showed a wide range of biological activities: decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, necrosis, cell detachment and hemolytic activity. These effects were strain-dependent. Concerning the occurrence of the DNA sequences tested, different patterns were found. In addition, ribotyping showed that strains under study grouped into two main clusters. One of these clusters includes all the strains that were positive for all the DNA sequences tested. Positive and negative correlations between variables under study were evidenced. Interestingly, high detaching strains were positively correlated with the presence of the sequences entS, nheC and sph. Within gene complexes, high correlation was found between sequences of the hbl complex. In contrast, sequences of the nhe complex were not correlated. Some strains clustered together in the biplots. These strains were positive for all the DNA sequences tested and they were able to detach enterocytes upon infection

  16. Cr(VI) uptake mechanism of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Huang, Zhipeng; Cheng, Yangjian; Pan, Danmei; Pan, Xiaohong; Yu, Meijuan; Pan, Zhiyun; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong; Wu, Ziyu

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the Cr(VI) uptake mechanism in an indigenous Cr(VI)-tolerant bacterial strain -Bacillus cereus through batch and microscopic experiments. We found that both the cells and the supernatant collected from B. cereus cultivation could reduce Cr(VI). The valence state analysis revealed the complete transformation from Cr(VI) into Cr(III) by living B. cereus. Further X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the reduced Cr(III) was coordinated with carboxyl and amido functional groups from either the cells or supernatant. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observation showed that noticeable Cr(III) precipitates were accumulated on bacterial surfaces. However, Cr(III) could also be detected in bacterial inner portions by using transmission electron microscopy thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Through quantitative analysis of chromium distribution, we determined the binding ratio of Cr(III) in supernatant, cell debris and cytoplasm as 22%, 54% and 24%, respectively. Finally, we further discussed the role of bacterium-origin soluble organic molecules to the remediation of Cr(VI) pollutants.

  17. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin).

  18. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.

    2008-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...

  19. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  20. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  1. Multiple Group Testing Procedures for Analysis of High-Dimensional Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyoseok; Kim, Kipoong

    2016-01-01

    In genetic association studies with high-dimensional genomic data, multiple group testing procedures are often required in order to identify disease/trait-related genes or genetic regions, where multiple genetic sites or variants are located within the same gene or genetic region. However, statistical testing procedures based on an individual test suffer from multiple testing issues such as the control of family-wise error rate and dependent tests. Moreover, detecting only a few of genes associated with a phenotype outcome among tens of thousands of genes is of main interest in genetic association studies. In this reason regularization procedures, where a phenotype outcome regresses on all genomic markers and then regression coefficients are estimated based on a penalized likelihood, have been considered as a good alternative approach to analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. But, selection performance of regularization procedures has been rarely compared with that of statistical group testing procedures. In this article, we performed extensive simulation studies where commonly used group testing procedures such as principal component analysis, Hotelling's T2 test, and permutation test are compared with group lasso (least absolute selection and shrinkage operator) in terms of true positive selection. Also, we applied all methods considered in simulation studies to identify genes associated with ovarian cancer from over 20,000 genetic sites generated from Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27K Beadchip. We found a big discrepancy of selected genes between multiple group testing procedures and group lasso.

  2. Surface reaction of Bacillus cereus biomass and its biosorption for lead and copper ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jian-hua; LIU Rui-xia; TANG Hong-xiao

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analytical technique identified the surface chemical functional groups of Bacillus cereus biomass. B. Cereus cells mainly contained carboxyl, hydroxyl, phosphate, amino, and amide functional groups. In order to explain the surface acid-base properties of aqueous B. Cereus biomass, the potentiometric titration was conducted . The computer program FITEQL 4.0 was used to perform the model calculations. The optimization results indicated that three sites-three pKas model, which assumed the cell surface to have three distinct types of surface organic functional groups based on IR analysis results, simulated the experimental results very well. Moreover, batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate biosorption behavior of Cu (Ⅱ) and Pb (Ⅱ) ions onto the biomass. Obviously, the adsorption equilibrium data for the two ions were reasonably described by typical Langmuir isotherm.

  3. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin.

  4. Genomic and metabolic diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the mesopelagic of two subtropical gyres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Swan

    Full Text Available Marine Group I (MGI Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures.

  5. Differentiation Between Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rDNA-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haitao; LIU Dongming; GAO Jiguo

    2011-01-01

    16S rDNA and ERIC (Enterobacteia Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences) based on PCR method were tested for the effectiveness of the differentiation of B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. 16S rDNA-PCR primers were designed based on the sequence difference in variable regions of B. cereus 16S rDNA and B. thuringiensis 16S rDNA, 16S rDNA-PCR showed no obvious difference between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. The only difference was that one 1600-bp amplificon could be obtained from all the three B. Cereus strains, and none amplificon from any B. thuringiensis strains. ERIC was optimized based on previous reports. The genonlic DNA was used for the template of ER1C-PCR, and the following DNA fingerprints were analyzed by the agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that DNA fingerprint of three B. thuringiensis strains had a unique amplicon less than 100-bp, while DNA fingerprint of three B. cereus" strains had none. Moreover, DNA fingerprint of B. cereus showed a 700-bp amplicon, but didn't have any DNA fingerprints ofB. thuringiensis genome. Therefore, ERIC-PCR technique should be able to be used for the differentiation of B. thuringiensis and B. cereus.

  6. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains.

  7. The PlcR virulence regulon of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Gohar

    Full Text Available PlcR is a Bacillus cereus transcriptional regulator, which activates gene expression by binding to a nucleotidic sequence called the 'PlcR box'. To build a list of all genes included in the PlcR regulon, a consensus sequence was identified by directed mutagenesis. The reference strain ATCC14579 sequenced genome was searched for occurrences of this consensus sequence to produce a virtual regulon. PlcR control of these genes was confirmed by comparing gene expression in the reference strain and its isogenic Delta-plcR strain using DNA microarrays, lacZ fusions and proteomics methods. The resulting list included 45 genes controlled by 28 PlcR boxes. Forty of the PlcR controlled proteins were exported, of which 22 were secreted in the extracellular medium and 18 were bound or attached to cell wall structures (membrane or peptidoglycan layer. The functions of these proteins were related to food supply (phospholipases, proteases, toxins, cell protection (bacteriocins, toxins, transporters, cell wall biogenesis and environment-sensing (two-component sensors, chemotaxis proteins, GGDEF family regulators. Four genes coded for cytoplasmic regulators. The PlcR regulon appears to integrate a large range of environmental signals, including food deprivation and self cell-density, and regulate the transcription of genes designed to overcome obstacles that hinder B. cereus growth within the host: food supply, host barriers, host immune defenses, and competition with other bacterial species. PlcR appears to be a key component in the efficient adaptation of B. cereus to its host environment.

  8. Stratification of co-evolving genomic groups using ranked phylogenetic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoka Sophia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous methods of detecting the taxonomic origins of arbitrary sequence collections, with a significant impact to genome analysis and in particular metagenomics, have primarily focused on compositional features of genomes. The evolutionary patterns of phylogenetic distribution of genes or proteins, represented by phylogenetic profiles, provide an alternative approach for the detection of taxonomic origins, but typically suffer from low accuracy. Herein, we present rank-BLAST, a novel approach for the assignment of protein sequences into genomic groups of the same taxonomic origin, based on the ranking order of phylogenetic profiles of target genes or proteins across the reference database. Results The rank-BLAST approach is validated by computing the phylogenetic profiles of all sequences for five distinct microbial species of varying degrees of phylogenetic proximity, against a reference database of 243 fully sequenced genomes. The approach - a combination of sequence searches, statistical estimation and clustering - analyses the degree of sequence divergence between sets of protein sequences and allows the classification of protein sequences according to the species of origin with high accuracy, allowing taxonomic classification of 64% of the proteins studied. In most cases, a main cluster is detected, representing the corresponding species. Secondary, functionally distinct and species-specific clusters exhibit different patterns of phylogenetic distribution, thus flagging gene groups of interest. Detailed analyses of such cases are provided as examples. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rank-BLAST approach can capture the taxonomic origins of sequence collections in an accurate and efficient manner. The approach can be useful both for the analysis of genome evolution and the detection of species groups in metagenomics samples.

  9. A genomic insight into diversity among tribal and nontribal population groups of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, K N; Kiranmala, Naorem; Murry, Benrithung; Sinha, Ekata; Saksena, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, M P; Kalla, A K

    2009-10-01

    Twenty autosomal markers, including linked markers at two gene markers, are used to understand the genomic similarity and diversity among three tribal (Paite, Thadou, and Kom) and one nontribal communities of Manipur (Northeast India). Two of the markers (CD4 and HB9) are monomorphic in Paite and one (the CD4 marker) in Kom. Data suggest the Meitei (nontribal groups) stand apart from the three tribal groups with respect to higher heterozygosity (0.366) and presence of the highest ancestor haplotypes of DRD2 markers (0.228); this is also supported by principal co-ordinate analysis. These populations are found to be genomically closer to the Chinese population than to other Indian populations.

  10. Genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from group I.1b enriched from Everglades soil reveals novel genomic features of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna V Zhalnina

    Full Text Available The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we describe the first complete genome of soil archaeon Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis, which has been reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a highly enriched culture obtained from an agricultural soil. The AOA enrichment was sequenced with the high throughput next generation sequencing platforms from Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent. The de novo assembly of sequences resulted in one 2.95 Mb contig. Annotation of the reconstructed genome revealed many similarities of the basic metabolism with the rest of sequenced AOA. Ca. N. evergladensis belongs to the group I.1b and shares only 40% of whole-genome homology with the closest sequenced relative Ca. N. gargensis. Detailed analysis of the genome revealed coding sequences that were completely absent from the group I.1a. These unique sequences code for proteins involved in control of DNA integrity, transporters, two-component systems and versatile CRISPR defense system. Notably, genomes from the group I.1b have more gene duplications compared to the genomes from the group I.1a. We suggest that the presence of these unique genes and gene duplications may be associated with the environmental versatility of this group.

  11. Analysis of the full genome of human group C rotaviruses reveals lineage diversification and reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Martella, Vito; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Chezzi, Carlo; Fehér, Enikő; Marton, Szilvia; Calderaro, Adriana; Bányai, Krisztián

    2016-08-01

    Group C rotaviruses (RVC) are enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Whole-genome sequences are available only for few RVCs, leaving gaps in our knowledge about their genetic diversity. We determined the full-length genome sequence of two human RVCs (PR2593/2004 and PR713/2012), detected in Italy from hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus infection in 2004 and 2012. In the 11 RNA genomic segments, the two Italian RVCs segregated within separate intra-genotypic lineages showed variation ranging from 1.9 % (VP6) to 15.9 % (VP3) at the nucleotide level. Comprehensive analysis of human RVC sequences available in the databases allowed us to reveal the existence of at least two major genome configurations, defined as type I and type II. Human RVCs of type I were all associated with the M3 VP3 genotype, including the Italian strain PR2593/2004. Conversely, human RVCs of type II were all associated with the M2 VP3 genotype, including the Italian strain PR713/2012. Reassortant RVC strains between these major genome configurations were identified. Although only a few full-genome sequences of human RVCs, mostly of Asian origin, are available, the analysis of human RVC sequences retrieved from the databases indicates that at least two intra-genotypic RVC lineages circulate in European countries. Gathering more sequence data is necessary to develop a standardized genotype and intra-genotypic lineage classification system useful for epidemiological investigations and avoiding confusion in the literature.

  12. Analysis of virus genomes from glacial environments reveals novel virus groups with unusual host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Christopher M.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in glacial ecosystems are diverse, active, and subjected to strong viral pressures and infection rates. In this study we analyse putative virus genomes assembled from three dsDNA viromes from cryoconite hole ecosystems of Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet to assess the potential hosts and functional role viruses play in these habitats. We assembled 208 million reads from the virus-size fraction and developed a procedure to select genuine virus scaffolds from cellular contamination. Our curated virus library contained 546 scaffolds up to 230 Kb in length, 54 of which were circular virus consensus genomes. Analysis of virus marker genes revealed a wide range of viruses had been assembled, including bacteriophages, cyanophages, nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses and a virophage, with putative hosts identified as Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, eukaryotic algae and amoebae. Whole genome comparisons revealed the majority of circular genome scaffolds (CGS) formed 12 novel groups, two of which contained multiple phage members with plasmid-like properties, including a group of phage-plasmids possessing plasmid-like partition genes and toxin-antitoxin addiction modules to ensure their replication and a satellite phage-plasmid group. Surprisingly we also assembled a phage that not only encoded plasmid partition genes, but a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas adaptive bacterial immune system. One of the spacers was an exact match for another phage in our virome, indicating that in a novel use of the system, the lysogen was potentially capable of conferring immunity on its bacterial host against other phage. Together these results suggest that highly novel and diverse groups of viruses are present in glacial environments, some of which utilize very unusual life strategies and genes to control their replication and maintain a long-term relationship with their hosts

  13. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  14. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

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    Jean-Paul Madeira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, “Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics” Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/, with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789.

  15. Diagnostic properties of three conventional selective plating media for selection of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. weihenstephanensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic properties of the two selective plating media and a chromogenic medium for identification of Bacillus cereus. The 324 isolates were B. cereus (37%), Bacillus weihenstephanensis (45%) or Bacillus thuringiensis (18%), as identified by a new...... combination of techniques. All isolates were growing on mannitol–egg yolk–polymyxin agar (MYP), and they did not form acid from mannitol. However, a significant lower number of B. thuringiensis isolates did not show lecithinase activity. All isolates were also growing on polymyxin–egg yolk...... recommended selective plating media MYP and PEMBA for detection of B. cereus group bacteria both have their limitations for identification of some B. cereus, B. weihenstephanensis or B. thuringiensis. However, MYP is preferable compared to PEMBA. The chromogenic medium has its own advantages and limitations...

  16. Production of nanodrug for Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient using Mallotus philippensis

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    R. Bhuvaneswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Mallotus philippensis leaf extract and their antibacterial potential against Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient. In this, UV- Visible spectroscopy showed the high peak of absorption band at 450 nm. Based on XRD analysis, face centered cubic structure and average size of the AgNPs was around 16 nm. FTIR spectroscopy study revealed the seventeen functional groups of the AgNPs was observed. The morphology of AgNPs was spherical, oval shapes and diameter of the particle size ranges between 9 and 24 nm was measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In addition to these green synthesized AgNPs were found to express the higher efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus isolated from the HIV-positive patient.

  17. [The significance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms in occurence of food toxicoinfections. Report 2. Assessment of the role of toxigenic strains of Bacillus cereus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimochkina, N R; Batishcheva, S Iu; Bykova, I B; Sheveleva, S A

    2012-01-01

    The data on nomenclature, classification and taxonomy of aerobic spore-forming Bacillus cereus are summarized. The main features of the two types of diseases, caused B. cereus, and statistical information on outbreaks of food-borne disease caused by B. cereus are presented. The detailed description of emetic toxin cereulide properties are given. The analysis of existing methods for detection of the presence of B. cereus and their toxins in foods are conducted. The data on the use of different cell models for studying the cytotoxic effects and the enterotoxigenic properties of B. cereus are described. Results of own researches allowed to conclude that certain types of products, primarily made from milk and vegetable raw materials, can be a source of transmission to humans of toxins produced by B. cereus. It is shown that in the absence of competing vegetative microflora increases the risk of accumulation of toxins produced by the most stable populations, including toxigenic spore B. cereus. Tested and proposed for the practical implementation of the dry culture media on the basis of the balanced growth and selective components, dyes and buffer mixtures. The developed environment were used for the isolation and identification B. cereus during microbial control these groups of foods.

  18. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

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    Chung K Marston

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1. This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA, and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

  19. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Chung K; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

  20. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.

  1. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  2. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  3. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Holly H; Law, Christina; Schmuki, Martina; Eichenseher, Fritz; Calendar, Richard; Loessner, Martin J; Getz, Wayne M; Korlach, Jonas; Beyer, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales), featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure) and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis) and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  4. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  5. Features of Bacillus cereus swarm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Sonia; Salvetti, Sara; Celandroni, Francesco; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2010-11-01

    When propagated on solid surfaces, Bacillus cereus can produce differentiated swarm cells under a wide range of growth conditions. This behavioural versatility is ecologically relevant, since it allows this bacterium to adapt swarming to environmental changes. Swarming by B. cereus is medically important: swarm cells are more virulent and particularly prone to invade host tissues. Characterisation of swarming-deficient mutants highlights that flagellar genes as well as genes governing different metabolic pathways are involved in swarm-cell differentiation. In this review, the environmental and genetic requirements for swarming and the role played by swarm cells in the virulence this pathogen exerts will be outlined.

  6. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity limits infection by this micro-organism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 28-30

  7. New Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through Extensive Genome Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Mermoud, Isabelle; Desoutter, Denise; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia). Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination.

  8. New Insights into the genetic diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through extensive genome exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eWoudstra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia. Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination.

  9. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  10. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-02

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product

  11. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus cereus in food commodities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Randomly selected food commodities, categorized in product groups, were investigated for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus bacteria. If positive, and when possible, five separate colonies were isolated and investigated for the presence of four virulence factors: presence of genes encoding t

  12. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activi

  13. Is Cytotoxin K from Bacillus cereus a bona fide enterotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiaux, Virginie; Liu, Xiaojin; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Mahillon, Jacques

    2015-10-15

    Cytotoxin K (CytK) produced by Bacillus cereus s.l. has generally been considered to be associated with the foodborne diarrhoeal syndrome. Two distinct variants of CytK have been reported: CytK-1 from Bacillus cytotoxicus and CytK-2 from B. cereus. In order to determine whether CytK plays a significant role in the diarrhoeal disease, the occurrence of cytK genes was assessed among 390 B. cereus isolates with different origins including clinical and food poisoning samples and was found to be 46%. Interestingly, the cytK occurrence was slightly lower in food poisoning and clinical isolates than in environmental samples. Seventy cytK-2 positive strains (including 28 isolates from foodborne outbreaks) were then selected in order to assess their genetic diversity. A genetic dendrogram based on the cytK-2 sequences of these 70 strains and on two cytK-1 sequences from strains NVH 391-98 and 883-00 showed an important diversity. However, no strain clustering according to the origin or source of isolation was observed. These observations were confirmed by Multi-Locus Sequences Typing (MLST) based on five different loci of housekeeping genes (ccpA, recF, sucC, purF and gdpD) for which no grouping of foodborne outbreak strains could be identified. Therefore, the choice of cytK as virulence factor for the diarrhoeal pathotype does not seem to be relevant per se, even though the involvement of CytK in the diarrhoeal syndrome cannot be fully excluded. Potential synergistic effects between CytK and other virulence factors, together with their potential variable expression levels should be further investigated.

  14. Phylogeny of a genomically diverse group of elymus (poaceae allopolyploids reveals multiple levels of reticulation.

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    Roberta J Mason-Gamer

    Full Text Available The grass tribe Triticeae (=Hordeeae comprises only about 300 species, but it is well known for the economically important crop plants wheat, barley, and rye. The group is also recognized as a fascinating example of evolutionary complexity, with a history shaped by numerous events of auto- and allopolyploidy and apparent introgression involving diploids and polyploids. The genus Elymus comprises a heterogeneous collection of allopolyploid genome combinations, all of which include at least one set of homoeologs, designated St, derived from Pseudoroegneria. The current analysis includes a geographically and genomically diverse collection of 21 tetraploid Elymus species, and a single hexaploid species. Diploid and polyploid relationships were estimated using four molecular data sets, including one that combines two regions of the chloroplast genome, and three from unlinked nuclear genes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I. Four gene trees were generated using maximum likelihood, and the phylogenetic placement of the polyploid sequences reveals extensive reticulation beyond allopolyploidy alone. The trees were interpreted with reference to numerous phenomena known to complicate allopolyploid phylogenies, and introgression was identified as a major factor in their history. The work illustrates the interpretation of complicated phylogenetic results through the sequential consideration of numerous possible explanations, and the results highlight the value of careful inspection of multiple independent molecular phylogenetic estimates, with particular focus on the differences among them.

  15. Phylogeny of a genomically diverse group of elymus (poaceae) allopolyploids reveals multiple levels of reticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J

    2013-01-01

    The grass tribe Triticeae (=Hordeeae) comprises only about 300 species, but it is well known for the economically important crop plants wheat, barley, and rye. The group is also recognized as a fascinating example of evolutionary complexity, with a history shaped by numerous events of auto- and allopolyploidy and apparent introgression involving diploids and polyploids. The genus Elymus comprises a heterogeneous collection of allopolyploid genome combinations, all of which include at least one set of homoeologs, designated St, derived from Pseudoroegneria. The current analysis includes a geographically and genomically diverse collection of 21 tetraploid Elymus species, and a single hexaploid species. Diploid and polyploid relationships were estimated using four molecular data sets, including one that combines two regions of the chloroplast genome, and three from unlinked nuclear genes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I. Four gene trees were generated using maximum likelihood, and the phylogenetic placement of the polyploid sequences reveals extensive reticulation beyond allopolyploidy alone. The trees were interpreted with reference to numerous phenomena known to complicate allopolyploid phylogenies, and introgression was identified as a major factor in their history. The work illustrates the interpretation of complicated phylogenetic results through the sequential consideration of numerous possible explanations, and the results highlight the value of careful inspection of multiple independent molecular phylogenetic estimates, with particular focus on the differences among them.

  16. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

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    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  17. Toxin producing Bacillus cereus persist in ready-to-reheat spaghetti Bolognese mainly in vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Kljajic, Milica; Smigic, Nada; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-10-15

    The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause a diarrheal toxico-infection is related to its ability to perform de novo enterotoxin production in the small intestine. A prerequisite for this is presence of sufficient numbers of B. cereus that have survived gastro-intestinal passage. It is known that the percentage of survival is much smaller for vegetative cells in comparison to spores and it is therefore important to know the state in which B. cereus is ingested. The results of the current study performed on twelve B. cereus strains, comprising both diarrheal and emetic type, indicate that exposure via contaminated foods mainly concerns vegetative cells. Inoculated vegetative cells grew to high counts, with the growth dynamic depending on the storage temperature. At 28 °C growth to high counts resulted in spore formation, in general, after 1 day of storage. One strain was an exception, producing spores only after 16 days. At 12 °C obtained high counts did not result in spore formation for 11 of 12 tested strains after two weeks of storage. The highest counts and time to sporulation were different between strains, but no difference was observed on the group level of diarrheal and emetic strains. The spore counts were always lower than vegetative cell counts and occurred only when food was obviously sensory spoiled (visual and odor evaluation). Similar observations were made with food inoculated with B. cereus spores instead of vegetative cells. Although the prospect of consuming spores was found very weak, the numbers of vegetative B. cereus cells were high enough, without obvious sensory deviation, to survive in sufficient level to cause diarrheal toxico-infection.

  18. Bacillus cereus cellulitis from contaminated heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; McNair, D; Finn, P; Kolsto, A B

    2002-03-01

    Concern exists over recent unexplained deaths among intravenous drug users. This report describes a patient with crepitant cellulitis who was admitted complaining of severe pain in the right forearm. Ultrasonography demonstrated gas in the tissues and he was referred for early surgical debridement of the arm. He was treated with intravenous benzyl penicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole and made a full recovery. Aspirate samples grew Bacillus cereus, morphologically similar to the isolate obtained from a sample of the patient's own heroin. Antibiogram and API 50CHB profiles were also similar. Further typing included 'H' flagellar serotyping, which found both blood and heroin strains to be non-typable, and amplified fragment polymorphism analysis, which showed that the strains were indistinguishable. Genotyping of two selected genes from B. cereus confirmed almost certain identity between the two strains. This case illustrates the potential virulence of B. cereus when inoculated into tissues, and to our knowledge, is the first report to demonstrate a conclusive microbiological link between contaminated heroin and serious sepsis in a drug user due to B. cereus.

  19. Proliferation of group II introns in the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oedocladium carolinianum (Chlorophyceae

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    Jean-Simon Brouard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The chloroplast genome sustained extensive changes in architecture during the evolution of the Chlorophyceae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse class of green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta; however, the forces driving these changes are poorly understood. The five orders recognized in the Chlorophyceae form two major clades: the CS clade consisting of the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and the OCC clade consisting of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales. In the OCC clade, considerable variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA structure, size, gene order, and intron content have been observed. The large inverted repeat (IR, an ancestral feature characteristic of most green plants, is present in Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales but is lacking in the examined members of the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales. Remarkably, the Oedogonium 35.5-kb IR houses genes that were putatively acquired through horizontal DNA transfer. To better understand the dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution in the Oedogoniales, we analyzed the cpDNA of a second representative of this order, Oedocladium carolinianum. Methods The Oedocladium cpDNA was sequenced and annotated. The evolutionary distances separating Oedocladium and Oedogonium cpDNAs and two other pairs of chlorophycean cpDNAs were estimated using a 61-gene data set. Phylogenetic analysis of an alignment of group IIA introns from members of the OCC clade was performed. Secondary structures and insertion sites of oedogonialean group IIA introns were analyzed. Results The 204,438-bp Oedocladium genome is 7.9 kb larger than the Oedogonium genome, but its repertoire of conserved genes is remarkably similar and gene order differs by only one reversal. Although the 23.7-kb IR is missing the putative foreign genes found in Oedogonium, it contains sequences coding for a putative phage or bacterial DNA primase and a hypothetical protein. Intergenic sequences are 1.5-fold

  20. Bacillus cereus bacteremia outbreak due to contaminated hospital linens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, T; Hayashi, S; Morisawa, Y; Sakihama, T; Yoshimura, A; Hirai, Y

    2011-02-01

    We describe an outbreak of Bacillus cereus bacteremia that occurred at Jichi Medical University Hospital in 2006. This study aimed to identify the source of this outbreak and to implement appropriate control measures. We reviewed the charts of patients with blood cultures positive for B. cereus, and investigated B. cereus contamination within the hospital environment. Genetic relationships among B. cereus isolates were analyzed. Eleven patients developed B. cereus bacteremia between January and August 2006. The hospital linens and the washing machine were highly contaminated with B. cereus, which was also isolated from the intravenous fluid. All of the contaminated linens were autoclaved, the washing machine was cleaned with a detergent, and hand hygiene was promoted among the hospital staff. The number of patients per month that developed new B. cereus bacteremia rapidly decreased after implementing these measures. The source of this outbreak was B. cereus contamination of hospital linens, and B. cereus was transmitted from the linens to patients via catheter infection. Our findings demonstrated that bacterial contamination of hospital linens can cause nosocomial bacteremia. Thus, blood cultures that are positive for B. cereus should not be regarded as false positives in the clinical setting.

  1. Genomic analysis of the TRIM family reveals two groups of genes with distinct evolutionary properties

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    Fontanella Bianca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TRIM family is composed of multi-domain proteins that display the Tripartite Motif (RING, B-box and Coiled-coil that can be associated with a C-terminal domain. TRIM genes are involved in ubiquitylation and are implicated in a variety of human pathologies, from Mendelian inherited disorders to cancer, and are also involved in cellular response to viral infection. Results Here we defined the entire human TRIM family and also identified the TRIM sets of other vertebrate (mouse, rat, dog, cow, chicken, tetraodon, and zebrafish and invertebrate species (fruitfly, worm, and ciona. By means of comparative analyses we found that, after assembly of the tripartite motif in an early metazoan ancestor, few types of C-terminal domains have been associated with this module during evolution and that an important increase in TRIM number occurred in vertebrate species concomitantly with the addition of the SPRY domain. We showed that the human TRIM family is split into two groups that differ in domain structure, genomic organization and evolutionary properties. Group 1 members present a variety of C-terminal domains, are highly conserved among vertebrate species, and are represented in invertebrates. Conversely, group 2 is absent in invertebrates, is characterized by the presence of a C-terminal SPRY domain and presents unique sets of genes in each mammal examined. The generation of independent sets of group 2 genes is also evident in the other vertebrate species. Comparing the murine and human TRIM sets, we found that group 1 and 2 genes evolve at different speeds and are subject to different selective pressures. Conclusion We found that the TRIM family is composed of two groups of genes with distinct evolutionary properties. Group 2 is younger, highly dynamic, and might act as a reservoir to develop novel TRIM functions. Since some group 2 genes are implicated in innate immune response, their evolutionary features may account for

  2. A genome-wide analysis of small regulatory RNAs in the human pathogen group A Streptococcus.

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    Nataly Perez

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogens to infect and cause disease. A recently appreciated mechanism of regulation is that afforded by small regulatory RNA (sRNA molecules. Here, we set out to assess the prevalence of sRNAs in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS. Genome-wide identification of candidate GAS sRNAs was performed through a tiling Affymetrix microarray approach and identified 40 candidate sRNAs within the M1T1 GAS strain MGAS2221. Together with a previous bioinformatic approach this brings the number of novel candidate sRNAs in GAS to 75, a number that approximates the number of GAS transcription factors. Transcripts were confirmed by Northern blot analysis for 16 of 32 candidate sRNAs tested, and the abundance of several of these sRNAs were shown to be temporally regulated. Six sRNAs were selected for further study and the promoter, transcriptional start site, and Rho-independent terminator identified for each. Significant variation was observed between the six sRNAs with respect to their stability during growth, and with respect to their inter- and/or intra-serotype-specific levels of abundance. To start to assess the contribution of sRNAs to gene regulation in M1T1 GAS we deleted the previously described sRNA PEL from four clinical isolates. Data from genome-wide expression microarray, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses are consistent with PEL having no regulatory function in M1T1 GAS. The finding that candidate sRNA molecules are prevalent throughout the GAS genome provides significant impetus to the study of this fundamental gene-regulatory mechanism in an important human pathogen.

  3. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

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    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  4. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  5. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  6. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  7. Clostridium botulinum Group II Isolate Phylogenomic Profiling Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedmark, K A; Mabon, P; Hayden, K L; Lambert, D; Van Domselaar, G; Austin, J W; Corbett, C R

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum group II isolates (n = 163) from different geographic regions, outbreaks, and neurotoxin types and subtypes were characterized in silico using whole-genome sequence data. Two clusters representing a variety of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types and subtypes were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. While one cluster included BoNT/B4/F6/E9 and nontoxigenic members, the other comprised a wide variety of different BoNT/E subtype isolates and a nontoxigenic strain. In silico MLST and core SNP methods were consistent in terms of clade-level isolate classification; however, core SNP analysis showed higher resolution capability. Furthermore, core SNP analysis correctly distinguished isolates by outbreak and location. This study illustrated the utility of next-generation sequence-based typing approaches for isolate characterization and source attribution and identified discrete SNP loci and MLST alleles for isolate comparison.

  8. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  9. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8.

  10. In Silico Genomic Fingerprints of the Bacillus anthracis Group Obtained by Virtual Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Díaz, Hueman; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Lloret-Sánchez, Teresa; Olguín-Ruiz, Gabriela; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos; Carreño-Durán, Luis; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the capacity of Virtual Hybridization to identify between highly related bacterial strains. Eight genomic fingerprints were obtained by virtual hybridization for the Bacillus anthracis genome set, and a set of 15,264 13-nucleotide short probes designed to produce genomic fingerprints unique for each organism. The data obtained from each genomic fingerprint were used to obtain hybridization patterns simulating a DNA microarray. Two virtual hybridization methods were used: the Direct and the Extended method to identify the number of potential hybridization sites and thus determine the minimum sensitivity value to discriminate between genomes with 99.9% similarity. Genomic fingerprints were compared using both methods and phylogenomic trees were constructed to verify that the minimum detection value is 0.000017. Results obtained from the genomic fingerprints suggest that the distribution in the trees is correct, as compared to other taxonomic methods. Specific virtual hybridization sites for each of the genomes studied were also identified. PMID:27600214

  11. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  12. BACILLUS CEREUS: ISOLATION IN JENNET MILK

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    M.L. Scatassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennet milk as human food is hypoallergenic for patients affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy and multiple food allergies. For these pathologies, jennet milk represents the best alternative to other types of milk. Therefore, jennet milk consumers are very sensible to the effects of pathogens' contaminations, and several hygienic practices during the milk production need to be adopted. During regular monitoring in one Sicilian jennet farm, Bacillus cereus in the milk was detected. In 3 bulk milk samples (maximum concentration: 1.2 x 103 ufc/ml, in 3 individual milk samples (10, 20 e 60 ufc/ml, in the milk filter (5 ufc/cm2, in the soil (maximum concentration: 1.5 x 103 ufc/g, on the hands and the gloves of two milkers, on the animal hide (from 1 to 3 ufc/cm2. No spores were detected. A total of 8 Bacillus cereus s.s. strains were analyzed for diarrhoic toxin, and 6 strains producing enterotoxins resulted. The improvement of environmental and milking hygienic conditions reduced Bacillus cereus concentration.

  13. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

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    Huneau Cecile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24 initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1, and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production in Bacillus cereus isolates from stool of patients, food and environment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus usually ingested by food can cause two types of diseases: vomiting due to the presence of emetic toxin and diarrheal syndrome, due to the presence of diarrheal toxins. Systemic manifestations can also occur. The severe forms of disease demand antibiotic treatmant. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of B. cereus isolates from stools of humans, food and environment. Methods. Identification of B. cereus was performed with selective medium, classical biochemical test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers specific for bal gene. Thirty isolates from each group were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk-diffusion assay. Production of β-lactamase was determined by cefinase test, and double-disc method. Results. All strains identified as B. cereus using classical biochemical test, yielded 533 bp fragment with PCR. Isolates from all the three groups were susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, and erythromycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but one from the environment. A statistically significant difference between the groups was confirmed to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole sensitivity. A total of 28/30 (93.33% samples from the foods and 25/30 (83.33% samples from environment were approved sensitive to tetracycline, while 10/30 (33.33% isolates from stools were sensitive. Opposite to this result, high susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was shown in samples from stools (100%, while isolates from foods (63.33% and from environment (70% had low susceptibility. All samples produced β-lactamases. Conclusion. The strains of B. cereus from all the three groups showed high rate of sensitivity to most tested antibiotics, except to tetracycline in samples from human stool and to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in samples from food and environment. The production of

  15. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system

    It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  16. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  17. Determination of the relationship between group A streptococcal genome content, M type, and toxic shock syndrome by a mixed genome microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminckx, Bart J M; Schuren, Frank H J; Montijn, Roy C; Caspers, Martien P M; Fluit, Ad C; Wannet, Wim J B; Schouls, Leo M; Verhoef, Jan; Jansen, Wouter T M

    2007-05-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, are associated with a remarkable variety of diseases, ranging from superficial infections to life-threatening diseases such as toxic-shock-like syndrome (TSS). GAS strains belonging to M types M1 and M3 are associated with TSS. This study aims to obtain insight into the gene profiles underlying different M types and disease manifestations. Genomic differences between 76 clinically well characterized GAS strains collected in The Netherlands were examined using a mixed-genome microarray. Inter-M-type genomic differences clearly outweighed intra-M-type genome variation. Phages were major contributors to observed genome diversification. We identified four novel genes, including two genes encoding fibronectin-binding-like proteins, which are highly specific to a subset of M types and thus may contribute to M-type-associated disease manifestations. All M12 strains were characterized by the unique absence of the citrate lyase complex and reduced growth under hypoxic, nutrient-deprived conditions. Furthermore, six virulence factors, including genes encoding a complement-inhibiting protein (sic), an exotoxin (speA), iron(III) binding factor, collagen binding factor (cpa), and fibrinogen binding factor (prt2-like), were unique to M1 and/or M3 strains. These virulence factors may contribute to the potential of these strains to cause TSS. Finally, in contrast to M-type-specific virulence profiles, we did not identify a common virulence profile among strains associated with TSS irrespective of their M type.

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524 of the total genes (n = 5234 represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL, nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  19. A procedure for estimating Bacillus cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples - A potential exploration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of bacterial spores of the Bacillus cereus group in soils and stream sediments appears to be a sensitive indicator of several types of concealed mineral deposits, including vein-type gold deposits. The B. cereus assay is rapid, inexpensive, and inherently reproducible. The test, currently under investigation for its potential in mineral exploration, is recommended for use on a research basis. Among the aerobic spore-forming bacilli, only B. cereus and closely related strains produce an opaque zone in egg-yolk emulsion agar. This characteristic, also known as the Nagler of lecitho-vitellin reaction, has long been used to rapidly indentify and estimate presumptive B. cereus. The test is here adapted to permit rapid estimation of B. cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples. Relative standard deviation was 10.3% on counts obtained from two 40-replicate pour-plate determinations. As many as 40 samples per day can be processed. Enough procedural detail is included to permit investigation of the test in conventional geochemical laboratories using standard microbiological safety precautions. ?? 1985.

  20. Bacillus cereus: emetic toxin production and gamma hypothesis for growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food spoilage microorganism and a pathogen. Growth of B. cereus can be prevented or delayed by adding growth limiting compounds to the food product or by altered storage conditions. Combinations of growth limiting factors

  1. Enterotoxigenic profiling of emetic toxin- and enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus, Isolated from food, environmental, and clinical samples by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Kim, Jung-Beom; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises the largest group of endospore-forming bacteria and can cause emetic and diarrheal food poisoning. A total of 496 B. cereus strains isolated from various sources (food, environmental, clinical) were assessed by a multiplex PCR for the presence of enterotoxin genes. The detection rate of nheA, entFM, hblC, and cytK enterotoxin genes among all B. cereus strains was 92.33%, 77.21%, 59.47%, and 47.58%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic profiles were determined in emetic toxin- (8 patterns) and enterotoxin-producing strains (12 patterns). The results provide important information on toxin prevalence and toxigenic profiles of B. cereus from various sources. Our findings revealed that B. cereus must be considered a serious health hazard and Bacillus thuringiensis should be considered of a greater potential concern to food safety among all B. cereus group members. Also, there is need for intensive and continuous monitoring of products embracing both emetic toxin and enterotoxin genes.

  2. Whole genome sequencing as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of clinical strains of Mitis group streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusen, L. H.; Dargis, R.; Iversen, Katrine Højholt;

    2016-01-01

    with infective endocarditis were whole genome sequenced. We compared the phylogenetic analyses based on single genes (recA, sodA, gdh), multigene (MLSA), SNPs, and core-genome sequences. The six phylogenetic analyses generally showed a similar pattern of six monophyletic clusters, though a few differences were...

  3. In Silico Genomic Fingerprints of the Bacillus anthracis Group Obtained by Virtual Hybridization

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    Hueman Jaimes-Díaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the capacity of Virtual Hybridization to identify between highly related bacterial strains. Eight genomic fingerprints were obtained by virtual hybridization for the Bacillus anthracis genome set, and a set of 15,264 13-nucleotide short probes designed to produce genomic fingerprints unique for each organism. The data obtained from each genomic fingerprint were used to obtain hybridization patterns simulating a DNA microarray. Two virtual hybridization methods were used: the Direct and the Extended method to identify the number of potential hybridization sites and thus determine the minimum sensitivity value to discriminate between genomes with 99.9% similarity. Genomic fingerprints were compared using both methods and phylogenomic trees were constructed to verify that the minimum detection value is 0.000017. Results obtained from the genomic fingerprints suggest that the distribution in the trees is correct, as compared to other taxonomic methods. Specific virtual hybridization sites for each of the genomes studied were also identified.

  4. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, M.W.H.J. de; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  5. Reptiles: a group of transition in the evolution of genome size and of the nucleotypic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, E

    2003-01-01

    A comparison between genome size and some phenotypic parameters, such as developmental length and metabolic rate, showed in reptiles a nucleotypic correlation similar to the one observed in birds and mammals. Indeed, like homeotherms, reptiles exhibit a highly significant, inverse correlation of genome size with metabolic rate but unlike amphibians, no relationship with developmental length. Several lines of evidence suggest that these nucleotypic correlations are influenced by body temperature, which also affects the guanine + cytosine nuclear percentage, and that they play an important role in the adaptation of these amniotes. However, the reptilian suborders exhibit differences in the quantitative and compositional characters of the genome that do not completely correspond to differences in the phenotypic parameters commonly involved in the nucleotypic effect. Thus, additional factors could have influenced genome size in this class. These data could be explained with the model of Hartl and Petrov, who observed an inverse correlation between genome size, non-coding portion of the genome and rate of DNA loss and hypothesized a strong role for different spectra of spontaneous insertions and deletions (indels) in the variations of genome size. It is thus reasonable to surmise that variations in the reptilian genome were initially influenced by different indels spectra typical of the diverse lineages, possibly related to different chromosome compartmentalizations. The consequent size increases or decreases would have influenced various morphological and functional cell parameters, and through these some phenotypic characteristics of the whole organism, especially the metabolic rate, very important for environmental adaptation and thus subject to natural selection. Through this "nucleotypic" bond, natural selection would also have controlled genome size variations.

  6. Determination of genomic variants of the complex aetiology cleft lip and (or) palate in Lithuanian patient group

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrozaitytė, Laima

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cleft lip and (or) palate (CL/P) varies from 0.4 to 2.0 in 1000 live births across populations. More and more CL/P candidate loci are being confirmed using novel genome-wide methods of molecular genetics and tools of statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the alleles of the candidate genes for cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate in the Lithuanian patient group, applying the molecular genotyping of the genomic markers in 42 CL...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry.

  8. Identification and validation of specific markers of Bacillus anthracis spores by proteomics and genomics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenau, Jérôme; Fenaille, François; Caro, Valérie; Haustant, Michel; Diancourt, Laure; Klee, Silke R; Junot, Christophe; Ezan, Eric; Goossens, Pierre L; Becher, François

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative bacteria of anthrax, an acute and often fatal disease in humans. The infectious agent, the spore, represents a real bioterrorism threat and its specific identification is crucial. However, because of the high genomic relatedness within the Bacillus cereus group, it is still a real challenge to identify B. anthracis spores confidently. Mass spectrometry-based tools represent a powerful approach to the efficient discovery and identification of such protein markers. Here we undertook comparative proteomics analyses of Bacillus anthracis, cereus and thuringiensis spores to identify proteoforms unique to B. anthracis. The marker discovery pipeline developed combined peptide- and protein-centric approaches using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry experiments using a high resolution/high mass accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap instrument. By combining these data with those from complementary bioinformatics approaches, we were able to highlight a dozen novel proteins consistently observed across all the investigated B. anthracis spores while being absent in B. cereus/thuringiensis spores. To further demonstrate the relevance of these markers and their strict specificity to B. anthracis, the number of strains studied was extended to 55, by including closely related strains such as B. thuringiensis 9727, and above all the B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, CA strains that possess pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids. Under these conditions, the combination of proteomics and genomics approaches confirms the pertinence of 11 markers. Genes encoding these 11 markers are located on the chromosome, which provides additional targets complementary to the commonly used plasmid-encoded markers. Last but not least, we also report the development of a targeted liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method involving the selection reaction monitoring mode for the monitoring of the 4 most suitable protein markers. Within a proof

  9. Protein- and DNA-based anthrax toxin vaccines confer protection in guinea pigs against inhalational challenge with Bacillus cereus G9241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John; Bell, Matt; Darko, Christian; Barnewall, Roy; Keane-Myers, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade, several Bacillus cereus strains have been isolated from otherwise healthy individuals who succumbed to bacterial pneumonia presenting symptoms resembling inhalational anthrax. One strain was indistinguishable from B. cereus G9241, previously cultured from an individual who survived a similar pneumonia-like illness and which was shown to possess a complete set of plasmid-borne anthrax toxin-encoding homologs. The finding that B. cereus G9241 pathogenesis in mice is dependent on pagA1-derived protective antigen (PA) synthesis suggests that an anthrax toxin-based vaccine may be effective against this toxin-encoding B. cereus strain. Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were immunized with protein- and DNA-based anthrax toxin-based vaccines, immune responses were evaluated and survival rates were calculated after lethal aerosol exposure with B. cereus G9241 spores. Each vaccine induced seroconversion with the protein immunization regimen eliciting significantly higher serum levels of antigen-specific antibodies at the prechallenge time-point compared with the DNA-protein prime-boost immunization schedule. Complete protection against lethal challenge was observed in all groups with a detectable prechallenge serum titer of toxin neutralizing antibodies. For the first time, we demonstrated that the efficacy of fully defined anthrax toxin-based vaccines was protective against lethal B. cereus G9241 aerosol challenge in the guinea pig animal model.

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Javadzadeh M, Najafi M, Rezaei M, Dastoor M, Behzadi AS, Amiri A . [ Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus ]. MLJ. 201 4 ; 8 ( 2 : 55 - 61 [Article in Persian] Javadzadeh, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Honey is a healthy and nutritious food that has been used for a long time as a treatment for different diseases. One of the applied properties of honey is its antimicrobial effect, which differs between different types of honey due to variation of phenolic and antioxidant compositions. This study aimed to assess antimicrobial effect of honey on Bacillus cereus, considering its chemical properties. Material and Methods: Three samples of honey (A1 and A2 of Khorasan Razavi Province and A3 of South Khorasan province (were prepared and studied in terms of chemical parameters .The antibacterial effect of honey was surveyed throughTurbidimeter using spectrometer with incubator time of 2, 4, 6, and 8hrs. the level of turbidity caused by bacterium growth was measured at different times with a wavelength of 600nm. Results: According to the study, the samples containing higher concentration of polyphenol has more antimicrobial activity. The samples of A2, A3, and A1 had the highest concentration of polyphenol, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate the prebiotic effect of honey that can be justified by the presence of fructo-oligosacharids and vitamin B. Keywords: Honey, Bacillus Cereus, Antibacterial, Turbidimetry.

  11. Approaching confidentiality at a familial level in genomic medicine: a focus group study with healthcare professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Clinical genetics guidelines from 2011 conceptualise genetic information as confidential to families, not individuals. The normative consequence of this is that the family's interest is the primary consideration and genetic information is shared unless there are good reasons not to do so. We investigated healthcare professionals' (HCPs') views about, and reasoning around, individual and familial approaches to confidentiality and how such views influenced their practice. Method 16 focus groups with 80 HCPs working in/with clinical genetics services were analysed, drawing on grounded theory. Results Participants raised seven problems with, and arguments against, going beyond the individual approach to confidentiality. These problems fell into two overlapping categories: ‘relationships’ and ‘structures’. Most participants had never considered ways to—or thought it was impossible to—treat familial genetic information and personal information differently. They worried that putting the familial approach into practice could disrupt family dynamics and erode patient trust in the health service. They also thought they had insufficient resources to share information and feared that sharing might change the standard of care and make them more vulnerable to liability. Conclusions A familial approach to confidentiality has not been accepted or adopted as a standard, but wider research suggests that some of the problems HCPs perceived are surmountable and sharing in the interest of the family can be achieved. However, further research is needed to explore how personal and familial genetic information can be separated in practice. Our findings are relevant to HCPs across health services who are starting to use genome tests as part of their routine investigations. PMID:28159847

  12. The cell envelope-bound metalloprotease (camelysin) from Bacillus cereus is a possible pathogenic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, B; Drössler, K; Willhardt, I; Schierhorn, A; Menge, S; Rücknagel, P

    2001-09-28

    A novel membrane proteinase of the nosocomial important bacteria species Bacillus cereus (synonyms: camelysin, CCMP) was purified up to homogeneity as was shown by mass spectrometry in its amphiphilic form. Camelysin is a neutral metalloprotease with a molecular mass of 19 kDa. Its unique N-terminus Phe-Phe-Ser-Asp-Lys-Glu-Val-Ser-Asn-Asn-Thr-Phe-Ala-Ala-Gly-Thr-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Leu-Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Leu-Val-Asp-(Ile-Lys-Asp)- was not detected in the protein data bases during BLAST searches, but in the partially sequenced genome of Bacillus anthracis, coding for an unknown protein. Cleavage sites of the membrane proteinase for the insulin A- and B-chains were determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Camelysin prefers cleavage sites in front of aliphatic and hydrophilic amino acid residues (-OH, -SO3H, amido group), avoiding bulky aromatic residues. The internally quenched fluorogenic substrates of the matrix metalloproteases 2 and 7 were cleaved with the highest efficiency at the Leu-decrease-Gly or Leu-decrease-Ala bond with the smaller residue in the P1' position. The protein specificity is broad--all various kinds of casein were cleaved as well as acid-soluble collagen, globin and ovalbumin; intact insulin was destroyed only to a low extent. Actin, collagen type I, fibrinogen, fibrin, alpha2-antiplasmin and alpha1-antitrypsin were cleaved. The protease formed SDS-stable complexes with Glu-plasminogen and antithrombin III, visible after SDS electrophoresis by gold staining and Western blot. The CCMP-plasminogen complex caused a partial activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Camelysin interacts with proteins of the blood coagulation cascade and could facilitate the penetration of fibrin clots and of the extracellular matrix during bacterial invasion.

  13. Persistence strategies of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from dairy silo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Svensson, Birgitta; Andersson, Maria A; Christiansson, Anders; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2010-05-01

    Survival of Bacillus cereus spores of dairy silo tank origin was investigated under conditions simulating those in operational dairy silos. Twenty-three strains were selected to represent all B. cereus isolates (n = 457) with genotypes (RAPD-PCR) that frequently colonised the silo tanks of at least two of the sampled eight dairies. The spores were studied for survival when immersed in liquids used for cleaning-in-place (1.0% sodium hydroxide at pH 13.1, 75 degrees C; 0.9% nitric acid at pH 0.8, 65 degrees C), for adhesion onto nonliving surfaces at 4 degrees C and for germination and biofilm formation in milk. Four groups with different strategies for survival were identified. First, high survival (log 15 min kill steel from cold water. Third, a cereulide producing group with spores characterised by slow germination in rich medium and well preserved viability when exposed to heating at 90 degrees C. Fourth, spores capable of germinating at 8 degrees C and possessing the cspA gene. There were indications that spores highly resistant to hot 1% sodium hydroxide may be effectively inactivated by hot 0.9% nitric acid. Eight out of the 14 dairy silo tank isolates possessing hot-alkali resistant spores were capable of germinating and forming biofilm in whole milk, not previously reported for B. cereus.

  14. Capsules, toxins and AtxA as virulence factors of emerging Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézillon, Christophe; Haustant, Michel; Dupke, Susann; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Lander, Angelika; Franz, Tatjana; Monot, Marc; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Jouvion, Gregory; Leendertz, Fabian H; Grunow, Roland; Mock, Michèle E; Klee, Silke R; Goossens, Pierre L

    2015-04-01

    Emerging B. cereus strains that cause anthrax-like disease have been isolated in Cameroon (CA strain) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI strain). These strains are unusual, because their genomic characterisation shows that they belong to the B. cereus species, although they harbour two plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBCXO2, that are highly similar to the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis that encode the toxins and the polyglutamate capsule respectively. The virulence factors implicated in the pathogenicity of these B. cereus bv anthracis strains remain to be characterised. We tested their virulence by cutaneous and intranasal delivery in mice and guinea pigs; they were as virulent as wild-type B. anthracis. Unlike as described for pXO2-cured B. anthracis, the CA strain cured of the pBCXO2 plasmid was still highly virulent, showing the existence of other virulence factors. Indeed, these strains concomitantly expressed a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule and the B. anthracis polyglutamate (PDGA) capsule. The HA capsule was encoded by the hasACB operon on pBCXO1, and its expression was regulated by the global transcription regulator AtxA, which controls anthrax toxins and PDGA capsule in B. anthracis. Thus, the HA and PDGA capsules and toxins were co-regulated by AtxA. We explored the respective effect of the virulence factors on colonisation and dissemination of CA within its host by constructing bioluminescent mutants. Expression of the HA capsule by itself led to local multiplication and, during intranasal infection, to local dissemination to the adjacent brain tissue. Co-expression of either toxins or PDGA capsule with HA capsule enabled systemic dissemination, thus providing a clear evolutionary advantage. Protection against infection by B. cereus bv anthracis required the same vaccination formulation as that used against B. anthracis. Thus, these strains, at the frontier between B. anthracis and B. cereus, provide insight into how the monomorphic B. anthracis may have emerged.

  15. Production, Secretion and Biological Activity of Bacillus cereus Enterotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Senesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen frequently causing gastrointestinal diseases, and it is increasingly recognized to be responsible for severe local or systemic infections. Pathogenicity of B. cereus mainly relies on the secretion of a wide array of toxins and enzymes and also on the ability to undergo swarming differentiation in response to surface-sensing. In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by B. cereus toxins is described with particular attention to the regulatory mechanisms of production and secretion of HBL, Nhe and CytK enterotoxins.

  16. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry.

  18. Distinct roles of ComK1 and ComK2 in gene regulation in Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M Mirończuk

    Full Text Available The B. subtilis transcriptional factor ComK regulates a set of genes coding for DNA uptake from the environment and for its integration into the genome. In previous work we showed that Bacillus cereus expressing the B. subtilis ComK protein is able to take up DNA and integrate it into its own genome. To extend our knowledge on the effect of B. subtilis ComK overexpression in B. cereus we first determined which genes are significantly altered. Transcriptome analysis showed that only part of the competence gene cluster is significantly upregulated. Two ComK homologues can be identified in B. cereus that differ in their respective homologies to other ComK proteins. ComK1 is most similar, while ComK2 lacks the C-terminal region previously shown to be important for transcription activation by B. subtilis ComK. comK1 and comK2 overexpression and deletion studies using transcriptomics techniques showed that ComK1 enhances and ComK2 decreases expression of the comG operon, when B. subtilis ComK was overexpressed simultaneously.

  19. Glycosylation of BclA Glycoprotein from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis Exosporium Is Domain-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Emmanuel; Krzewinski, Frederic; Garenaux, Estelle; Lequette, Yannick; Coddeville, Bernadette; Trivelli, Xavier; Ronse, Annette; Faille, Christine; Guerardel, Yann

    2016-04-29

    The spores of the Bacillus cereus group (B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis) are surrounded by a paracrystalline flexible yet resistant layer called exosporium that plays a major role in spore adhesion and virulence. The major constituent of its hairlike surface, the trimerized glycoprotein BclA, is attached to the basal layer through an N-terminal domain. It is then followed by a repetitive collagen-like neck bearing a globular head (C-terminal domain) that promotes glycoprotein trimerization. The collagen-like region of B. anthracis is known to be densely substituted by unusual O-glycans that may be used for developing species-specific diagnostics of B. anthracis spores and thus targeted therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we have explored the species and domain specificity of BclA glycosylation within the B. cereus group. First, we have established that the collagen-like regions of both B. anthracis and B. cereus are similarly substituted by short O-glycans that bear the species-specific deoxyhexose residues anthrose and the newly observed cereose, respectively. Second we have discovered that the C-terminal globular domains of BclA from both species are substituted by polysaccharide-like O-linked glycans whose structures are also species-specific. The presence of large carbohydrate polymers covering the surface of Bacillus spores may have a profound impact on the way that spores regulate their interactions with biotic and abiotic surfaces and represents potential new diagnostic targets.

  20. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  1. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, G; Merritt, J C; Cowan, C L

    1979-03-01

    Two healthy young black men developed panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin injections. Bacillus cereus, considered to be a relatively noncommon pathogen for man, was found to be the causative agent as it was recovered from the anterior chamber and viterous cavity of both cases. The ocular findings were unilateral in each case, and neither patient had any sistemic involvement from the bacteremia. The onset of visual symptoms varied from 24 to 36 hours after the last intravenous injection with the eye becoming rapidly blind. Photographs of the early fundus lesions included preretinal hypopyon-like lesions and peculiar changes in the blood vasculature. Intracameral gentamicin and steroids did not alter the cause, and treatment was enucleation.

  2. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  3. The analysis of the immobilization mechanism of Ni(II) on Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi; Cheng, Yangjian; Pan, Danmei; Yin, Shungao; Huang, Feng; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    This work focused on the identification of biosorption mechanism of Ni(II) by living Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) based on batch experiments and a variety of microscopic equipments. The adsorption equilibrium reached rapidly in 2 h and the maximum nickel adsorption capability of B. cereus was 17.7 mg x g(-1) (dry weight). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the bacterial surface roughness increased from 7.9 +/- 0.5 nm to 12.6 +/- 1.6 nm during this process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed that there was Ni(II) on the bacterial surface. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that Ni(II) could also be found in the inner portions of the bacteria. Inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) quantitative analysis elucidated that over 70% of the immobilized Ni(II) was binding on the surface of bacteria. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ni(II) collected by the bacteria was amorphous. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that amides and carboxylation functional groups might be involved in the coordination of Ni(II).

  4. Identification, characterization, and comparative genomic distribution of the HERV-K (HML-2 group of human endogenous retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Ravi P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of retroviral DNA into a germ cell may lead to a provirus that is transmitted vertically to that host's offspring as an endogenous retrovirus (ERV. In humans, ERVs (HERVs comprise about 8% of the genome, the vast majority of which are truncated and/or highly mutated and no longer encode functional genes. The most recently active retroviruses that integrated into the human germ line are members of the Betaretrovirus-like HERV-K (HML-2 group, many of which contain intact open reading frames (ORFs in some or all genes, sometimes encoding functional proteins that are expressed in various tissues. Interestingly, this expression is upregulated in many tumors ranging from breast and ovarian tissues to lymphomas and melanomas, as well as schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and other disorders. Results No study to date has characterized all HML-2 elements in the genome, an essential step towards determining a possible functional role of HML-2 expression in disease. We present here the most comprehensive and accurate catalog of all full-length and partial HML-2 proviruses, as well as solo LTR elements, within the published human genome to date. Furthermore, we provide evidence for preferential maintenance of proviruses and solo LTR elements on gene-rich chromosomes of the human genome and in proximity to gene regions. Conclusions Our analysis has found and corrected several errors in the annotation of HML-2 elements in the human genome, including mislabeling of a newly identified group called HML-11. HML-elements have been implicated in a wide array of diseases, and characterization of these elements will play a fundamental role to understand the relationship between endogenous retrovirus expression and disease.

  5. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  6. Bacillus cereus immune escape: a journey within macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Seav-Ly; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-10-01

    During bacterial infection, professional phagocytes are attracted to the site of infection, where they constitute a first line of host cell defense. Their function is to engulf and destroy the pathogens. Thus, bacteria must withstand the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, including macrophages to counteract the host immune system. Bacillus cereus infections are characterized by bacteremia despite the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of infection. This implies that the bacteria have developed means of resisting the host immune system. Bacillus cereus spores survive, germinate, and multiply in contact with macrophages, eventually producing toxins that kill these cells. However, the exact mechanism by which B. cereus evades immune attack remains unclear. This review addresses the interaction between B. cereus and macrophages, highlighting, in particular, the ways in which the bacteria escape the microbicidal activities of professional phagocytes.

  7. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  8. Adaptation in Bacillus cereus: from stress to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Duport

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in humans. After ingestion B. cereus experiences in the human gastro-intestinal tract abiotic physical variables encountered in food, such as acidic pH in the stomach and changing oxygen conditions in the human intestine. B. cereus responds to environmental changing conditions (stress by reversibly adjusting its physiology to maximize resource utilization while maintaining structural and genetic integrity by repairing and minimizing damage to cellular infrastructure. As reviewed in this article, B. cereus adapts to acidic pH and changing oxygen conditions through diverse regulatory mechanisms and then exploits its metabolic flexibility to grow and produce enterotoxins. We then focus on the intricate link between metabolism, redox homeostasis and enterotoxins, which are recognized as important contributors of food-borne disease.

  9. Genome sequence of the aerobic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%.

  10. Fulminating bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Hair, J G; Hebert, M; Hebert, L; Roberts, F J; Weyant, R S

    1997-02-01

    We present two cases of rapidly progressing, fatal pneumonia caused by Bacillus cereus. These cases are interesting in that B. cereus, even from blood or sputum specimens, may often be considered a contaminant and receive inadequate attention. Also of interest was the fact that the two patients resided in the same area of the state, were welders by trade, and became ill within a few days of each other, yet there was no epidemiologic link between them.

  11. Fulminating bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J M; Hair, J G; Hebert, M.; Hebert, L; Roberts, F. J.; Weyant, R S

    1997-01-01

    We present two cases of rapidly progressing, fatal pneumonia caused by Bacillus cereus. These cases are interesting in that B. cereus, even from blood or sputum specimens, may often be considered a contaminant and receive inadequate attention. Also of interest was the fact that the two patients resided in the same area of the state, were welders by trade, and became ill within a few days of each other, yet there was no epidemiologic link between them.

  12. A novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer Geoffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. Metagenomics offers a potential means of establishing a more comprehensive view of viral evolution as vast amounts of new sequence data becomes available for comparative analysis. Results Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. The presence and circular configuration of the complete virus genome was confirmed by inverse PCR amplification from native DNA extracted from lake sediment. The virus genome appears to be the result of a RNA-DNA recombination event between two ostensibly unrelated virus groups. Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. This result indicates the existence of a widespread but previously undetected group of viruses. Conclusions This unique viral genome carries implications for theories of virus emergence and evolution, as no mechanism for interviral RNA-DNA recombination has yet been identified, and only scant evidence exists that genetic exchange occurs between such distinct virus lineages. Reviewers This article was reviewed by EK, MK (nominated by PF and AM. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  13. Social evolution. Genomic signatures of evolutionary transitions from solitary to group living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Pan, Hailin; Li, Cai; Salzberg, Steven L; Puiu, Daniela; Magoc, Tanja; Robertson, Hugh M; Hudson, Matthew E; Venkat, Aarti; Fischman, Brielle J; Hernandez, Alvaro; Yandell, Mark; Ence, Daniel; Holt, Carson; Yocum, George D; Kemp, William P; Bosch, Jordi; Waterhouse, Robert M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Stolle, Eckart; Kraus, F Bernhard; Helbing, Sophie; Moritz, Robin F A; Glastad, Karl M; Hunt, Brendan G; Goodisman, Michael A D; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Nunes, Francis Morais Franco; Soares, Michelle Prioli Miranda; Tanaka, Érica Donato; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus; Evans, Jay D; Barribeau, Seth M; Johnson, Reed M; Massey, Jonathan H; Southey, Bruce R; Hasselmann, Martin; Hamacher, Daniel; Biewer, Matthias; Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro; Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh; Johnston, J Spencer; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Kocher, Sarah D; Wang, Jun; Robinson, Gene E; Zhang, Guojie

    2015-06-05

    The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of 10 bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral evolution as a consequence of relaxed selection with increasing social complexity. Second, there is no single road map to eusociality; independent evolutionary transitions in sociality have independent genetic underpinnings. Third, though clearly independent in detail, these transitions do have similar general features, including an increase in constrained protein evolution accompanied by increases in the potential for gene regulation and decreases in diversity and abundance of transposable elements. Eusociality may arise through different mechanisms each time, but would likely always involve an increase in the complexity of gene networks.

  14. Proteomics identifies Bacillus cereus EntD as a pivotal protein for the production of numerous virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Hélène; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases in humans. It secretes into the extracellular milieu proteins that may contribute directly or indirectly to its virulence. EntD is a novel exoprotein identified by proteogenomics of B. cereus ATCC 14579. We constructed a ΔentD mutant and analyzed the impact of entD disruption on the cellular proteome and exoproteome isolated from early, late, and stationary-phase cultures. We identified 308 and 79 proteins regulated by EntD in the cellular proteome and the exoproteome, respectively. The contribution of these proteins to important virulence-associated functions, including central metabolism, cell structure, antioxidative ability, cell motility, and toxin production, are presented. The proteomic data were correlated with the growth defect, cell morphology change, reduced motility, and reduced cytotoxicity of the ΔentD mutant strain. We conclude that EntD is an important player in B. cereus virulence. The function of EntD and the putative EntD-dependent regulatory network are discussed. To our knowledge, this study is the first characterization of an Ent family protein in a species of the B. cereus group.

  15. Proteomics identifies Bacillus cereus EntD as a pivotal protein for the production of numerous virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eOmer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases in humans. It secretes into the extracellular milieu proteins that may contribute directly or indirectly to its virulence. EntD is a novel exoprotein identified by proteogenomics of B. cereus ATCC 14579. We constructed a ΔentD mutant and analyzed the impact of entD disruption on the cellular proteome and exoproteome isolated from early, late and stationary-phase cultures. We identified 308 and 79 proteins regulated by EntD in the cellular proteome and the exoproteome, respectively. The contribution of these proteins to important virulence-associated functions, including central metabolism, cell structure, antioxidative ability, cell motility and toxin production, are presented. The proteomic data were correlated with the growth defect, cell morphology change, reduced motility and reduced cytotoxicity of the ΔentD mutant strain. We conclude that EntD is an important player in B. cereus virulence. The function of EntD and the putative EntD-dependent regulatory network are discussed. To our knowledge, this study is the first characterization of an Ent family protein in a species of the B. cereus group.

  16. Bisulfite-based epityping on pooled genomic DNA provides an accurate estimate of average group DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docherty Sophia J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however, they require relatively large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects. We propose that a high-throughput DNA pooling approach will facilitate the use of emerging methylomic profiling techniques in large samples. Results Compared with data generated from 89 individual samples, our analysis of 205 CpG sites spanning nine independent regions of the genome demonstrates that DNA pools can be used to provide an accurate and reliable quantitative estimate of average group DNA methylation. Comparison of data generated from the pooled DNA samples with results averaged across the individual samples comprising each pool revealed highly significant correlations for individual CpG sites across all nine regions, with an average overall correlation across all regions and pools of 0.95 (95% bootstrapped confidence intervals: 0.94 to 0.96. Conclusion In this study we demonstrate the validity of using pooled DNA samples to accurately assess group DNA methylation averages. Such an approach can be readily applied to the assessment of disease phenotypes reducing the time, cost and amount of DNA starting material required for large-scale epigenetic analyses.

  17. Insights into the strategies used by related group II introns to adapt successfully for the colonisation of a bacterial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Fernando M; Molina-Sánchez, María Dolores; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs and site-specific mobile retroelements found in bacterial and organellar genomes. The group II intron RmInt1 is present at high copy number in Sinorhizobium meliloti species, and has a multifunctional intron-encoded protein (IEP) with reverse transcriptase/maturase activities, but lacking the DNA-binding and endonuclease domains. We characterized two RmInt1-related group II introns RmInt2 from S. meliloti strain GR4 and Sr.md.I1 from S. medicae strain WSM419 in terms of splicing and mobility activities. We used both wild-type and engineered intron-donor constructs based on ribozyme ΔORF-coding sequence derivatives, and we determined the DNA target requirements for RmInt2, the element most distantly related to RmInt1. The excision and mobility patterns of intron-donor constructs expressing different combinations of IEP and intron RNA provided experimental evidence for the co-operation of IEPs and intron RNAs from related elements in intron splicing and, in some cases, in intron homing. We were also able to identify the DNA target regions recognized by these IEPs lacking the DNA endonuclease domain. Our results provide new insight into the versatility of related group II introns and the possible co-operation between these elements to facilitate the colonization of bacterial genomes.

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of the SARS-CoV: the BJ Group (Isolates BJ01-BJ04)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Bi; Yujun Han; Jing Xu; Yan Li; Yao Yi; Yongdong Zhou; Wei Lin; Jie Wen; Hong Xu; Ruan Li; Zizhang Zhang; Ede Qin; Haiyan Sun; Jingui Zhu; Man Yu; Baochang Fan; Qingfa Wu; Wei Lin; Lin Tang; Bao'an Yang; Guoqing Li; Wenming Peng; Zuyuan Xu; Wenjie Li; Tao Jiang; Yajun Deng; Bohua Liu; Jianping Shi; Yongqiang Deng; Wei Wei; Hong Liu; Zongzhong Tong; Feng Zhang; Wei Li; Yu Zhang; Cui'e Wang; Yuquan Li; Jia Ye; Yonghua Gan; Jia Ji; Xiaoyu Li; Xiangjun Tian; Fushuang Lu; Gang Tan; Jing Wang; Ruifu Yang; Bin Liu; Siqi Liu; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Wuchun Cao; Jun Yu; Xiaoping Dong; Huanming yang; Yongwu Hu; Yong Liu; Shumin Duan; Jianfei Hu

    2003-01-01

    Beijing has been one of the epicenters attacked most severely by the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) since the first patient was diagnosed in one of the city's hospitals. We now report complete genome sequences of the BJ Group, including four isolates (Isolates B J01, B J02, B J03,and B J04) of the SARS-CoV. It is remarkable that all members of the BJ Group share a common haplotype, consisting of seven loci that differentiate the group from other isolates published to date. Among 42 substitutions uniquely identifled from the BJ group, 32 are non-synonymous changes at the amino acid level.Rooted phylogenetic trees, proposed on the basis of haplotypes and other sequence variations of SARS-CoV isolates from Canada, USA, Singapore, and China, gave rise to different paradigms but positioned the BJ Group, together with the newly discovered GD01 (GD-Ins29) in the same clade, followed by the H-U Group (from Hong Kong to USA) and the H-T Group (from Hong Kong to Toronto), leaving the SP Group (Singapore) more distant. This result appears to suggest a possible transmission path from Guangdong to Beijing/Hong Kong, then to other countries and regions.

  19. Structural elucidation of the nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Comparison with the polysaccharides from Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 reveals both unique and common structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoff, Christine; Choudhury, Biswa; Saile, Elke; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2008-10-31

    Nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharides constitute a major cell wall structure in the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria. The structure of the secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a strain that is closely related to Bacillus anthracis, was determined. This polysaccharide was released from the cell wall with aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified polysaccharide, HF-PS, was characterized by glycosyl composition and linkage analyses, mass spectrometry, and one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis. The results showed that the B. cereus ATCC 10987 HF-PS has a repeating oligosaccharide consisting of a -->6)-alpha-GalNAc-(1-->4)-beta-ManNAc-(1-->4)-beta-GlcNAc-(1--> trisaccharide that is substituted with beta-Gal at O3 of the alpha-GalNAc residue and nonstoichiometrically acetylated at O3 of the N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) residue. Comparison of this structure with that of the B. anthracis HF-PS and with structural data obtained for the HF-PS from B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 revealed that each HF-PS had the same general structural theme consisting of three HexNAc and one Hex residues. A common structural feature in the HF-PSs from B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. anthracis was the presence of a repeating unit consisting of a HexNAc(3) trisaccharide backbone in which two of the three HexNAc residues are GlcNAc and ManNAc and the third can be either GlcNAc or GalNAc. The implications of these results with regard to the possible functions of the HF-PSs are discussed.

  20. Random forest estimation of genomic breeding values for disease susceptibility over different disease incidences and genomic architectures in simulated cow calibration groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, S; Yin, T; König, S

    2016-09-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the performance of random forest (RF) and genomic BLUP (GBLUP) for genomic predictions of binary disease traits based on cow calibration groups. Training and testing sets were modified in different scenarios according to disease incidence, the quantitative-genetic background of the trait (h(2)=0.30 and h(2)=0.10), and the genomic architecture [725 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and 290 QTL, populations with high and low levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD)]. For all scenarios, 10,005 SNP (depicting a low-density 10K SNP chip) and 50,025 SNP (depicting a 50K SNP chip) were evenly spaced along 29 chromosomes. Training and testing sets included 20,000 cows (4,000 sick, 16,000 healthy, disease incidence 20%) from the last 2 generations. Initially, 4,000 sick cows were assigned to the testing set, and the remaining 16,000 healthy cows represented the training set. In the ongoing allocation schemes, the number of sick cows in the training set increased stepwise by moving 10% of the sick animals from the testing set to the training set, and vice versa. The size of the training and testing sets was kept constant. Evaluation criteria for both GBLUP and RF were the correlations between genomic breeding values and true breeding values (prediction accuracy), and the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Prediction accuracy and AUROC increased for both methods and all scenarios as increasing percentages of sick cows were allocated to the training set. Highest prediction accuracies were observed for disease incidences in training sets that reflected the population disease incidence of 0.20. For this allocation scheme, the largest prediction accuracies of 0.53 for RF and of 0.51 for GBLUP, and the largest AUROC of 0.66 for RF and of 0.64 for GBLUP, were achieved using 50,025 SNP, a heritability of 0.30, and 725 QTL. Heritability decreases from 0.30 to 0.10 and QTL reduction from 725 to 290 were associated

  1. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  2. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the

  3. Genomic characterization and comparison of seven Myoviridae bacteriophage infecting Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Amber Brooke; Quinn, McKenzie Rea; Brouillette, Alexis; Caruso, Steven; Cresawn, Steven; Erill, Ivan; Lewis, Lynn; Loesser-Casey, Kathryn; Pate, Morgan; Scott, Crystal; Stockwell, Stephanie; Temple, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki, a bacterium that is a source of biopesticides and a safe simulant for pathogenic Bacillus species, was used to isolate seven unique bacteriophages. The phage genomes were sequenced and ranged in size from 158,100 to 163,019 bp encoding 290-299 genes, and the GC content of ~38% was similar to that of the host bacterium. All phages had terminal repeats 2-3 kb long. Three of the phages encoded tRNAs and three contained a self-splicing intron in the DNA polymerase gene. They were categorized as a single cluster (>60% nucleotide conservation) containing three subclusters (>80% nucleotide conservation), supported by genomic synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Considering the published genomes of phages that infect the genus Bacillus and noting the ability of many of the Bacillus cereus group phages to infect multiple species, a clustering system based on gene content is proposed.

  4. Genomic proifling oflower-grade gliomas uncovers cohesive disease groups:implications fordiagnosis andtreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangMingZhang; DanielJBrat

    2016-01-01

    Lower‑grade gliomas (including low‑ and intermediate‑grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) are diffusely inifltrative neoplasms that arise most often in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have traditionally been classiifed based on their presumed histogenesis as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas. Although the histopathologic classiifcation of lower‑grade glioma has been the accepted standard for nearly a century, it suffers from high intra‑ and inter‑observer variability and does not adequately predict clinical outcomes. Based on integrated analysis of multiplatform genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, lower‑grade gliomas have been found to segregate into three cohesive, clinically relevant molecular classes. Molecular classes were closely aligned with the status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, tumor protein 53 mutations and the co‑deletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q, but were not closely aligned with histologic classes. These ifndings emphasize the potential for improved deifnition of clinically relevant disease subsets using integrated molecular approaches and highlight the importance of biomarkers for brain tumor classiifcation.

  5. Comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes of three geographical topmouth culter (Culter alburnus) groups and implications for their phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwu; Wang, Dexia; Wang, Junhua; Sheng, Junqing; Peng, Kou; Hu, Beijuan; Zeng, Liugen; Xiao, Minghe; Hong, Yijiang

    2017-03-01

    Topmouth culter (C. alburnus) is an important commercial fish in China. We compared the nucleotide variations in the mtDNA genomes among three geographical groups of Culter alburnus: Liangzi Lake, Hubei Province (referred to as LZH); Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province (TH); and Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province (PYH). The similarity of whole mtDNA genomes ranged from 0.992 to 0.999. The similarity among 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and the D-loop sequences was found to range from 0.982 to 0.996. This is useful data for future designing work for making specific molecular marker for distinguishing individuals of C. alburnus from the three geographical groups. An extended termination-associated sequence (ETAS) and several conserved blocks (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D, CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3) were identified in the mtDNA control regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows a monophyletic relationship of the LZF-female and the LZF-male. However, the analysis also showed paraphyletic relationships for the other two geological groups. This result will be useful for the future breeding work of C. alburnus.

  6. Genomic Analysis of the Emergence and Rapid Global Dissemination of the Clonal Group 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jolene R; Kitchel, Brandon; Driebe, Elizabeth M; MacCannell, Duncan R; Roe, Chandler; Lemmer, Darrin; de Man, Tom; Rasheed, J Kamile; Engelthaler, David M; Keim, Paul; Limbago, Brandi M

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the KPC carbapenemase have rapidly spread throughout the world, causing severe healthcare-associated infections with limited antimicrobial treatment options. Dissemination of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is largely attributed to expansion of a single dominant strain, ST258. In this study, we explore phylogenetic relationships and evolution within ST258 and its clonal group, CG258, using whole genome sequence analysis of 167 isolates from 20 countries collected over 17 years. Our results show a common ST258 ancestor emerged from its diverse parental clonal group around 1995 and likely acquired blaKPC prior to dissemination. Over the past two decades, ST258 has remained highly clonal despite diversity in accessory elements and divergence in the capsule polysaccharide synthesis locus. Apart from the large recombination event that gave rise to ST258, few mutations set it apart from its clonal group. However, one mutation occurs in a global transcription regulator. Characterization of outer membrane protein sequences revealed a profile in ST258 that includes a truncated OmpK35 and modified OmpK37. Our work illuminates potential genomic contributors to the pathogenic success of ST258, helps us better understand the global dissemination of this strain, and identifies genetic markers unique to ST258.

  7. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  8. Invasive Bacillus cereus Infection in a Renal Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a common cause of gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of individuals with B cereus-related food poisoning recover without any specific treatment. It can, however, rarely cause invasive disease in immunocompromised patients.

  9. Evidence for transitional stages in the evolution of euglenid group II introns and twintrons in the Monomorphina aenigmatica plastid genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic euglenids acquired their plastid by secondary endosymbiosis of a prasinophyte-like green alga. But unlike its prasinophyte counterparts, the plastid genome of the euglenid Euglena gracilis is riddled with introns that interrupt almost every protein-encoding gene. The atypical group II introns and twintrons (introns-within-introns found in the E. gracilis plastid have been hypothesized to have been acquired late in the evolution of euglenids, implying that massive numbers of introns may be lacking in other taxa. This late emergence was recently corroborated by the plastid genome sequences of the two basal euglenids, Eutreptiella gymnastica and Eutreptia viridis, which were found to contain fewer introns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain further insights into the proliferation of introns in euglenid plastids, we have characterized the complete plastid genome sequence of Monomorphina aenigmatica, a freshwater species occupying an intermediate phylogenetic position between early and late branching euglenids. The M. aenigmatica UTEX 1284 plastid genome (74,746 bp, 70.6% A+T, 87 genes contains 53 intron insertion sites, of which 41 were found to be shared with other euglenids including 12 of the 15 twintron insertion sites reported in E. gracilis. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of insertion sites suggests an ongoing but uneven process of intron gain in the lineage, with perhaps a minimum of two bursts of rapid intron proliferation. We also identified several sites that represent intermediates in the process of twintron evolution, where the external intron is in place, but not the internal one, offering a glimpse into how these convoluted molecular contraptions originate.

  10. Bacillus cereus bacteraemia: comparison between haematologic and nonhaematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tusgul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23–82 years. Ten patients (48% had a haematologic malignancy; all were neutropenic at the time of B. cereus bacteraemia. Nonhaematologic patients were either intravenous drug users (n=3, 14%, polytraumatized (n=3, 14% or had multiple chronic comorbidities (n=5, 24%. Most episodes were hospital acquired (15, 71%. Sources of bacteraemia were intravascular catheter (n=11, 52%, digestive tract (n=6, 29%, drug injection (n=3, 14% and wound (n=1, 5%. Adequate antibiotic therapy was provided to 18 patients (86% during a median of 17 days (range 2–253 days. The intravascular catheter was removed in eight cases (42%. Three haematologic patients had a complicated course with neurologic complications (meningoencephalitis and cerebral abscesses. Complications appeared to be associated with catheter infection (100% of complicated cases vs. 29% of noncomplicated cases. In conclusion, B. cereus bacteraemia can have a complicated course in a subset of patients, mainly those with haematologic malignancy. Catheter infection may be associated with a worse outcome with frequent neurologic complications.

  11. Presence and significance of Bacillus cereus in dehydrated potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola J; Whyte, Rosemary; Hudson, J Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Dehydrated potato contains Bacillus cereus at a prevalences of 10 to 40% and at numbers usually less than 10(3) CFU g(-1). B. cereus in dehydrated potato is likely to be present as spores that are able to survive drying of the raw vegetable and may represent a significant inoculum in the reconstituted (rehydrated) product where conditions favor germination of, and outgrowth from, spores. Holding rehydrated mashed potato alone, or as part of another product (e.g., potato-topped pie), at temperatures above 10 degrees C and below 60 degrees C may allow growth of vegetative B. cereus. Levels exceeding 10(4) CFU g(-1) are considered hazardous to human health and may be reached within a few hours if stored inappropriately between these temperatures. Foods incorporating mashed potato prepared from dehydrated potato flakes have been implicated in B. cereus foodborne illness. This review is a summary of the information available concerning the prevalence and numbers of B. cereus in dehydrated potato flakes and the rate at which growth might occur in the rehydrated product.

  12. Homology Analysis of Whole-Genomes of Three Species among the Bacillus cereus Group%蜡状芽胞杆菌群三大类全基因组序列的同源性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚; 马琪奇; 李炫; 曾会才; 刘正初

    2010-01-01

    全基因组比对一般采用全基因组范围内的序列比对,本文首次采用单基因在全基因组范围内进行基因排列比对,选取了蜡状芽胞杆菌群中的44个必须基因,在该群中3大类共5个(Bt.97-27,Bc.14579,Bc.10987,Bc.E33L和Ba Ames Ancestor)全基因组进行横向比对,所有基因在各个基因组中的排列顺序完全一致,少有交叉,进一步证明:在蜡状芽胞杆菌群中,特别是在蜡状芽胞杆菌、苏云金芽胞杆菌和炭疽芽胞杆菌之间,存在相当大的基因相似性,这与前人的研究结果一致.这种相似性有利于将来用于在该群中所有菌株的全基因组测序装配中.

  13. Cd-Resistant Strains of B. cereus S5 with Endurance Capacity and Their Capacities for Cadmium Removal from Cadmium-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiqing; Wu, Qingping; Wu, Guojie; Gu, Qihui; Wei, Linting

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify Cd-resistant bacterial strains with endurance capacity and to evaluate their ability to remove cadmium ions from cadmium-polluted water. The Bacillus cereusS5 strain identified in this study had the closest genetic relationship with B. cereus sp. Cp1 and performed well in the removal of Cd2+ions from solution. The results showed that both the live and dead biomasses of the Cd2+-tolerant B. cereus S5 strain could absorb Cd2+ ions in solution but that the live biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain outperformed the dead biomass at lower Cd2+concentrations. An analysis of the cadmium tolerance genes of B. cereus S5 identified ATPase genes that were associated with cadmium tolerance and involved in the ATP pumping mechanism. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the pristine biomass and indicated that the cadmium ion removal ability was related to the structure of the strain. The maximum absorption capacity of the B. cereus S5 strain in viable spore biomass was 70.16 mg/g (dry weight) based on a pseudo-second-order kinetic model fit to the experimental data. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm adsorption models fit the cadmium ion adsorption data well, and the kinetic curves indicated that the adsorption rate was second-order. For Cd2+ concentrations (mg/L) of 1-109 mg/L, good removal efficiency (>80%) was achieved using approximately 3.48-10.3 g/L of active spore biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain. A cadmium-tolerant bacteria-activated carbon-immobilized column could be used for a longer duration and exhibited greater treatment efficacy than the control column in the treatment of cadmium-polluted water. In addition, a toxicity assessment using mice demonstrated that the biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain and its fermentation products were non-toxic. Thus, the isolated B. cereus S5 strain can be considered an alternative biological adsorbent for use in emergency responses to severe

  14. Production of nanodrug for Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient using Mallotus philippensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari, R.; R. John Xavier; Arumugam, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Mallotus philippensis leaf extract and their antibacterial potential against Bacillus cereus isolated from HIV positive patient. In this, UV- Visible spectroscopy showed the high peak of absorption band at 450 nm. Based on XRD analysis, face centered cubic structure and average size of the AgNPs was around 16 nm. FTIR spectroscopy study revealed the seventeen functional groups of the AgNPs was observed. The...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Keeled box turtle Pyxidea mouhotii and phylogenetic analysis of major turtle groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (16,837 bp) from the Keeled box turtle (Pyxidea mouhotii) was determined. The genome content,gene order, and base composition conformed to the consensus vertebrate type mtDNA. However, a remarkable feature was found in this molecule: a large number of (ATTATATC)n direct tandem repeats followed by (TA)n microsatellite at the 3' end of the control region (D-loop), which might be useful as molecular markers for studying population genetics and helpful for species identification and conservation. Besides, to review phylogenetic relationships among major turtle lineages, maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) analyses were conducted based on concatenated sequences of 13 protein-coding genes from 16 taxa. The resultant ML and BI analyses showed homological topologies, which only differed on the exact placement of Platysternon. Nevertheless, the results strongly supported that 1)Pyxidea mouhotii and Cuora aurocapitata formed a monophyletic clade, whereas Cyclemys atripons was not closer to the Pyxidea-Cuora than to Chinemys reevesii, suggesting that Cyclemys and the Cuora group (containing Pyxidea) may have originated from two ancestors; 2)the Geoemydidae with Testudinidae was a sister group rather than with the Emydidae.

  16. Genome-wide identification and mapping of NBS-encoding resistance genes in Solanum tuberosum group phureja.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lozano

    Full Text Available The majority of disease resistance (R genes identified to date in plants encode a nucleotide-binding site (NBS and leucine-rich repeat (LRR domain containing protein. Additional domains such as coiled-coil (CC and TOLL/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domains can also be present. In the recently sequenced Solanum tuberosum group phureja genome we used HMM models and manual curation to annotate 435 NBS-encoding R gene homologs and 142 NBS-derived genes that lack the NBS domain. Highly similar homologs for most previously documented Solanaceae R genes were identified. A surprising ∼41% (179 of the 435 NBS-encoding genes are pseudogenes primarily caused by premature stop codons or frameshift mutations. Alignment of 81.80% of the 577 homologs to S. tuberosum group phureja pseudomolecules revealed non-random distribution of the R-genes; 362 of 470 genes were found in high density clusters on 11 chromosomes.

  17. [Incidence of Bacillus cereus in powdered dehydrated food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, V A; Simonetta, A; Basílico, J C

    1987-01-01

    Bacillus cereus incidence on dehydrated powdered foods on sale in supermarkets of Santa Fe city was studied. Two hundred and fifty samples of five different foods: desserts, soups, mousses, pre-cooked "polenta" and mashed potatoes, were examined. Toxinogenic activity of strains confirmed as B. cereus by means of the test of lethality in rats, was analyzed. The ratio between contaminated samples and total analyzed samples was always greater than 6% (Table 1). Besides, none of the analyzed foods exceeded acceptability maximum limit (10(5) UFC/g), established by I.C.M.S.F. (Table 2). It was checked in all cases that no simple lineal correlation existed between B. cereus and total aerobic bacteria enumerations. On the other hand, the percentage of strains with lethal effects was in all cases greater than 42.8% (Table 3).

  18. The Bacillus cereus spoIIS programmed cell death system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eMelnicakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death in bacteria is generally associated with two¬ component toxin antitoxin systems. The SpoIIS toxin-antitoxin system, consisting of a membrane bound SpoIISA toxin and a small, cytosolic antitoxin SpoIISB, was originally identified in Bacillus subtilis. In this work we describe the Bacillus cereus SpoIIS system which is a three-component system, harbouring an additional gene spoIISC. Its protein product serves as an antitoxin, and similarly as SpoIISB, is able to bind SpoIISA and abolish its toxic effect. Our results indicate that SpoIISC seems to be present not only in B. cereus but also in other Bacilli containing a SpoIIS toxin antitoxin system. In addition, we show that B. cereus SpoIISA can form higher oligomers and we discuss the possible role of this multimerization for the protein’s toxic function.

  19. Food–bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain. PMID:26236290

  20. Food-bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  1. Food – bacteria interplay: Pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhling-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces NRPS. The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic Bacillus cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is literally lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  2. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in an adult with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, H; Uotani, C; Machi, T; Matsuda, T; Nonomura, A

    1988-03-01

    Bacillus cereus, which used to be considered non-pathogenic, was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute leukemia who was receiving intensive chemotherapy. Fatal bacteremia developed with a clinical syndrome of acute gastroenteritis, followed by both meningoencephalitis with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple liver abscesses probably caused by infective vasculitis. Surveillance stool cultures revealed colonization with the organism prior to the onset of diarrhea, and repetitive blood cultures were found to be positive. Thus, this case suggested some new important clinicopathologic features of true B. cereus bacteremia complicating acute leukemia.

  3. [Can industrial laundry remove Bacillus cereus from hospital linen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Myonsun; Matsuyama, Junko; Shime, Akiko; Okayama, Kana; Sakamoto, Rei; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-09-01

    Contaminated hospital linen has caused some cases of Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Japan. We analyzed the disinfection efficacy of industrial washing of hospital towels and sheets by counting the number of B. cereus on linen before and after washing. That before washing averaged 7.6 cells/cm2 on unwashed sheets, decreasing to 1.2 cells/cm2 after washing. That on unwashed towels, however, averaged 10(6) cells/cm2 before washing and 1096 cells/cm2 after washing, which was very high and suggested the possibility of causing nosocomial infection.

  4. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  5. Acidobacteria form a coherent but highly diverse group within the bacterial domain: evidence from environmental genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Lanz, Christa;

    2003-01-01

    Acidobacteria have been established as a novel phylum of Bacteria that is consistently detected in many different habitats around the globe by 16S rDNA-based molecular surveys. The phylogenetic diversity, ubiquity and abundance of this group, particularly in soil habitats, suggest an important...

  6. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  7. Framework for development of physician competencies in genomic medicine: report of the Competencies Working Group of the Inter-Society Coordinating Committee for Physician Education in Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Bruce R; Berry, Anna B; Limson, Melvin; Marian, Ali J; Murray, Michael F; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Passamani, Eugene R; Relling, Mary V; Tooker, John; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Rodriguez, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Completion of the Human Genome Project, in conjunction with dramatic reductions in the cost of DNA sequencing and advances in translational research, is gradually ushering genomic discoveries and technologies into the practice of medicine. The rapid pace of these advances is opening up a gap between the knowledge available about the clinical relevance of genomic information and the ability of clinicians to include such information in their medical practices. This educational gap threatens to be rate limiting to the clinical adoption of genomics in medicine. Solutions will require not only a better understanding of the clinical implications of genetic discoveries but also training in genomics at all levels of professional development, including for individuals in formal training and others who long ago completed such training. The National Human Genome Research Institute has convened the Inter-Society Coordinating Committee for Physician Education in Genomics (ISCC) to develop and share best practices in the use of genomics in medicine. The ISCC has developed a framework for development of genomics practice competencies that may serve as a starting point for formulation of competencies for physicians in various medical disciplines.

  8. Identification and Genomic Analysis of a Novel Group C Orthobunyavirus Isolated from a Mosquito Captured near Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Schoeler, George; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Turell, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses found in both South and North America. Until very recently, and despite their status as important vector-borne human pathogens, no Group C whole genome sequences containing all three segments were available in public databases. Here we report a Group C orthobunyavirus, named El Huayo virus, isolated from a pool of Culex portesi mosquitoes captured near Iquitos, Peru. Although initial metagenomic analysis yielded only a handful of reads belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus, single contig assemblies were generated for L, M, and S segments totaling over 200,000 reads (~0.5% of sample). Given the moderately high viremia in hamsters (>107 plaque-forming units/ml) and the propensity for Cx. portesi to feed on rodents, it is possible that El Huayo virus is maintained in nature in a Culex portesi/rodent cycle. El Huayo virus was found to be most similar to Peruvian Caraparu virus isolates and constitutes a novel subclade within Group C.

  9. The MICROBE Project, A Report from the Interagency Working Group on Microbial Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    including targeting of genes related to pathogenesis, possibilities for acquired pathogen resistance, industrial and food -grade enzymes, and probiotics ...Biology Food and Drug Administration Microbe Project Interagency Working Group Subcommittee on Biotechnology Committee on Science National Science and...soil, and air that surround us, on and in the food that we eat, on and within our own bodies. Microbes (including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa

  10. The transcriptome of the reference potato genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Childs, Kevin L; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family.

  11. Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlemann, D. P. R.; Geissinger, O.; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W.; Kunin, V.; Sun, H.; Lapidus, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Brune, A.

    2009-02-01

    The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut and discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a Gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of Elusimicrobia (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

  12. Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2014-08-01

    Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20% and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs.

  13. Genetic diversity among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains using repetitive element polymorphism-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumlik, Michael J; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Spalletta, Ronald A; Patra, Guy; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (REP-PCR) is one of the tools that has been used to elucidate genetic diversity of related microorganisms. Using the MB1 primer, REP-PCR fingerprints from 110 Bacillus strains within the "B. cereus group" have identified eighteen distinct categories, while other more distantly related bacterial species fell within six additional categories. All Bacillus anthracis strains tested were found to be monomorphic by fluorophore-enhanced REP-PCR (FERP) fingerprinting using the MB1 primer. In contrast, other non- B. anthracis isolates displayed a high degree of polymorphism. Dendrogramic analysis revealed that the non- B. anthracis strains possessing the Ba813 chromosomal marker were divided into two clusters. One of the clusters shared identity with the B. cereus strains examined.

  14. An emetic Bacillus cereus outbreak in a kindergarten: detection and quantification of critical levels of cereulide toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus cereus-related emetic outbreak was reported in a Belgian kindergarten. High levels of emetic B. cereus (>1.5E+07 colony-forming units/g) were detected in the food leftovers, and the presence of an emetic strain was confirmed in feces. Emetic toxin levels ranging up to 4.2 μg/g were also quantified in the leftovers by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)) analysis. Those levels, although moderate in comparison with earlier published intoxications, provoked profuse-vomiting episodes in 20 toddlers aged between 10 and 18 months. Few studies have focused on the levels of emetic toxin implicated in food intoxications. This publication emphasizes the importance of defining toxic doses of emetic toxin among high-risk population groups.

  15. An intronic open reading frame was released from one of group II introns in the mitochondrial genome of the haptophyte Chrysochromulina sp. NIES-1333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yuki; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences, which often bear introns, have been sampled from phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes. Thus, we can anticipate novel insights into intron evolution from previously unstudied mt genomes. We here investigated the origins and evolution of three introns in the mt genome of the haptophyte Chrysochromulina sp. NIES-1333, which was sequenced completely in this study. All the three introns were characterized as group II, on the basis of predicted secondary structure, and the conserved sequence motifs at the 5' and 3' termini. Our comparative studies on diverse mt genomes prompt us to propose that the Chrysochromulina mt genome laterally acquired the introns from mt genomes in distantly related eukaryotes. Many group II introns harbor intronic open reading frames for the proteins (intron-encoded proteins or IEPs), which likely facilitate the splicing of their host introns. However, we propose that a "free-standing," IEP-like protein, which is not encoded within any introns in the Chrysochromulina mt genome, is involved in the splicing of the first cox1 intron that lacks any open reading frames.

  16. Physical chemical and biological characterization of a new bacteriocin produced byBacillus cereusNS02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senbagam D; Gurusamy R; Senthilkumar B

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To screen the bacteriocinogenic isolate from buffalo milk and to characterize it on physical, chemical and biological aspects for the application in biopreservation.Methods:Bacillus cereus(B. cereus) was isolated and assessed for its baceteriocinogenic activity. Bacteriocin was produced and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography.Purified bacteriocin was used to check its antimicrobial activity against food borne bacteria.Effect and stability of bacteriocin was determined with the respect to temperature, pH, enzymes, organic solvents and chemicals.Bacteriocin was also subjected toSDSPAGE analysis to determine its molecular weight.In addition, functional groups exist in the bacteriocin was determined byFTIR analysis.Results:B. cereus was identified by16S rRNA sequence analysis.Bacteriocin showed increased activity against all the bacteria used and its activity unit was found to be51,200AU/mL.It was stable to high temperature(100 ℃) and wide range of pH(3-10), sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and resistant to nonproteolytic enzymes.It was low molecular weight(3.5 -6KDa) protein andFTIR study revealed the presence of amide group andNH stretching.Conclusions:Bacteriocin produced in this study possesses the highest antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria thereby it has immense application as biopreservative agent.FTIR proved its peptide nature.

  17. Intractable Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita

    2007-04-01

    Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.

  18. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the germi

  19. Rapid detoxification of cereulide in Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Mitsutaka; Saitou, Keiko; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Matsusaka, Masanori; Agata, Norio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Kage, Masayoshi; Tatsumi, Shinji; Okamoto, Akira; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ohta, Michio; Hata, Daisuke

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic toxin are important but are limited. Here we describe 3 patients with B cereus food poisoning in which cereulide was detected and measured sequentially. Three family members began to vomit frequently 30 minutes after consuming reheated fried rice. After 6 hours, a 1-year-old brother died of acute encephalopathy. A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy. From leftover fried rice and the children's stomach contents, B cereus was isolated. Serum cereulide was detected in both children; it decreased to an undetected level in the sister. These cases highlight the importance of measuring the value of cereulide, which would reflect the severity of B cereus emetic food poisoning. The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases.

  20. Successful treatment of Bacillus cereus infection with ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, A.D.; Richards, J.; Gould, K.; Gibson, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is rarely a pulmonary pathogen but may cause pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. A patient with bronchiectasis and no recognisable immunodeficiency had this organism isolated during two infective exacerbations, once from respiratory secretions and once by blood culture. Ciprofloxacin treatment was effective on both occasions.

  1. The fate of Bacillus cereus in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Wijnands LM; Takumi K; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical dynamical model for the behaviour of Bacillus cereus in the gastro-intestinal tract. Biological processes and system dynamics are simultaneously incorporated in this mechanistic model. Variability in growth characteristics and physical traits of different B. cereu

  2. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems in Bacillus cereus: Identification of receptors for anthrax virulence-associated petrobactin .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Anna M; Abergel, Rebecca J; Nichiporuk, Rita; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2009-04-28

    During growth under iron limitation, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, two human pathogens from the Bacillus cereus group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete two siderophores, bacillibactin (BB) and petrobactin (PB), for iron acquisition via membrane-associated substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) and other ABC transporter components. Since PB is associated with virulence traits in B. anthracis, the PB-mediated iron uptake system presents a potential target for antimicrobial therapies; its characterization in B. cereus is described here. Separate transporters for BB, PB, and several xenosiderophores are suggested by (55)Fe-siderophore uptake studies. The PB precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), and the photoproduct of FePB (FePB(nu)) also mediate iron delivery into iron-deprived cells. Putative SBPs were recombinantly expressed, and their ligand specificity and binding affinity were assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The noncovalent complexes of the SBPs with their respective siderophores were characterized using ESI-MS. The differences between solution phase behavior and gas phase measurements are indicative of noncovalent interactions between the siderophores and the binding sites of their respective SBPs. These studies combined with bioinformatics sequence comparison identify SBPs from five putative transporters specific for BB and enterobactin (FeuA), 3,4-DHB and PB (FatB), PB (FpuA), schizokinen (YfiY), and desferrioxamine and ferrichrome (YxeB). The two PB receptors show different substrate ranges: FatB has the highest affinity for ferric 3,4-DHB, iron-free PB, FePB, and FePB(nu), whereas FpuA is specific to only apo- and ferric PB. The biochemical characterization of these SBPs provides the first identification of the transporter candidates that most likely play a role in the B. cereus group pathogenicity.

  3. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems in Bacillus cereus: identification of receptors for anthrax virulence-associated petrobactin†a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Anna M.; Abergel, Rebecca J.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    During growth under iron limitation, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, two human pathogens from the Bacillus cereus group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete two siderophores, bacillibactin (BB) and petrobactin (PB), for iron acquisition via membrane-associated substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) and other ABC transporter components. Since PB is associated with virulence traits in B. anthracis, the PB-mediated iron uptake system presents a potential target for antimicrobial therapies; its characterization in B. cereus is described here. Separate transporters for BB, PB, and several xenosiderophores are suggested by 55Fe-siderophore uptake studies. The PB precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), and the photoproduct of FePB (FePBν) also mediate iron delivery into iron-deprived cells. Putative SBPs were recombinantly expressed, and their ligand specificity and binding affinity assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The noncovalent complexes of the SBPs with their respective siderophores were characterized using ESI-MS. The differences between solution phase behavior and gas phase measurements are indicative of noncovalent interactions between the siderophores and the binding sites of their respective SBPs. These studies combined with bioinformatics sequence comparison identify SBPs from five putative transporters specific for BB and enterobactin (FeuA), 3,4-DHB and PB (FatB), PB (FpuA), schizokinen (YfiY), and desferrioxamine and ferrichrome (YxeB). The two PB receptors show different substrate ranges: FatB has the highest affinity for ferric 3,4-DHB, iron-free PB, FePB, and FePBν, whereas FpuA is specific to only apo- and ferric PB. The biochemical characterization of these SBPs provides the first identification of the transporter candidates that most likely play a role in the B. cereus group pathogenicity. PMID:19254027

  4. The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration of Research into Laboratory Classes at a Diverse Group of Undergraduate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bhalla, Satish; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Dorer, Douglas R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeff L.; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Hauser, Charles; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kaehler, Marian; Kokan, Nighat; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; McNeil, Gerard; Moss, Robert; Myka, Jennifer L.; Nagengast, Alexis; Morris, Robert; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Parrish, Susan; Reed, Kelynne; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Saville, Ken; Schroeder, Stephanie; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Mary; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Stamm, Joyce; Thompson, Jeff S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wilson, Barbara A.; Youngblom, Jim; Leung, Wilson; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington…

  5. The 135 kbp mitochondrial genome of Agaricus bisporus is the largest known eukaryotic reservoir of group I introns and plasmid-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férandon, Cyril; Xu, Jianping; Barroso, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    At 135,005 nt, the mitochondrial genome in Agaricus bisporus represents the largest fungal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. Its large size is mainly due to the presence of mobile genetic elements, including a total of 43 group I introns, three group II introns, and five DNA fragments that show sequence similarity to linear invertron-like plasmids. The introns are distributed in eight of the 15 protein coding genes. These introns contain a total of 61,092 nt (∼45.3% of the whole mitochondrial genome) and include representatives of most of the group I introns so far found in mitochondrial genomes of Basidiomycota. The plasmid-like sequences include 6730 nt total representing 5.0% of the genome. These sequences showed high-level similarities to two different mitochondrial plasmids reported for basidiomycete mushrooms: the autonomously replicating pEM in Agaricus bitorquis and the integrated linear plasmid sequences in Agrocybe aegerita and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Moreover, the plasmid-related sequences are located within or adjacent to two large (4559 nt) inverted repeats containing also two sets of mitochondrial tRNA genes. Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution of the A. bisporus mitochondrial genome.

  6. Bacillus cereus bacteraemia: comparison between haematologic and nonhaematologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusgul, S; Prod'hom, G; Senn, L; Meuli, R; Bochud, P-Y; Giulieri, S G

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection) at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23-82 years). Ten patients (48%) had a haematologic malignancy; all were neutropenic at the time of B. cereus bacteraemia. Nonhaematologic patients were either intravenous drug users (n = 3, 14%), polytraumatized (n = 3, 14%) or had multiple chronic comorbidities (n = 5, 24%). Most episodes were hospital acquired (15, 71%). Sources of bacteraemia were intravascular catheter (n = 11, 52%), digestive tract (n = 6, 29%), drug injection (n = 3, 14%) and wound (n = 1, 5%). Adequate antibiotic therapy was provided to 18 patients (86%) during a median of 17 days (range 2-253 days). The intravascular catheter was removed in eight cases (42%). Three haematologic patients had a complicated course with neurologic complications (meningoencephalitis and cerebral abscesses). Complications appeared to be associated with catheter infection (100% of complicated cases vs. 29% of noncomplicated cases). In conclusion, B. cereus bacteraemia can have a complicated course in a subset of patients, mainly those with haematologic malignancy. Catheter infection may be associated with a worse outcome with frequent neurologic complications.

  7. Genomic characterisation, chromosomal assignment and in vivo localisation of the canine High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimann-Berg Nicola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high mobility group A1 proteins (HMGA1a/HMGA1b are highly conserved between mammalian species and widely described as participating in various cellular processes. By inducing DNA conformation changes the HMGA1 proteins indirectly influence the binding of various transcription factors and therefore effect the transcription regulation. In humans chromosomal aberrations affecting the HMGA1 gene locus on HSA 6p21 were described to be the cause for various benign mesenchymal tumours while high titres of HMGA1 proteins were shown to be associated with the neoplastic potential of various types of cancer. Interestingly, the absence of HMGA1 proteins was shown to cause insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. Due to the various similarities in biology and presentation of human and canine cancers the dog has joined the common rodent animal model for therapeutic and preclinical studies. Accordingly, the canine genome was sequenced completely twice but unfortunately this could not solve the structure of canine HMGA1 gene. Results Herein we report the characterisation of the genomic structure of the canine HMGA1 gene consisting of 7 exons and 6 introns spanning in total 9524 bp, the in vivo localisation of the HMGA1 protein to the nucleus, and a chromosomal assignment of the gene by FISH to CFA12q11. Additionally, we evaluated a described canine HMGA1 exon 6 SNP in 55 Dachshunds. Conclusion The performed characterisations will make comparative analyses of aberrations affecting the human and canine gene and proteins possible, thereby providing a basis for revealing mechanisms involved in HMGA1 related pathogenesis in both species.

  8. Attitudes of non-African American focus group participants toward return of results from exome and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Joon-Ho; Crouch, Julia; Jamal, Seema M; Bamshad, Michael J; Tabor, Holly K

    2014-09-01

    Exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing (ES/WGS) present individuals with the opportunity to benefit from a broad scope of genetic results of clinical and personal utility. Yet, it is unclear which genetic results people want to receive (i.e., what type of genetic information they want to learn about themselves) or conversely not receive, and how they want to receive or manage results over time. Very little is known about whether and how attitudes toward receiving individual results from ES/WGS vary among racial/ethnic populations. We conducted 13 focus groups with a racially and ethnically diverse parent population (n = 76) to investigate attitudes toward return of individual results from WGS. We report on our findings for non-African American (non-AA) participants. Non-AA participants were primarily interested in genetic results on which they could act or "do something about." They defined "actionability" broadly to include individual medical treatment and disease prevention. The ability to plan for the future was both a motivation for and an expected benefit of receiving results. Their concerns focused on the meaning of results, specifically the potential inaccuracy and uncertainty of results. Non-AA participants expected healthcare providers to be involved in results management by helping them interpret results in the context of their own health and by providing counseling support. We compare and contrast these themes with those we previously reported from our analysis of African American (AA) perspectives to highlight the importance of varying preferences for results, characterize the central role of temporal orientation in framing expectations about the possibility of receiving ES/WGS results, and identify potential avenues by which genomic healthcare disparities may be inadvertently perpetuated.

  9. A novel and highly specific phage endolysin cell wall binding domain for detection of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Sim, Jieun; Kang, Taejoon; Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Bong Hyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for public health and safety. Bacillus cereus is harmful as it causes foodborne illness and a number of systemic and local infections. We report a novel phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) for B. cereus and the development of a highly specific and sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based B. cereus detection method using the CBD. The newly discovered CBD from endolysin of PBC1, a B. cereus-specific bacteriophage, provides high specificity and binding capacity to B. cereus. By using the CBD-modified SPR chips, B. cereus can be detected at the range of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/ml. More importantly, the detection limit can be improved to 10(2) CFU/ml by using a subtractive inhibition assay based on the pre-incubation of B. cereus and CBDs, removal of CBD-bound B. cereus, and SPR detection of the unbound CBDs. The present study suggests that the small and genetically engineered CBDs can be promising biological probes for B. cereus. We anticipate that the CBD-based SPR-sensing methods will be useful for the sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of B. cereus.

  10. Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of cereulide-producing isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiaux, Virginie; N'guessan, Elise; Swiecicka, Izabela; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Dierick, Katelijne; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhoea, emesis and in, rare cases, lethal poisonings. The emetic syndrome is caused by cereulide, a heat-stable toxin. Originally considered as a rather homogenous group, the emetic strains have since been shown to display some diversity, including the existence of two clusters of mesophilic B. cereus and psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, this research aimed to better understand the diversity and spatio-temporal occurrence of emetic strains originating from environmental or food niches vs. those isolated from foodborne cases. The diversity was evaluated using a set of 52 B. cereus and B. weihenstephanensis strains isolated between 2000 and 2011 in ten countries. PFGE analysis could discriminate 17 distinct profiles (pulsotypes). The most striking observations were as follows: (1) more than one emetic pulsotype can be observed in a single outbreak; (2) the number of distinct isolates involved in emetic intoxications is limited, and these potentially clonal strains frequently occurred in successive and independent food poisoning cases; (3) isolates from different countries displayed identical profiles; and (4) the cereulide-producing psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis were, so far, only isolated from environmental niches.

  11. YwdL in Bacillus cereus: its role in germination and exosporium structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Terry

    Full Text Available In members of the Bacillus cereus group the outermost layer of the spore is the exosporium, which interacts with hosts and the environment. Efforts have been made to identify proteins of the exosporium but only a few have so far been characterised and their role in determining spore architecture and spore function is still poorly understood. We have characterised the exosporium protein, YwdL. ΔywdL spores have a more fragile exosporium, subject to damage on repeated freeze-thawing, although there is no evidence of altered resistance properties, and coats appear intact. Immunogold labelling and Western blotting with anti-YwdL antibodies identified YwdL to be located exclusively on the inner surface of the exosporium of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We conclude that YwdL is important for formation of a robust exosporium but is not required to maintain the crystalline assembly within the basal layer or for attachment of the hairy nap structure. ΔywdL spores are unable to germinate in response to CaDPA, and have altered germination properties, a phenotype that confirms the expected defect in localization of the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ in the coat.

  12. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus blood stream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Mahoko; Yagihara,Yuka; Tatsuno, Keita; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, few reports have documented the antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Bacillus cereus BSI and the importance of empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. cereus isolates from patients with BSI and to analyze the impact of appropriate empirical therapy on the outcome of patients...

  13. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  14. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of three Bacillus cereus strains involved in a major outbreak of food poisoning after consumption of fermented black beans (Douchi) in Yunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoping; Bester, Kai; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zushun; Jiang, Rongrong; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2014-10-01

    Three Bacillus cereus strains isolated from an outbreak of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fermented black beans (douchi) containing B. cereus is described. The outbreak involved 139 persons who had nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The strains were isolated from vomit and the unprepared douchi. Two of the strains produced the emetic toxin cereulide, as evidenced by polymerase chain reaction analysis for the presence of the nonribosomal synthetase cluster responsible for the synthesis of cereulide and by chemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These two strains belong to genetic group III of B. cereus, and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the type was ST26, as a major part of B. cereus emetic strains. One of these strains produced significantly more cereulide at 37°C than the type cereulide producer (F4810/72), and it was also able to produce the toxin at 40°C and 42°C. The third strain belongs to genetic group IV, and it is a new multiple locus sequence type closely related to strains that are cytotoxic and enterotoxigenic. It possesses genes for hemolysin BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, and cytotoxin K2; however, it varies from the majority of strains possessing genes for hemolysin BL by not being hemolytic. Thus, two B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin cereulide and a strain producing enterotoxins might have been involved in this food-poisoning incident caused by the consumption of a natural fermented food. The ability of one of the strains to produce cereulide at ≥37°C makes it possible that it is produced in the human gut in addition to occurring in the food.

  16. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc;

    2013-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution, and a...

  17. Enrichment and genome sequence of the group I.1a ammonia-oxidizing Archaeon "Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis" representing a clade globally distributed in thermal habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Lebedeva

    Full Text Available The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called "marine" group I.1a thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis", is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, "Candidatus N. uzonensis" also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in "Ca. N. uzonensis", which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation.

  18. Whole-Genome Sequences of Four Strains Closely Related to Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae Group, Isolated from Biofilms in a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Mycobacterium chelonae group strains from biofilms obtained after a ‘chlorine burn’ in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. These opportunistic pathogens have been detected in drinking and hospital water distr...

  19. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and multiple brain abscesses during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Jordan R; Phillips, Marianne; Cole, Catherine; Francis, Joshua; Blyth, Christopher C; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy.

  20. Occurrence and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in food and infant feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer; Rushdi; Organji; Hussein; Hasan; Abulreesh; Khaled; Elbanna; Gamal; Ebrahim; Haridy; Osman; Manal; Khider

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the true incidence of Bacillus cereus(B. cereus) in food and children diarrhea cases. Methods: A total of 110 samples of various dairy products such as raw milk, long life pasteurized milk, yoghurt and infant powdered milk formulas, raw rice, and feces were examined for the presence of B. cereus by selective plating on mannitol-egg-yolk-polymyxin agar. Confirmation of B. cereus was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Identification of non-B. cereus isolates was carried out by 16 S r DNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disk diffusion method.Results: Overall 35 samples(31.8%, n = 110) yielded Bacillus-like growth. Of which 19 samples(54.28%) were positive for B. cereus. All isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. No psychrotolerant B. cereus strains were detected in all samples. All B. cereus isolates were resistant to penicillin G, but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the importance of including B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, as well as in routine clinical and food quality control laboratories in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

  1. The Water Cycle, a Potential Source of the Bacterial Pathogen Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Brillard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the sporulating soil-dwelling Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sl which includes foodborne pathogenic strains has been extensively studied in relation to its various animal hosts. The aim of this environmental study was to investigate the water compartments (rain and soil water, as well as groundwater closely linked to the primary B. cereus sl reservoir, for which available data are limited. B. cereus sl was present, primarily as spores, in all of the tested compartments of an agricultural site, including water from rain to groundwater through soil. During rain events, leachates collected after transfer through the soil eventually reached the groundwater and were loaded with B. cereus sl. In groundwater samples, newly introduced spores of a B. cereus model strain were able to germinate, and vegetative cells arising from this event were detected for up to 50 days. This first B. cereus sl investigation in the various types of interrelated environments suggests that the consideration of the aquatic compartment linked to soil and to climatic events should provide a better understanding of B. cereus sl ecology and thus be relevant for a more accurate risk assessment of food poisoning caused by B. cereus sl pathogenic strains.

  2. Occurrence and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in food and infant feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Rushdi Organji; Hussein Hasan Abulreesh; Khaled Elbanna; Gamal Ebrahim Haridy Osman; Manal Khider

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the true incidence of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in food and children diarrhea cases. Methods:A total of 110 samples of various dairy products such as raw milk, long life pasteurized milk, yoghurt and infant powdered milk formulas, raw rice, and feces were examined for the presence of B. cereus by selective plating on mannitol-egg-yolk-polymyxin agar. Confirmation of B. cereus was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Identification of non-B. cereus isolates was carried out by 16S rDNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disk diffusion method. Results:Overall 35 samples (31.8%, n=110) yielded Bacillus-like growth. Of which 19 samples (54.28%) were positive for B. cereus. All isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. No psychrotolerant B. cereus strains were detected in all samples. All B. cereus isolates were resistant to penicillin G, but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions:The results of this study confirm the importance of including B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, as well as in routine clinical and food quality control laboratories in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

  3. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  4. Chemodiversity of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Lücking, Genia; Pürstinger, Gabriel; Pohl, Elena E; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Food-borne intoxications are increasingly caused by the dodecadepsipeptide cereulide, the emetic toxin produced by Bacillus cereus. As such intoxications pose a health risk to humans, a more detailed understanding on the chemodiversity of this toxin is mandatory for the reliable risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods. Mass spectrometric screening now shows a series of at least 18 cereulide variants, among which the previously unknown isocereulides A-G were determined for the first time by means of UPLC-TOF MS and ion-trap MS(n) sequencing, (13)C-labeling experiments, and post-hydrolytic dipeptide and enantioselective amino acid analysis. The data demonstrate a high microheterogeneity in cereulide and show evidence for a relaxed proof reading function of the non-ribosomal cereulide peptide synthetase complex giving rise to an enhanced cereulide chemodiversity. Most intriguingly, the isocereulides were found to differ widely in their cell toxicity correlating with their ionophoric properties (e.g., purified isocereulide A showed about 8-fold higher cytotoxicity than purified cereulide in the HEp-2 assay and induced an immediate breakdown of bilayer membranes). These findings provide a substantial contribution to the knowledge-based risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods, representing a still unsolved challenge in the field of food intoxications.

  5. A pseudo-tRNA modulates antibiotic resistance in Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E Rogers

    Full Text Available Bacterial genomic islands are often flanked by tRNA genes, which act as sites for the integration of foreign DNA into the host chromosome. For example, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 contains a pathogenicity island flanked by a predicted pseudo-tRNA, tRNA(Other, which does not function in translation. Deletion of tRNA(Other led to significant changes in cell wall morphology and antibiotic resistance and was accompanied by changes in the expression of numerous genes involved in oxidative stress responses, several of which contain significant complementarities to sequences surrounding tRNA(Other. This suggested that tRNA(Other might be expressed as part of a larger RNA, and RACE analysis subsequently confirmed the existence of several RNA species that significantly extend both the 3' and 5'-ends of tRNA(Other. tRNA(Other expression levels were found to be responsive to changes in extracellular iron concentration, consistent with the presence of three putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur binding sites in the 5' leader region of one of these larger RNAs. Taken together with previous data, this study now suggests that tRNA(Other may function by providing a tRNA-like structural element within a larger regulatory RNA. These findings illustrate that while integration of genomic islands often leaves tRNA genes intact and functional, in other instances inactivation may generate tRNA-like elements that are then recruited to other functions in the cell.

  6. Primers for the Amplification of the Circular Chloroplast DNA from the A-genome Group of Cultivated Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IBRAHIM Rashid Ismael Hag; AZUMA Jun-Ichi; SAKAMOTO Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    @@ The availability of the plastid genome sequences is one of the bases for comparative,functional,and structural genomic studies of plastid-containing living organisms,in addition to the application of plastid genetic engineering technology.The past efforts to sequence plastid genomes involve complicated preparation protocols.One procedure starts with the isolation of plastids,which was tiresome and time wasting that followed by a second step to extract plastid DNA from the isolated plastids,then finally the build up of plasmid or bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library.

  7. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  8. Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Martin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, but its exact genetic organization and biochemical synthesis is unknown. Results The complete sequence of the cereulide synthetase (ces gene cluster, which encodes the enzymatic machinery required for the biosynthesis of cereulide, was dissected. The 24 kb ces gene cluster comprises 7 CDSs and includes, besides the typical NRPS genes like a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and two CDSs encoding enzyme modules for the activation and incorporation of monomers in the growing peptide chain, a CDS encoding a putative hydrolase in the upstream region and an ABC transporter in the downstream part. The enzyme modules responsible for incorporation of the hydroxyl acids showed an unusual structure while the modules responsible for the activation of the amino acids Ala and Val showed the typical domain organization of NRPS. The ces gene locus is flanked by genetic regions with high homology to virulence plasmids of B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids. Conclusion The ces gene cluster that is located on a pXO1-like virulence plasmid represents, beside the insecticidal and the anthrax toxins, a third type of B. cereus group toxins encoded on megaplasmids. The ces genes are restricted to emetic toxin producers, but pXO1-like plasmids are also present in emetic-like strains. These data might indicate the presence of an ancient plasmid in B. cereus which has acquired different virulence genes over time. Due to the unusual structure of the hydroxyl acid incorporating enzyme modules of Ces

  9. Impact of a probiotic Bacillus cereus strain on the jejunal epithelial barrier and on the NKG2D expressing immune cells during the weaning phase of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sara; Kröger, Susan; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia

    2014-09-15

    In a feeding experiment, the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi was fed to sows and piglets in order to test whether it influences the stress response of enterocytes, thereby causing intestinal immune activation, possibly accompanied by an impairment of the epithelial integrity. The impact of B. cereus on the piglets' intestinal enterocytes (EC) and on the communicating intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was investigated during the weaning phase where significant immunological changes might be expected. The expression of the stress-induced MHC class I-related molecule 2 (MIC2) and the UL16 binding protein (ULBP) was measured in jejunal EC and the frequencies of the main present IEL populations in the jejunum were monitored. To find out which of the IEL populations can be activated by the stress-induced molecules the sorted IEL were tested for the expression of the activating natural killer receptor 2D (NKG2D). The piglets fed with B. cereus showed an impaired intestinal barrier function shortly after weaning. However, a significant impact on the expression of stress-induced molecules was not observed. The mRNA expression of NKG2D was confirmed in intraepithelial CD5+ γδ T cells. The ratio of IEL (CD45+) to EC was lower in the B. cereus treated group, which could be explained by lower frequencies of CD8αβ+ T cells in the jejunal epithelium (p ≤ 0.005 for ages 32 and 34). Although a consistently increased expression of stress-induced MHC class I-related molecules was not found, this study suggests a negative impact of B. cereus on the intestinal barrier function and supports immune-modulating properties of the probiotic feed supplement.

  10. Genome sequences of siphoviruses infecting marine Synechococcus unveil a diverse cyanophage group and extensive phage-host genetic exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sijun; Wang, Kui; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Investigating the interactions between marine cyanobacteria and their viruses (phages) is important towards understanding the dynamic of ocean's primary productivity. Genome sequencing of marine cyanophages has greatly advanced our understanding about their ecology and evolution. Among 24 reported genomes of cyanophages that infect marine picocyanobacteria, 17 are from cyanomyoviruses and six from cyanopodoviruses, and only one from cyanosiphovirus (Prochlorococcus phage P-SS2). Here we present four complete genome sequences of siphoviruses (S-CBS1, S-CBS2, S-CBS3 and S-CBS4) that infect four different marine Synechococcus strains. Three distinct subtypes were recognized among the five known marine siphoviruses (including P-SS2) in terms of morphology, genome architecture, gene content and sequence similarity. Our study revealed that cyanosiphoviruses are genetically diverse with polyphyletic origin. No core genes were found across these five cyanosiphovirus genomes, and this is in contrast to the fact that many core genes have been found in cyanomyovirus or cyanopodovirus genomes. Interestingly, genes encoding three structural proteins and a lysozyme of S-CBS1 and S-CBS3 showed homology to a prophage-like genetic element in two freshwater Synechococcus elongatus genomes. Re-annotation of the prophage-like genomic region suggests that S. elongatus may contain an intact prophage. Cyanosiphovirus genes involved in DNA metabolism and replication share high sequence homology with those in cyanobacteria, and further phylogenetic analysis based on these genes suggests that ancient and selective genetic exchanges occurred, possibly due to past prophage integration. Metagenomic analysis based on the Global Ocean Sampling database showed that cyanosiphoviruses are present in relatively low abundance in the ocean surface water compared to cyanomyoviruses and cyanopodoviruses.

  11. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-10-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3' terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species.

  12. Taxonomic Identity Resolution of Highly Phylogenetically Related Strains and Selection of Phylogenetic Markers by Using Genome-Scale Methods: The Bacillus pumilus Group Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espariz, Martín; Zuljan, Federico A.; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus group strains have been studied due their agronomic, biotechnological or pharmaceutical potential. Classifying strains of this taxonomic group at species level is a challenging procedure since it is composed of seven species that share among them over 99.5% of 16S rRNA gene identity. In this study, first, a whole-genome in silico approach was used to accurately demarcate B. pumilus group strains, as a case of highly phylogenetically related taxa, at the species level. In order to achieve that and consequently to validate or correct taxonomic identities of genomes in public databases, an average nucleotide identity correlation, a core-based phylogenomic and a gene function repertory analyses were performed. Eventually, more than 50% such genomes were found to be misclassified. Hierarchical clustering of gene functional repertoires was also used to infer ecotypes among B. pumilus group species. Furthermore, for the first time the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest was used to rank genes in order of their importance for species classification. We found that ybbP, a gene involved in the synthesis of cyclic di-AMP, was the most important gene for accurately predicting species identity among B. pumilus group strains. Finally, principal component analysis was used to classify strains based on the distances between their ybbP genes. The methodologies described could be utilized more broadly to identify other highly phylogenetically related species in metagenomic or epidemiological assessments. PMID:27658251

  13. Isolation and characterization of glacier VMY22, a novel lytic cold-active bacteriophage of Bacillus cereus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuling; Ji; Chunjing; Zhang; Yuan; Fang; Qi; Zhang; Lianbing; Lin; Bing; Tang; Yunlin; Wei

    2015-01-01

    As a unique ecological system with low temperature and low nutrient levels, glaciers are considered a "living fossil" for the research of evolution. In this work, a lytic cold-active bacteriophage designated VMY22 against Bacillus cereus MYB41-22 was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China, and its characteristics were studied. Electron microscopy revealed that VMY22 has an icosahedral head(59.2 nm in length, 31.9 nm in width) and a tail(43.2 nm in length). Bacteriophage VMY22 was classified as a Podoviridae with an approximate genome size of 18 to 20 kb. A one-step growth curve revealed that the latent and the burst periods were 70 and 70 min, respectively, with an average burst size of 78 bacteriophage particles per infected cell. The pH and thermal stability of bacteriophage VMY22 were also investigated. The maximum stability of the bacteriophage was observed to be at pH 8.0 and it was comparatively stable at p H 5.0–9.0. As VMY22 is a cold-active bacteriophage with low production temperature, its characterization and the relationship between MYB41-22 and Bacillus cereus bacteriophage deserve further study.

  14. Genome sequence of the Wenxinia marina type strain (DSM 24838(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from oilfield sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Spring, Stefan; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-15

    Wenxinia marina Ying et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Wenxinia, a representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from oilfield sediments of the South China Sea. This family was shown to harbor the most abundant bacteria especially from coastal and polar waters, but was also found in microbial mats, sediments and attached to different kind of surfaces. Here we describe the features of W. marina strain HY34(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation of strain DSM 24838(T) and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 4,181,754 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,047 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. The genome of W. marina DSM 24838(T) was sequenced as part of the activities of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project funded by the DoE and the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

  15. Genome sequence of the Wenxinia marina type strain (DSM 24838T), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from oilfield sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Spring, Stefan; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wenxinia marina Ying et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Wenxinia, a representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from oilfield sediments of the South China Sea. This family was shown to harbor the most abundant bacteria especially from coastal and polar waters, but was also found in microbial mats, sediments and attached to different kind of surfaces. Here we describe the features of W. marina strain HY34T together with the genome sequence and annotation of strain DSM 24838T and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 4,181,754 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,047 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. The genome of W. marina DSM 24838T was sequenced as part of the activities of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project funded by the DoE and the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). PMID:25197468

  16. Association between tea ingestion and invasive Bacillus cereus infection among children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saleeby, C M; Howard, S C; Hayden, R T; McCullers, J A

    2004-11-15

    Bacillus cereus is an emerging pathogen that causes invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. A case-control study, prompted by a clinical case, demonstrated an association between dietary tea ingestion and B. cereus bacteremia. Policies designed to interrupt transmission of this pathogen to susceptible patients should be considered.

  17. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  18. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Reed, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  19. Identification of proteins involved in the heat stress response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periago, P.M.; Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.; Wouters, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    To monitor the ability of the food-borne opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products, we determined its heat-adaptive response. During pre-exposure to 42°C, B. cereus ATCC 14579 adapts to heat exposure at the lethal temperature of 50°C (maximum protec

  20. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 bas

  1. Adaptation of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus to carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Kets, E.P.W.; Alberda, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carvacrol, a natural antimicrobial compound present in the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme, is bactericidal towards Bacillus cereus. A decrease of the sensitivity of B. cereus towards carvacrol was observed after growth in the presence of non-lethal carvacrol concentrations. A decrease o

  2. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products.

  3. Plant compounds enhance assay sensitivity for detection of active bacillus cereus toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. It has been estimated that there are 84,000 cases of B. cereus food poisoning in the US each year, with an annual cost of USD 36 million. The ability to sensitively trace and...

  4. Influence of carvacrol on growth and toxin production by Bacillus cereus. International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Smid, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    The natural antimicrobial compound carvacrol was investigated for its effect on diarrheal toxin production by Bacillus cereus. Carvacrol (0-0.06 mg/ml) reduced the viable count and the maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of B. cereus in BHI broth. The total amount of protein was not affected by carv

  5. Detection and expression of enterotoxin genes in plant-associated strains of Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus cereus is an environmental microbe that commonly inhabits plants and soil. Twenty five plant-associated B. cereus isolates were obtained from apple, cacao, tomato, and potato. The isolates were screened for the presence and expression of enterotoxin B (BcET) components of the nonhemolytic e...

  6. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  7. Effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on immune parameters of pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Filter, Matthias; Scharek, Lydia; Toelke, Christiane; Taras, David; Tedin, Karsten; Haverson, Karin; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H

    2009-01-15

    Changing immune parameters during pregnancy have previously been reported in humans and cattle, and have been suggested to contribute to increased susceptibility to infections. However, data regarding immune parameters during pregnancy in sows are rare. In this study, we investigated the peripartal immune status of sows using phenotypical (FACS analysis) as well as functional (proliferation assays, cytokine analysis) parameters of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in pregnant sows. In previous studies, we reported a modulation of the immune system after feed supplementation of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi in piglets [Schierack, P., Wieler, L.H., Taras, D., Herwig, V., Tachu, B., Hlinak, A., Schmidt, M.F., Scharek, L., 2007. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118, 1-11]. Here, we extended these previous studies to include investigations of possible probiotic effects on the peripartal immune status of sows and their reproductivity. We show that immune parameters of sows change during pregnancy, the proliferative response of PBMCs to several bacterial antigens in control animals decreased from days 90 to 30 ante partum. Relative numbers (%) of CD3+CD8+, CD4+, cytotoxic T, CD14+ and CD21+ cells were reduced compared to non-pregnant sows. In contrast, the proliferative response of PBMCs of probiotic-treated sows increased during pregnancy. Bacterial antigens primarily stimulated the proliferation of naïve CD21+ cells and the relative CD21+ cell numbers were elevated in the probiotic group in the absence of effects on other immune cell populations. The clinical and microbial status of both control and probiotic sows was similar, excluding pre-existing health problems or infections as responsible for the immunological changes, and feed supplementation also had no significant effects on reproductivity. The results suggest that the probiotic B. cereus var. toyoi can alter the

  8. Evaluating direct-to-consumer marketing of race-based pharmacogenomics: a focus group study of public understandings of applied genomic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin R; Poirot, Kristan; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M; Achter, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Some medical providers have advocated applied genomics, including the use of genetically linked racial phenotypes in medical practice, raising fear that race-based medication will become justified. As with other emerging medical genetic technologies, pharmaceutical companies may advertise these treatments. Researchers fear that consumers will uncritically accept pharmaceutical messages and demand the product. In this exploratory study, we examined public reactions to advertisements for applied genomic medications. A focus group methodology was employed. Participants tended to resist the message and generated warrants for doing so, indicating critical reception of the messages. Message accepters also provided warrants. Warrants for resistance and acceptance differ between self-identified racial groups. Consumers, health care providers, and pharmaceutical corporations will benefit from a better understanding of direct-to-consumer advertisements as medical communication. Our study concludes that both advocates and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertisements should recognize that potential consumers of pharmacogenomics act as critical consumers of health advertising discourse.

  9. Bacillus cereus un patógeno importante en el control microbiológico de los alimentos / Bacillus cereus an important pathogen the microbiological control of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sánchez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Bacillus cereus es una bacteria genéticamente diversa que se encuentra comúnmente en el ambiente. Contamina los alimentos afectando la salud humana, al ingerir el microorganismo y/o sus toxinas, la emética o las enterotoxinas. En Colombia son escasos los reportes de intoxicación por B. cereus y se estima que hay un gran subregistro. Por lo anterior, se recomienda aumentar la vigilancia de este patógeno y realizar estudios sobre aspectos relevantes que permitan aplicar medidas de control para disminuir las intoxicaciones por B. cereus. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es presentar información actualizada sobre B. cereus, que incluye aspectos de su biología, taxonomía, toxinas, alimentos que contamina y metodologías para detectar, prevenir y controlar este microorganismo. La información presentada es de utilidad para el público en general, especialmente personas vinculadas al sector de alimentos, inocuidad alimentaria y control de procesos. / Abstract Bacillus cereus is a genetically diverse bacterium commonly found in the environment. It contaminates food, thus affecting human health upon ingestion of the microorganism and/or its toxins, the emetic or enterotoxins. In Colombia, reports of intoxication by B. cereus are scarce and under-registration is presumed. Because of this, it is recommended to increase surveillance of this pathogen and to develop studies on relevant aspects that allow the application of control measures to reduce intoxications by B. cereus. The aim of this review is to present current information on B. cereus, including aspects of its biology, taxonomy, toxins, food that it contaminates and methodologies for the detection, prevention and control of this microorganism. This information is useful for the general public, especially people involved with the food sector, food safety and process control.

  10. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  11. Genome-Wide Differentiation of Various Melon Horticultural Groups for Use in GWAS for Fruit Firmness and Construction of a High Resolution Genetic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Tomason, Yan R.; Abburi, Venkata L.; Alvarado, Alejandra; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Vajja, Venkata G.; Salazar, Germania; Panicker, Girish K.; Levi, Amnon; Wechter, William P.; McCreight, James D.; Korol, Abraham B.; Ronin, Yefim; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19–0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21–0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in β-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops. PMID:27713759

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome in the evaniomorpha (hymenoptera)—a group with an intermediate rate of gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2014-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of three evaniomorph species, Ceraphron sp. (Ceraphronoidea), Gasteruption sp. (Evanioidea), and Orthogonalys pulchella (Trigonalyoidea) as well as the nearly complete mt genome from another evaniomorph species, Megalyra sp. (Megalyroidea). Each of them possesses dramatic gene rearrangements, including protein-coding or rRNA genes. Gene inversions were identified in all of these mt genomes; for example, the two rRNA genes have inverted and moved into the nad2-cox1 junction in the Megalyra sp. mt genome. In addition, we found two copies of a 10-bp complementary repeat at the beginning of rrnS and at the end of trnL(2) in the Gasteruption sp. mt genome, consistent with recombination as the possible mechanism for gene inversion and long-range movement. Although each of the genomes contains a number of repeats of varying size, there was no consistent association of the size or number of repeats with the extent or type of gene rearrangement. The breakpoint distance analysis showed the Evaniomorpha has an intermediate rate of gene rearrangement. Sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of 13 protein-coding and 2 rRNA genes in 22 hymenopteran taxa recovered a paraphyletic Evaniomorpha with the Aculeata nested within it. Within the Evaniomorpha, our analyses confirmed the Trigonalyoidea + Megalyroidea as the sister group to the Aculeata and recovered a novel clade, Ceraphronoidea + Evanioidea. In contrast to previous hymenopteran phylogenetic studies, the internal relationships of the Evaniomorpha were highly supported and robust to the variation of alignment approach and phylogenetic inference approach.

  13. Detection of presumptive Bacillus cereus in the Irish dairy farm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to isolate potential Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l. from a range of farm environments. Samples of tap water, milking equipment rinse water, milk sediment filter, grass, soil and bulk tank milk were collected from 63 farms. In addition, milk liners were swabbed at the start and the end of milking, and swabs were taken from cows’ teats prior to milking. The samples were plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP and presumptive B. cereus s.l. colonies were isolated and stored in nutrient broth with 20% glycerol and frozen at -80 °C. These isolates were then plated on chromogenic medium (BACARA and colonies identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. on this medium were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing. Of the 507 isolates presumed to be B. cereus s.l. on the basis of growth on MYP, only 177 showed growth typical of B. cereus s.l. on BACARA agar. The use of 16S rRNA sequencing to identify isolates that grew on BACARA confirmed that the majority of isolates belonged to B. cereus s.l. A total of 81 of the 98 isolates sequenced were tentatively identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out on milk and soil isolates from seven farms that were identified as having presumptive B. cereus s.l. No pulsotype was shared by isolates from soil and milk on the same farm. Presumptive B. cereus s.l. was widely distributed within the dairy farm environment.

  14. Bacillus cereus spores and cereulide in food-borne illness

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Ranad

    2009-01-01

    B. cereus is a gram-positive bacterium that possesses two different forms of life:the large, rod-shaped cells (ca. 0.002 mm by 0.004 mm) that are able to propagate and the small (0.001 mm), oval shaped spores. The spores can survive in almost any environment for up to centuries without nourishment or water. They are insensitive towards most agents that normally kill bacteria: heating up to several hours at 90 ºC, radiation, disinfectants and extreme alkaline (≥ pH 13) and acid (≀ pH 1) e...

  15. Isolation of Bacillus Cereus from wounds and burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzadiannejhad Gh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture results of 203 cases with different wounds were studies; 150 of the latter were burn cases (mainly second and third degree burns, and 53 were of other types (surgical, traumatic, ect. Four subtypes of Bacillus cereus were isolated upon culture, and the different toxins produced in DHT broth with 0.1% glucose were assessed. The lethal toxin was injected intravenously to Syrian rats, none of whom died. VPR factor was assessed in the 4 subtypes. Three subtypes produced VPR in significant amounts.

  16. Impact of the probiotic bacteria Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) and Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 on the development of serum IgG and faecal IgA of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharek, Lydia; Guth, Jana; Filter, Matthias; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2007-08-01

    To examine the influence of two different probiotic bacteria on the humoral immune system of swine, two animal studies were carried out with sows and their litters. The sows' feed was supplemented with either Enterococcusfaecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) or Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 beginning early in pregnancy. The total IgA content in the faeces as well as the total IgG concentration in the blood of the sows was recorded before and after weaning. The same parameters were determined in the blood and faeces of the piglets. In sows, only feed supplementation with B. cereus led to a clear increase in faecal IgA. Serum IgG levels were not significantly affected by any probiotic feeding in sows. In piglets, the group that was fed B. cereus showed significantly higher faecal IgA levels shortly before weaning, whereas in the E. faecium group, a significant decrease in IgA levels was observed one week after weaning. In both probiotic fed groups the post-weaning IgG levels were significantly decreased compared to the respective control groups. We conclude that B. cereus var. toyoi feed supplementation led to an increased intestinal IgA secretion both in sows and piglets. This effect could be related to a more successful mucosal defence which in turn led to a lower level in systemic IgG production in piglets after weaning.

  17. Cash management system 'CEREUS-SM'; Supermarket muke kinsen shoriki 'CEREUS-SM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niizuma, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Kinoshita, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    The adjustment system with change in coin has reduced cashier work in supermarkets, and has spread as the standard peripheral equipment of the point of sales (POS) system. Recently, there have been customer needs for a type with change in bill and coin. Fuji Electric has developed cash management system 'CEREUS-SM' which is as small as the current system only with change in coin and can be handled by anyone, including a part-timer or a student worker. (author)

  18. Erratum to: Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2016-05-01

    Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 143 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (3.4 vs. 1.0 per month and 1.4 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20 % and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 12.3, 95 % CI 0.67-225, p=0.045) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs.

  19. Genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of cactus mandacaru (Cereus sp. from two edaphoclimatic regions contrasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycon R.R. Bevilaqua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physiological and genetic differences in seeds of cactus of the Cereus genus (mandacaru cultivated in the Northeast (Picos, State of Piauí and Southern (Maringá, State of Paraná regions of Brazil. Over a period of eight days, temperatures of 25°C and 30°C were equally efficient for the germination of all the seeds. Oleic acid (C18:1 was the most common fatty acid found in the seeds collected in the Southern (41% and Northeast (45.5% regions. The analysis of lipases indicated that seeds from Maringá have high mean observed and expected heterozygosities and that seeds from Picos have a higher number of alleles per loci. Therefore, the seeds of mandacaru from the semiarid region of Northeast as well as the seeds from the South (the two contrasting regions of Brazil are promising with regards to the preservation of the biodiversity in the genome of mandacaru. The low genetic identity between mandacaru seeds from Maringá and Picos at Lipase-5 locus analysis (I = 0.77 suggests that the mandacaru plants from Maringá and Picos may correspond to two species: C. peruvianus and C. jamacaru, respectively.

  20. Genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of cactus mandacaru (Cereus sp.) from two edaphoclimatic regions contrasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua, Maycon R R; Santana Filho, Arquimedes P; Mangolin, Claudete A; Oliveira, Arildo J B; Machado, Maria De Fátima P S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physiological and genetic differences in seeds of cactus of the Cereus genus (mandacaru) cultivated in the Northeast (Picos, State of Piauí) and Southern (Maringá, State of Paraná) regions of Brazil. Over a period of eight days, temperatures of 25°C and 30°C were equally efficient for the germination of all the seeds. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the most common fatty acid found in the seeds collected in the Southern (41%) and Northeast (45.5%) regions. The analysis of lipases indicated that seeds from Maringá have high mean observed and expected heterozygosities and that seeds from Picos have a higher number of alleles per loci. Therefore, the seeds of mandacaru from the semiarid region of Northeast as well as the seeds from the South (the two contrasting regions of Brazil) are promising with regards to the preservation of the biodiversity in the genome of mandacaru. The low genetic identity between mandacaru seeds from Maringá and Picos at Lipase-5 locus analysis (I = 0.77) suggests that the mandacaru plants from Maringá and Picos may correspond to two species: C. peruvianus and C. jamacaru, respectively.

  1. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus.

  2. Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Campos Bernardes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0 between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05 in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry.

  3. Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Patrícia Campos; de Andrade, Nélio José; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; de Sá, João Paulo Natalino; Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Delatorre, Deyse Maria Zanom; Luiz, Lívia Maria Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0) between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry. PMID:24031578

  4. [Morphologic detection of Bacillus cereus in blank cartridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M A; Mülling, C

    1998-01-01

    Wound infections after gunshot wounds from live ammunition can produce serious complications. It is well known that projectiles per se are neither sterile nor does their firing cause sterilization. The germs on the surface of a projectile enter the body together with the projectile and are thus introduced into the wound together with skin bacteria. However it is less known that wound infections can occur in wounds caused by the gas jet from blank ammunition (mainly from shots at very close range). In such ammunition without a projectile, the propellant particles are usually contaminated with bacteria which find their way into the wound together with skin germs. In previous investigations, we have microbiologically detected the species Bacillus cereus in the propellant of blank cartridges. In the present study, we have applied scanning electron microscopic methods to find out which areas of the blank cartridges are colonized by these bacteria. For this purpose 20 blank cartridges, each from 4 different manufacturers, were electronmicroscopically examined. B. cereus only found on the surface of intact nitrocellulose particles but not in the interior of broken prepared propellant particles. Bacterial structures were not morphologically identified on black powder particles.

  5. Environment driven cereulide production by emetic strains of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaie-Constantin, Camelia; Shaheen, Ranad; Andrup, Lars; Smidt, Lasse; Rita, Hannu; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2008-09-30

    The impacts of growth media and temperature on production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus, were measured for seven well characterised strains selected for diversity of biochemical and genetic properties and sources of origin. All strains carried cereulide synthase gene, ces, on a megaplasmid of ca. 200 kb and all grew up to 48-50 degrees C, but produced cereulide only up to 39 degrees C. On tryptic soy agar five strains, originating from foods, food poisonings and environment, produced highest amounts of cereulide at 23 to 28 degrees C, whereas two strains, from human faeces, produced cereulide similarly from 23 to 39 degrees C, with no clear temperature trend. These two strains differed from the others also by producing more cereulide on tryptic soy agar if supplemented with 5 vol.% of blood, whereas the other five strains produced similarly, independent on the presence of blood. On oatmeal agar only one strain produced major amounts of cereulide. On skim milk agar, raw milk agar, and MacConkey agar most strains grew well but produced only low amounts of cereulide. Three media components, the ratio [K+]:[Na+], contents of glycine and [Na+], appeared of significance for predicting cereulide production. Increase of [K+]:[Na+] (focal variable) predicted (P cereus in a complex manner. The relevance of the findings to production of cereulide in the gut and to the safety of amino acids as additives in foods containing live toxinogenic organisms is discussed.

  6. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  7. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Erny, Claude; Charpentier, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  8. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Legras

    Full Text Available Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  9. Bacillus cereus induces permeability of an in vitro blood-retina barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A L; Ramadan, R T; Thurman, J; Burroughs, A; Callegan, M C

    2008-04-01

    Most Bacillus cereus toxin production is controlled by the quorum-sensing-dependent, pleiotropic global regulator plcR, which contributes to the organism's virulence in the eye. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of B. cereus infection and plcR-regulated toxins on the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary cells of the blood-retina barrier. Human ARPE-19 cells were apically inoculated with wild-type or quorum-sensing-deficient B. cereus, and cytotoxicity was analyzed. plcR-regulated toxins were not required for B. cereus-induced RPE cytotoxicity, but these toxins did increase the rate of cell death, primarily by necrosis. B. cereus infection of polarized RPE cell monolayers resulted in increased barrier permeability, independent of plcR-regulated toxins. Loss of both occludin and ZO-1 expression occurred by 8 h postinfection, but alterations in tight junctions appeared to precede cytotoxicity. Of the several proinflammatory cytokines analyzed, only interleukin-6 was produced in response to B. cereus infection. These results demonstrate the deleterious effects of B. cereus infection on RPE barrier function and suggest that plcR-regulated toxins may not contribute significantly to RPE barrier permeability during infection.

  10. Determination of the relationship between group A streptococcal genome content, M type, and toxic shock syndrome by a mixed genome microarray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaminckx, B.J.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Fluit, A.C.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Schouls, L.M.; Verhoef, J.; Jansen, W.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, are associated with a remarkable variety of diseases, ranging from superficial infections to life-threatening diseases such as toxic-shock-like syndrome (TSS). GAS strains belonging to M types M1 and M3 are associated with TSS. This study aims t

  11. Biomineralization of Pb(II) into Pb-hydroxyapatite induced by Bacillus cereus 12-2 isolated from Lead-Zinc mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Hui; Guan, Xiong; Lin, Zhang

    2016-01-15

    The remediation of Pb(II) through biomineralization is rergarded as a promising technique as well as an interesting phenomenon for transforming heavy metals from mobile species into very stable minerals in the environment. Studies are well needed for in-depth understanding the mechanism of Pb(II) immobilized by bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the uptake and biomineralization of Pb(II) using Bacillus cereus 12-2 isolated from lead-zinc mine tailings. The maximum Pb(II) uptake capacity of B. cereus 12-2 was 340 mg/g at pH 3.0. Zeta potential analyses and selective passivation experiments demonstrated that electrostatic attraction was the main force driving the uptake of Pb(II), while the carboxyl, amide and phosphate functional groups of the bacteria provided the binding sites for immobilizing Pb(II). XRD and TEM investigation revealed that the Pb(II) loaded on bacteria could be stepwise transformed into rod-shaped Ca2.5Pb7.5(OH)2(PO4)6 nanocrystal. Combined with protein denaturalization experiments, we proposed that the biomineralization of Pb(II) possibly consisted of two steps: (1) Rapid biosorption of Pb(II) on B. cereus 12-2 through the synergy of electrostatic attraction, ionic exchange and chelating activity of functional groups; (2) enzyme-mediated mineral transformation from amorphous precipitate to rod-shaped crystalline minerals happening gradually inside the bacteria.

  12. Genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Bacillus cereus using multilocus sequence typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruckler James M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is most commonly associated with foodborne illness (diarrheal and emetic but is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe and fatal infections. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST schemes have recently been developed to genotype B. cereus and analysis has suggested a clonal or weakly clonal population structure for B. cereus and its close relatives B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis. In this study we used MLST to determine if B. cereus isolates associated with illnesses of varying severity (e.g., severe, systemic vs. gastrointestinal (GI illness were clonal or formed clonal complexes. Results A retrospective analysis of 55 clinical B. cereus isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1954 and 2004 was conducted. Clinical isolates from severe infections (n = 27, gastrointestinal (GI illness (n = 18, and associated isolates from food (n = 10 were selected for analysis using MLST. The 55 isolates were diverse and comprised 38 sequence types (ST in two distinct clades. Of the 27 isolates associated with serious illness, 13 clustered in clade 1 while 14 were in clade 2. Isolates associated with GI illness were also found throughout clades 1 and 2, while no isolates in this study belonged to clade 3. All the isolates from this study belonging to the clade 1/cereus III lineage were associated with severe disease while isolates belonging to clade1/cereus II contained isolates primarily associated with severe disease and emetic illness. Only three STs were observed more than once for epidemiologically distinct isolates. Conclusion STs of clinical B. cereus isolates were phylogenetically diverse and distributed among two of three previously described clades. Greater numbers of strains will need to be analyzed to confirm if specific lineages or clonal complexes are more likely to contain clinical isolates or be associated with specific illness, similar to B. anthracis and

  13. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  14. Frugivory and seed dispersal by birds in Cereus jamacaru DC. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Araujo, H F P

    2014-02-01

    Studies of the dispersal modes of plants aid our understanding of the dynamics of resource and its availability for dispersal agents. The present work sought to characterize the fruiting patterns of the native Caatinga (dryland) cactus Cereus jamacaru, identify its principal dispersers, and evaluate the effects of seed passage through digestive tract of dispersers on its germination. Cereus jamacaru present an annual fruiting pattern and fruiting peaks occurred during June/2009 and February/2010. A total of 135 visits by nine species of resident Caatinga bird species were recorded. The most frequent visiting bird species were Paroaria dominicana and Euphonia chlorotica. Length of bird visits varied from 15 seconds to 4 minutes and seeds removed by birds travelled 10.6 ± 11.2 m until dispersers make the first landing perch, in some cases more than 40 meters away. Germination tests show birds had a high quantity of viable seeds of C. jamacaru in its feces. Seeds that passed through the digestive tract of birds showed a similar germinability of the seeds of the control group. However, the seeds dispersed by birds showed lowest mean germination time related to the control group seeds. This study highlights the potential role of birds as seed dispersers of C. jamacaru, swallowing the whole seeds and defecating intact seeds, accelerating the germination process and transporting seeds away from the mother plant.

  15. Bacillus cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurler, N; Oksuz, L; Muftuoglu, M; Sargin, Fd; Besisik, Sk

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related bloodstream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B. cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts. Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblast c leukemia (ALL) in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.

  16. A Cluster of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia Cases among Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Benusic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  17. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and hemolytic anemia in a patient with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M; Barrera, E; Martin, R R

    1980-08-01

    A patient with hemoglobin SC disease and cholelithiasis was found to have Bacillus cereus bacteremia. Hemolytic anemia developed, for which common causes of hemolysis were excluded, suggesting a relationship with the bacteremia. Following in vitro incubation, type O erythrocytes were hemolyzed by the culture, but not by a bacteria-free filtrate. This case confirms the association between sickle cell disorders and cholelithiasis with B cereus infections. In addition, it provides evidence for in vivo hemolysis with B cereus bacteremia, an organism not previously associated with hemolytic anemia.

  18. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  19. Successful surgical drainage and aggressive medical therapy in a preterm neonate with Bacillus cereus meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Lehman, Deborah; Danielpour, Moise

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus meningitis is a rare disease with a very high mortality rate in neonates. The authors present the rare case of a premature infant with B. cereus bacteremia and subsequent intracranial abscesses. In addition to aggressive medical therapy, surgical drainage was performed via a left frontal mini-craniotomy. At 15 months of age, the patient had mild developmental delay, cortical blindness, and sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical case is described and difficulties in the management of B. cereus meningoencephalitis in infants are discussed.

  20. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains...... had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and...

  1. Bacillus cereus Induces Permeability of an In Vitro Blood-Retina Barrier▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer, A. L.; Ramadan, R.T.; Thurman, J.; Burroughs, A; Callegan, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most Bacillus cereus toxin production is controlled by the quorum-sensing-dependent, pleiotropic global regulator plcR, which contributes to the organism's virulence in the eye. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of B. cereus infection and plcR-regulated toxins on the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary cells of the blood-retina barrier. Human ARPE-19 cells were apically inoculated with wild-type or quorum-sensing-deficient B. cereus, and ...

  2. Bacillus cereus Bloodstream Infection in a Preterm Neonate Complicated by Late Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Horii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system infections caused by Bacillus cereus have rarely been reported in infants. In this paper, the case of a 2-month-old low-birth-weight female who developed meningitis 45 days after resolution of a bloodstream infection (BSI is described. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results revealed that the patterns of both B. cereus isolates responsible for the acute meningitis and for the prior bacteraemic episode were closely related. Although the source of the infection from within the patient was not clear, it is suggested that the B. cereus BSI developed in the neonate was complicated by acute meningitis.

  3. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou

    2015-01-01

    cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two...... found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds...

  4. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore outgrowth and multiplication by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, Hilde; From, Cecilie; Christensen, Bjørn E; Granum, Per E

    2011-10-03

    Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming bacterium able to cause food-associated illness. Different treatment processes are used in the food industry to reduce the number of spores and thereby the potential of foodborne disease. Chitosan is a polysaccharide with well-documented antibacterial activity towards vegetative cells. The activity against bacterial spores, spore germination and subsequent outgrowth and growth (the latter two events hereafter denoted (out)growth), however, is poorly documented. By using six different chitosans with defined macromolecular properties, we evaluated the effect of chitosan on Bacillus cereus spore germination and (out)growth using optical density assays and a dipicolinic acid release assay. (Out)growth was inhibited by chitosan, but germination was not. The action of chitosan was found to be concentration-dependent and also closely related to weight average molecular weight (M(w)) and fraction of acetylation (F(A)) of the biopolymer. Chitosans of low acetylation (F(A)=0.01 or 0.16) inhibited (out)growth more effectively than higher acetylated chitosans (F(A)=0.48). For the F(A)=0.16 chitosans with medium (56.8kDa) and higher M(w) (98.3kDa), a better (out)growth inhibition was observed compared to low M(w) (10.6kDa) chitosan. The same trend was not evident with chitosans of 0.48 acetylation, where the difference in activity between the low (19.6kDa) and high M(w) (163.0kDa) chitosans was only minor. In a spore test concentration corresponding to 10(2)-10(3)CFU/ml (spore numbers relevant to food), less chitosan was needed to suppress (out)growth compared to higher spore numbers (equivalent to 10(8)CFU/ml), as expected. No major differences in chitosan susceptibility between three different strains of B. cereus were detected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of chitosan activity towards bacterial spore germination and (out)growth.

  5. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre esporos de Bacillus cereus inoculados em pimenta-do-reino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela; Axeredo, Raquel M.C.; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 10{sup 4} UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 10{sup 5} the 1,9 x 10{sup 8} UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 10{sup 6} UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 10{sup 6} UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 10{sup 6} UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 10{sup 4} UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D{sub 10}) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy.

  6. 空间诱导蜡状芽孢杆菌LCT-BC25和LCT-BC235的蛋白质组学研究%Proteomics of space Bacillus cereus mutant starains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏龙翔; 刘进文; 方向群; 李天志; 王俊峰; 郭英华; 常德; 徐国纲; 刘长庭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the proteomics of Bacillus cereus mutant strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235 by detecting the effect of space environment on them. Methods Space Bacillus cereus mutant strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235 and ground control strain LCT-BC244 were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) by mass spectrometry. The detected peptides were reassembled and their functions were analyzed. The proteins with a significantly different expression were selected. Results The majority of the 1 269 possible proteins identified in this study were related with the bacterial metabolism according to the cluster of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). The proteomic analysis showed that the protein levels were up-regulated in space 57 and 8 mutant strains and down-regulated in 77 and 73 ground control LCT-BC244 strain. Conclusion The effect of space environment on Bacillus cereus mutant trains is not directional. Bacillus cereus can adapt to the space environment by adjusting its own metablism. The highly expressed hemolytic enterotoxin protein can influence the health of astronauts.%  目的探索空间环境对蜡状芽孢杆菌的影响。方法采用同重同位素相对与绝对定量(isobaric tags for relativeand absolute quantitation,iTRAQ)技术对经空间诱变蜡状芽孢杆菌LCT-BC25和LCT-BC235以及地面对照株LCT-BC244进行蛋白质组质谱检测,对测得的肽段重新组装,对组装的蛋白进行功能注释分析,最终筛选具有明显表达差异的蛋白质。结果本研究共鉴定到1269个可能蛋白质,根据蛋白相邻类的聚簇(cluster of orthologous groups of proteins,COG)、基因本体论(gene ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes,KEGG)对这些蛋白质进行分类分析发现,大多数鉴定到的蛋白与细菌代谢相关。比较蛋白质组学结果表明,空间诱变株LCT-BC25

  7. Novel association of ABO histo-blood group antigen with soluble ICAM-1: results of a genome-wide association study of 6,578 women.

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    Guillaume Paré

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available While circulating levels of soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (sICAM-1 have been associated with diverse conditions including myocardial infarction, stroke, malaria, and diabetes, comprehensive analysis of the common genetic determinants of sICAM-1 is not available. In a genome-wide association study conducted among 6,578 participants in the Women's Genome Health Study, we find that three SNPs at the ICAM1 (19p13.2 locus (rs1799969, rs5498 and rs281437 are non-redundantly associated with plasma sICAM-1 concentrations at a genome-wide significance level (P<5x10(-8, thus extending prior results from linkage and candidate gene studies. We also find that a single SNP (rs507666, P = 5.1x10(-29 at the ABO (9q34.2 locus is highly correlated with sICAM-1 concentrations. The novel association at the ABO locus provides evidence for a previously unknown regulatory role of histo-blood group antigens in inflammatory adhesion processes.

  8. Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups

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    Singh Nagendra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L. genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding genes including 14,308 putative promoter sequences. Results We identified 19,555 perfect GNMS repeats with densities ranging from 306.7/Mb in chromosome 1 to 450/Mb in chromosome 12 with an average of 357.5 GNMS per Mb. The average microsatellite density was maximum in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs followed by those in introns, promoters, 3'UTRs and minimum in the coding sequences (CDS. Primers were designed for 17,966 (92% GNMS repeats, including 4,288 (94% hypervariable class I types, which were bin-mapped on the rice genome. The GNMS markers were most polymorphic in the intronic region (73.3% followed by markers in the promoter region (53.3% and least in the CDS (26.6%. The robust polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification efficiency and high polymorphic potential of GNMS markers over genic coding and random genomic microsatellite markers suggest their immediate use in efficient genotyping applications in rice. A set of these markers could assess genetic diversity and establish phylogenetic relationships among domesticated rice cultivar groups. We also demonstrated the usefulness of orthologous and paralogous conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS markers, identified in the putative rice promoter sequences, for comparative physical mapping and understanding of evolutionary and gene regulatory complexities among rice and other members of the grass family. The divergence between long-grained aromatics and subspecies japonica was estimated to be more recent (0.004 Mya compared to short

  9. Characterization of arabinogalactan-rich mucilage from Cereus triangularis cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petera, B; Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Wadouachi, A; Elboutachfaiti, R; Engel, E; Poughon, L; Michaud, P; Fenoradosoa, T A

    2015-01-01

    Cereus triangularis (Cactaceae) is a cactus used in food decoction as a traditional medicine in the North region of Madagascar to reduce stomach ache and intestinal diseases. Hydrocolloids were sequentially extracted from its cladodes with a yield of 24% (240 mg/g based on dried cladodes powder). Structural analyses has revealed that this polysaccharide with a molecular mass of 8430,000g/mol was mainly composed of a galactan backbone of a (1 → 4) linked β-d-Galp residues probably substituted at position 3 by L-arabinofuranosyl residues. In vitro antioxidant activity of this arabinogalactan-rich fraction was detected and quantified by radical DPPH scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, radical anion superoxide scavenging and reducing power method.

  10. Alkaloid production by callous tissue cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz; Machado, Maria Fátima Pires da Silva

    2003-02-01

    The morphologically undifferentiated cells of nonregenerant callous tissue of Cereus peruvianus cultured in the original medium and in medium supplemented with tyrosine were used as an alkaloid source. Comparison of alkaloid production by C. peruvianus plants and by callous tissues indicated that alkaloid levels were almost twice as high in callous tissues as in shoots of C. peruvianus plants. The ratio of alkaloid concentration between mature plant and morphologically undifferentiated cells of callous tissue was 1:1.7. A relationship between culture medium containing tyrosine and alkaloid production was also observed in the callous tissues of C. peruvianus. Since increased alkaloid production may be induced by additional factors such as tyrosine, increasing levels of tyrosine or other conditions of the culture medium may be considered factors for inducing higher alkaloid production by C. peruvianus callous tissues.

  11. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  12. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

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    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  13. Mass spectrometric profiling of Bacillus cereus strains and quantitation of the emetic toxin cereulide by means of stable isotope dilution analysis and HEp-2 bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Marxen, Sandra; Rütschle, Andrea; Lücking, Genia; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A fast and robust high-throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF MS) profiling method was developed and successfully applied to discriminate a total of 78 Bacillus cereus strains into no/low, medium and high producers of the emetic toxin cereulide. The data obtained by UPLC-TOF MS profiling were confirmed by absolute quantitation of cereulide in selected samples by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). Interestingly, the B. cereus strains isolated from four vomit samples and five faeces samples from patients showing symptoms of intoxication were among the group of medium or high producers. Comparison of HEp-2 bioassay data with those determined by means of mass spectrometry showed differences, most likely because the HEp-2 bioassay is based on the toxic action of cereulide towards mitochondria of eukaryotic cells rather than on a direct measurement of the toxin. In conclusion, the UPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF MS and the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS-SIDA analyses seem to be promising tools for the robust high-throughput analysis of cereulide in B. cereus cultures, foods and other biological samples.

  14. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of a Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS

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    Ubukata Kimiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS. We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. Results We found that GGS_124 consisted of a circular genome of 2,106,340 bp. Comparative analyses among bacterial genomes indicated that GGS_124 was most closely related to GAS. GGS_124 and GAS, but not other streptococci, shared a number of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding streptolysin O, NADase, and streptokinase A, distantly related to SIC (DRS, suggesting the importance of these factors in the development of invasive disease. GGS_124 contained 3 prophages, with one containing a virulence factor gene for streptodornase. All 3 prophages were significantly similar to GAS prophages that carry virulence factor genes, indicating that these prophages had transferred these genes between pathogens. SDSE was found to contain a gene encoding a superantigen, streptococcal exotoxin type G, but lacked several genes present in GAS that encode virulence factors, such as other superantigens, cysteine protease speB, and hyaluronan synthase operon hasABC. Similar to GGS_124, the SDSE strains contained larger numbers of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR spacers than did GAS, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer via streptococcal phages between SDSE and GAS is somewhat restricted, although they share phage species. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of SDSE with GAS indicate that SDSE is closely and quantitatively related to GAS. SDSE, however, lacks several virulence factors of GAS, including superantigens, SPE-B and the hasABC operon. CRISPR spacers may limit the horizontal transfer of phage encoded GAS virulence genes into SDSE. These findings may provide clues for dissecting the pathological roles

  15. Nosocomial bacteremia and catheter infection by Bacillus cereus in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.

  16. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture.

  17. Relapsing peritonitis with Bacillus cereus in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil; Gaini, Shahin

    2016-04-26

    We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B. cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing the dialysis bag was the suspected source of infection with B. cereus.

  18. A case of intoxication due to a highly cytotoxic Bacillus cereus strain isolated from cooked chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana C; Minnaard, Jessica; Pérez, Pablo F; Alippi, Adriana M

    2015-04-01

    Outbreaks of Bacillus cereus infection/intoxication are not commonly reported because symptoms are often mild, and the disease is self-limiting. However, hypervirulent strains increase health risks. We report a case, which occurred in Argentina, of severe food poisoning illness on a healthy adult woman associated to B. cereus strain MVL2011. The studied strain was highly cytotoxic, showed high ability to detach Caco-2 cells and was positive for the hblA, hblB, and hblC genes of the hbl complex, bceT, entS and ces. As it is considered that B. cereus emetic cluster evolved from a panmictic population of diarrheal strains, B. cereus MVL2011 could constitute an intermediate strain between diarrheal and emetic strains.

  19. Effect of crude extracts of selected actinomycetes on biofilm formation of A. schindleri, M. aci, and B. cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Aftab, Usman; Sajid, Imran; Abbas, Zaigham; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2015-05-01

    Actinomycetes are well known group of gram positive bacteria for their potential to produce antibiotics. This study sought to assess the ability of the selected actinomycetes to control biofilm forming bacteria isolated from different dental plaque samples. On the basis of morphological differences three out of ten different dental plaque bacterial isolates were selected for further study. These isolates were biochemically and genetically characterized and were identified as Acinetobacter schinndleri, Moraxella aci, and Bacillus cereus. Antibiotic resistant profile was measured through disc diffusion method and found that all three isolates were moderately sensitive to ofloxacin and erythromycin and resistant to trimethoprim. Antibacterial activity of ten different Streptomyces strains was assessed through an agar plug and well diffusion method against three dental biofilm forming bacteria. Two Streptomyces strains named as S. erythrogriseus and S. labedae showed good antibacterial activity against Moraxella and Acinetobacter strains. Ability of the four active antibiotic producing strains to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed using microtiter biofilm detection assay. It was found that biofilm forming ability of Acinetobacter and Moraxella was inhibited by S. labedae an antibiotic producing strain, while S. macrosporeus can only inhibit biofilm formation by B. cereus.

  20. Genomic Copy Number Signatures Uncovered a Genetically Distinct Group from Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Moon, Ji Wook; Wang, Xianfu; Kim, Chungyeul; Li, Shibo; Shin, Bong Kyung; Jung, Wonkyung; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Han Kyeom; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have different clinical presentations, morphologies, treatments, and prognoses. Recent studies suggested that fundamental genetic alterations related to carcinogenesis of each tumor type may be different. In this study, we investigated the genomic alterations of 47 primary NSCLC samples (22 ACs and 25 SCCs) as well as the corresponding normal tissue using array comparative genomic hybridization. Frequent copy number alterations (CNAs), which were identified in more than 68% of all of the cases, were evaluated in each subtype (SCC and AC), and a CNA signature was established. Among these CNAs, 37 genes from the SCCs and 15 genes from the ACs were located in a region of gain, and 4 genes from the SCCs and 13 genes from the ACs were located in a region of loss. The most frequent gain was located on 3q26-29 including the gene TP63 in SCCs and 7q11.23 and 7q36.3 in ACs. Moreover, we identified 3 genetically distinct groups (group I [16 SCC] with CNA signature of SCC; group II [7 SCC + 8 AC], which has a genetically distinctive CNA signature from SCC and AC; and group III [2 SCC + 14 AC] with CNA signature of AC) by gene clustering extracted from CNAs, which are associated with a prognosis. The present study contributed to the molecular characterization of AC and SCC of NSCLC and showed a subtype of tumor that has a unique genetic CNA signature. However, further study about the significance of these 3 distinct groups and their usefulness as a diagnostic marker of identified CNAs is necessary.

  1. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Karbasizade; Arezoo Dabiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa) root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spo...

  2. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users

    OpenAIRE

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Linda MN Hoang; Romney, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A...

  3. Bacillus Cereus Catheter Related Bloodstream Infection in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    N Gurler; Oksuz, L; M Muftuoglu; Sargin, FD; Besisik, SK

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related bloodstream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B. cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts. Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In t...

  4. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahek Shah; Soumya Patnaik; Supakanya Wongrakpanich; Yaser Alhamshari; Talal Alnabelsi

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral...

  5. Comparison of enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between emetic and enterotoxic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Kim, Jai-Moung; Kim, So-Yeong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Yong-Bae; Choi, Na-Jung; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-07-01

    Bacillus cereus was divided into emetic toxin (cereulide)- and enterotoxin-producing strains, but emetic toxin-producing B. cereus is difficult to detect immunochemically. Screening methods for emetic toxin-producing B. cereus are needed. The objectives of this study were to identify and detect emetic toxin-producing B. cereus among 160 B. cereus strains, and to compare enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between the emetic toxin-producing and enterotoxin-producing strains. Forty emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among the emetic toxin-producing strains (n = 40), 31 (77.5%) and 3 (7.5%) strains produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxins, respectively. In addition, 107 (89.2%) and 100 (83.3%) strains produced NHE and HBL enterotoxins among the enterotoxin-producing strains (n = 120). The number of strains positive for starch hydrolysis, salicin fermentation, and hemolysis among the emetic toxin-producing strains were 3 (7.5%), 3 (7.5%), and 26 (65.0%), respectively, and among enterotoxin-producing strains, these numbers were 101 (84.2%), 100 (83.3%), and 111 (92.5%), respectively. In particular, the three emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains (JNHE 6, JNHE 36, and KNIH 28) produced the HBL and NHE enterotoxins and were capable of starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation. The absence of HBL enterotoxin and certain phenotypic properties, such as starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation, indicates that these properties were not critical characteristics of the emetic toxin-producing B. cereus tested in this study.

  6. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxyium acanthopodium DC TERHADAP PERMEABILITAS DAN HIDROFOBISITAS Bacillus cereus [Effect of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC Extracts upon Permeability and Hidrophobicity of Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedarnawati Yasni2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Andaliman spice is usually added as one of main spices in cooked fish and meat. Andaliman seeds were extracted using maceration method with nonpolar, semipolar and polar solvents. The result showed that the three kinds of andaliman extract had antibacterial activity on Bacillus cereus, especially during exponential phase (8 hour incubation period. Ethyl-acetate extract of Andaliman showed the highest antibacterial activity toward B. cereus with MIC and MBC values being 0.2% and 0.8% respectively. The permeability of B. cereus was observed at the dose of 2.5 MIC and 60.30% hydrophobicity leakage was obtained at 6% andaliman extracted by ethyl-acetate.

  7. Fulminant septicemia of Bacillus cereus resistant to carbapenem in a patient with biphenotypic acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomizu, Kazunobu; Yagi, Toshinari; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Minami, Ryota; Tanimura, Akira; Karasuno, Takahiro; Hiraoka, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of fulminant septicemia with Bacillus cereus resistant to carbapenem. A 33-year-old man was suffering from febrile neutropenia (FN) on day 15 after the start of remission-induction therapy for biphenotypic acute leukemia under gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin. Meropenem, a carbapenem, was administered according to the guideline for FN. Two days later (on day 17), he complained of severe abdominal pain, lost consciousness, went into sudden cardiopulmonary arrest, and died. Autopsy showed multiple spots of hemorrhage and necrosis caused by bacterial plaque in the brain, lungs, and liver. B. cereus was isolated from a blood sample obtained in the morning on day 17 and it was after his death that the isolated B. cereus was revealed to be resistant to carbapenem. B. cereus obtained from blood samples has been reported to be usually sensitive to carbapenem and also to vancomycin, new quinolones, and clindamycin. If B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases, our method of gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin may have to be changed to one containing a new quinolone for the prevention of septicemia. Careful watching to determine whether B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases may be also important for empiric therapy, because carbapenem is often selected as the initial therapy for FN in patients with severe neutropenia.

  8. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from local dairy farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Xiaoye; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important opportunistic foodborne pathogen. In the present work, a total of 306 milk and environmental samples were collected from 10 local dairy farms in Beijing, China. Of the 92 B. cereus-like isolates, 88 and 4 belonged to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The prevalence of B. cereus isolates in bedding, feces, feed, liquid manure and raw milk was 93.3%, 78.9%, 41.2%, 100.0% and 9.8%, respectively. Three main toxin genes nhe, hbl and ces were detected with rates of 100.0%, 78.3% and 1.1%, but no strain harbored cytK1 The production of Nhe, Hbl and cereulide could be confirmed by specific monoclonal antibodies-based enzyme immunoassays in 94.6%, 70.7% and 1.1% of all isolates, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests were used to further corroborate the results of genetic and protein-based assays; 91.3% of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to Vero cells. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 17 antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to lincomycin, retapamulin, tiamulin and valnemulin, while two strains were susceptible to ampicillin and ceftiofur. A total of 16 isolated strains were resistant to tetracycline. Since spores of B. cereus are not inactivated during manufacturing of most milk products, contamination of milk with B. cereus on the farm level may represent a potential hazard, particularly with respect to emetic toxin-producing strains.

  9. Direct detection of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in dietary complement for children and cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jnnifer A. Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant anda known human pathogen that can causeemetic and diarrheal syndromes. In this studywe evaluated the presence of toxigenic B.cereus by multiplex PCR directly in dietarycomplement for children and cassava starchsamples collected on Medellin, Colombia.Of 75 dietary complement for childrensamples evaluated, 70.7% were contaminatedwith toxigenic B. cereus and four differenttoxigenic consortia were detected: I: nheA,hblC, cytK (9.8%, II: nheA, hblC (2%,III: hblC, cytK (41.2%, IV: hblC (47%.Of 75 cassava starch samples, 44% werecontaminated with toxigenic B. cereus andfour different toxigenic consortia weredetermined: I: nheA, hblC, cytK (48.5%,II: nheA, hblC, cytK, cesB (3%, III: hblC,cytK (30.3%, IV: hblC (18.2%. In general,in dietary complement for children onlyenterotoxigenic consortia were detectedwhile in cassava starch the enterotoxigenicconsortia predominated over the emetic.Multiplex PCR was useful to detect toxigenicB. cereus contamination allowing directand simultaneous detection of all toxingenes in foods. This study is the first inColombia to evaluate toxigenic B. cereus,providing information of importance formicrobiological risk evaluation in driedfoods.

  10. Bacillus cereus strain S2 shows high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita by producing sphingosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huijuan; Qi, Gaofu; Yin, Rong; Zhang, Hongchun; Li, Chenggang; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious crop losses worldwidely. This study intended to discover the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus cereus strain S2 against Meloidogyne incognita. Treatment with B. cereus strain S2 resulted in a mortality of 77.89% to Caenorhabditis elegans (a model organism) and 90.96% to M. incognita. In pot experiment, control efficiency of B. cereus S2 culture or supernatants were 81.36% and 67.42% towards M. incognita, respectively. In field experiment, control efficiency was 58.97% towards M. incognita. Nematicidal substances were isolated from culture supernatant of B. cereus S2 by polarity gradient extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Two nematicidal compounds were identified as C16 sphingosine and phytosphingosine by LC-MS. The median lethal concentration of sphingosine was determined as 0.64 μg/ml. Sphingosine could obviously inhibit reproduction of C. elegans, with an inhibition rate of 42.72% for 24 h. After treatment with sphingosine, ROS was induced in intestinal tract, and genital area disappeared in nematode. Furthermore, B. cereus S2 could induce systemic resistance in tomato, and enhance activity of defense-related enzymes for biocontrol of M. incognita. This study demonstrates the nematicidal activity of B. cereus and its product sphingosine, as well provides a possibility for biocontrol of M. incognita. PMID:27338781

  11. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted.

  12. DnaJ sequences of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infection are highly similar to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; van Hung, Pham; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Shigeru; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is becoming an important nomosomial pathogen because of frequent isolation from blood cultures and from severe systemic infections. To differentiate highly pathogenic outbreak strain of B. cereus from other sources of the Bacillus cereus, we attempted to analyze their dnaJ sequences. Assays indicated that dnaJ sequence similarity of all of 52 blood culture isolates of B. cereus ranged from 92.8% to 100%. The distance between B. anthracis and B. cereus except six outbreak isolates ranged from 3.8% to 6.4%. The dnaJ sequences of six outbreak strains of B. cereus (GTC 02891, GTC 02896, GTC 02916, GTC 02917, GTC 03221, and GTC 03222) were closely related to those of B. anthracis (99.2%-99.5% sequence similarity). Ba813 sequences were only found in the six outbreak strains of B. cereus. The other pathogenic factors of B. anthracis were not found in these six outbreak strains, with the exception of GTC 02891 (cap-positive). The six outbreak strains formed clear β-hemolytic colonies on a sheep blood agar plate. Our findings suggest that outbreak strains of B. cereus isolated from blood cultures are likely to have the risk of causing serious infection, and dnaJ and Ba813 are important markers to identify such strains. Phylogenetic analysis of dnaJ and MLST revealed that the six outbreak strains of B. cereus are closely related to B. anthracis.

  13. Identification of CdnL, a Putative Transcriptional Regulator Involved in Repair and Outgrowth of Heat-Damaged Bacillus cereus Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available Spores are widely present in the environment and are common contaminants in the food chain, creating a challenge for food industry. Nowadays, heat treatments conventionally applied in food processing may become milder to comply with consumer desire for products with higher sensory and nutritional values. Consequently subpopulations of spores may emerge that are sublethally damaged rather than inactivated. Such spores may germinate, repair damage, and eventually grow out leading to uncontrolled spoilage and safety issues. To gain insight into both the behaviour of damaged Bacillus cereus spores, and the process of damage repair, we assessed the germination and outgrowth performance using OD595 measurements and microscopy combined with genome-wide transcription analysis of untreated and heat-treated spores. The first two methods showed delayed germination and outgrowth of heat-damaged B. cereus ATCC14579 spores. A subset of genes uniquely expressed in heat-treated spores was identified with putative roles in the outgrowth of damaged spores, including cdnL (BC4714 encoding the putative transcriptional regulator CdnL. Next, a B. cereus ATCC14579 cdnL (BC4714 deletion mutant was constructed and assessment of outgrowth from heat-treated spores under food relevant conditions showed increased damage compared to wild type spores. The approach used in this study allows for identification of candidate genes involved in spore damage repair. Further identification of cellular parameters and characterisation of the molecular processes contributing to spore damage repair may provide leads for better control of spore outgrowth in foods.

  14. Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Tatum, Kelsey B.; Lynn, Jason S.; Brewer, Tess E.; Lu, Stephen; Washburn, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the phages that infect agriculturally important nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Here we report the genome and cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9. This phage and its close relative Rhizobium phage vB_RleM_P10VF define a new group of T4 superfamily phages. These phages are distinctly different from the recently characterized cyanophage-like S. meliloti phages of the ΦM12 group. Structurally, ΦM9 has a T=16 capsid formed from repeating units of an extended gp23-like subunit that assemble through interactions between one subunit and the adjacent E-loop insertion domain. Though genetically very distant from the cyanophages, the ΦM9 capsid closely resembles that of the T4 superfamily cyanophage Syn9. ΦM9 also has the same T=16 capsid architecture as the very distant phage SPO1 and the herpesviruses. Despite their overall lack of similarity at the genomic and structural levels, ΦM9 and S. meliloti phage ΦM12 have a small number of open reading frames in common that appear to encode structural proteins involved in interaction with the host and which may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. These proteins are predicted to encode tail baseplate proteins, tail fibers, tail fiber assembly proteins, and glycanases that cleave host exopolysaccharide. IMPORTANCE Despite recent advances in the phylogenetic and structural characterization of bacteriophages, only a small number of phages of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria have been studied at the molecular level. The effects of phage predation upon beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth remain poorly characterized. First steps in understanding these soil bacterium-phage dynamics are genetic, molecular, and structural characterizations of these groups of phages. The T4 superfamily phages are among the most complex phages; they have large genomes packaged within an icosahedral head and a long

  15. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister-group to protostomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Vanjani, Rohit G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms). The Paraspadella gotoi mtDNA is highly unusual, missing 23 of the genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs, including atp6, which has otherwise been found universally to be present. Its 14 genes are unusually arranged into two groups, one on each strand. One group is punctuated by numerous non-coding intergenic nucleotides, while the other group is tightly packed, having no non-coding nucleotides, leading to speculation that there are two transcription units with differing modes of expression. The phylogenetic position of the Chaetognatha within the Metazoa has long been uncertain, with conflicting or equivocal results from various morphological analyses and rRNA sequence comparisons. Comparisons here of amino acid sequences from mitochondrially encoded proteins gives a single most parsimonious tree that supports a position of Chaetognatha as sister to the protostomes studied here. From this, one can more clearly interpret the patterns of evolution of various developmental features, especially regarding the embryological fate of the blastopore.

  16. CELF4 Variant and Anthracycline-Related Cardiomyopathy: A Children’s Oncology Group Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexia; Sun, Can-Lan; Quiñones-Lombraña, Adolfo; Singh, Purnima; Landier, Wendy; Hageman, Lindsey; Mather, Molly; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Armenian, Saro H.; Winick, Naomi; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Dreyer, Zoann E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Blanco, Javier G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interindividual variability in the dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and cardiomyopathy suggests that genetic susceptibility could play a role. The current study uses an agnostic approach to identify genetic variants that could modify cardiomyopathy risk. Methods A genome-wide association study was conducted in childhood cancer survivors with and without cardiomyopathy (cases and controls, respectively). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a prespecified threshold for statistical significance were independently replicated. The possible mechanistic significance of validated SNP(s) was sought by using healthy heart samples. Results No SNP was marginally associated with cardiomyopathy. However, SNP rs1786814 on the CELF4 gene passed the significance cutoff for gene-environment interaction (Pge = 1.14 × 10−5). Multivariable analyses adjusted for age at cancer diagnosis, sex, anthracycline dose, and chest radiation revealed that, among patients with the A allele, cardiomyopathy was infrequent and not dose related. However, among those exposed to greater than 300 mg/m2 of anthracyclines, the rs1786814 GG genotype conferred a 10.2-fold (95% CI, 3.8- to 27.3-fold; P < .001) increased risk of cardiomyopathy compared with those who had GA/AA genotypes and anthracycline exposure of 300 mg/m2 or less. This gene-environment interaction was successfully replicated in an independent set of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor proteins control developmentally regulated splicing of TNNT2, the gene that encodes for cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a biomarker of myocardial injury. Coexistence of more than one cTnT variant results in a temporally split myofilament response to calcium, which causes decreased contractility. Analysis of TNNT2 splicing variants in healthy human hearts suggested an association between the rs1786814 GG genotype and coexistence of more than one TNNT2 splicing variant (90.5% GG v 41.7% GA

  17. TU-CD-BRB-07: Identification of Associations Between Radiologist-Annotated Imaging Features and Genomic Alterations in Breast Invasive Carcinoma, a TCGA Phenotype Research Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A; Net, J [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Brandt, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Huang, E [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Freymann, J; Kirby, J [Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Burnside, E [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Morris, E; Sutton, E [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bonaccio, E [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Giger, M; Jaffe, C [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Ganott, M; Zuley, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center - Magee Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Le-Petross, H [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dogan, B [UT MDACC, Houston, TX (United States); Whitman, G [UTMDACC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine associations between radiologist-annotated MRI features and genomic measurements in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: 98 TCGA patients with BRCA were assessed by a panel of radiologists (TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group) based on a variety of mass and non-mass features according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Batch corrected gene expression data was obtained from the TCGA Data Portal. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess correlations between categorical image features and tumor-derived genomic features (such as gene pathway activity, copy number and mutation characteristics). Image-derived features were also correlated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status. Multiple hypothesis correction was done using Benjamini-Hochberg FDR. Associations at an FDR of 0.1 were selected for interpretation. Results: ER status was associated with rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. PR status was associated with internal enhancement. Several components of the PI3K/Akt pathway were associated with rim enhancement as well as heterogeneity. In addition, several components of cell cycle regulation and cell division were associated with imaging characteristics.TP53 and GATA3 mutations were associated with lesion size. MRI features associated with TP53 mutation status were rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. Rim enhancement was associated with activity of RB1, PIK3R1, MAP3K1, AKT1,PI3K, and PIK3CA. Margin status was associated with HIF1A/ARNT, Ras/ GTP/PI3K, KRAS, and GADD45A. Axillary lymphadenopathy was associated with RB1 and BCL2L1. Peritumoral edema was associated with Aurora A/GADD45A, BCL2L1, CCNE1, and FOXA1. Heterogeneous internal nonmass enhancement was associated with EGFR, PI3K, AKT1, HF/MET, and EGFR/Erbb4/neuregulin 1. Diffuse nonmass enhancement was associated with HGF/MET/MUC20/SHIP

  18. 6个虾种基因组DNA多态性分析%ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA POLYMORPHISMS IN SHRIMP GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许玉德; 孙晟

    2001-01-01

    Genomic DNA polymorphisms in six species shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Aristeus virilis, Penaeus penicillatus, P. japonicus, P. monodom and Metapenaeus joyneri) were detected using randomly amplified polymorphic DAN(RAPD) method. Amplifications with 20 primers gave 492 reproducible fragments. Index of genetic similarity(F) was calculated. The value of (1- F) was used to evaluate genetic distances between species and to construct phylogenetic tree. These RAPD analysis is consistent with extant taxonomic system of shrimp group. Therefore, overall results revealed phylogenetic relationship of differential taxonomic class of shrimp group on genomic DNA.%采用RAPD方法检测了罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)、绿须虾(Aristeus virilis)、长毛对虾(Penaeus penicillatus)、日本对虾(P.japonicus)、斑节对虾 ( P.monodon)和周氏新对虾(Metapenaeus joyneri)等6个虾种的基因组DNA的多态性。用20个随机引物扩增得到492个DNA片段,根据这些片段的共享度计算出遗传距离并构建系统树。所得结果从DNA水平上反映出虾类在科属种不同分类阶元亲缘关系的远近,并为虾类现行的分类系统提供了分子生物学依据。

  19. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  20. Compensatory Evolution of Intrinsic Transcription Terminators in Bacillus Cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Ksenia R.; Mironov, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Many RNA molecules possess complicated secondary structure critical to their function. Mutations in double-helical regions of RNA may disrupt Watson–Crick (WC) interactions causing structure destabilization or even complete loss of function. Such disruption can be compensated by another mutation restoring base pairing, as has been shown for mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. Here, we investigate the evolution of intrinsic transcription terminators between closely related strains of Bacillus cereus. While the terminator structure is maintained by strong natural selection, as evidenced by the low frequency of disrupting mutations, we observe multiple instances of pairs of disrupting-compensating mutations in RNA structure stems. Such two-step switches between different WC pairs occur very fast, consistent with the low fitness conferred by the intermediate non-WC variant. Still, they are not instantaneous, and probably involve transient fixation of the intermediate variant. The GU wobble pair is the most frequent intermediate, and remains fixed longer than other intermediates, consistent with its less disruptive effect on the RNA structure. Double switches involving non-GU intermediates are more frequent at the ends of RNA stems, probably because they are associated with smaller fitness loss. Together, these results show that the fitness landscape of bacterial transcription terminators is rather rugged, but that the fitness valleys associated with unpaired stem nucleotides are rather shallow, facilitating evolution. PMID:28201729

  1. A biochemically active MCM-like helicase in Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Martin; Gulati, Gaurav; Shin, Jae-Ho; Opara, Rejoice; McSweeney, Elizabeth; Sekedat, Matt; Long, Stephen; Kelman, Zvi; Jeruzalmi, David

    2009-01-01

    The mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins serve as the replicative helicases in archaea and eukaryotes. Interestingly, an MCM homolog was identified, by BLAST analysis, within a phage integrated in the bacterium Bacillus cereus (Bc). BcMCM is only related to the AAA region of MCM-helicases; the typical amino-terminus is missing and is replaced by a segment with weak homology to primases. We show that BcMCM displays 3′→5′ helicase and ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity, properties that arise from its conserved AAA domain. Isolated BcMCM is a monomer in solution but likely forms the functional oligomer in vivo. We found that the BcMCM amino-terminus can bind ssDNA and harbors a zinc atom, both hallmarks of the typical MCM amino-terminus. No BcMCM-catalyzed primase activity could be detected. We propose that the divergent amino-terminus of BcMCM is a paralog of the corresponding region of MCM-helicases. A divergent amino terminus makes BcMCM a useful model for typical MCM-helicases since it accomplishes the same function using an apparently unrelated structure. PMID:19474351

  2. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production.

  3. Sperm bioassay for rapid detection of cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus in food and related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Maria A; Jääskeläinen, Elina L; Shaheen, Ranad; Pirhonen, Tuula; Wijnands, Luc M; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2004-07-15

    A novel in vitro method, sperm micro assay for rapidly distinguishing cereulide, the emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus from non-producers is described and its use for quantitating cereulide and screening large numbers of B. cereus strains/colonies evaluated. The assay is non-laborious and can be executed with equipment present in most laboratories. Boar spermatozoa, purchased as standard semen from artificial insemination suppliers, are used to detect toxicity. Boar sperms respond within 5 min by cessation of motility when exposed at 37 degrees C to heat-treated (100 degrees C) extract prepared from a cereulide containing B. cereus. The assay can be done on individual colonies on the primary plate, with no need for pure culture and the qualitative result is obtained within 30 min. The assay is robust, not sensitive to age or storage of the culture plates. The use of the sperm micro assay for semiquantitative estimation of cereulide in B. cereus was validated with 14 different B. cereus strains using as reference the specific chemical assay for cereulide, based on liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ion trap MS). The cereulide contents calculated from endpoint dilutions of the sperm micro assay matched the result of the chemical analysis closely. The detection threshold of the sperm micro assay was measured as 0.3 +/- 0.1 ng of cereulide per 5.4 x 10(6) sperm cells in 0.2 ml or 0.9 ng of cereulide per mg of B. cereus biomass (wet wt.). Food-related B. cereus strains contained 4-400 ng of cereulide per mg (wet wt.). When a large number of B. cereus of food, non-food, clinical and environmental origins were screened and 107 independent strains/isolates were identified as cereulide producers, it was observed that all of these had low or no haemolytic activity when cultivated on bovine blood agar. None of the strains/isolates with wide, clear zones of haemolysis, considered typical of B. cereus, produced cereulide.

  4. Architecture and High-Resolution Structure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus Spore Coat Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Malkin, A

    2005-02-18

    We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topology and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer (B. thuringiensis) or a rodlet outer spore coat layer (B. cereus). Removal of the rodlet structure from B. cereus spores revealed an underlying honeycomb layer similar to that observed with B. thuringiensis spores. The periodicity of the rodlet structure on the outer spore coat of B. cereus was {approx}8 nm, and the length of the rodlets was limited to the cross-patched domain structure of this layer to {approx}200 nm. The lattice constant of the honeycomb structures was {approx}9 nm for both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores. Both honeycomb structures were composed of multiple, disoriented domains with distinct boundaries. Our results demonstrate that variations in storage and preparation procedures result in architectural changes in individual spore surfaces, which establish AFM as a useful tool for evaluation of preparation and processing ''fingerprints'' of bacterial spores. These results establish that high-resolution AFM has the capacity to reveal species-specific assembly and nanometer scale structure of spore surfaces. These species-specific spore surface structural variations are correlated with sequence divergences in a spore core structural protein SspE.

  5. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve).

  6. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy with an unusual outcome (B. cereus on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve.

  7. [Bacillus cereus sepsis and subarachnoid hemorrhage following consolidation chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Eri; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sankoda, Chikahiro; Kuwahara, Nobuo; Mori, Daisuke; Osoegawa, Kouichi; Matsuishi, Eijo; Gondo, Hisashi

    2009-04-01

    A 64-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB classification, M7) in remission received consolidation chemotherapy with mitoxantrone/cytosine arabinoside. WBC counts decreased to 0/microl on day 14, and fever (39.3 degrees C) and epigastralgia developed on day 15. Cefozopran was instituted for febrile neutropenia; however, on day 16, he was found to be in cardiac arrest. CT scan on day 16 revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gram-positive rods were isolated from blood cultures on day 15, and were later identified as B.cereus. He recovered transiently, but eventually died on day 19. Postmortem examination demonstrated many colonies of B. cereus in the cerebrum, cerebellum, lung, and liver. Hepatocyte necrosis was also observed in the liver. Bacterial aneurysms or septic emboli were not identified in the arachnoid vessels, but necrosis of cerebral vessels was prominent, which was considered to be the cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been reported to be associated with B. cereus sepsis, which developed at nadir following chemotherapy for leukemia patients. Because of the aggressive clinical course of B. cereus sepsis, including the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage, early treatment with effective antibiotics for B. cereus sepsis would be important in the management of leukemia patients after chemotherapy.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of experimental evolution of the Bacillus cereus-Ketogulonicigenium vulgare co-culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available The microbial co-culture system composing of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus was widely adopted in industry for the production of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA, the precursor of vitamin C. We found serial subcultivation of the co-culture could enhance the yield of 2-KGA by 16% in comparison to that of the ancestral co-culture. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics and interaction mechanisms of the two microbes, we performed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses of the pure cultures of K. vulgare, B. cereus and their co-culture during serial subcultivation. Hierarchy cluster analyses of the proteomic data showed that the expression level of a number of crucial proteins associated with sorbose conversion and oligopeptide transport was significantly enhanced by the experimental evolution. In particular, the expression level of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase was enhanced in the evolved K. vulgare, while the expression level of InhA and the transport efficiency of oligopeptides were increased in the evolved B. cereus. The decreased sporulating protein expression and increased peptide transporter expression observed in evolved B. cereus, together with the increased amino acids synthesis in evolved K. vulgare suggested that serial subcultivation result in enhanced synergistic cooperation between K. vulgare and B. cereus, enabling an increased production of 2-KGA.

  9. BACILLUS CEREUS EM PRODUTOS LÁCTEOS - UMA REVISÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Taís Maziero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus é uma bactéria termodúrica, formadora de esporos, capaz de se multiplicar em temperatura de refrigeração. Pode causar dois tipos de doenças de origem alimentar: a síndrome emética e a síndrome diarréica. Além do aspecto epidemiológico, B. cereus causa defeitos tecnológicos em produtos lácteos, relacionados com a produção de lipases e proteases. A presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos vem sendo relatada por pesquisas feitas em vários países, bem como os defeitos tecnológicos associados à contaminação dos produtos por essa bactéria. Destacam-se, na presente revisão, os principais aspectos relacionados à presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos. Para tanto, foram selecionados trabalhos relevantes e inovadores sobre B. cereus em várias bases de dados, entre elas, Science Direct, SciELO, Scirus e Google Acadêmico.

  10. Detection of toxin genes and RAPD analysis of bacillus cereus isolates from different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect genes for enterotoxins (hbla, entFM and bceT and for emetic toxin (cer, to determine antibiotic resistance, and to estimate intraspecies diversity in B. cereus isolates by RAPD analysis. B. cereus was identified in 12 out of 117 indigenous Bacillus spp. using the classical microbiological methods and PCR. All isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, two to tetracyclin and four to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Also, all isolates produced inducible penicillinases and β-lactamase. Toxin genes were detected with PCR. EntFM and cer genes were present in all isolates, hbla in all, but two, and bceT in none. RAPD analysis was performed with four different primers, two of them designed for this study. The intraspecies diversity revealed 10 different patterns at the 90% similarity level. Two separate clusters were formed regardless of a soil type or utilization. The detection of genes encoding toxins in all B. cereus isolates indicated these bacteria as potentially pathogenic and seriously for human health. Regardless of a soil type or utilization, the RAPD analysis showed high intraspecies heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the presence of entero- and emetic toxin genes and genetic heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates from different soil types and different soil utilization in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37006

  11. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-12-01

    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA™) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath(®) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and Nhe under gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Enterotoxin production was absent or impaired at acidic pH, i.e., in gastric medium with pH 5.0 and lasagne verde with pH 5.5. B. cereus did produce enterotoxins Nhe and Hbl during anaerobic growth in intestinal medium at pH 7.0, but the toxins were instantly degraded by the enzymes in the host's digestive secretions. Preformed enterotoxins did not withstand gastrointestinal passage under the simulated conditions, which suggests that preformed enterotoxins in food do not contribute to the diarrheal food poisoning syndrome. In conclusion, diarrhea is probably caused by de novo enterotoxin production by B. cereus cells located closely to the host's intestinal epithelium.

  12. 40 CFR 180.1181 - Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1181 Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus...

  13. Heat stress leads to superoxide formation in Bacillus cereus detected using the fluorescent probe MitoSOX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Ceragioli, M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food-borne human pathogen and food spoilage organism. Spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus can be found almost everywhere and therefore often end up in food processing equipment and food products. To remove spores and vegetative cells from food or equipment, harsh treatments

  14. Characterization and exposure assessment of emetic bacillus cereus and cereulide production in food products on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G.; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; In't Veld, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food produc

  15. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  16. Identification of sigmaB-dependent genes in Bacillus cereus by proteome and in vitro transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigma(B) of the food pathogen Bacillus cereus is activated upon stress exposure and plays a role in the adaptive response of vegetative cells. This study describes the identification of sigma(B)-dependent genes in B. cereus. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was perfor

  17. BIOSYNTHESIS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-co-3-HYDROXYVALERATE)WITH LARGE VARIETY OF HYDROXYVALERATE CONTENTS BY BACILLUS CEREUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Biosynthesis and thermal properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with different HV (hydrovalerate) content produced by a Bacillus cereus strain were investigated. A large variety of HV contents (up to about 90 mol%) of PHBV could be produced by this strain. Combined nitrogen sources containing both yeast extract and ammonium sulphate were better for cell growth and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production than either yeast extract or ammonium sulphate alone. Propionic acid is more favorable for the production of HV content than that of valeric acid. Finally, thermal properties of PHBV produced by this strain are found close to the results of other groups.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing reveals that Bacillus cereus strains isolated from clinical infections have distinct phylogenetic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Margaret; Thakker, Bishan; Priest, Fergus G

    2005-04-01

    Eight strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from bacteremia and soft tissue infections were assigned to seven sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Two strains from different locations had identical STs. The concatenated sequences of the seven STs were aligned with 65 concatenated sequences from reference STs and a neighbor-joining tree was constructed. Two strains were distantly related to all reference STs. Three strains were recovered in a clade that included Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and rare Bacillus thuringiensis strains while the other three strains were assigned to two STs that were more closely affiliated to most of the B. thuringiensis STs. We conclude that invasive B. cereus strains do not form a single clone or clonal complex of highly virulent strains.

  19. Relapsing peritonitis with Bacillus cereus in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil

    2016-01-01

    We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period....... Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B....... cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing...

  20. Genomic analysis reveals multi-drug resistance clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 hypervirulent isolates causing neonatal invasive disease in southern mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmondo Campisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013-2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide (CPS type, pilus islands (PIs distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease (EOD and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD. Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases, particularly among LOD strains (n=11, followed by types Ib (n=5, V (n=3, Ia (n=2 and II (n=1. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17.The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistances could in part explain

  1. Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop IV and Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference on Metabolic Engineering 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL

    2006-02-01

    Welcome to the 2006 joint meeting of the fourth Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop and the six Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference. The vision and scope of the Genomics:GTL program continue to expand and encompass research and technology issues from diverse scientific disciplines, attracting broad interest and support from researchers at universities, DOE national laboratories, and industry. Metabolic engineering's vision is the targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the understanding and use of cellular pathways for chemical transformation, energy transduction, and supramolecular assembly. These two programs have much complementarity in both vision and technological approaches, as reflected in this joint workshop. GLT's challenge to the scientific community remains the further development and use of a broad array of innovative technologies and computational tools to systematically leverage the knowledge and capabilities brought to us by DNA sequencing projects. The goal is to seek a broad and predictive understanding of the functioning and control of complex systems--individual microbes, microbial communities, and plants. GTL's prominent position at the interface of the physical, computational, and biological sciences is both a strength and challenge. Microbes remain GTL's principal biological focus. In the complex 'simplicity' of microbes, they find capabilities needed by DOE and the nation for clean and secure energy, cleanup of environmental contamination, and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. An ongoing challenge for the entire GTL community is to demonstrate that the fundamental science conducted in each of your research projects brings us a step closer to biology-based solutions for these important national energy and environmental needs.

  2. Phospholipase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus;characterization of catalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooran Sherif Elleboudy; Mohammad Mabrouk Aboulwafa; Nadia Abdel-Haleem Hassouna

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study characteristics of phospholipases C (PLCs), their importance for producing microorganisms as well as the potential of their use for industrial purposes. Methods:PLC from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) D101 was selected as an example of Gram-positive PLCs and PLC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) D183 of Gram-negative ones. Enzymes were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by membrane dialysis. Partially purified preparations were used to study effect of different factors on activities as well as in substrate specificity tests which were conducted using a turbidimetric assay method. Results: Maximum activity was at pH 7 and 8 and 40℃for P. aeruginosa PLC, and pH 8-10 and 37℃for B. cereus PLC. Both PLCs were inhibited by Pi at 5 mM or higher, whereas, PLC from B. cereus only was inhibited by EDTA. Activity of P. aeruginosa PLC was not affected by removing Zn2+ions from reaction mixture or their replacement with Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+or Mn2+ions. Vis-à-vis, activity of B. cereus PLC was found to be metal ion dependent. PLCs from both isolates were relatively thermostable and showed maximum affinity toward phosphatidylcholine. Sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine were not good substrates and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin could be considered non-substrates. Conclusions: Human body physiological conditions could favor activity of P. aeruginosa and B. cereus PLCs. These enzymes may participate in phosphate scavenging and virulence of producing isolates but not in autolysis. PLCs from both isolates are potential candidates for industrial use.

  3. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  4. Bacillus cereus Cerebral Abscess During Induction Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabscheck, Gabriel; Silverman, Lewis; Ullrich, Nicole J

    2015-10-01

    A 5-year-old boy with standard-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic anemia developed fever during induction chemotherapy. The patient had no neurological symptoms. Blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus and neuroimaging studies demonstrated a cerebral abscess. Imaging changes resolved after completion of antibiotics. Bacillus cereus bacteremia is increasingly implicated as the cause of life-threatening infections, including cerebral abscesses, in compromised patients. Positive blood cultures for this organism should prompt neuroimaging and consideration of cerebrospinal fluid sampling, as well as catheter removal. Given the worse outcome with central nervous system involvement, there is a need for increased awareness and early diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

  5. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  6. Resistance and biosorption mechanism of silver ions by Bacillus cereus biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Qing Hu; Jinghai Zeng; Hongyan Qi; Guoqiang Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of silver ions onto Bacillus cereus biomass was investigated.Overall kinetic experiments were performed for the determination of the necessary contact time for the attainment of equilibrium.It was found that the overall biosorption process was best described by pseudo second-order kinetic model.The crystals detected by scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested the precipitation was a possible mechanism of biosorption.The molecular genetics of silver resistance of B.cereus biomass was also detected and illustrated by a whole cell sensor tool.

  7. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation.

  8. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austri...

  9. Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi modulates the immune reaction and reduces the occurrence of diarrhea in piglets challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharek-Tedin, L; Pieper, R; Vahjen, W; Tedin, K; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial with sows and their piglets was performed with the probiotic feed additive Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi in two consecutive experimental periods. Sows (n = 8) were allocated into treatment (Bc) and control (CO) groups. Sows of Bc group (n = 4) were fed 3.14 × 10(5) cfu/g Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi with the diet from d 87 of pregnancy on. Their piglets received Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi supplemented feed (8.7 × 10(5) cfu/g) starting on d 14 of life and further on after weaning (6.5 × 10(5) cfu/g), whereas sows and piglets of the CO group remained untreated. One day after weaning, piglets from both groups (n = 24 each) were challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (3 × 10(9) viable bacteria). Health status, shedding of B. cereus in the feces, and performance of the piglets were monitored. At 24 h, 72 h, 6 d, and 28 d postinfection (PI), six piglets from each group were euthanized and cell counts of Salmonellae were determined in the colon contents, mesenteric lymph nodes, and tonsils. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The incidence of scours was lower in the Bc group than in the CO group (P = 0.004). In addition, the fecal shedding of Salmonella was significantly lower in the Bc group at 25 d PI (P = 0.004). Shortly after infection, the γδ T cells were significantly less frequent in the blood of Bc piglets. For both CD8-positive γδ T cells (P = 0.033) and CD8-negative γδ T cells (P = 0.028), significant differences were observed. Furthermore, 28 d PI piglets from the treated group showed lower numbers of γδ T cells in the jejunal epithelium (P = 0.036). To investigate the role of intestinal γδ T cells during the infection with S. Typhimurium, IEL were gained from six healthy 40-d-old piglets and infected in vitro with S. Typhimurium. CD8β cells and γδ T cells were detected by flow cytometry and the infection rates of both populations in the cell

  10. Properties of the Bacillus Cereus strain used in probiotic CenBiot Propriedades da cepa de Bacillus cereus utilizada no probiótico CenBiot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gil-Turnes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus CenBiot fulfilled the requirements to be used as probiotic. The spores showed D80 of 14 hs, inhibited Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after 24 hs in associative culture, were innocuous for suckling and adult mice and were not inhibited by antibiotics at low concentrations.Bacillus cereus CenBiot possui as características necessárias para ser utilizada como probiótico. Os esporos apresentaram D80 de 14 hs, inibiram Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis após cultivadas associativamente por 24 hs, foram inócuos para camundongos lactentes e adultos e não foram inibidos por antibióticos a baixas concentrações.

  11. Study of the antibacterial effects of chitosans on Bacillus cereus (and its spores) by atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Joao C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Eaton, Peter, E-mail: peter.eaton@fc.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ana M.; Pintado, Manuela E.; Xavier Malcata, F. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is widely distributed in nature. Its intrinsic thermal resistance coupled with the extraordinary resistance against common food preservation techniques makes it one of the most frequent food-poisoning microorganisms causing both intoxications and infections. In order to control B. cereus growth/sporulation, and hence minimize the aforementioned hazards, several antimicrobial compounds have been tested. The aim of this work was to assess by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the relationship between the molecular weight (MW) of chitosan and its antimicrobial activity upon both vegetative and resistance forms of B. cereus. The use of AFM imaging studies helped us to understand how chitosans with different MW act differently upon B. cereus. Higher MW chitosans (628 and 100 kDa) surrounded both forms of B. cereus cells by forming a polymer layer-which eventually led to the death of the vegetative form by preventing the uptake of nutrients yet did not affect the spores since these can survive for extended periods without nutrients. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) (<3 kDa), on the other hand, provoked more visible damages in the B. cereus vegetative form-most probably due to the penetration of the cells by the COS. The use of COS by itself on B. cereus spores was not enough for the destruction of a large number of cells, but it may well weaken the spore structure and its ability to contaminate, by inducing exosporium loss.

  12. [Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Crohn's disease with multiple ileal stricture on maintenance azathioprine therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizawa, Kazuoki; Nagata, Yuko; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nakamori, Mari; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of 36-year-old Japanese man with Crohn's disease, complicated by Bacillus cereus bacteremia on maintenance azathioprine therapy. Although anti-microbial agents were ineffective, the patient became well immediately after a partial resection of the ileum with multiple severe stenosis.

  13. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P

    1984-07-01

    After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients.

  14. Role of ureolytic activity in Bacillus cereus nitrogen metabolism and acid survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2008-01-01

    The presence and activities of urease genes were investigated in 49 clinical, food, and environmental Bacillus cereus isolates. Ten strains were shown to have urease genes, with eight of these strains showing growth on urea as the sole nitrogen source. Two of the urease-positive strains, including t

  15. Study on Attenuation Characteristics of Biocontrol Strain Anti-8098A, Bacillus cereus, against Ralstoniasolanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BoLIU; Ying-ZhiLIN; Yu-JingZHU; Ci-BinGE; YiCAO

    2004-01-01

    The present study dealt with the attenuation characteristics of bacterial-wilt-disease biocontrol strain Anti-8098A, Bacillus cereus, againstpathogeny Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). In order to distinguish the pathogenicity of RS, the attenuation index (radius of the center red ring/radius of the whole mycelium ring, on TTC culture medium) was established (Hayward, 1976), companying with the mortality of tomato

  16. Bacillus cereus associated food borne disease : quantitative aspects of exposure assessment and hazard characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of food contaminated with the bacterium Bacillus cereus may lead to either symptoms of vomiting or symptoms of diarrhoea. As the symptoms are rather mild, few patients seek medical attention. Therefore, it is hard to estimate the number of cases. To improve estimation of this number

  17. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    was initially investigated in microcosms inoculated with pure cultures of the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Cercomonas sp. as grazers. Individual protist cultures were fed with fluorescently labelled (CellTracker™RedCMTPX) B. cereus spores or vegetative cells as the only food...

  18. The study of effect bacteriocin producing Lactoco ccus lactis on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirhossieni, M.Sc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Dairy products often associated with problems such as short shelf life and poor hygiene control. A novel approach is to utilize bacteriocin or bacteriocin producer strains, to control undesirable micro flora as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus in foods. Hence, we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in order to compare the isolated strain within different countries.Materials and Methods: In this research we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis, with producer spot test method. We also used supernatant from 24 h culture of Lactoccus lactis. Moreover, we studied the effect of bacteriocin on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus growth curves.Results: The growth of both strains was inhibited by the bacteriocin. Conclusion: According to our results, the bacteriocin could be used in liquid food with bacteriocin added directly or as a starter culture in fermentation. This would inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes; furthermore, Bacillus cereus is used to reduce food poisoning for fermented food products.

  19. Combined action of nisin and carvacrol on Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.; Smid, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    Nisin, a small antimicrobial protein, was tested for its bactericidal action against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus and a typical biphasic reduction of the viable count was observed. The reduction was most fast during the first 10 min of exposure, while the viable count remained stable i

  20. Lessons learnt from a birthday party: a Bacillus cereus outbreak, Bari, Italy, January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Martinelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacillus cereus, a ubiquitous bacterium, can be isolated in various starchy food items, causing both emetic and diarrhoeal disease. The real burden of B. cereus outbreaks is actually poorly known in Italy. We report a B. cereus foodborne outbreak that occurred in a pub in Bari (Italy on January 22nd 2012 during a birthday party, promptly reported by the pub owner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 22nd and 24th 2012, we performed a retrospective cohort study among the guests of the party to identify risk factors associated with illness. Leftovers of different meals were available for microbiological analysis. Faecal specimens were collected from cases. RESULTS: A total of 12 cases among the 13 customers (attack rate: 92% were reported. All cases had consumed basmati rice and sweet and sour vegetables (aetiological fraction: 100%. B. cereus was isolated from both basmati rice served during the party and faecal specimens. DISCUSSION: The close collaboration between the pub owner and the public health officers and the possibility to test food leftovers and stool samples contributed to prevent further cases.

  1. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus cereus from the dairy environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Giffel, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the occurrence of Bacillus cereus in the milk production and processing environment was investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and by DNA probes based on the variable regions of 16S rRNA. Further characterization was carried out using biochemical and molecular typing, in

  2. The pathogenic mechanism of the diarrheal syndrome caused by Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2002-01-01

    As a contaminant of food commodities, Bacillus cereus may produce several enterotoxins that are responsible for the development of a diarrhaeal syndrome. Although four enterotoxins -haemolysin BL (HBL), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), enterotoxin-T, and cytotoxin-K- have been described as possibly

  3. Production of keratinolytic enzyme by an indigenous feather-degrading strain Bacillus cereus Wu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Hsun; Too, Jui-Rze; Wu, Jane-Yii

    2012-12-01

    A novel feather-degrading microorganism was isolated from a poultry farm in Taiwan, and was identified Bacillus cereus Wu2 according to 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolated strain produces keratinolytic enzyme using chicken feather as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The experimental results indicated that the extra carbon sources (glucose, fructose, starch, sucrose, or lactose) could act as a catabolite repressor to the enzyme secretion or keratinolytic activity when keratinous substrates were employed as protein sources. However, addition of 2 g/L of NH(4)Cl to the feather medium increased the enzyme production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for enzyme production were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 1.75 kU/mL in the optimal chicken feather medium; this value was about 17-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. The B. cereus Wu2 possessed disulfide reductase activity along with keratinolytic activity. The amino acid contents of feathers degradated by B. cereus Wu2 were higher, especially for lysine, methionine and threonine which were nutritionally essential amino acids and usually deficient in the feather meal. Thus, B. cereus Wu2 could be not only used to enhance the nutritional value of feather meal but is also a potential bioinoculant in agricultural environments.

  4. Deletion in sigB in Bacillus cereus affects spore properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Atmadja, R.D.; Schaik, van W.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Bacillus cereus and other gram-positive bacteria the alternative sigma factor ¿B is an important regulator of the stress response. Deletion of the sigB gene generally leads to a stress-sensitive phenotype of vegetative cells. In this study, we describe the effect of the deletion of the sigB gene

  5. Detection of toxigenic Bacillus cereus strains isolated from vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Urbán, Karen A; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Quiñones, Carlos R; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause diarrhea and emetic syndromes after ingestion of food contaminated with it. This ability is due to the production of enterotoxins by this microorganism, these being the hemolysin BL complex, which is involved in the diarrheal syndrome, and cereulide, which is responsible for the emetic syndrome. The detection of genes associated with the production of these toxins can predict the virulence of strains isolated from contaminated food. In this paper, we analyzed 100 samples of vegetables, 25 of each kind (broccoli, coriander, carrot, and lettuce) obtained from different markets in Mexico City and its metropolitan area. B. cereus was isolated in 32, 44, 84, and 68% of the samples of broccoli, carrot, lettuce, and coriander, respectively. The hblA gene (encoding one of the three subunits of hemolysin BL) was amplified in 100% of the B. cereus isolates, and the ces gene (encoding the cereulide) could not be amplified from any of them. This is the first report of B. cereus isolation from the vegetables analyzed in this work and, also, the first report in Mexico of the isolation from vegetables of strains with potential virulence. The results should serve as evidence of the potential risk of consuming these foods without proper treatment.

  6. Toxin profile, antibiotic resistance, and phenotypic and molecular characterization of Bacillus cereus in Sunsik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Jin; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2012-10-01

    Sunsik, a ready-to-eat food in Korea, is comprised of various agricultural and marine products, and has been an important concern in Bacillus cereus food poisoning. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxin profiles, genotypic and phenotypic patterns as well as antibiotic resistance of B. cereus strains isolated from Sunsik. A subtyping method known as automated repetitive sequence-based PCR system (DiversiLab™) was used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Thirty-five B. cereus strains were isolated from 100 commercial Sunsik samples, all of which harbored at least 1 enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of nheABC, hblCDA, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin gene among all isolates were 97%, 86%, 77%, and 100%, respectively. Most strains also produced corresponding enterotoxins such as HBL (83%) and NHE (94%). One strain (2.9%) carried the emetic toxin genes, including ces and EM1, and was positive for the HEp-2 cell emetic toxin assay. Most strains were positive for various biochemical tests such as salicin hydrolysis (86%), starch fermentation (89%), hemolysis (89%), motility test (100%) and lecithinase hydrolysis (89%). All isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics although they were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. By using the automated rep-PCR system, all isolates were successfully differentiated, indicating the diversity of B. cereus strains present in Sunsik.

  7. Plant compounds enhance the assay sensitivity for detection of active Bacillus cereus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2015-03-11

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.

  8. X-ray Crystal Structure of the B Component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madegowda,M.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL enterotoxin, a ternary complex of three proteins, is the causative agent of food poisoning and requires all three components for virulence. The X-ray structure of the binding domain of HBL suggests that it may form a pore similar to other soluble channel forming proteins. A putative pathway of pore formation is discussed.

  9. Plant Compounds Enhance the Assay Sensitivity for Detection of Active Bacillus cereus Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Rasooly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.

  10. Spore prevalence and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from U.S. retail spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Upasana; Labbé, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Recent incidents of foodborne illness associated with spices as the vehicle of transmission prompted this examination of U.S. retail spices with regard to Bacillus cereus. This study focused on the levels of aerobic-mesophilic spore-forming bacteria and B cereus spores associated with 247 retail spices purchased from five states in the United States. Samples contained a wide range of aerobic-mesophilic bacterial spore counts ( 10(7) CFU/g). Using a novel chromogenic agar, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores were isolated from 77 (31%) and 11 (4%) samples, respectively. Levels of B. cereus were thuringiensis isolates possessed at least one type of enterotoxin gene: HBL (hemolysin BL) or nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). None of the 88 isolates obtained in this study possessed the emetic toxin gene (ces). Using commercially available immunological toxin detection kits, the toxigenicity of the isolates was confirmed. The NHE enterotoxin was expressed in 98% of B. cereus and 91% of B. thuringiensis isolates that possessed the responsible gene. HBL enterotoxin was detected in 87% of B. cereus and 100% of B. thuringiensis PCR-positive isolates. Fifty-two percent of B. cereus and 54% of B. thuringiensis isolates produced both enterotoxins. Ninety-seven percent of B. cereus isolates grew at 12°C, although only two isolates grew well at 9°C. The ability of these spice isolates to form spores, produce diarrheal toxins, and grow at moderately abusive temperatures makes retail spices an important potential vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus strains, in particular those that produce diarrheal toxins.

  11. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal forming Bacillus spp. were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylog...

  12. Nosocomial pseudoepidemic caused by Bacillus cereus traced to contaminated ethyl alcohol from a liquor factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, P R; Teng, L J; Yang, P C; Pan, H L; Ho, S W; Luh, K T

    1999-07-01

    From September 1990 to October 1990, 15 patients who were admitted to four different departments of the National Taiwan University Hospital, including nine patients in the emergency department, three in the hematology/oncology ward, two in the surgical intensive care unit, and one in a pediatric ward, were found to have positive blood (14 patients) or pleural effusion (1 patient) cultures for Bacillus cereus. After extensive surveillance cultures, 19 additional isolates of B. cereus were recovered from 70% ethyl alcohol that had been used as a skin disinfectant (14 isolates from different locations in the hospital) and from 95% ethyl alcohol (5 isolates from five alcohol tanks in the pharmacy department), and 10 isolates were recovered from 95% ethyl alcohol from the factory which supplied the alcohol to the hospital. In addition to these 44 isolates of B. cereus, 12 epidemiologically unrelated B. cereus isolates, one Bacillus sphaericus isolate from a blood specimen from a patient seen in May 1990, and two B. sphaericus isolates from 95% alcohol in the liquor factory were also studied for their microbiological relatedness. Among these isolates, antibiotypes were determined by using the disk diffusion method and the E test, biotypes were created with the results of the Vitek Bacillus Biochemical Card test, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were generated by arbitrarily primed PCR. Two clones of the 15 B. cereus isolates recovered from patients were identified (clone A from 2 patients and clone B from 13 patients), and all 29 isolates of B. cereus recovered from 70 or 95% ethyl alcohol in the hospital or in the factory belonged to clone B. The antibiotype and RAPD pattern of the B. sphaericus isolate from the patient were different from those of isolates from the factory. Our data show that the pseudoepidemic was caused by a clone (clone B) of B. cereus from contaminated 70% ethyl alcohol used in the hospital, which we successfully traced to

  13. A quantitative microbiological exposure assessment model for Bacillus cereus in REPFEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Jeff; Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Vermeulen, An; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-09-16

    One of the pathogens of concern in refrigerated and processed foods of extended durability (REPFED) is psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, because of its ability to survive pasteurisation and grow at low temperatures. In this study a quantitative microbiological exposure assessment (QMEA) of psychrotrophic B. cereus in REPFEDs is presented. The goal is to quantify (i) the prevalence and concentration of B. cereus during production and shelf life, (ii) the number of packages with potential emetic toxin formation and (iii) the impact of different processing steps and consumer behaviour on the exposure to B. cereus from REPFEDs. The QMEA comprises the entire production and distribution process, from raw materials over pasteurisation and up to the moment it is consumed or discarded. To model this process the modular process risk model (MPRM) was used (Nauta, 2002). The product life was divided into nine modules, each module corresponding to a basic process: (1) raw material contamination, (2) cross contamination during handling, (3) inactivation during preparation, (4) growth during intermediate storage, (5) partitioning of batches in portions, (6) mixing portions to create the product, (7) recontamination during assembly and packaging, (8) inactivation during pasteurisation and (9) growth during shelf life. Each of the modules was modelled and built using a combination of newly gathered and literature data, predictive models and expert opinions. Units (batch/portion/package) with a B. cereus concentration of 10(5)CFU/g or more were considered 'risky' units. Results show that the main drivers of variability and uncertainty are consumer behaviour, strain variability and modelling error. The prevalence of B. cereus in the final products is estimated at 48.6% (±0.01%) and the number of packs with too high B. cereus counts at the moment of consumption is estimated at 4750 packs per million (0.48%). Cold storage at retail and consumer level is vital in limiting the exposure

  14. Antagonism between Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in planktonic systems and in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Manuel; Simoes, Lúcia C; Pereira, Maria O; Vieira, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    In the environment, many microorganisms coexist in communities competing for resources, and they are often associated as biofilms. The investigation of bacterial ecology and interactions may help to improve understanding of the ability of biofilms to persist. In this study, the behaviour of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the planktonic and sessile states was compared. Planktonic tests were performed with single and dual species cultures in growth medium with and without supplemental FeCl3. B. cereus and P. fluorescens single cultures had equivalent growth behaviours. Also, when in co-culture under Fe-supplemented conditions, the bacteria coexisted and showed similar growth profiles. Under Fe limitation, 8 h after co-culture and over time, the number of viable B. cereus cells decreased compared with P. fluorescens. Spores were detected during the course of the experiment, but were not correlated with the decrease in the number of viable cells. This growth inhibitory effect was correlated with the release of metabolite molecules by P. fluorescens through Fe-dependent mechanisms. Biofilm studies were carried out with single and dual species using a continuous flow bioreactor rotating system with stainless steel (SS) substrata. Steady-state biofilms were exposed to a series of increasing shear stress forces. Analysis of the removal of dual species biofilms revealed that the outer layer was colonised mainly by B. cereus. This bacterium was able to grow in the outermost layers of the biofilm due to the inhibitory effect of P. fluorescens being decreased by the exposure of the cells to fresh culture medium. B. cereus also constituted the surface primary coloniser due to its favourable adhesion to SS. P. fluorescens was the main coloniser of the middle layers of the biofilm. Single and dual species biofilm removal data also revealed that B. cereus biofilms had the highest physical stability, followed by P. fluorescens biofilms. This study highlights the

  15. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foy, Niall

    2010-07-22

    Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1) and class II (LysRS2) enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820) and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1) of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1) expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  16. Central Venous Access Device-Related Bacillus Cereus Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William F

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus typically presents as a gastrointestinal infection, but rarely manifests as systemic disease. This report describes a case of B. cereus-related endocarditis that presented as a sickle cell crisis and bacteremia. Initial clinical suspicion was for laboratory contamination of blood cultures. The case herein described is intended to demonstrate an uncommon presentation of B. cereus infection and highlights the value of an aggressive need to further investigate and interpret unexpected blood culture findings in clinical practice, early adequate antimicrobial therapy, prompt diagnosis, and consideration to urgent surgical interventions in such cases.

  17. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  18. Comparative bioinformatics and experimental analysis of the intergenic regulatory regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe enterotoxin operons and the impact of CodY on virulence heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elisabeth eBöhm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5’ intergenic regions (5’IGRs upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5’IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5’ untranslated regions (5’UTRs upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5’UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5’UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5’UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5’IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5’UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription

  19. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of LI-F type peptides produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 mode of action against Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinzhi; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Shengming; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2017-01-06

    LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotics that exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi, especially Bacillus cereus and Fusarium moniliforme. In this study, to better understand the antibacterial mechanism of AMP-jsa9 against B. cereus, the ultrastructure of AMP-jsa9-treated B. cereus cells was observed by both atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on proteins extracted from treated and untreated bacterial cells by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Furthermore, multiple experiments were conducted to validate the results of the proteomic analysis, including determinations of ATP, NAD((+))H, NADP((+))H, reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the relative expression of target genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Bacterial cells exposed to AMP-jsa9 showed irregular surfaces with bleb projections and concaves; we hypothesize that AMP-jsa9 penetrated the cell wall and was anchored on the cytoplasmic membrane and that ROS accumulated in the cell membrane after treatment with AMP-jsa9, modulating the bacterial membrane properties and increasing membrane permeability. Consequently, the blebs were formed on the cell wall by the impulsive force of the leakage of intercellular contents. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis detected a total of 1317 proteins, including 176 differentially expressed proteins (75 upregulated (fold >2) and 101 downregulated (fold <0.5)). Based on proteome analysis, the putative pathways of AMP-jsa9 action against B. cereus can be summarized as: (i) inhibition of bacterial sporulation, thiamine biosynthesis, energy metabolism, DNA transcription and translation, and cell wall biosynthesis

  20. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5' intergenic regions (5' IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5' IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5' UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5' UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5' UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5' IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5' UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. PlcR binding sites are

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Praba, V Lakshmi; Ahangar, Niyaz Ahmad; Balagangadharan, K

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely "Cry4Aa". Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies That the ABO Blood Group System Influences Interleukin-10 Levels and the Risk of Clinical Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Johansson

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a major cause of mortality worldwide. We have previously shown that increased interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels are associated with poor outcome in ACS patients.We performed a genome-wide association study in 2864 ACS patients and 408 healthy controls, to identify genetic variants associated with IL-10 levels. Then haplotype analyses of the identified loci were done and comparisons to levels of IL-10 and other known ACS related biomarkers.Genetic variants at the ABO blood group locus associated with IL-10 levels (top SNP: rs676457, P = 4.4 × 10-10 were identified in the ACS patients. Haplotype analysis, using SNPs tagging the four main ABO antigens (A1, A2, B and O, showed that O and A2 homozygous individuals, or O/A2 heterozygotes have much higher levels of IL-10 compared to individuals with other antigen combinations. In the ACS patients, associations between ABO antigens and von Willebrand factor (VWF, P = 9.2 × 10-13, and soluble tissue factor (sTF, P = 8.6 × 10-4 were also found. In the healthy control cohort, the associations with VWF and sTF were similar to those in ACS patients (P = 1.2 × 10-15 and P = 1.0 × 10-5 respectively, but the healthy cohort showed no association with IL-10 levels (P>0.05. In the ACS patients, the O antigen was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, all causes of death, and recurrent myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24-1.29, P = 0.029-0.00067.Our results suggest that the ABO antigens play important roles, not only for the immunological response in ACS patients, but also for the outcome of the disease.

  3. Full-Length Genome Sequence of Type M/emm83 Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain STAB1101, Isolated from Clustered Cases in Brittany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Nicolas; Vincent, Pascal; Auger, Gabriel; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Moullec, Séverine; Lagente, Vincent; Ygout, Jean-François; Kayal, Samer; Faili, Ahmad

    2015-01-22

    Here, we announce the complete annotated genome sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm83 strain, STAB1101, isolated from clustered cases in homeless persons in Brittany (France). The genome is composed of 1,709,790 bp, with a G+C content of 38.4% and 1,550 identified coding sequences (CDS), and it harbors a Tn916-like transposon.

  4. Biosorption of As (III) by non-living biomass of an arsenic-hypertolerant Bacillus cereus strain SZ2 isolated from a gold mining environment: equilibrium and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bahari, Zaratulnur; Ali Hamood Altowayti, Wahid; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Jaafar, Jafariah; Shahir, Shafinaz

    2013-12-01

    The ability of non-living biomass of an arsenic-hypertolerant Bacillus cereus strain SZ2 isolated from a gold mining environment to adsorb As (III) from aqueous solution in batch experiments was investigated as a function of contact time, initial As (III) concentration, pH, temperature and biomass dosage. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better in comparison to Freundlich isotherm. The maximum biosorption capacity of the sorbent, as obtained from the Langmuir isotherm, was 153.41 mg/g. The sorption kinetic of As (III) biosorption followed well the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, amide and amine groups in As (III) biosorption process. Field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the non-living B. cereus SZ2 biomass demonstrated distinct cell morphological changes with significant amounts of As adsorbed onto the cells compared to non-treated cells. Desorption of 94 % As (III) was achieved at acidic pH 1 showing the capability of non-living biomass B. cereus SZ2 as potential biosorbent in removal of As (III) from arsenic-contaminated mining effluent.

  5. Process parameters for decolorization and biodegradation of orange II (Acid Orange 7) in dye-simulated minimal salt medium and subsequent textile effluent treatment by Bacillus cereus (MTCC 9777) RMLAU1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant

    2013-11-01

    In this study, Bacillus cereus isolate from tannery effluent was employed for orange II dye decolorization in simulated minimal salt broth and textile effluent. Most of the physicochemical parameters of textile effluent were above the permissible limits. The strain was highly tolerant to dye up to 500 mg l(-1). Increasing dye concentration exerted inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth and decolorization. The maximum decolorization of initial 100 mg dye l(-1) was achieved at optimum pH 8.0 and 33 °C under static culture conditions during 96-h incubation. Supplementation with optimized glucose (0.4%, w/v) and ammonium sulfate (0.1%, w/v) with 3.0% B. cereus inoculum further enhanced dye decolorization to highest 68.5% within 96-h incubation. A direct correlation was evident between bacterial growth and dye decolorization. Under above optimized conditions, 24.3% decolorization of unsterilized real textile effluent by native microflora was achieved. The effluent decolorization enhanced substantially to 37.1% with B. cereus augmentation and to 40.5% when supplemented with glucose and ammonium sulfate without augmentation. The maximum decolorization of 52.5% occurred when textile effluent was supplemented with optimized exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources along with B. cereus augmentation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sulfanilic acid as orange II degradation product. Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy of metabolic products indicated the presence of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. This strain may be suitably employed for in situ decolorization of textile industrial effluent under broad environmental conditions.

  6. Isolation, Identification of Bacillus Thuringiensis/Cereus and Its Enhancement on Protein Wastewater Treatment by Rhodobacter Sphaeroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuli Liu; Guangming Zhang; Jie Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance the degrading protein capability of purple non⁃sulfur bacteria ( PNSB), an effective strain, L2, was used to co⁃culture with Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC17023. The effects of added strain on protein removal of R. sphaeroides were investigated. Results showed that strain L2, being identified as Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus, had a high potential for producing protease with a production of 295 U/mL. The optimal B. thuringiensis/cereus ( 40 μL ) could significantly increase protein degradation of R. sphaeroides. Protein removal and biomass production were improved by 483% and 67%, respectively. R. sphaeroides/total biomass production was more than 95%. Theoretical analysis revealed that R. sphaeroides syntrophically interacted with B. thuringiensis/cereus. Protein degradation of B. thuringiensis/cereus provided small molecule substrates ( VFAs) for R. sphaeroides growth and cells materials synthesis.

  7. LmbE proteins from Bacillus cereus are de-N-acetylases with broad substrate specificity and are highly similar to proteins in Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deli, Alexandra; Koutsioulis, Dimitrios; Fadouloglou, Vasiliki E.; Spiliotopoulou, Panagiota; Balomenou, Stavroula; Arnaouteli, Sofia; Tzanodaskalaki, Maria; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Kokkinidis, Michalis; Bouriotis, Vassilis

    2010-05-19

    The genomes of Bacillus cereus and its closest relative Bacillus anthracis each contain two LmbE protein family homologs: BC1534 (BA1557) and BC3461 (BA3524). Only a few members of this family have been biochemically characterized including N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidyl inositol (GlcNAc-PI), 1-D-myo-inosityl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside (GlcNAc-Ins), N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) and lipoglycopeptide antibiotic de-N-acetylases. All these enzymes share a common feature in that they de-N-acetylate the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety of their substrates. The bc1534 gene has previously been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified and its 3D structure determined. In this study, the bc3461 gene from B. cereus ATCC14579 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzymes BC1534 (EC 3.5.1.-) and BC3461 were biochemically characterized. The enzymes have different molecular masses, pH and temperature optima and broad substrate specificity, de-N-acetylating GlcNAc and N-acetylchito-oligomers (GlcNAc2, GlcNAc3 and GlcNAc4), as well as GlcNAc-1P, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1 phosphate; GlcNAc-6P, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6 phosphate; GalNAc, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine; ManNAc, N-acetyl-d-mannosamine; UDP-GlcNAc, uridine 5'-diphosphate N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. However, the enzymes were not active on radiolabeled glycol chitin, peptidoglycan from B. cereus, N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl-(β-1,4)-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine (GMDP) or N-acetyl-d-GlcN-Nα1-6-d-myo-inositol-1-HPO4-octadecyl (GlcNAc-I-P-C18). Kinetic analysis of the activity of BC1534 and BC3461 on GlcNAc and GlcNAc2 revealed that GlcNAc2 is the favored substrate for both native enzymes. Based on the recently determined crystal structure of BC1534, a mutational analysis identified functional key residues, highlighting

  8. Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric Acid against bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Bae; Guo, Jin Yong; Rahman, S M E; Ahn, Juhee; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AcEW with 1% CA (AcEW + CA) and AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA) against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores was evaluated as a function of temperature (25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 degrees C) and dipping time (3 or 6 h). A 3-strain cocktail of Bacillus cereus cells or spores of approximately 10(7) CFU/g was inoculated in various cereal grains (brown rice, Job's tear rice, glutinous rice, and barley rice). B. cereus vegetative cells and spores were more rapidly inactivated at 40 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Regardless of the dipping time, all treatments reduced the numbers of B. cereus vegetative cells and spore by more than 1 log CFU/g, except the deionized water (DIW), which showed approximately 0.7 log reduction. The reductions of B. cereus cells increased with increasing dipping temperature (25 to 60 degrees C). B. cereus vegetative cells were much more sensitive to the combined treatments than spores. The effectiveness of the combined electrolyzed water (EW) and 1% CA was considerable in inhibiting B. cereus on cereal grains. The application of combined EW and CA for controlling B. cereus cells and spores on cereal grains has not been previously reported. Therefore, the synergistic effect of EW and CA may provide a valuable insight on reducing foodborne pathogens on fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

  9. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Bokyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. Results The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. Conclusions LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Detection of hblA and bal Genes in Bacillus cereus Isolates From Cheese Samples Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molayi Kohneshahri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, which causes food poisoning. Spores enable the persistence of B. cereus in the environment, and B. cereus strains can tolerate adverse environmental conditions, such as temperature and insufficient nutrients. B. cereus causes food poisoning via the production of two enterotoxins. Most isolates produce toxins leading to diarrhea (enterotoxins and vomiting (emetic forms. Diarrhea is caused by the production of three different heat-labile enterotoxins: HBL, NHE, and cytotoxin K. A heat-stable toxin, cereulide, is responsible for emesis. Objectives This study aimed to detect enterotoxigenic B. cereus isolates in cheese samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods Two-hundred pasteurized (n = 100 and nonpasteurized (n = 100 cheese samples were collected. The initial isolation was performed on PEMBA specific medium. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using several antibiotic disks, according to the guidelines of the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute. Specific primers amplifying the hblA enterotoxin-encoding gene and bal hemolysin-encoding gene were used for the molecular detection of the toxins. Results Ten samples were positive for the presence of B. cereus, with both Gram staining and biochemical reactions. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. Six and three isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. The hblA and bal genes were amplified in all the B. cereus isolates. Conclusions The prevalence of B. cereus among the cheese samples was low. All the isolates were positive for genes encoding the hblA enterotoxin and bal toxin.

  11. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

  12. Growth/no growth models for heat-treated psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus spores under cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelman, Jeff; Vermeulen, An; Willemyns, Tine; Ongenaert, Rebecca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The microbiological safety of refrigerated and processed foods of extended durability (REPFED) is linked to spore-forming pathogens, more specifically Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus cereus. In this study two sets of growth/no growth (GNG) models are presented for the spores of two B. cereus strains. The models incorporate both product (water activity (a(w)) and pH) and process parameters (pasteurization value at 90 °C (P(90)) or heating temperature). The first model evaluates the effect of four different P(90)-values (P(90)=0, 4, 7 or 10 min, all applied at 90 °C) on the germination and subsequent growth of B. cereus spores under different conditions of pH and a(w) at 10 °C. These models show that a heat treatment not only increases the time to growth (TTG), but also significantly increases the minimal a(w) and pH necessary for germination and subsequent growth: e.g. at a(w) 0.995 and without heat treatment (P(90)=0), strain FF355 B. cereus spores were predicted to germinate and grow at pH 5.3. With a P(90) of 10 min, the minimal pH increased to 5.7. The second set of models for B. cereus spores compares the effect of three heat treatments with the same P(90)-value (10 min) but applied at different temperatures (85, 87 and 90 °C), on the germination and subsequent growth at 10 °C. The second model shows that lower heating temperatures (85 and 87 °C) had less effect on the TTG and minimal a(w) and pH than a higher temperature (90 °C). Finally, the first set of models was validated in broth using spores of seven psychrotrophic B. cereus strains, to evaluate the effect of strain variability on the model predictions. The results of the validation (% growth) were compared to the predicted growth probability. The results showed that the models were prone to fail-dangerous results (i.e. predicting no growth when growth was observed: 17%-34%). Using a very low threshold for growth (0.1% predicted chance of growth was considered to be complete growth), the models

  13. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  14. Effect of temperatures on the growth, toxin production, and heat resistance of Bacillus cereus in cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ding, Tian; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of temperature on toxin destruction. Cooked rice inoculated with B. cereus was stored at 15, 25, 35, and 45°C or treated at 80, 90, and 100°C. The results indicated that emetic toxin was produced faster than enterotoxin (which was not detected below 15°C) at all the storage temperatures (15-45°C) during the first 72 h. Emetic toxin persisted at 100°C for 2 h, although enterotoxin was easily to be destroyed by this treatment within 15 min. In addition, B. cereus in cooked rice stored at a warm temperature for a period was not inactivated due to survival of the thermostable endospores. These data indicate that the contaminated cooked rice with B. cereus might present a potential risk to consumers. Results from this study may help enhance the safety of such food, and provide valuable and reliable information for risk assessment and management, associated with the problem of B. cereus in cooked rice.

  15. ENUMERATION OF Bacillus cereus IN “FUBÁ” OF CORN (Zea mays. L. ENUMERAÇÃO DE Bacillus cereus EM FUBÁ DE MILHO (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A hundred (100 samples of “fubá” were examined, in relation to the incidence of Bacillus cereus, obtained by different technological processes (common “fubá” and previously cooked “fubá” and sold in the retail market in Goiânia - GO. The results of the examination showed that 23% of the samples was contaminated, of this percentual, 39.1% of the contaminations occurred in samples of previously cooked “fubá” and 60.9% in samples of common “fubá”. This in relation of the two products clearly showed the more accurate technological process that the previously cooked “fubá” was brought under. It was also observed that the totality of the analyzed samples showed enumerations below the limit established by the Brazilian microbiologic standard that establishes a limit of 10³ cells of Bacillus cereus for a gram of the food.

    Foram examinadas 100 amostras de fubá de milho, em relação à incidência de Bacillus cereus, obtidas através de processamentos tecnológicos diferentes (fubá comum e fubá pré-cozido e comercializadas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO. Os resultados revelaram que 23% das amostras estavam contaminadas, deste percentual, 39,1% das contaminações ocorreram em amostras de fubá pré-cozido e 60,9%, em amostras de fubá comum. Esta considerável diferença, observada em termos percentuais em relação aos dois produtos evidenciou o processamento tecnológico mais rigoroso a que foi submetido o fubá pré-cozido. Observou-se, também, que a totalidade das amostras analisadas apresentou enumerações abaixo do limite estabelecido pelo padrão microbiológico brasileiro que determina um limite de 10³ células de B. cereus por gama do alimento.

  16. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourasse Nicolas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. Methods In the present study, we conducted combined sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of introns, host gene, plasmid and chromosome of host strains in order to gain insights into mobility, dispersal, and evolution of the unusual introns and their extension. We also performed in vitro mutational and kinetic experiments to investigate possible functional features related to the extension. Results We report the identification of novel copies of group II introns carrying a 3' extension including the first two copies in bacteria not belonging to the B. cereus group, Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2, an uncharacterized species phylogenetically close to B. firmus. Interestingly, the B. pseudofirmus intron has a longer extension of 70 bases. From sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, several possible separate events of mobility involving the atypical introns could be identified, including both retrohoming and retrotransposition events. In addition, identical extensions were found in introns that otherwise exhibit little sequence conservation in the rest of their structures, with the exception of the conserved and catalytically critical domains V and VI, suggesting either separate acquisition of the extra segment by different group II introns or a strong selection pressure acting on the extension. Furthermore, we show by in vitro splicing experiments that the 3' extension affects the splicing properties differently in

  17. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  18. Bacillus cereus fatal bacteremia and apparent association with nosocomial transmission in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretto, E; Barbarini, D; Poletti, F; Marzani, F C; Emmi, V; Marone, P

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus cereus has sometimes been implicated in food poisoning and in opportunistic infections of seriously ill patients. This report describes an unusual case of persistent bacteremia and multiple organ failure associated with B. cereus in a patient admitted to our institution for lung cancer. The patient was undergoing treatment with an antimicrobial agent (imipenem) that was shown to be effective against the micro-organism in vitro. No portal of entry for the strain was detected. After treatment with vancomycin, also shown to be effective in vitro, no clinical improvement was noted and the patient died. Molecular studies showed that the same strain caused an episode of pseudobacteremia in another patient admitted to the same ICU room.

  19. Formation of cereulide and enterotoxins by Bacillus cereus in fermented African locust beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Munk Hansen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    genes nhe (A, B, C) were present in all 19 isolates, the hbl (A, C, D) in one (afitin), and the cytK gene in three isolates (afitin). Levels of cytotoxicity to Vero cells and NheA production in BHI-broth was within the range of known diarrheal outbreak strains. Autoclaved cooked African locust beans...... inoculated with emetic (cereulide producing) B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF supported growth at 25, 30 and 40 °C with highly different maximum cereulide productions of 6 ± 5, 97 ± 3 and 0.04 ± 0.02 μg/g beans, respectively (48 h). For non-autoclaved cooked beans inoculated with 2, 4 and 6 log10 B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF...

  20. Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015

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    Javad Behravan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detection, isolation, and characterization of β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 were investigated. B. cereus was inoculated in nutrient broth containing ampicillin (50 μg.ml−1 for 24 h (35°C, 200 rpm. Activity measurements were carried out against ampicillin (0.1 mg.ml−1 and cephalexin (0.08 mg.ml−1 by a spectrophotometric method at different conditions (pH 6–10, temperatures 25–45°C.Maximum penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity was observed at pH 7. The optimized temperatures for penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity were 30 and 40°C, respectively. At the above conditions, maximum enzymatic activity was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.014 and 0.037 ± 0.001 units against ampicillin and cephalexin.

  1. Bacillus cereus Certhrax ADP-ribosylates vinculin to disrupt focal adhesion complexes and cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nathan C; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2014-04-11

    Bacillus cereus is often associated with mild to moderate gastroenteritis; however, some recent isolates cause inhalational anthrax-like diseases and death. These potential emerging human pathogens express multiple virulence factors. B. cereus strain G9241 expresses anthrax toxin, several polysaccharide capsules, and the novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, Certhrax. In this study, we show that Certhrax ADP-ribosylates Arg-433 of vinculin, a protein that coordinates actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix interactions. ADP-ribosylation of vinculin disrupted focal adhesion complexes and redistributed vinculin to the cytoplasm. Exogenous vinculin rescued these phenotypes. This provides a mechanism for strain G9241 to breach host barrier defenses and promote bacterial growth and spread. Certhrax is the first bacterial toxin to add a post-translational modification to vinculin to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton.

  2. Lifesaving liver transplantation for multi-organ failure caused by Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, Eva; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Jörg; Becker, Heinz; Dietrich, Rudolf; Paul, Andreas; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that causes food poisoning presenting with either emesis or diarrhea. Diarrhea is caused by proteinaceous enterotoxin complexes, mainly hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K. In contrast, emesis is caused by the ingestion of the depsipeptide toxin cereulide, which is produced in B. cereus contaminated food, particularly in pasta or rice. In general, the illness is mild and self-limiting. However, due to cereulide intoxication, nine severe cases with rhabdomyolysis and/or liver failure, five of them lethal, are reported in literature. Here we report the first case of life-threatening liver failure and severe rhabdomyolysis in this context that could not be survived without emergency hepatectomy and consecutive liver transplantation.

  3. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affilia......The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene...... subsurface DEH....

  4. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  5. Biotyping of Bacillus cereus from the street vended Foods in Srinagar area of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hafeez

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to describe the biotyping of Bacillus cereus isolated from different street vended mutton tikka and chutney samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 street vended food samples comprising of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples were tested. Results: The biotype 3 and biotype 4 showed the highest occurrence with, 29.63% and 25.93% isolates falling in these biotypes, respectively. The percentage occurrence of the biotypes 1, 6, 2, 5, and 7 was 14.81%, 11.11%, 7.40%, 7.40% and 3.84%, respectively. The most common found biotypes in Mutton tikka were biotypes 3(29.63%, 4(25.93%, 1(14.81% and 6(11.11%. The Bacillus cereus strains isolated from chutney samples could be divided into 7 of the 9 possible biotypes. The biotypes 6 and 7 showed the highest occurrence with 38.46% and 30.76% falling in these biotypes, respectively. The biotype 5 and 2 were prevalent to the extent of 23.07%, 7.69%, respectively. The biotypes 3, 4 and 1 were absent. The mean bacterial count of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples was 4.6817 and 5.6575 log cfu/g. 10 Conclusion: The field isolates and the standard strains of Bacillus cereus had similar cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The biotypes recovered from the Mutton tikka samples were biotypes 3, 4, 1 and 6 and in chutneys the biotypes recovered were 6, 7, 5 and 2. The strains of Bacillus cereus were highly resistant to penicillin G (92.59%. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 590-593

  6. Traumatic wound infection due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, S; Kalnauwakul, S; Lekhakula, A

    1987-03-01

    A young man recently responding to immunosuppressive therapy for acute myelocytic leukemia was admitted with fever and haemorrhagic blebs on both extremities after sustaining some scratch marks in a muddy pond. Gram stains of the hemorrhagic fluid in the blebs revealed many gram positive bacilli. B. cereus was identified from culture of tissue fluid. He did not respond to therapy despite bacteriological cure. Terminally, he developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and generalized bleeding.

  7. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Deniz Aygun; Fatih Aygun; Halit Cam

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case ...

  8. Biofilm Formation by Bacillus cereus Is Influenced by PlcR, a Pleiotropic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Somers, Eileen B.; Lereclus, Didier; Wong, Amy C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The ΔplcR mutant of Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579 developed significantly more biofilm than the wild type and produced increased amounts of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production is required for biofilm formation and may be directly or indirectly repressed by PlcR, a pleiotropic regulator. Coating polystyrene plates with surfactin, a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis, rescued the deficiency in biofilm formation by the wild type. PMID:16820512

  9. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated ...

  10. Partial isolation and some properties of enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Guaycurus

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular proteins produced by Bacillus cereus AL-42 and AL-15 were fractioned by chromatography on QAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G75. This last chromatographic process resulted in three peaks. The major peak showed vascular permeability activity to rabbits, lethality to mice, and cytotoxicity to Vero and Hela cells. The analysis by SDS-PAGE after ultrafiltration confirm recent findings that the enterotoxin is a compound with molecular mass > 30.000.

  11. UCSC genome browser tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Ann S; Karolchik, Donna; Kuhn, Robert M; Haussler, David; Kent, W James

    2008-08-01

    The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Bioinformatics website consists of a suite of free, open-source, on-line tools that can be used to browse, analyze, and query genomic data. These tools are available to anyone who has an Internet browser and an interest in genomics. The website provides a quick and easy-to-use visual display of genomic data. It places annotation tracks beneath genome coordinate positions, allowing rapid visual correlation of different types of information. Many of the annotation tracks are submitted by scientists worldwide; the others are computed by the UCSC Genome Bioinformatics group from publicly available sequence data. It also allows users to upload and display their own experimental results or annotation sets by creating a custom track. The suite of tools, downloadable data files, and links to documentation and other information can be found at http://genome.ucsc.edu/.

  12. Time dynamics of the Bacillus cereus exoproteome are shaped by cellular oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eMadeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At low density, Bacillus cereus cells release a large variety of proteins into the extracellular medium when cultivated in pH-regulated, glucose-containing minimal medium, either in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of these exoproteins are putative virulence factors, including toxin-related proteins. Here, B. cereus exoproteome time courses were monitored by nanoLC-MS/MS under low-oxidoreduction potential (ORP anaerobiosis, high-ORP anaerobiosis, and aerobiosis, with a specific focus on oxidative-induced post-translational modifications of methionine residues. Principal component analysis (PCA of the exoproteome dynamics indicated that toxin-related proteins were the most representative of the exoproteome changes, both in terms of protein abundance and their methionine sulfoxide (Met(O content. PCA also revealed an interesting interconnection between toxin-, metabolism-, and oxidative stress–related proteins, suggesting that the abundance level of toxin-related proteins, and their Met(O content in the B. cereus exoproteome, reflected the cellular oxidation under both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

  13. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  14. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  15. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  16. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  17. L-asparaginase production by mangrove derived Bacillus cereus MAB5:optimization by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ThenmozhiC; SankarR; KaruppiahV; SampathkumarP

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate marine bacteria, statistically optimize them for maximum asparaginase production. Methods:In the present study, statistically based experimental designs were applied to maximize the production of L-asparaginase from bacterial strain of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) MAB5 (HQ675025) isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing from mangroves rhizosphere sediment. Results:Plackett-Barman design was used to identify the interactive effect of the eight variables viz. yeast extract, soyabean meal, glucose, magnesium sulphate, KH2PO4, wood chips, aspargine and sodium chloride. All the variables are denoted as numerical factors and investigated at two widely spaced intervals designated as-1 (low level) and+1 (high level). The effect of individual parameters on L-asparaginase production was calculated. Soyabean meal, aspargine, wood chips and sodium chloride were found to be the significant among eight variables. The maximum amount of L-asparaginase produced (51.54 IU/mL) from the optimized medium containing soyabean meal (6.282 8 g/L), aspargine (5.5 g/L), wood chips (1.383 8 g/L) and NaCl (4.535 4 g/L). Conclusions:The study revealed that, it is useful to produce the maximum amount of L-asparaginase from B. cereus MAB5 for the treatment of various infections and diseases.

  18. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoming XIE; Yanxin WANG; Mengyu DUAN; Xianjun XIE; Chunli SU

    2011-01-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin