WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceremonial behavior

  1. How does male ritual behavior vary across the lifespan? An examination of Fijian kava ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, John H; Sosis, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Ritual behaviors of some form exist in every society known to anthropologists. Despite this universality, we have little understanding of how ritual behavior varies within populations or across the lifespan, nor the determinants of this variation. Here we test hypotheses derived from life history theory by using behavioral observations and oral interview data concerning participant variation in Fijian kava-drinking ceremonies. We predicted that substantial variation in the frequency and duration of participation would result from (1) trade-offs with reproduction and (2) the intrinsic status differences between ritual participants. We demonstrate that when controlling for household composition, men with young offspring participated less frequently and exhibited greater variance in their time spent at ceremonies than men without young children. However, men with a larger number of total dependents in their household participated more frequently than those with fewer. Moreover, we found that men's ascribed rank, level of education, and reliance on wage labor all significantly predict their frequency of attendance. We also found that the number of dependents a man has in his household is positively correlated with total food production, and the amount of kava he cultivates. In general, these results suggest that ritual participation is part of an important strategy employed by Fijian men for both achieving status and developing social alliances. Variation in participation in kava ceremonies by Fijian men therefore reflects the constraints of their current life history condition and their inherited rank.

  2. Television Ceremonial Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Daniel; Katz, Elihu

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of televised ceremonies (such as the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana) as "media events" which allow viewers to vicariously enter into the ceremony. Compares them with cult movies that, over repeated viewing, encourage audience "participation." Focuses on the narrator's/commentator's role in shaping…

  3. The LEP groundbreaking ceremony

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    French President Francois Mitterand and Swiss President Pierre Aubert visiting CERN for the LEP ground-breaking ceremony on 13 September 1983. They are seen here with Emilio Picasso, LEP project director, and Herwig Schopper, CERN's then Director-General.

  4. Ceremony for ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Wednesday 4 June will be a special day for CERN. The President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, will officially inaugurate the huge ATLAS cavern now that the civil engineering works have ended. The inauguration ceremony will be held in the ATLAS surface building, with speeches by Pascal Couchepin and CERN, ATLAS and civil engineering personalities. This ceremony will be Webcast live. To access the Webcast on 4 June at 18h00 go to CERN Intranet home page or the following address : http://webcast.cern.ch/live.php

  5. Nobel Prize ceremony 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 10 December 2013 particle physics took central stage at the Nobel ceremony in Stockholm. Among the invitees were Fabiola Gianotti, former ATLAS spokesperson, Joseph Incandela, CMS Spokesperson, and CERN theorist Luis Alvarez-Gaume. They share their feelings of the memorable day with us.   Overview of the 2013 Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall. © Nobel Media AB 2013. Photo: Alex Ljungdahl. Fabiola Gianotti and Joe Incandela, at the Nobel Banquet in the Stockholm City Hall.   "It was an honour and a thrill for us to attend such a memorable Nobel prize ceremony and we are very grateful to Peter Higgs for having included us among his invited guests. The ceremony held some special moments for the LHC. In his speech prior to the award of the Nobel prize to Francois Englert and Peter Higgs by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Lars Brink (Chair of the Physics Nobel Prize Committee) stressed the importance of the results from the LHC exper...

  6. NACA Groundbreaking Ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    The NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, had initially been subordinate to the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory near Hampton, Virginia, but as the flight research in the Mojave Desert increasingly proved its worth after 1946, it made sense to make the Flight Research Station a separate entity reporting directly to the headquarters of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. But an autonomous center required all the trappings of a major research facility, including good quarters. With the adoption of the Edwards 'Master Plan,' the Air Force had committed itself to moving from its old South Base to a new location midway between the South and North Bases. The NACA would have to move also--so why not take advantage of the situation and move into a full-blown research facility. The Air Force issued a lease to NACA for a location on the northwestern shore of the Roger Dry Lake. Construction started on the NACA station in early February 1953. On a windy day, January 27, 1953, at a groundbreaking ceremony stood left to right: Gerald Truszynski, Head of Instrumentation Division; Joseph Vensel, Head of the Operations Branch; Walter Williams, Head of the Station, scooping the first shovel full of dirt; Marion Kent, Head of Personnel; and California state official Arthur Samet.

  7. The Mourning Ceremony for The Victims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At 14:28 on the afternoon of May 19, CCPIT held the Mourning Ceremony for the victims of the May-12 Wenchuan 8.0-magnitude earthquake. Over 300 people including all staff members of CCPIT offices and departments as well as CCPIT enterprises and institutions at-tended the ceremony and mourned for the victims for three min-utes, expressing their deeply-felt grief.

  8. Ceremony in memory of Mervyn Hine

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A short ceremony in memory of Mervyn Hine will be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 21 October at 16:00. Kjell Johnsen, Henri Laporte, Gabriel Minder, Paolo Zanella, Ben Segal and one of the Hine family will speak about the person whom they knew and about various aspects of his extremely varied career at CERN. Various records (written, photographic and video) will be briefly presented. The ceremony is expected to last about one hour and will be followed by a reception in the Glass Box. David Williams. DSU-EU

  9. 28 CFR 551.16 - Marriage ceremony in the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage ceremony in the institution. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.16 Marriage ceremony in the institution. (a) The Warden may approve the use of institution facilities for an inmate's marriage ceremony. If a...

  10. Inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) was held on 16 October 1971. Kjell Johnsen is seen in the picture handing a symbolic key to the ISR to Edoardo Amaldi. From left to right on the podium: Victor Frederik Weisskopf, former Director-General; M Antonioz; Willibald Jentschke as Director-General of CERN, and on the other side Werner Heisenberg.

  11. Summer Grand Summons Ceremony in Tashilhungpo Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XILHU

    2003-01-01

    Every year, Tashilhungpo Monastery celebrates the Summer Grand Summons Ceremony (called Ximoqenbo in Tibetan) in the eighth month of the Tibetan calendar. All the monks and lay people of the Xigaze area get together to watch Chammo, which is a kind of sorcerer's dance. It is also a Tantric ritual

  12. Corporate Responsibility as Myth and Ceremony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Patrick; Martignoni, Dirk; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    Organizations adopt corporate responsibility (CR) policies often ceremonially, meaning that policy adoption is not substantive and lacks alignment with actual practice. Prior research in institutional theory has largely assumed as static view of adoption and suggests that a situation of opacity (i...... governance mechanism and (2) the institutional theory concepts of decoupling and (re-)coupling....

  13. Kocel Steel Foundry Grand Opening Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shi-jiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ On May 9, 2006 the Grand Opening ceremony of Kocel Steel Foundry Co., Ltd. was held in the National Economic and Technological Development Zone in Yinchuan City, Ningxia, China. Kocel Steel Foundry Co.,Ltd. is a large scale enterprise producing steel castings and it is jointly established by Ningxia Kocel Group,Changcheng Suzaki Machine & Foundry Co., Ltd. and Voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Austria.

  14. Awarding Ceremony and New Arrivals of Blissliving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The long expected Lan-Blisslivinghome Global Home Design Contest announced the winners on April 17 in Beijing.Young designers,Wang Yingying from Beijing and Qiang Xiaoning from Shanxi stood out from the crowd and won the first and second prize respectively.Malgorzata Czuchraj from Poland ranks the third.On the awarding ceremony,Blisslivinghome presented its autumn and winter new arrivals.

  15. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12 Section 222.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial...

  16. The Ceremonial Elements of Non-Native Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Bert

    1994-01-01

    Explores reasons behind the wrongful adoption of Native American ceremonies by Euro-Americans. Focuses on the need for ceremony, its relevance to environmental education, and the fact that some immigrant cultural traditions neither fit this new land nor value the earth. Suggests how non-Natives can express their connection to the land by creating…

  17. The First Olympus Confocal Micro Imaging Competition China Award Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On January 20, 2010, the award ceremony for the First Olympus Confocal Micro Imaging Competition China was held in Beijing. After rounds of judging and competition, 16 photos finally won the prize.The First Olympus Confocal MicroImaging Competition China Award Ceremony was organized by Sciencenet.cn

  18. Definitional Ceremonies: Integrating Community into Multicultural Counseling Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, James Robert; Robertson, Patricia E.; Roig, Grace; Disqueact, J. Graham

    2004-01-01

    Definitional Ceremonies are used as a forum for integrating members of diverse cultures into multicultural counseling sessions. The authors provide a philosophical foundation, implementation process, and excerpts from a typescript of a recent definitional ceremony involving a women and her mother, both recently in the United States from Panama.

  19. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  20. Remarks delivered at the awards ceremony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumberger, H.; Hendricks, R.W. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    For almost four decades, the distinguished trio of professors, W. W. Beeman, A. Guinier, and O. Kratky, have provided leadership of the field of small-angle scattering through both their teaching and their personal research. Collectively, they have authored or coauthored over 400 scientific articles and reviews, several books, and have been associated with over 140 graduate and postdoctoral students. It was thus appropriate that each should be honored for his outstanding contributions to the field at the Fourth International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering which was held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1977. The Board of Directors of the Special Interest Group on Small-Angle Scattering of the American Crystallographic Association in conjunction with the Conference Organizing Committee, arranged a special awards ceremony during which each honoree presented his personal reminiscences of the development of small-angle scattering in his own laboratory. This report is a record of this event.

  1. Old and new rites of passage in contemporary Western societies: A focus on marriage and divorce ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arosio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with ceremonial behaviors related to changes of status in individuals’ life courses, that is to say, with rites of passage. Drawing on Arnold van Gennep’s classic book on Les rites de passage, we first discuss their meaning and explore their persistence over time. In contemporary societies some rites die out, others assert themselves. We suggest that this is the case of divorce rites. With the demise of the circumstances that prevented divorce from being considered a transition event in the lives of individuals, the need has arisen to create ceremonial rites for the end of marriage. In this light, we interpret the growing interest in phenomena such as divorce ceremonies and divorce parties.

  2. Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichter, Stephen; Klimo, Jon; Krippner, Stanley

    2009-06-01

    Ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic plant brew from the Amazon basin used as part of healing ceremonies by the local indigenous people of the region for centuries, is now being consumed by growing numbers of people throughout the world. Anecdotal evidence and previous research suggest that there are spiritual effects experienced among participants who take part in ayahuasca ceremonies. The current study examined whether novice participants' spirituality was affected through participation in an ayahuasca ceremony, and if so, how. A mixed-design method was used, comparing those participating in an ayahuasca ceremony to those who did not participate. This investigation used the Peak Experience Profile, the Spiritual Well-being Scale, and the Mysticism Scale as quantitative measures. Participant interviews and written accounts of ceremony experiences were analyzed. Results showed that neither the SWB score nor the M-Scale score increased significantly after participating in an ayahuasca ceremony. However, it was found that the higher the PEP score, the greater the positive change in SWB and M-Scale scores. Qualitative data revealed common spiritual themes in many of the participants' interviews and written accounts. Experiential differences were displayed within the ayahuasca ceremony group, warranting continued investigation into, and identification of, various confounding variables that prompt reported changes in spirituality within some participants while not in others.

  3. Lavender Commencement Ceremony to honor LGBT graduates at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Caucus at Virginia Tech is sponsoring the Second Annual Lavender Commencement Ceremony, which will be held on May 13 at 11 a.m. in the Old Dominion Ballroom of Squires Student Center.

  4. Signing Ceremony Between CAS and Schneider Electric Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On April 9, 2008, a strategic cooperation signing ceremony between the China Association for Stan-dardization (CAS) and Schneider Electric took place at the Diao Yutai Guest Hotel in Beijing. Attending the signing ceremony were Mr Sun Xiaokang, Duty Director of SAC, Mr. Ma Lingcong, Secretary General of CAS, Mr. Noel Girard, Schneider Electric Marketing Director, Mr. Guy Dufrdi sse, Chairman of Schneider Electric (China) and more than twenty high-ranking managers from both companies.

  5. Ribbon-cutting ceremony for Building 774

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 12 June, the brand-new Building 774 on the Prévessin site was officially opened by Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN, and Stéphane Donnot, sous-préfet of Gex, together with Serge Moulon, deputy mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, and Aurélie Charillon, mayor of Prévessin-Moëns and a member of the Conseil départemental de l’Ain.     Left to right: Serge Moulon, deputy mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Stéphane Donnot, sous-préfet of Gex, Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN, and Aurélie Charillon, mayor of Prévessin-Moëns and a member of the Conseil départemental de l’Ain.   “Thanks to its innovative architecture, this iconic building is the jewel in the crown of the French site,” said Heuer. Prior to the ceremony, the Director-General had met the politicians to discuss relations between CERN a...

  6. Humanism or professionalism? The White Coat Ceremony and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judah L

    2008-08-01

    In this article, the author challenges the widely held assumption that humanism and professionalism are necessarily complementary themes in medical education. He argues that humanism and professionalism are two very different value systems with different rationales, different goals, and different agendas. Whereas humanism is a universal, egalitarian ideology, professionalism represents the parochial, culturally determined practices of a particular professional group that may or may not conform to lay expectations. Distinguishing professionalism from humanism is crucial to understanding the divergent attitudes of providers and lay persons with regard to health care delivery and physician behavior. Moreover, it highlights the tension that medical students experience as they are tacitly asked to leave behind their lay, humanistic values and embrace a new professional identity, a transition that the common blurring of humanism and professionalism fails to recognize. In this context, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation's widely acclaimed White Coat Ceremony for entering medical students may actually be inhibiting, rather than encouraging, the genuine growth of humanism in medicine.

  7. A World of Love 2008 Music Grand Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng

    2008-01-01

      Under the guidance of the theme slogan of the 29th Olympic Games - One World One Dream, with dream, love and dedication as its theme, the 2008 Music Grand Ceremony & 1000 People Charity Concert on 100 days countdown to Paralympic Games is officially launched on December 22, 2007. The 2008 Music Grand Ceremony is sponsored by China Disabled Persons' Federation, and co-hosted by National Paralympic Committee of China, China Huaxia Culture Group and Beijing Hanbohongyuan Culture Development Co., Ltd., aiming at supporting Chinese paralympic delegation in the 2008 Paralympic Games.……

  8. A World of Love 2008 Music Grand Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Under the guidance of the theme slogan of the 29th Olympic Games - One World One Dream, with dream, love and dedication as its theme, the 2008 Music Grand Ceremony & 1000 People Charity Concert on 100 days countdown to Paralympic Games is officially launched on December 22, 2007. The 2008 Music Grand Ceremony is sponsored by China Disabled Persons' Federation, and co-hosted by National Paralympic Committee of China, China Huaxia Culture Group and Beijing Hanbohongyuan Culture Development Co., Ltd., aiming at supporting Chinese paralympic delegation in the 2008 Paralympic Games.

  9. Launch Ceremony for the U.S-China Standards Portal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On November 9th, 2006, SAC (Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China), held "Launch Ceremony for the U.S-China Standards Platform" in Beijing. Mr.Liu Pingjun, Administrator of SAC, Mr. Buhadi, President of US National Standard Association, and Ms. Kelin, NIST, who spoke on behalf of the president of NIST, Mr.Jeffrey, separately delivered a warm address on the ceremony. In their speeches, they were highly complimentary about recent satisfactory cooperation in standardization between China and USA. To put "the U.S-China Standards Platform" into operation will be beneficial to both sides' standardization cooperation and exchange.

  10. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law...

  11. The Visual Elegance of Ts'its'tsi'nako and the Other Invisible Characters in "Ceremony."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, David E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Examines apparent aberrations in the visual structure of the story-poems in Leslie Silko's "Ceremony." Suggests that the poems' texts act as skeletons for a series of illustrations that reflect the texts' content and provide the final ingredient necessary for "Ceremony" to become a ceremony--the invisible spirit helpers. (SV)

  12. The ceremony for promulgation of China Print Awards was held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The first China Print Awards, spon- sored by Printing and Printing Equipment Industries Association of China, The Hong Kong Printers Association, Taiwan Print- ing & Machinery, Material Industry Asso- ciation and Macao Printing Association, started since March 2006.The ceremony for promulgation of China Print Awards was held on 29th August,

  13. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Prisacariu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation based on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. One purpose of the present work is to give a semantics to ANP through psi-calculi. Another aim was to give a graphical language for a psi-calculus instance for security ceremonies. At the same time, this work provides more insight into the details of the ANPs formalization and the graphical representation.

  14. The blessingway ceremony: ritual, nostalgic imagination and feminist spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the role of spirituality on the experience of health, wellness and illness, as well as the role of spiritual practice in health care provision. For pregnancy and childbirth, this focus has tended to concentrate on hospital birth settings and care, and religious forms of spirituality. The blessingway ceremony can be described as an alternative baby shower, popular with home-birthing women. Its focus is woman-centred and draws on the power of ritual to evoke a spiritual experience for the pregnant host and her guests. This spirituality is experienced as a strong connection between women, their relationship with 'nature', and forged via the nostalgic imagination of women through time and space. This article will draw on data obtained in 2010 during doctoral fieldwork with 52 home-birthing women across eastern Australia and will examine the blessingway ceremony and its significance as a site of potential spiritual empowerment for pregnant and birthing women.

  15. 法科教育中法律仪式教育的意义及其实现%The Significance and Its Realization of Legal Ceremony Education in Law Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋云; 翟晶

    2012-01-01

    Legal ceremony as a special form kind of ceremony,reflected in the whole process of law operating.Law ceremony is that in the process of law operation that the general of ceremony about what happened with law meaning.The important value of legal ceremony lies in through the specific subjects' specific behavior,specific language,or the use of specific objects,shown by the spirit experience,in order to achieve the blend between the rule of law and the value of the law.Legal ceremony has regularization and which not regularization two points.Regularization of legal ceremony scattered exist in our country of laws and regulations,fragmentized characteristics.Legal ceremony education in our country's law education department in the catalogue department law teaching,much of the content is regularization of legal ceremony.Law textbook has no the concept of legal ceremony,which not regularization in basically law education is not exist.It has positive significance that legal ceremony education on students' skills and vocational moral cultivation.%法律仪式作为仪式的一种特殊形式体现在法律运行的整个过程之中。法律仪式有规则化的(制度化的)与未被规则化的之分。规则化了的法律仪式零散存在于我国法律法规之中,呈碎片化特征。法律仪式教育在我国法科教育中散见于部门法学的教学中,内容多为规则化了的法律仪式。法学教课书中并没有法律仪式这一概念,未被规则化的法律仪式在法科教育中是不存在的。法律仪式教育对法科学生的技能与职业道德的培养有着积极意义。

  16. Astronomical Orientations of Bora Ceremonial Grounds in Southeast Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Robert S; Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    Ethnographic evidence indicates that bora (initiation) ceremonial sites in southeast Australia, which typically comprise a pair of circles connected by a pathway, are symbolically reflected in the Milky Way as the 'Sky Bora'. This evidence also indicates that the position of the Sky Bora signifies the time of the year when initiation ceremonies are held. We use archaeological data to test the hypothesis that southeast Australian bora grounds have a preferred orientation to the position of the Milky Way in the night sky in August, when the plane of the galaxy from Crux to Sagittarius is roughly vertical in the evening sky to the south-southwest. We accomplish this by measuring the orientations of 68 bora grounds using a combination of data from the archaeological literature and site cards in the New South Wales Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System database. We find that bora grounds have a preferred orientation to the south and southwest, consistent with the Sky Bora hypothesis. Monte Carlo statis...

  17. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of...

  18. Quantifying School Officials' Exposure to Bacterial Pathogens at Graduation Ceremonies Using Repeated Observational Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David; Liu, Liang; Shiau, Stephanie; Wang, Harrison; Tsai, Cindy; Liao, Margaret; Prakash, Shivaani; Howard, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of acquiring pathogenic bacteria as a result of shaking hands at graduation ceremonies. School officials participating in graduation ceremonies at elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools were recruited. Specimens were collected before and immediately following graduation. Cultures…

  19. Ceremony for the inaugural issuance of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Geriatric Cardiology ( JGC )started publication in September 2004. To announce the publication of its first issue, a ceremony was held at China Grand Hotel in Beijing on October 18th, 2004during the 15th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology. Many guests were present at the ceremony.

  20. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  1. "Next Time, Just Remember the Story": Unlearning Empire in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the unlearning empire in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel titled "Ceremony." "Ceremony' has received a wealth of critical attention. A number of scholars have identified the novel's treatment of education as a colonizing force used by the white American power structure to coerce assimilation of American Indians.…

  2. HODSONG: A MONASTERY RITUAL FOR A LOCAL WISDOM CEREMONY FOR THE MONK RANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerapong Meethaisong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ranking order of monk in Isan, Thailand was influenced mostly from Buddhist believe and practices starting from Lanchang period and this religious believe become the common practices and the tool for local community in strengthening harmony and unity. One of the important religious ceremony calls Hodsong ceremony. The research area covered Maha Sarakham, Roi Et and Kalasin provinces which there are many Monk’s hierarchy ceremony. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 66 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. This research finds; Hodsong ceremony of Isan people was evidentially found since Dvaravati period, Sukhothai (Lanna, Lan Chang, Ayuthaya, Thonburi and Rattanakosin period. It was approved from different archeological sites such as Prathat Yakhu, Um Yakhu and the other kind of evident as has been recognized as a position or ranking such as Ratchakhru and Lakkham for instance. In addition, there were some equipment that was involved within this ceremony such as the water tube or Honghod were found at Wat Wichunrat and Wat Chiangthong, including different temple in Isan. The Laab or Supannabat (a golden plate used for in scripted manuscript was rarely found,and most of remains were reproduced. Hodsong ceremony is a religious tradition of Isan people that combined the ritual and believe together. Currently, Local Isan people still practice this ceremony in some communities with the 8 steps of preparation of instruments, Hodsong ornaments the itinerary order of the ceremony the ceremonial location the establishing ritual Baisri setting Sootkhwanbaisri or morale setting consoling and tied arms tradition. In addition, this ceremony involved with believers of direction and occasion from traditional beliefs. Despite, there were some problems such as

  3. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel

    2003-11-01

    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  4. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  5. News Release - Ceremonies held at Ashland's Kunshan and Changzhou facilities to celebrate plant expansions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ KUNSHAN & CHANGZHOU, (China) - Ashland Composite Polymers and Ashland Casting Solutions, business groups of Ashland Specialty Chemical, a division of Ashland Inc. (NYSE:ASH), held a two-day ribbon-cutting ceremony for their plant expansions in Kunshan and Changzhou in June 25-26, 2005.This marks the second public ceremonial event since the establishment of both plants in the late 1990s.

  6. Tianjin Textile Museum Opened Up & The Launching Ceremony of Tianjin Textile Building Staged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The opening of Tianjin Textile Museum and the launching ceremony of Tianjin Textile Building were staged in Tianjin hi-tech textile industrial park on May 8. Chen Shujin, Vice President of China Textile Industry Association, Li Yuanchao, director of Tianjin Municipal Commission of Economy and Information Technology, the Deputy Secretary of Land and Resources,the Deputy Secretary of Technical Supervision Administration, and representatives of other group companies attended the ceremony.

  7. Highlights of the inauguration ceremony for the new permanent exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The new “Universe of Particles" permanent exhibition in the Globe was unveiled this week to its first visitors. On Monday, 28 June, in the presence of representatives of the local authorities, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer cut the ribbon; on Tuesday, 29 and Wednesday 30 June the Globe's doors remained open for visits by the CERN personnel.   Cutting the ribbon at the inauguration of the Globe's new permanent exhibition At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremony, the Head of the Education Group, Rolf Landua, expressed his satisfaction: “It's wonderful. We are very happy that it has all turned out so well. Now we look forward to lots of visitors.” The exhibition represents a major addition to the tourist destinations in the region and an important tool for the public awareness of science, which could also be useful for schools. “The purpose of the exhibition is to inspire visitors, to arouse their curiosity about science and to motivate them t...

  8. Moral Characteristics of Traditional Han Funeral Ceremony%汉族传统丧礼仪式的德育特质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲲

    2014-01-01

    丧礼仪式是中国传统社会重要而特殊的文化形式,它影响着华夏民族的心理情感、思维特征和行为方式,维护了古代中国超稳定的社会结构。丧礼仪式承载着古代社会德性的基本价值取向,符合官方以儒家正统思想整合家庭、家族和乡村社会的要求,在实践的层面也扩展了“礼”的内涵和实用性。全方位的互动模式、文化心理和行为惯习,是丧礼仪式独具特色的德育环境。传统丧礼仪式对个体意志结构和行动结构影响深远,对个体品德具有重要的建构作用。%Funeral ceremony is an important and special form of culture in Chinese society. The ceremony affects psychological emotion, thinking and behavior of Chinese nation, and it also maintains the ancient Chinese superstable social structure. The funeral ceremony embodies basic social moral values, it meets needs of the governments to integrate families, and household and rural society with Confucian orthodoxy, and it extends the “li” connotation and practicability in practice. Interactive patterns, culture psychology and brhavior habits present unique moral education environment. Traditional funeral ceremony brings profound influence on individual will structure and activity structure, and it also plays an important role in construction of individual morality.

  9. Coubertin and Olympic Ceremony%顾拜旦与奥林匹克仪式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海

    2001-01-01

    通过对顾拜旦著作的研究,对在奥运会中举行的各种仪式的构思、形式、功能等进行了分析,旨在为把握奥林匹克仪式的本质内涵。%Through studying the literature of Coubertin, the author makes an analysis on design, form and function of various ceremony in Olympic games in order to hold the essence meaning of Olympic ceremony.

  10. 1-Tochtli, 2-Acatl Survivals of the New Fire Ceremony 1558/1559; 1610/1611

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    2016-11-01

    In pre-Hispanic Mexico great ceremonies were celebrated every 52 years at the congruency of the two basic calendar cycles, of 365 and of 260 days. All ritual and domestic fires, were extinguished for five days. Then a new fire was lit on the chest of a victim. The evangelization of Mexico was accompanied by syncretism of the local faith, its feasts and places of cult. We find in the archives of the XVI and XVII centuries traces of the survivals of the New Fire Ceremony.

  11. THE GALICIAN AUDIOVISUAL IN MESTRE MATEO AWARDS. PROTOCOL AT THE CEREMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Amoros Pons

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The text summarizes the main results of a research that forms a part of a more global project about the study, in the field of cinema, of the specialized public relations  and ceremonial protocol as a communication strategy (persuasive indirect and / or covert in film events and, specifically, in the ceremony of awards’ delivery. In this article we focus on the geographical context of Galician audiovisual and on Mestre Mateo Awards’ show, in the first decade of the 21st century. Information of this event’s planning and the communication results obtained with its realization are contributed.

  12. The Meanings Of Goldfish In Wedding Ceremony Of Toba Batak Society

    OpenAIRE

    Christin Magdalena P.

    2014-01-01

    Paper entitled "The Meanings of Goldfish in Wedding Ceremony of Toba Batak Society" contains about understanding whyToba Batak people use goldfish in a wedding ceremony as a symbol of blessing given by hula-hula and the bride's parents to the couple. And found ed some roles of giving the goldfish and their functions. There are some rules and proverbs position used when delivering goldfish follow Batak Toba philosophy. The purpose of this paper work in order to provide insight to the people ...

  13. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" in Context: Ceremonial Protest and African American Jeremiad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Lei, Elizabeth; Miller, Keith D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how "I Have a Dream" is the product of African-American rhetorical traditions of ceremonial protest and jeremiad speech-making, rituals that had crystallized long before King was born. Describes the peaceful essences of the March on Washington and how it was a "Ceremonial Protest." Considers the historical use of…

  14. 天下南岳祭茶纵观%An Overview on Tea Ceremony in Nanyue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭子威; 胡秋桂

    2015-01-01

    Nanyue Tea ceremony can be tracked back to ancient times, and can be the reference to modern tea ceremony. The author collected vast amount of documentary materials and records from folks on this ancient ceremony and summarized the origin and development of this history, which might enhance the connotation of the old time and modern the culture of tea ceremony.%南岳祭茶溯及远古祭祀,是近现代祭茶礼节的传承依据.笔者从相关史料记载和通过民间走访搜集到大量有关祭茶、茶祭的资料,然后按照时序整理并理清了南岳祭茶的起源与发展历程,让读者深切领略南岳古老与当代祭茶、茶祭文化的内涵.

  15. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's Class of 2011 admitted in ceremonies

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's (VMRCVM) Class of 2011 was formally admitted to the college recently following a "White Coat Ceremony" at Virginia Tech in which the 91 new students were issued white laboratory coats and administered the "Veterinary Student's Oath."

  16. School as Ceremony and Ritual: How Photography Illuminates Performances of Ideological Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Drew; Chappell, Sharon; Margolis, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Images of the places and activities called "school" as a formal institution are rich data for the inquiring gaze. This article focuses specifically on historical photos of school rituals and ceremonies through which young people perform particular narratives of schooling through repetitive embodied practice and in turn construct values and beliefs…

  17. The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony 1992 at the Stockholm Concert Hall, Sweden, 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Eurovision / TF1

    1992-01-01

    The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature as well as the Economics Prize are awarded on 10 December at the Stockholm Concert Hall in Sweden. Organized by the Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony is the highlight of the Nobel Week – celebrating the Nobel Laureates and their work.

  18. The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony 1984 at the Stockholm Concert Hall, Sweden, 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    TV1 Fakta, Stockholm

    1984-01-01

    The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature as well as the Economics Prize are awarded on 10 December at the Stockholm Concert Hall in Sweden. Organized by the Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony is the highlight of the Nobel Week celebrating the Nobel Laureates and their work.

  19. Launch Ceremony of Living History——40 Experiences from Personal Perspectives Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Wei

    2013-01-01

    <正>To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Germany,a launch ceremony of the book Living History—40 Experiences from Personal Perspectives(Gelebte Geschichte—40 Erfahrungen aus Personlicher Sicht) was held in the Peace Palace of

  20. NCI at Frederick Employees Recognized at the 2013 NCI Director’s Awards Ceremony | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer More than 60 NCI at Frederick government and contractor employees were recognized at the NCI Director’s Awards Ceremony on Nov. 14, held on the main NIH campus in Bethesda.

  1. Ceremony and Judicial Construction%仪式与司法建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣

    2012-01-01

    文章从人类学的仪式理论与实践出发,引入仪式在日常生活和在司法领域的表现及作用,从而阐明仪式对立统一的存在价值。其次,从陪审制度这一现代司法仪式的阻断功能、辅助司法权威功能以及稳定司法功能进行全景式考察,阐述陪审制度借助仪式这一载体而体现的独特价值。%Starting from the ritual theory and practice of anthropology,the article introduces the performance and function of ceremony in daily life and judicial field,and clarifies the value of the unity of opposites of ceremony.Then,the article makes a thorough investigation of the blocking function,the function of assisting judicial authority,and the function of stabilizing the justice of jury system,a modern judicial ceremony,and states the unique value of jury system with ceremony as its carrier.

  2. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad (BOCOG) announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25, 2007.

  3. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad(BOCOG)announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25,2007.

  4. Launching Ceremony of Chinese Edition of Our History Is Still Being Written Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>On March 13, the CPAFFC held a launching ceremony of the Chinese edition of Our History Is Still Being Written-tthe Story of Three Chinese-Cuban Generals in the Cuban Revolution at the Friendship Museum. Li Xiaolin, vice president of the

  5. Projecting Dynastic Majesty: State Ceremony in the Reign of Robert Bruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Dean

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the murder of his rival John Comyn on 10 February at Greyfriars in Dumfries, and the crisis this act incited, Robert the Bruce’s inaugural ceremony took place at Scone in late March 1306. Much about this ceremony is speculative; however, subsequent retrospective legitimisation of the Bruce claims to the royal succession would suggest that all possible means by which Robert’s inauguration could emulate his Canmore predecessors and outline his right to rule on a level playing field with his contemporaries were amplified, particularly where they served the common purpose of legitimising Robert’s highly questioned hold on power. Fourteenth-century Scottish history is inextricably entwined in the Wars of Independence, civil strife and an accelerated struggle for autonomous rule and independence. The historiography of this period is unsurprisingly heavily dominated by such themes and, while this has been offset by works exploring subjects such as the tomb of Bruce and the piety of the Bruce dynasty, the ceremonial history of this era remains firmly in the shadows. This paper will address three key ceremonies through which a king would, traditionally, make powerful statements of royal authority: the inauguration or coronation of Bruce; the marriage of his infant son to the English princess Joan of the Tower in 1328, and his extravagant funeral ceremony in 1329. By focusing thus this paper hopes to shed new light on the ‘dark and drublie days’ of fourteenth-century Scotland and reveal that glory, dynastic majesty and pleasure were as central to the Scottish monarchy in this era as war and political turbulence.

  6. Keqiao Trade Fair Stands Out on Three Features——2009 CHINA KEQIAO INTERNATIONAL TEXTILE EXPO ceremoniously opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the morning of October 25th,2009,China Keqiao International Textile Expo (autumn) opened ceremoniously in China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center. "Large-Scale,internationalization and

  7. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  8. Rituals, ceremonies and customs related to sacred trees with a special reference to the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Amots

    2007-07-09

    Tree worship is very common worldwide. This field study surveys the ceremonies and customs related to sacred trees in present-day Israel; it includes the results of interviews with 98 informants in thirty-one Arab, Bedouin, and Druze villages in the Galilee. The main results are: 1. Sacred trees were treated as another kind of sacred entity with all their metaphysical as well as physical manifestations. 2. There is not even one ceremony or custom that is peculiar only to a sacred tree and is not performed in other sacred places (such as a saint's grave or a mosque). 3. Few customs, such as: quarrel settling (= Sulkha), leaving objects to absorb the divine blessing and leaving objects for charity) seem to be characteristic of this region, only. 4. In modern times, sacred trees were never recorded, in Israel, as centres for official religious ceremonies including sacrifices, nor as places for the performing of rites of passage. 5. There is some variation among the different ethnic groups: Kissing trees and worshipping them is more common among the Druze although carrying out burials under the tree, leaving water and rain-making ceremonies under them have not been recorded in this group. Passing judgments under the tree is more typical of the Bedouin in which the sacred trees were commonly used as a public social centre. Most of the customs surveyed here are known from other parts of the world. The differences between Muslims and Druze are related to the latter's belief in the transmigration of souls.

  9. Rituals, ceremonies and customs related to sacred trees with a special reference to the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Amots

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tree worship is very common worldwide. This field study surveys the ceremonies and customs related to sacred trees in present-day Israel; it includes the results of interviews with 98 informants in thirty-one Arab, Bedouin, and Druze villages in the Galilee. The main results are: 1. Sacred trees were treated as another kind of sacred entity with all their metaphysical as well as physical manifestations. 2. There is not even one ceremony or custom that is peculiar only to a sacred tree and is not performed in other sacred places (such as a saint's grave or a mosque. 3. Few customs, such as: quarrel settling (= Sulkha, leaving objects to absorb the divine blessing and leaving objects for charity seem to be characteristic of this region, only. 4. In modern times, sacred trees were never recorded, in Israel, as centres for official religious ceremonies including sacrifices, nor as places for the performing of rites of passage. 5. There is some variation among the different ethnic groups: Kissing trees and worshipping them is more common among the Druze although carrying out burials under the tree, leaving water and rain-making ceremonies under them have not been recorded in this group. Passing judgments under the tree is more typical of the Bedouin in which the sacred trees were commonly used as a public social centre. Most of the customs surveyed here are known from other parts of the world. The differences between Muslims and Druze are related to the latter's belief in the transmigration of souls.

  10. Traditional Marriage Ceremonies among the Ibibio People of Nigeria: A Study of Theatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Ubong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Traditional’ marriage among Ibibio people of Southern Nigeria is as much entertainment as it is serious drama that prepares a couple and their families for a life-long relationship. Although the script may be short, the entire event, from the pre-public ceremony to the post-public, in-house ceremonies is a deft admixture of rhetoric, song, dance, spectacle, character, and thought. The difference is that the event is not an imitation, but a mixture of human action and reaction in real time. The three unities may not apply as action is usually originated long before that special day but each traditional marriage (public ceremony that precedes, and is seen as being more important than a ‘white wedding,’ can be seen as a complete event in and of itself, taking place at the same venue, within a time frame and milieu, and concluded in one day. The performance lasts a lifetime and binds not just two people, but two families, sometimes two communities and two cultures. Christianity and economics have forced changes but the fundamentals remain – that the event is verily an admixture of drama and reality aimed at ensuring continuity of society.

  11. Assessing extreme droughts in the Iberian Peninsula during 1750–1850 from rogation ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domínguez-Castro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the different meteorological risks, droughts are the ones with the highest socio-economical impact in the Iberian Peninsula. Drought events have been largely studied in the instrumental period, but very little is known about the characteristics of droughts in the preinstrumental period. In this work, new series of rogation ceremonies identify severe droughts within the period 1750–1850. The overlapping of the rogation series with some instrumental series served to identify some climatic characteristics of rogation ceremonies: a during spring, rainfall deficits needed to celebrate rogation ceremonies are smaller than in any other season; b when the number of location celebrating rogations increases in a region the hydrological deficit on each location increases as well.

    On the other hand, it was found that the periods 1750–1754 and 1779–1783 are probably the driest periods of the 101 analyzed years. Both show an important number of rogations all over the Iberian Peninsula and during all the seasons.

    The most extended drought of this period occurred during the spring of 1817, affecting 15 of the 16 locations studied. This drought was influenced by the Tambora eruption (1815. The study of the climate footprint of this eruption and its comparison with similar situations in the series suggest that the spring drought of 1824 may be associated with the eruptions of the Galunggung and Usu volcanoes (1822. Further studies are required to confirm this fact and understand the atmospheric mechanisms involved.

  12. Assessing extreme droughts in Spain during 1750–1850 from rogation ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domínguez-Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the different meteorological hazards, droughts are those with the highest socio-economical impact on the Iberian Peninsula. Drought events have been largely studied in the instrumental period, but very little is known about the characteristics of droughts in the preinstrumental period. In this work, several series of rogation ceremonies are used to identify severe droughts within the period 1750–1850. The overlapping of the rogation series with some instrumental series served to identify some climatic characteristics of rogation ceremonies: (a during spring, rainfall deficits needed to celebrate rogation ceremonies are smaller than in any other season; (b the hydrological deficit in a particular region increases with the number of locations celebrating rogations simultaneously.

    On the other hand, it was found that between 1750–1754 and 1779–1783 are probably the driest periods of the 101 analyzed years. Both show an important number of rogations all over Iberia and during all the seasons.

    The most extended drought of this period occurred during the spring of 1817, affecting 15 of the 16 locations studied. This drought was influenced by the Tambora eruption (1815. The study of the climate footprint of this eruption and its comparison with similar situations in the series suggest that the spring drought of 1824 may be associated with the eruptions of the Galunggung and Usu volcanoes (1822. Further studies are required to confirm this fact and understand the atmospheric mechanisms involved.

  13. Traffic - Special arrangements for the official ceremony on 19th October

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary will take place on 19th October 2004 in the presence of Member State delegations and observers. Many VIPs are to attend the ceremony, which will be held in the Globe of Science and Innovation and in the adjacent marquee. The arrival and departure of the official delegations and guests will cause some disruption to traffic on and around the Meyrin site: The Route de Meyrin will probably be closed to traffic by the police between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. and between 5.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. for the arrival and departure of VIPs. Access to the Saint-Genis-Pouilly roundabout will be difficult between 2.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., when the new entrance to the Meyrin site will be inaugurated. Use of the following car parks will be prohibited from 16th to 19th October inclusive (Open day and official ceremony; the appropriate road signs will be erected): the car parks located between the two lines on the drawing below (guests will register in a tent set up oppo...

  14. Enhancement of creative expression and entoptic phenomena as after-effects of repeated ayahuasca ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Móré, Csaba E; Vargha, András; Luna, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Studying the effect of psychedelic substances on expression of creativity is a challenging problem. Our primary objective was to study the psychometric measures of creativity after a series of ayahuasca ceremonies at a time when the acute effects have subsided. The secondary objective was to investigate how entoptic phenomena emerge during expression of creativity. Forty individuals who were self-motivated participants of ayahuasca rituals in Brazil completed the visual components of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking before and the second day after the end of a two-week long ceremony series. Twenty-one comparison subjects who did not participate in recent psychedelic use also took the Torrance tests twice, two weeks apart. Repeated ingestion of ayahuasca in the ritual setting significantly increased the number of highly original solutions and phosphenic responses. However, participants in the ayahuasca ceremonies exhibited more phosphenic solutions already at the baseline, probably due to the fact that they had more psychedelic experiences within six months prior to the study than the comparison subjects did. This naturalistic study supports the notion that some measures of visual creativity may increase after ritual use of ayahuasca, when the acute psychoactive effects are receded. It also demonstrates an increased entoptic activity after repeated ayahuasca ingestion.

  15. Ghost Dancing the Grand Canyon. Southern Paiute Rock Art, Ceremony, and Cultural Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffle; Loendorf; Austin; Halmo; Bulletts

    2000-02-01

    Combining rock art studies with ethnohistory, contemporary ethnographic analysis, and the interpretations of people who share the cultural traditions being studied, this paper documents a rock art site in Kanab Creek Canyon that appears to have been the location of a Ghost Dance ceremony performed by Southern Paiute and perhaps Hualapai people in the late 1800s. Using the site as a point of departure, it focuses on the way in which synergistic associations among place, artifact, resources, events, and historic and contemporary Indian people contribute to the construction of a contextual cultural landscape.

  16. Launching Ceremony of China-New Zealand Mayoral Forum Held in Auckland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The Launching Ceremony of the China-New Zealand Mayoral Forumjointlyorgani zedby the CPAFF Cand Local Government New Zealand(LGNZ)was held in Auckland on November 21,2014.Chinese President Xi Jinping who was on a state visit to New Zealand and his host Prime Minister John Key attended and gave speeches.Wang Huning,Li Zhanshu,Yang Jiechi and other Party and State leaders of China were among the 100 people attending the event.In his speech,President Xi said the timely launching of the China-

  17. Discussion on the Nature of Wine Ceremony%论“酒道”之“酒性”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金月; 骆凤文; 郭五林

    2012-01-01

    分别对我国历史悠久的"酒""、茶"中的"艺、道"进行深入阐释。指出"酒道"之内涵的"酒艺",恰与"茶艺"的静谧、雅致、阴柔形成对照,在表现主体上应以男士为主,在表现内容和手法上应以豪情、激扬、阳刚为主。%Both wine and tea has long history in China.The art and the ceremony on wine and tea were discussed in this paper.It was pointed out that wine ceremony nature was opposite to tea ceremony nature and it mainly presented inspiring,tough and masculine in character.(Tran.by YUE Yang)

  18. Definitional ceremonies: narrative practices for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality in pediatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Moxley-Haegert, Linda

    2015-03-01

    In pediatric settings, parents and children often seek spiritual and religious support from their healthcare provider, as they try to find meaning in their illness. Narrative practices, such as definitional ceremonies, can provide a unique framework for psychologists to explore children's spirituality and its role in the midst of illness. In addition, definitional ceremonies can be used as a means for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality and its relevance in pediatric treatment settings. In this article, our objectives are to (a) provide a brief overview of the literature on children's spirituality, (b) review some of the literature on childhood cancer patients' spirituality, (c) highlight the importance of whole-person care for diverse pediatric patients, and (d) introduce definitional ceremonies as appropriate narrative practices that psychologists can use to both guide their therapy and inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality.

  19. First CMS awards ceremony of 2003 to honour its top suppliers

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Each year CMS holds an awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers. This year 12 companies are receiving awards for their outstanding performances, eight the Gold Award and four the most prestigious award, the Crystal Award. The main ceremony will take place on 24 February during CMS week at CERN. However, one of the recipients of the Gold Award, the Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) has already received its award. Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS Collaboration Board, hands a Gold Award for best CMS supplier to Professor Georgy Rykovanov, Director of Russia's RFNC-VNIITF Institute.The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of the VNIITF and his deputy to make the award. which the Institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shape modul...

  20. REMINDER: Special traffic arrangements for the LHC inauguration ceremony on 21 october

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    Road, gate and tunnel closures THE FOLLOWING WILL BE CLOSED TO ALL TRAFFIC BETWEEN 11.00 A.M. AND 7.00 P.M.: The main road (RD 984) between the Saint Genis roundabout and the customs; The Route de l’Europe running between the crossroads by the Prévessin site (RD 35b) and the RD 984; The Route de Meyrin between the Route du Mandement and the St Genis customs; Gates A, B and D and the tunnel linking the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. Please use the following gates during the above-mentioned hours: Gate C (Satigny) for access to the Meyrin site from Switzerland; Gate E, which will be exceptionally open, for access to the Meyrin site from France. Point 18, the venue for the ceremony, will be accessible only by shuttle bus (departing from Point 1 via the Globe). Car parking Use of the car parks reserved for the ceremony guests is strictly forbidden between 3.00 p.m. on 20 October and 6.00 p.m. on 21 October. Any vehicles parked on the car parks in question will be remo...

  1. Special traffic arrangements for the LHC Inauguration Ceremony on 21 October

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    Road, gate and tunnel closures The following will be closed to all traffic between 11.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m.: The main road (RD 984) between the Saint Genis roundabout and the customs. The Route de l’Europe running between the crossroads by the Prévessin site (RD 35b) and the RD 984. The Route de Meyrin between the Route du Mandement and the St Genis customs. Gates A, B and D and the tunnel linking the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. Please use the following gates during the above-mentioned hours: Gate C (Satigny) for access to the Meyrin site from Switzerland, Gate E, which will be exceptionally open, for access to the Meyrin site from France. Point 18, the venue for the ceremony, will be accessible only by shuttle bus (departing from Point 1 via the Globe). Car parking Use of the car parks reserved for the ceremony guests is strictly forbidden between 3.00 p.m. on 20 October and 6.00 p.m. on 21 October. Any vehicles parked on the car parks in question will be removed at ...

  2. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

  3. The wedding act in Serbia in the light of social changes: A study of traditional and contemporary ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional form of getting married included wedding ceremony in which we had, among other rituals, obligatory church wedding. Church wedding was omitted in certain cases, as it was, for example, marriage of underage partners. When transformation of traditional life begun, church wedding was omitted more often, though it was still norm (in traditional and civilian law. In this period, traditional wedding ceremony was considered as popular way of marking the start of new wedding community. At the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century, the civilian ceremony of getting married was introduced, but most of couples still got married in church. This was custom until The Second World War, when the church form of wedding became undesirable. Communist ideology meant the complete breaking up with religious and national traditions. This brought to the reduction of numbers of church weddings, but not to their complete leaving. Economic crises, war destructions, low life standards and disturbance of system of values, at the end of 20th cent resulted in retraditionalisation processes as for instance, revitalization of church life, or some of it’s elements. Last few years in Serbia, young couples approach both the civilian marriage -because it is an obligation and the church marriage -because of different reasons: need to make continuity with historical heritage, or to invent new one. I will try to show this course of transformation of act of getting married, through analyses of social meaning of some wedding ceremony elements.

  4. Chinese Arts&Crafts (Hong Kong) Holds Grand Opening Ceremony for New Store in Beijing Financial Street Shopping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Arts&Crafts, a Chinese luxury brand which has carried on Chinese cultural tradition for more than half a century, has opened its fourth high-level shop on the Chinese mainland in Beijing Financial Street. This follows right after grand opening ceremonies in Shenzhen, Hangzhou and the China World Trade Center Tower 3 in Beijing.

  5. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3 and median (72 μg/m3 contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels.

  6. Ethno-linguistic analysis of the vocabulary associated with the wedding ceremony (on the basis of the Pamiri languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Z. O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the vocabulary related to the wedding ceremony in the Pamiri languages is discussed. In particular, vocabulary reflecting the wedding ceremony in Ishkashimi language (one of the minor Pamiri languages is almost unknown. In the Pamiri languages are still preserved all the traditional wedding ceremonies. The vocabulary associated with them is well-kept in full and is indigenous and sometimes borrowed. For the most, the terminology applied in the ritual is borrowed. Often the term is borrowed from Badakhshan dialect of the Tajik language. At the same time, some Tajik words are used in specific meaning that is typical only to the dialect of Badakhshan and Dari language of Badakhshan in Afghanistan. This is mainly the vocabulary associated with traditional ways and procedures of the wedding ceremony. Some other words, such as sarbьzьrg ‘to give respect, attention to mourners’, can be observed only in classical Persian literature. In view of the Islamization of the region the Arab terms are frequently used in rituals; they are associated with official terminology applied during the marriage process and designate its legal aspects. There are also Turkic lexis that was included into the dictionary because of language and cultural contacts in the region. It is significant that in the lexicon predominate metaphorical and descriptive ways of designation of the ceremonies. Remarkable specific vocabulary with original meaning is of particular use in the local minor Iranian languages in comparison with such major written national languages as Tajik language of Tajikistan and Dari Afghanistan. For example, in Ishkashimi language (in Tajikistan and Afghanistan the word dumod is used only in the sense of “son-in-law”, and in the meaning of “bridegroom” - only šamard . Since the marriage and wedding ceremony has a special place in the spiritual culture of the people, the symbolic function is included into almost all the rites and

  7. From the CERN web: New Year ceremony, new LHC Programme Coordinator, scientific prize and more

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing...     CERN DG meets locals and internationals in New Year ceremony 15 January – by James Gillies  In one of her first official duties as CERN Director General, Fabiola Gianotti met representatives of CERN’s local communities and international Geneva in Microcosm on Thursday evening to wish them a Happy New Year 2016, and to express thanks for their support. Photo (left to right): Charlotte Lindberg Warakaulle, Director for International Relations, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing and Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology. Continue to read…    Jamie Bo...

  8. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  9. Ritual and ceremony in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-assisted brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Vance

    2012-01-01

    Previous photographic research into traditional and shamanic healing practices in Peru and Bolivia and a review of the literature suggested that all medical practices have cultural determined nonmedical activities as integral parts of the healing encounter. These include costume, ritual, ceremony, environment factors that were looked for in a western clinical encounter for this paper. A patient was followed through pre-op preparation and iMRI assisted brain surgery. All activities were photographed extensively and evaluated in a broader healing context. A number of activities were visually and metaphorically comparable with those seen in other practices. These are discussed as rituals of intention on the part of the caregivers to focus their skills on healing and also to mindfully engage the patient in the healing process. Artistic observation and analysis may be an effective way to identify these non quantifiable elements of the healing encounter and suggest directions for further research into the emotional components of the healing process.

  10. Congruence of rituals and theatre. The use of drama for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Tudor Ciocan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I have started this research as a response to a pejorative question that religious rituals are merely theatrical, and the personnel involved nothing else but actors; beyond this there is nothing any religion suggests, e.g. healing, divine touch, blessings et.al. This paper is about rituals and their meanings and roles played as in social drama and theatre play. Considering the relationship between ritual and theatre to be reciprocal I will use their functions to evaluate the process of religious ceremonies and the role they play for adherents/participants, as if they would be attending a play. Religious Studies and Drama joint study offers the opportunity to combine two complementary humanities subjects, as both drama and religion are mainstays of cultural practice.

  11. The Opening Ceremony of the International Research Center on Karst under the Auspices of UNESCO was held in Guilin on 15 December,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuexia

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Opening Ceremony of the International Research Center on Karst under the Auspices of UNESCO was held in the Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences in Guilin on 15 December,2008.

  12. The study is believed to be used to treat illnesses Yau ceremony of Phutai. Natal village , Tambon Tao Ngoi, Tao Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonchom Srisa-ard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to 1 study the beliefs and the cause of the ailments of the ceremony to Yau. Which is from Thailand, Village Natal district, Tao Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon 2 to study the composition of the ceremony Yao and 3 to study the Yau ceremony. The method resources from data collection divided into two parts, there were 1 documentation research articles, theses, books, textbooks and information from the Internet, and 2 the interview with the people who knew the four ceremonies of You. The study found the phenomenon as follows: 1 Belief in the Yau ceremony, that Yau is believed to cure illness, disease caused by an act of the devil. The treatment with modern medicine can not be cured. Parents or family elders had prior therapy with Yau. The disease which is believed to occur in this manner must be gone because of Yao. Some of which can actually be cured, mean while some extended for several more years. The treatment facilities for patients is that Yao can be come home. And pitched immediate treatment faster than the health center or hospital where the procedure was hospitalized several timeconsuming steps. 2 The components of Yau ceremony, are Yau illnesses, Yau is patient, the Yao spit, and music instruments. 3 The ceremony of Yau has five phases: preparation before starting the ceremony. Next, the invitation to the major deities or spirits. then Yao toss the cause of the illness. the reassure patients to leave the various deities and spirits. leave the body return to and live in their residence.

  13. An Algorithm of Backward Shadow Generation about the Master of Ceremonies of Player in Virtual Studio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZili; ZHUGuangxi; ZHUYaoting

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a technical scheme to construct virtual studio has heen proposed where orientation tracker and telemeter was used for improving conventional BETACAM pickup camera and connecting with the software module of host.A new model of virtual camera named Camera & Post-camera Cupling Pair has been put forward,which is different from common model in computer graphics and has been bound to real BETACAM pickup camera.The formula has been educed to compute foreground frame buffer image and background frame buffer image of virtual scene whose boundary is based on depth information of target point of BETACAM pickup camera's projective ray.The effect of real-time consistency has been achieved between the video image sequences of the master of ceremonies or players(MCP)and computer graphics(CG)video image sequences for virtual scene in spatial position,perspective relationship and image object masking.An algorithm for generation of backward shadow of MCP has been submitted based on equable division and extraction to marginal points of the edge of MCP to construct closed cubic B-spline curve to fit the edge and build a ray cone to project the backward shadow.The experimental result has shown that the scheme of virtual studio submitted in this paper is feasible,applicative and effective.

  14. The Tea Ceremony in Chinese Marriage Culture%中国婚俗中的茶礼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璞

    2014-01-01

    茶文化在中国文化中扮演着重要角色,随着朝代的更迭,茶叶逐渐被赋予精神内涵与象征意义,所形成的茶礼也成为中国婚俗当中极具特色的内容,这与茶叶在普通人家中的地位、茶叶本身的生长特性以及茶叶所代表的精神有关。而经过数百年历史演变的中国传统的婚俗茶礼文化则体现了中华民族的文化品格和民族精神,在中国风俗文化中具有深层意义。%Tea Culture plays a crucial role in Chinese culture.Throughout history, tea has gradually been given more and more spiritual and symbolic meanings.As a result, the tea ceremony has emerged into a unique and special feature of Chinese marriage culture-all of which a product of both the elevated position of tea in ordinary people’ s everyday life and the innate qualities and sym-bolism of tea.It has evolved to be an icon of the Chinese national spirit and culture.

  15. KSC Center Director Bridges addresses the audience at an ISO 9001 certification ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges speaks to KSC employees at the ISO certification ceremony held at the Training Auditorium. Bridges was presented an ISO 9001 certificate and plaque awarded to KSC by Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Inc., an international ISO certification organization. ISO 9001 comprises the most detailed, comprehensive set of standard requirements for quality programs established by the International Standards Organization. The presentation followed a successful independent audit by DNV of the KSC Management System in May of this year. The third-party auditors examined about 20 elements of KSC's system, including management responsibility, design control, documentation, test and inspection, and corrective action procedures. DNV found that KSC met or exceeded the stringent quality standards in all areas. KSC will use this certification as a tool to improve an already world- class team. All NASA centers are required by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin to be ISO 9001 registered by September 1999. NASA is the first federal agency to seek the quality certification. Next to Bridges is Heidi Hollingsworth, with the Center for Independent Living, who uses American Sign Language for any hearing-impaired employees in the audience.

  16. Mummy Lake: An unroofed ceremonial structure within a large-scale ritual landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry V.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Stein, J.R.; Friedman, R. A.; Andrae, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    The structure at Mesa Verde National Park known historically as Mummy Lake and more recently as Far View Reservoir is not part of a water collection, impoundment, or redistribution system. We offer an alternative explanation for the function of Mummy Lake. We suggest that it is an unroofed ceremonial structure, and that it serves as an essential component of a Chacoan ritual landscape. A wide constructed avenue articulates Mummy Lake with Far View House and Pipe Shrine House. The avenue continues southward for approximately 6 km where it apparently divides connecting with Spruce Tree House and Sun Temple/Cliff Palace. The avenue has previously been interpreted as an irrigation ditch fed by water impounded at Mummy Lake; however, it conforms in every respect to alignments described as Chacoan roads. Tree-ring dates indicate that the construction of Spruce Tree House and Cliff Palace began about A.D. 1225, roughly coincident with the abandonment of the Far View community. This pattern of periodically relocating the focus of an Anasazi community by retiring existing ritual structures and linking them to newly constructed facilities by means of broad avenues was first documented by Fowler and Stein (1992) in Manuelito Canyon, New Mexico. Periods of intense drought appear to have contributed to the relocation of prehistoric Native Americans from the Far View group to Cliff Palace/Spruce Tree House in the mid-13th century and eventually to the abandonment of all Anasazi communities in southwestern Colorado in the late-13th century.

  17. Traffic: Special arrangements for the Official Ceremony on 19th October - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Disruption: Route de Meyrin: probably closed to traffic by the police between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. and between 5.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. for the arrival and departure of VIPs. Saint-Genis-Pouilly roundabout: access difficult between 2.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., when the new entrance to the Meyrin site will be inaugurated. Reception of building 33 : closed from 13h00 to 19h00 ; Car parks prohibited from 16 to 19 October inclusive (Open Day and Official Ceremony): the car parks located between the two lines on the drawing below (guests will register in a tent set up opposite Building 156), a marked out area of the external car park in front of Building 33; the appropriate road signs will be erected. Recommendations for 19 October Do not use Gates A and B from 12.30 p.m. to 3.00 p.m. and from 4.30 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. During these times, please use: Gate C (Satigny): exceptionally open in both directions between 12.30 p.m. and 7.30 p.m. Tunnel linking the Meyrin and Prévessin...

  18. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  19. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  20. BAYÇİÇEK CEREMONY IN NEVRUZ / NEVRUZDA BAYÇİÇEK MERASİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cabbar İŞANKUL

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nevruz has been celebrated since centuries with the characteristics carryingthe marks of Turkish culture and has got a big importance since Nevruz has became acommon cultural connection within Turkish tribes. Turkish nations celebrate this bigbairam with diverse ceremonies. Among Ozbek Turks, Nevruz has been celebrated inan enthusiastic fashion by “bayçiçek ceremony”, which has been about to be forgottenin present-day. In that sense, in this paper we will mention bayçiçek poetries andceremonies, which have an important culturel value.

  1. Mirrors Depicted in the Wedding Ceremonies of Dunhuang Wall Paintings%敦煌壁画婚礼图中的镜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁晓庆

    2015-01-01

    Many images of mirrors have been found in the wedding ceremonies of the wall paintings in Dunhuang caves. These mirrors were common objects used in local wedding ceremonies as talismans or holy items, and were used during ceremonies for brides and grooms to worship. Mirrors were also symbols of the spiritual union of marriage and the auspicious wishes granted to newly married couples.%敦煌石窟壁画婚礼图中出现了多幅镜子图像。这些镜子是当地婚礼仪俗中常用之物,具有辟邪的功用,也被作为神圣之物,供新娘新郎在婚礼仪式中加以展拜。镜子还象征着夫妇同心,表达了对新人的美好祝愿。

  2. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-04-07

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities.

  3. 炼金术神话与入会仪式%Alchemical Myths and Initiation Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米尔恰·伊利亚德

    2014-01-01

    Alchemy is not j ust the philosophy of material unity.There is some interdependence among mineral symbolism,metallurgy ceremony,the magic of fire and the belief that artificial alchemy can re-place the function of natural law.Western alchemists proj ected the ritual scene in the mystical religion onto the mineral,the symbol of which was integrated into Christianity.Alchemists treat substance like believ-ers treat God in the ritual of mystical religion.The philosopher's stone achieves the transformation of the presence of substances through the four stages of black,white,yellow and red,which means the passion, death and regeneration to another existence form of the mineral.Western alchemists'meaning and ultimate purpose is the transformation of human by making the minerals come back to its original state,sympathy is evoked between the change of substance and the alchemist's heart.Along with the process of alchemy, alchemists purify and awaken themselves to achieve some kind of ritual experience and self-training,to refine their mental,physical as well as moral and spiritual experience.%炼金术不仅仅是物质统一性的哲学原理,在矿物象征意义、冶金仪式、火的魔力和坚信人工炼金可以替代自然规律的功能之间,存在某种依存关系。西方炼金术士将神秘宗教中的仪式景象投射到矿物上,将其象征符号融入基督教教义。炼金术士对待物质,犹如信徒在神秘宗教仪式上对待上帝一般。哲人石经过呈现黑色、白色、黄色和红色四个阶段,经历矿物的受难、死亡和再生成另一种存在方式,来实现物质的转化。西方炼金术士通过让矿物回归原始状态,其意义和最终目的是人的转化,在物质的变化和他内心之间唤起某种共鸣。伴随着炼金术过程的进行,炼金术士净化唤醒自己,实现了某种仪式性体验和自身修炼,提炼了自己的心理、生理以及道德和精神体验。

  4. Making a living between crises and ceremonies in Tana Toraja: The practice of everyday life of a South Sulawesi Highland Community in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de

    2013-01-01

    The practice of everyday life in Tana Toraja (South Sulawesi, Indonesia) is structured by a series of public events, of which funerals are the most important. Even after Indonesia was hit by an economic crisis in the late 1990s, thousands of extravagant funeral ceremonies, requiring huge expenditure

  5. The public lecture on 30 years’reform and opening up in China’s printing,printing equipment and material industries was held ceremoniously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The public lecture on 30 years’reform and opening up in China’s printing, printing equipment and material industries was held ceremoniously on November 29, 2008 in Beijing Friendship Hotel.The lecture is sponsored by Printing and Printing Equipment Industries Association of China,Guangdong Printing and Replicating

  6. CERN 50th Anniversary : CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations drew to a close with a ceremony at Geneva University's Institut de Physique.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    For it was here, on the banks of the River Arve, that CERN's first staff members, from the PS Magnets Group, came to work in October 1953. The ceremony was followed by drinks and an exhibition of the activities of the School of Physics.

  7. An Examination of Common Worship and Ceremonies among the Abrahamic Faiths: Implication for Religious Tolerance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omomia, O. Austin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abrahamic faiths refer to the three most popular religions that traced their origin to Abraham. These religions are Judaism (the earliest of the three, Christianity and Islam (Islam is commonly adjudged as the most recent.This paper examined the common worship, customs and other religious ceremonies prevalent among the Abrahamic faiths. It also identified the common areas of agreement between the Abrahamic faiths with regards to the common religious related customs. It is on this strength that the paper argued that the Abrahamic faiths should emphasize on areas of unity rather than widen the gulf of disagreement. The paper employed the historical and sociological methods of investigation. It is recommended that the Abrahamic faiths should explore areas of unity in order to strengthen the cord of tolerance and peace in the world in general and Nigeria in particular.

  8. Legless Singer Held Wedding Ceremony on the Summit of Mount Tai%无腿歌手岱顶圆梦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文进(撰文、摄影)

    2012-01-01

    2012年8月23日是中国传统的七夕节,山东临沂无腿歌手陈州登上泰山之巅,和妻子在这里举行了一场特别的婚礼,完成自己对妻子爱的诺言,圆了自己多年的梦。陈州1983年出生于山东临沂苍山县,6岁时父母离异,8岁流浪四方,13岁因为车祸失去双腿。%August 23, 2012 was the Chinese Valentine's Day. Chen Zhou, a .legless singer from Linyi, ShandongProvince, climbed up to the summit Mount Tai, where he held a special ceremony with his wife, which fulfilled the promise he made to her several years ago.

  9. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  10. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  11. 附远厚别 防止乱族 强调成妇——从《仪礼·士昏礼》看先秦社会婚姻观念%Ceremonial Emphasis on Adult Women to Prevent Family Disorder——The View of Marriage in Pre-Qin Society in Terms of Ceremony and Propriety:Ceremonial Procedure of Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦杰

    2011-01-01

    《仪礼·士昏礼》所载婚礼仪式对我国传统婚姻习俗有着重大影响,它不仅影响了我国传统的婚姻习俗,而且也影响了我国的传统婚姻观念与妇女思想。在《仪礼·士昏礼》的文本中,婚姻是事关家族兴旺发达的大事,女性作为构建合"两姓之好"的使者,必须履行许多责任,她的身体必须被禁锢以确保不会给夫家带来乱族的灾难,她在"归家"以后必须做到"妇顺"以确保"两姓之好"的持续发展。虽然婚姻是通过男女两性的结合来完成的,但是婚礼仪式及其象征意义并没有体现出对男性的要求与规范,男性只是女性归家的媒介,维护婚姻稳定、家庭和谐的责任都落实在女性身上。%The ceremony of wedding recorded in Ceremony and Propriety: Ceremonial Procedure of Wedding had a great influence on traditional marriage customs in our country.This affected not only traditional marriage customs themselves but also traditional marital conception and thought of women in our country.According to Ceremony and Propriety: Ceremonial Procedure of Wedding,marriage was a great issue concerning the family's prosperity.A messenger to establish "happiness between two sexes",the woman ought to carry many responsibilities: her body to be enveloped to surely prevent bringing about any disorder to the man's family,and she to be "obedient to her man" after "being married" to guarantee sustenance of "happiness between two sexes".Although marriage was realized through a combination between man and woman,no man's requirements and criteria were expressed in the ceremony of marriage and its symbolic meaning.This was because the man acted only as a medium of the woman's marriage whereas it was the woman who would carry the responsibility to preserve the stability of marriage and harmony of the family.

  12. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  13. A Dialectic Study of the Structure and Basic Concepts of Traditional Chinese Law and an Analysis of the Relationship Between li (ceremony) and fa (law)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xianyi; MA Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    In the course of history,the meaning offa (a Chinese character with an approximate meaning of "law") has not been invariable,and its connotation in modem times has been enriched constantly,so as to incorporate many elements of ancient li (ceremony).If the modem concept of law,already changed and still changing,is to be used to mechanically compare and interpret traditional Chinese law,misunderstandings might arise.Actually,li and fa are indispensable components of traditional Chinese law,and the lack of necessary study of the li will prevent us from understanding and explaining the spirit of traditional Chinese law.In traditional Chinese law,"fa" usually refers to an institutional dimension,especially after Qin and Han dynasties,whereas li,especially li yi (moral basis for rites and ceremonies),is where the value and spirit of traditional Chinese law can be found.

  14. Una liturgia de ruptura: el ceremonial de consagración y coronación de Agustín I

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID CARBAJAL LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    El 21 de julio de 1822 tuvo lugar la coronación del emperador Agustín de Iturbide, en una ceremonia original por su novedad y por el carácter constitucional del monarca. Insertada en la tradición hispánica por la historiografía reciente, la ceremonia rompía por sí misma con ella, pues el principal ceremonial de exaltación del monarca español había sido su entrada pública en la Corte, reproducida en América a través de la proclamación y paseo del Real Pendón. Además, el ceremonial retomó ampli...

  15. Two Documents Conceming with the Celebration Ceremony for Couples Have Been Married for 50 Years Organized by Fatih Halkevi on 22 nd, February 1945 in istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Dr. Dursun; GÜVEN, Doç. Dr. Özbay

    2006-01-01

    For emphesaizing the importance offam iIy inthe societal life, İstanbul-Fatih (a provinciel subdivisionin central İstanbul) Halkevi ( House ofCommons / People's Homes, educational andcultural public organization units of RepublicanPeople's Party) organized a celebration programfor 54 couples have been married for 50 yearsand more. The program was date of February22 nd, 1945 and, consists ofcity excursion, ceremonyat Taksim Municipality Music-Hall, WeddingCeremony for 9 new married couples.Fol...

  16. Two Documents Conceming with the Celebration Ceremony for Couples Have Been Married for 50 Years Organized by Fatih Halkevi on 22 nd, February 1945 in istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Dr. Dursun; GÜVEN, Doç. Dr. Özbay

    2006-01-01

    For emphesaizing the importance offam iIy inthe societal life, İstanbul-Fatih (a provinciel subdivisionin central İstanbul) Halkevi ( House ofCommons / People's Homes, educational andcultural public organization units of RepublicanPeople's Party) organized a celebration programfor 54 couples have been married for 50 yearsand more. The program was date of February22 nd, 1945 and, consists ofcity excursion, ceremonyat Taksim Municipality Music-Hall, WeddingCeremony for 9 new married c...

  17. Una liturgia de ruptura: el ceremonial de consagración y coronación de Agustín I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID CARBAJAL LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El 21 de julio de 1822 tuvo lugar la coronación del emperador Agustín de Iturbide, en una ceremonia original por su novedad y por el carácter constitucional del monarca. Insertada en la tradición hispánica por la historiografía reciente, la ceremonia rompía por sí misma con ella, pues el principal ceremonial de exaltación del monarca español había sido su entrada pública en la Corte, reproducida en América a través de la proclamación y paseo del Real Pendón. Además, el ceremonial retomó ampliamente el utilizado por Napoleón Bonaparte en 1804, enlazándose así con la tradición francesa de la coronación de Reims, y copiando en particular los gestos que marcaban la distancia entre el emperador y el clero. En fin, los redactores del ceremonial dieron también una importante visibilidad al Congreso, representante de la soberanía nacional.

  18. 《典仪》中印第安人的身份重构之路%On identity reconstruction of native Americans in Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董松涛

    2014-01-01

    Ceremony,one of the classics of Leslie Marmon Silko, revealing native Americans’ predicaments of being marginalized, this paper, analyzing a series of ceremonies held for Tayo to cure his physical and mental sufferings, proves that ceremonies are the key factors for native Americans to return their traditional Indian culture, get out of trouble of identity loss and reconstruct their identity.%由于欧洲殖民者到达美洲新大陆后对土著印第安人实行种族灭绝和文化征服政策,美洲印第安人长期面临严重的生存危机。莱斯利·马蒙·希尔科的小说《典仪》展现了混血印第安人被边缘化的困境。通过分析为小说主人公塔尤治愈身心创伤的一系列典仪,证明了典仪是印第安人回归传统文化、摆脱身份迷失困境和重构自我身份的关键。

  19. Ibsen's Plays in China And Their Ethical Value:A Speech at the Closing Ceremony of the Third International Ibsen Conference in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Zhenzhao

    2005-01-01

    This is a speech delivered at the closing ceremony of The Third International Ibsen Conference in China, which introduces some people and their studies on Ibsen in China, and takes A Doll's House as an example for an ethical analysis. The speech chooses Professor Wang Zhongxiang, Professor Kwok-kan Tam, Professor Knut Brynhildsvoll and others for an evaluation of their studies as the evidence of achievements in the Ibsen studies in the New Period in China. The speech, from the perspective of ethical literary criticism, also analyses A Doll's House as a moral play to raise moral questions and concludes that Ibsen's so-called social problem plays are ethical problem ones.

  20. Cultural Analysis of Olympic Flame Lighting Ceremony%奥运圣火点燃仪式的文化解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宇; 孙玉巍; 石晶; 李小兰

    2013-01-01

      运用文献资料法、观察法等研究方法,从文化学视角分析奥运圣火点燃仪式的文化价值,从文化学的物质、制度、精神3个层面解读奥运圣火点燃过程中所蕴含的理念与创意,从而深入理解和传承奥运文化。奥运火炬作为奥运精神的物质文化载体,其设计造型对彰显东道主本土文化与教育传播有着十分重要的价值与意义;奥运火炬传递作为奥林匹克运动会的前奏,具有自己独特的结构和功能,体现出明显的文化特性,符合奥运文化的发展要求;奥运圣火点燃更是整个开幕式中的核心环节,是主办国对奥运情感的抒发、奥运精神的理解、奥运承办的勇气的现实见证,为体育、艺术、科技精髓的融合提供了现实舞台。%With the methods of documental information and observation, the paper analyzes the cultural val-ue of Olympic flame lighting ceremony from the viewpoint of culturology.It discusses the ideas and originali-ty of Olympic flame lighting ceremony from matter, system and spirit of culturology in order to further under-stand and inherit the culture of Olympic Games.As the material carrier of Olympic culture, the Olympic torch’ design plays an important role in highlighting the host native culture and educational dissemination;as a prelude to Olympics Games, the Olympic torch has its unique structure and function which embody the obvious cultural features in line with the developing requirements of Olympic culture.Especially as the core of the opening ceremony, the Olympic flame lighting ceremony can really witness the host country’s Olympic emotional expression, Olympic spirit understanding and courage of hosting Olympics, which provides a real-istic stage for the fusion of sports, art, science and technology.

  1. Ceremonial y protocolo: métodos y técnicas de investigación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Pulido Polo

    2015-01-01

    El estudio científico del ceremonial y el protocolo, desde una perspectiva relacionista, debe abordarse desde la base epistemológica de las ciencias sociales a través del adecuado empleo de métodos y técnicas de investigación. A través de un análisis teórico sustentado en la revisión de fuentes secundarias, este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal realizar una aproximación terminológica a los principales conceptos epistemológicos inherentes a las ciencias sociales para pasar, con posteriori...

  2. The LEP inauguration ceremony

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This photo was taken in November 1989 at the inauguration of the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. From the left, Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, King Carl Gustav of Sweden, CERN Council President Josef Rembser, President Francois Mitterand of France, President Jean-Pascal Delamuraz of Switzerland, Carlo Rubbia, Director-General of CERN at the time.

  3. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  4. GYANTSE SPRING PLOUGHING CEREMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With a total of 765.6 hectares of plowed land,Kharmey Township is the principal place for grain production in Gyantse.Villagers, including both men and women,old or young and dressed in festival costumes,are crowding together at the edge of the field in the early morning;they place buttered tea, barley yeasted wine,sutra steamers, and incense burners for prayers for

  5. The Bhiksuni Buddhist Ceremonies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    At the Seventh Chuanjie Fahui (a Buddhist meeting to impart monastic disciplines) of the Buddhism Association of Sichuan Province held at Baoguang Temple in Chengdu and attended by 127 bhiksunL Dharmacarya Long Lian leads several bhik suni toward the Buddhist preaching hall to impart Erbuseng Jie (the highest monastic discipline for bhiksuni) to them.

  6. Ceremony 25 years Cern

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H

    1981-01-01

    Le D.G.H.Schopper remercie le personnel pour son engagement, collaboration et enthousiasme pendant leur 25 ans de service; il remercie aussi sincèrement les épouses et époux pour leur compréhension, ainsi que le chef gérant du restaurant Coop pour ses précieux services depuis 1956. Colin Taylor joue au piano les hymnes nationaux des differents pays; remise des souvenirs par (?)

  7. Ceremony 25 years

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H

    1987-01-01

    Le DG H. Schopper félicite et remercie les 273 personnes qui fêtent 25 ans de service pour leurs engagement, enthousiasme et dévouement. Il remercie également Robert Milligan, maître de cérémonie. Interludes musicaux, joués par C.Tayloer et ?

  8. 德宏傣族人生礼仪念词的社会功能研究%Social Functions of Dai Ceremony Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛

    2011-01-01

    From the aspect of sociology of the reading of ceremony lines,the ceremony lines connect each Dai social members,guide them with Dai national morality and ethics,extend Dai cultural customs and function the development and changes in the concept of harmonious society.%念词是具备强烈生活感情的民间文学形式,同时也是蕴含多方面社会功能的民俗表现形式。以德宏傣族人生礼仪念词不同社会功能的结构表现以及社会历史发展进程中念词社会功能的变迁为主要内容,从念词念诵的社会学视角考察发现,在仪式过程中念词完成了对傣族社会成员多方面关系的维系作用,念词担当着傣民族道德与规约的伦理引导,念词蕴涵并延续着傣民族的文化风俗与传统习惯;当下和谐社会理念下念词社会功能得到进一步的发展。

  9. Discussion on the "Hajie" Ceremony Culture of Jing%浅述京族“哈节”仪式文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝余

    2011-01-01

    Hajie ceremony is not only the most important ethnic Serbs in Jing festivals,but also the tribe's activity respecting for the Holy Spirit, seeking peace annually,as the main content of the grand event.As a nation describing the history about sea,its Hajie Festival steeped in the archaic relic of Jing.Therefore,Hajie is the carrier of the national culture of jing,and is a comprehensive reflection of culture and the personal expression about Jing national consciousness.This thesis discusses the basic processes and characteristics of sacrificial culture of the ceremony of Ha jie via the Ha jie in Wu Tou,one of the three islands of Jing.%"哈节"是京族人最为重要的民族传统节日,也是京族人一年一度的以"敬圣神、求平安"为主要内容的盛大活动。作为一个以"海"抒写历史的民族,京族"哈节"积淀着的民族传统。因此,哈节是京族文化的集中体现。哈节仪式丰富多彩,是京族文化与宗教思想的综合表现。

  10. Study ethnomathematics of aboge (alif, rebo, wage) calendar as determinant of the great days of Islam and traditional ceremony in Cirebon Kasepuhan Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrin, Muhammad Alfi; Turmudi, Puspita, Entit

    2016-02-01

    This research attempts to show about the relationship between mathematics and culture. Paradigm that emerged currently, that mathematics is an abstract concept and difficult, therefore mathematics is not favored by most students. In the reality, indirectly mathematics is present in a culture of a society. Ethnomathematics study is a study to examine how does a group of people in a particular culture understand, express, and use the concepts and practices of culture that depicted mathematically. This research was conducted in Cirebon precisely in Kasepuhan Palace, which was in RW 04, Kasepuhan village, Lemah Wungkuk district, Cirebon city, West Java. The focus of the study and research purposes was the application of aboge (alif rebo wage) calendar as the calculation of days and the calendar rules determine the time of days, great days of Islam and traditional ceremony in Kasepuhan Palace. Qualitative methods with the principles of ethnography such as studies in ethnomathematics i.e observation, interviews, documentation and fieldnotes were used in this research. The findings of this ethnomathematics study show that the determining great days of Islam and the days of palace traditional ceremony have a close relationship with the counts and principles in mathematics. This study provides recommendations that mathematics is closely related to culture due to ethnomathematics.

  11. Ceremonias, mujer y jerarquía social en el modelo religioso barroco = Ceremonies, woman and social hierarchy in the baroque religious model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El imaginario o modelo religioso barroco representaba un universo mental capaz de ofrecer una concepción global del mundo y de la sociedad, de contornos bien definidos. Entre sus elementos recurrentes figuran los tres aquí estudiados: primero, la importancia concedida al ceremonial, en favor de una religiosidad externa y ritualizada que reafirmaba el papel indispensable de los sacerdotes; segundo, la visión negativa que el catolicismo emite sobre la mujer, conceptuada como un ser inferior; finalmente, la relación entre el discurso eclesiástico y el sistema jerárquico de la sociedad, al que el modelo religioso contribuye a legitimar. Tales mensajes se analizan a través de cinco obras de la época. = Abstract: The imaginary or Baroque religious model represented a mental universe capable to offer a global conception of the world and the society with well-defined outlines. Among its recurrent elements are the three treated here; first: the importance given to the ceremonial in favour of an external and ritualized religiosity that reaffirmed the essential role of priests; second: the negative view of Catholicism about the woman, seen as a lower human being; finally, the relationship between the ecclesiastical speech and the hierarchical system of the society, that the religious model contributes to legitimize. Such messages are analyzed through five works of the period.

  12. An Interpretation of the Ecological Ethics in Ceremony%《典仪》中的生态伦理意蕴解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明兰; 王发德

    2014-01-01

    莱斯利·马蒙·西尔科在《典仪》中,通过讲述无归属的印第安青年塔尤经过部落典仪治疗找回自我和身份的故事,再现了原住民的地域景观、宗教信仰、传统习俗,重新演绎了这一原生文化形态及其魅力。土著人的灵学观、时空观体现了印第安人万物合一的整体观及和谐文化精神,对复原和身份认同起了重要的作用。%In Ceremony, Leslie Marmon Silko tells a story of how Tayo, a Native American, reestablishes his cultural identity with the treatment of tribal ceremony after returning back from the World War II. Through the story, Leslie reproduces the geographical landscape, religious beliefs and customs of the n-ative people, revealing the charm of the native culture. Native Americans’ animism, view of time and space represent their concept of holism and harmonious cultural spirit, and play an important role in help-ing them regain cultural identity.

  13. A Bio-Postmodernism Analysis of Ceremony%论《典仪》中的后现代生态观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇

    2012-01-01

    从生态后现代主义的视角解读莱斯利·马蒙·希尔科的代表作《典仪》,认为《典仪》传达出的有机整体观、女性文化象征的恢复、可持续发展等后现代生态观,不仅是对现代世界观的否定,更是恢复生态、救赎人类的救助策略。%Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony is analyzed adopting an ecological postmodern criticism.The viewpoints of universe,restoration of feminine cultural symbolism and ecological view of nature in this novel are not only the negation of modern worldview,but the rescue strategy of ecosystem restoration and the redemption of mankind.

  14. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moniz, Ernest [U.S. Energy Secretary

    2014-02-03

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  15. On the Culture of Sports Tourism in Bai Ethnic Wedding Ceremony%白族婚礼中婚庆体育文化探索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚雪梅; 黄建芬; 和执军

    2015-01-01

    大量白族结婚礼仪活动内容在不断被外来的礼仪活动汉化并逐渐消失,但是在大理周边的边远山区的边远县城中依然完整地保留了白族许多的古老结婚仪式和习俗,其中包含了大量的民族传统体育文化,如“耳子歌”、“哩革歌”、“摆丑舞”是白族婚庆文化中颇具代表性和典型性的礼仪活动,它们以不同的规模、不同的时间出现,小到盖房、搬家的小型亲友聚会活动,大到“本主”庙会的请神活动,都以各式各样的形式表达出来,同时这些活动也是研究白族先民的婚庆体育文化和白族人民历史发展的有力依据。%A lot of Bai wedding ethnic ceremony activities are gradually Chinesized and disappeared with the influence from the foreign etiquette activities, but in the remote mountainous areas and remote counties around Dali, there still retain many of the ancient Bai wedding ceremony and customs, which contain a large number of national traditional sports culture contents, such as ethnic songs and dances, being the representative and typical rituals of Bai ethnic wedding culture. They appear in different time , with different scales, different occasions, such as houses construction, party of family, temple God worship activities,are showed with different forms. They form a strong basis for the study on the Bai ancestors wedding sports culture and the historical development of the Bai people.

  16. 彝族舞蹈擦大钹丧葬仪式节目程式分析研究%Yi dance Rub Cymbals Funeral Ceremony Program Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2014-01-01

    少数民族民俗舞蹈是中华民族传统文化的组成部分。云南保山彝族村寨在长期的生活中,形成了既有历史传承性又有自身创造发展的舞蹈擦大钹民俗舞蹈。这种舞蹈集民俗、武术、杂耍为一体。本文通过对保山市瓦窑村擦大钹表演者的调查采访,主要对擦大钹丧葬仪式中节目的程式进行论述。%Ethnic Folk dance is an integral part of Chinese traditional culture. Baoshan Yi village life in the long terms, the formation of both the historical heritage but also create their own dance development rub cymbals folk dance. This set of folk dance, martial arts, and acrobatics as a whole. Based on the village of Baoshan City Wayao rub cymbals performers survey interview, mainly to rub cymbals funeral ceremony of the program are discussed in the program.

  17. New Interpretation of Sun Dance Ceremony of North American Indians%北美印第安人太阳舞仪式的新解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莉

    2012-01-01

    Sun Dance is the predominantly chief religious ceremony hold by the North American Indians, which derived from the culture popular from the 18th to 19th century. This article summarizes the basic processes of the Sun Dance, analyses the symbolizing meanings of some animal instruments, such as skin and organs, mainly expounds the spiritual nature which constructing the positive interactive relationship between mankind and ecosystem. This understanding about the harmonious relationship in the universe offers the modern human civilization the profound revelation.%太阳舞是北美印第安人举行的重要宗教仪式,源于18~19世纪盛兴于北美的捕猎野牛的文化。本文概述了太阳舞仪式的基本过程,分析了太阳舞中使用的某些动物皮毛及器官的象征意义,重点阐释了太阳舞的精神实质:构建人类与生态和谐共处的良性互动关系,这也是对现代人类文明的深刻启示。

  18. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Energy Secretary)

    2012-05-07

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  19. 对全国少数民族传统体育运动会开幕式的思考%The thinking of the opening ceremony of National Traditional Ethnic Minority Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 程兵

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法等,对全国民运会的开幕式结构、发展过程、凸显的问题等现状进行分析,并提出建议:开幕式的核心是体现民族大团结;开幕式的灵魂是创意:包括各民族同台献艺、中华武术中仿生学的运用、原生态民族体育与大型团体操的融合、实现各民族美丽传说等;民运会的发展方向是全民开幕式、“节俭办会”将深得民心,期望能为全国民运会开幕式的举办和其它专家学者的研究提供参考。%It analyzes the situation of the structure, development process, highlighting the problem of The National- ity Games opening ceremony by the use of literature, mathematical statistics, logical analysis and makes recommen- dations on the current situation : The core of the opening ceremony embodies the national unity, the soul of the o- pening ceremony is the creative, which includes the show of all ethnic groups on the stage, the use of the bionics in Chinese martial arts, the integration of the original ecology of the national sport and large - scale group calisthenics and the achievement the legend of all ethnic groups and so on. The development direction of National Games is o- pening ceremony for all, and the "Economical National Games" will win the hearts of all people. I hope to provide a reference for the opening ceremony of the National Games and provide a basis for the study of other experts and scholars

  20. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-07

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  1. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  2. Hui Muslims’Circumcision Ceremony in Xingjing Town%宁夏兴泾镇回族的割礼仪式解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晶; 陶瑞

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision,which is commonly found in human society,is a rite of passage. On the basis of main-taining the traditional Islamic religious tradition,by the influence of historical and social factors,the Muslim circumcision ceremony had local circumstances and ethnic characteristics. Circumcision is a Muslim rite with specific the symbolism of cleanness. Circumcision is not only a beneficial to health of hygiene practices,but also a cultural phenomenon of the flow-ing through the gift. It maintains in everyday life of the relatives and friends to the indivisible relationship.%普遍存在于人类社会中的男性割礼是对男性生殖器包皮进行切割的成人仪式。在维系伊斯兰教宗教传统的基础上,受历史和社会因素的影响,回族穆斯林的割礼仪式有了地方性情节和民族性特征。割礼是穆斯林的一项圣行,具有干净与洁净的象征意义。同时,割礼不仅是一种有益于男性身体健康的卫生习俗,也是人们通过礼物流动而采借的文化现象,它维系着日常生活中亲友之间难以割舍的亲密关系。

  3. Ceremonial dress of the Achaemenid nobility of the VI– V centuries BC (according to findings from the fifth Pazyryk kurgan and synchronous iconic monuments of the Achaemenid time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva E.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of study of a unique composite horse trapping and breast belt, found by expedition of S.I. Rudenko in the 5th Pazyryk kurgan (Mountain Altai, mid. 3rd century BC, and initially attributed as Iranian. The research has been aimed at definition the place and time of creation of three fragmented ornamented textiles, which decorated the trapping and the belt; as well as their original usage and way of coming to the Altai. To achieve the goal the author carefully studied the structures of items under research. The one with purple ground and “tower’s” pattern, which covers the ends of felt foundation of the trapping, is woven with wool and linen Z-spun threads, in warp sharing “kilim” technique, “dove tail” variant. The cloth is identified as Syrian, supposedly the time of reign of Darius I. Two other ones, with “lion procession” pattern (breast belt and “priestess and maidservant in front of an incense burner” (framing of panels was also made from wool and linen, although of different quality and S-spinning, in slit-kilim technique. Both are identified as Egyptian, and dated (most probably to the XXVII (Persian dynasty period. Comparison with representations of similar in decor textiles from synchronous in time monuments, and study of historic data on textile industry of the Achaemenid Empire made it possible to suggest, that “purple kilim” and “lion procession” belt made parts of ceremonial dress of Achaemenid nobility. The cloak could be brought to the Altai by one of the “Scythians”, who got it as a reward when served in the army of Alexander the Great during his Asian campaign.

  4. Study on Tourism Exploitation of Chaoshan Folk God-pageant Ceremony%潮汕游神赛会民俗文化旅游开发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莹; 刘炳献

    2015-01-01

    Folk God-pageant ceremony is the most distinctive worship ceremony and recreational activity in Chaoshan area. Based on the analysis of its value of developing folk tourism and the type of cultural preservation, we suggest that Chaoshan Folk God-pageant ceremony be developed into tourism products such as tourism festival, museum, performance in folk culture village, intangible cultural heritage training center and tourism souvenir. Furthermore, the article expounds the approaches to protect and exploit the traditional folk custom, and emphasizes that the cultural meanings and marketing of the custom-tourism-products should be deeply discussed.%潮汕游神赛会是潮汕民间最具文化特色的信仰祭祀和民间游艺活动。文章对潮汕游神赛会民俗文化旅游开发的基础和存在问题进行分析,指出潮汕游神赛会民俗文化旅游开发的产品类型选择应以民俗节庆开发为主,以博物馆中民俗专区、民俗文化园内表演项目、非遗传习机构和教育基地文化传承、及旅游纪念品开发为辅。要在科学发展观指引下加强对潮汕游神赛会民俗的保护,重视潮汕游神赛会民俗旅游产品“文化符号”的意义,并做好潮汕游神赛会民俗文化旅游产品开发的配套和营销。

  5. 学校仪式的思想政治教育价值之失落与实现%Lost and Achieve of the Value of Ideological and Political Education of the School Ceremonies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐益亮

    2014-01-01

    学校仪式具有重要的思想政治教育价值,但目前却出现了不同程度的形式化、程式化和神秘化等不良倾向。新时期学校仪式建设与优化,要坚持主体性原则,尊重学生的自主性、培养创造性、突出发展性,立足实际,走进生活,贴近学生;坚持协调性原则,协调好学校仪式教育与学校文化建设、家庭仪式教育;坚持创新性原则,做到体现时代性,遵循规律性。加强制度化建设和艺术化设计是学校仪式思想政治教育价值实现的有效方法和途径。%Currently,the school presented a formal ceremony to varying degrees,stylized,mystical tendency,seriously affect-ing the realization of the value of its ideological and political education. New era school ritual reconstruction,should adhere to the principle of subjectivity,respect the autonomy of the students,develop creativity,highlight the development of resistance,based on reality,into the lives of nearly students;adhere to the principle of coordination,and coordinate the construction of the school cere-monies education and culture school,family social rituals education;insist the principle of innovation,so the times,follow the reg-ularity. Strengthening institutional building and artistic design is an effective method and means of ideological and political education school ceremonies value reconstruction.

  6. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  7. Discursos de poder en un nuevo dominio: el trayecto del virrey marqués de las Amarillas de Veracruz a Puebla, las fiestas de entrada y el ceremonial político

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Berndt León Mariscal

    2005-01-01

    A partir del entrecruzamiento de información procedente de documentos de archivo, de relaciones escritas por testigos de época y de una pintura, se re c o n s t ruyen algunos hechos que acontecieron en 1755 con la llegada del 42º virrey a la Nueva España; se describen el trayecto del dignatario de Veracruz a Puebla, el ceremonial de entrada pública, así como detalles de la organización y desarrollo de los festejos patrocinados por el cabildo secular y catedral angelopolitanos.

  8. The Hopi Clown Ceremony ("Tsukulalwa")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Louis A.

    2008-01-01

    Images of kachinas and clowns are found throughout books, journals, and magazines that celebrate the arts of American Indian peoples, including the Hopi. As familiar as people are with these visual images, for the most part they are one-dimensional and suggest little of their meaningful contexts in Hopi thought and ritual. There are other more…

  9. Ceremony 25th birthday Cern

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Hove,L

    1979-01-01

    Célébration du 25ème anniversaire du Cern (jour par jour) avec discours de L.Van Hove et J.B.Adams, des interludes musicals offerts par Mme Mey et ses collègues (au debut 1.mouvement du quatuor avec piano no 3 de L.van Beethoven) Les directeurs généraux procéderont à la remise du souvenir aux membres de personnel ayant 25 années de service dans l'organisation. Un témoignage de reconnaissance est auss fait à l'interprète Mme Zwerner

  10. O rito de nominação numa aldeia Mbyá-guarani do Paraná Name giving ceremony in Mbyá-Guarani settlement of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graciela Chamorro Argüello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto é um relato da cerimônia de nominação de crianças na aldeia mbyá-guarani de Palmeirinha, município de Chopinzinho, sudoeste do Paraná. Apresenta dados etnográficos, impressões da pesquisadora e alguns elementos para uma interpretação do ritual. O relato coloca ao alcance dos pesquisadores uma fonte a mais para o estudo comparativo da cultura dos grupos guarani, bem como para a análise do que representram para esses grupos os longos anos de contato com as culturas chamadas ocidentais.This text describes the children’s name giving ceremony in the Mbyá-Guarani tribe, in Palmeirinha, in the municipality of Chopinzinho, southwestern state of Paraná. Researcher’s impressions, ethnographic data and some elements necessary to the ceremony comprehension are presented, thus providing another source for comparative cultural studies of Guarani groups and analysis of what the many years of contact with the so-called occidental cultures represent to them.

  11. O governo protetor: a representação do poder político em cerimoniais régios portugueses (séc. XVIII-XIX The protector government: the conception of sovereign in the Portuguese royal ceremonies (XVIII - XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romero de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao inventariarmos as grandes celebrações da monarquia portuguesa, encontraremos algumas que são cerimoniais eminentemente religiosos. Dentre eles, há a procissão do Anjo da Guarda do Reino de Portugal (no terceiro domingo de julho, instituída no século XVI como celebração da realeza, das quais toda a Corte participava e eram realizadas por todo o reino português. Também as aclamações de Da. Maria I (1777 e D. João VI (1818 utilizam elementos de caráter religioso (símbolos e idéias. Estas celebrações colocam-nos a hipótese de uma série de articulações entre os procedimentos religiosos e o poder real. Em função do exame daquelas procissões e destes cerimoniais, procuramos esboçar uma imagem do rei português: um rei-protetor, detentor de um poder de salvação.We investigate the Portuguese royal ceremonies during the XVIII century, and we find some that are eminently religious ceremonies. Especially, there is a Portuguese Kingdom's Guardian Angel's procession (in third Sunday of July, established in the XVI century as a royal ceremony, when all the Court participated in it and this ceremony happened throughout the Portuguese kingdom. The royal coronation of the Da. Maria I (1777 and D. João VI (1818 had some religious aspects. These ceremonies let us to consider the connection between religious procedures and royal power. Consequently, when we investigate these ceremonies, we consider the Portuguese king was conceived as a protector-king, as the royal Portuguese power had a religious power of salvation.

  12. 对中国古代日月食救护仪式异同的分析%Analysis of Similarities and Differences about Eclipses Ambulance Ceremony in China Ancient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海糰; 孙亭

    2015-01-01

    The records of solar eclipse and the eclipse records are systematic and complete in rich astronomical material of ancient China.We are not difficult to find the following phenomenon from the existing records and the historical data.The rulers and common people are going to implement the "rescue"ceremony for rescuing the sun and the moon when the eclipse occurs in ancient China.This traditional ritual from Zhou Dai has been extended to the late Qing Dynasty.We can find the solar eclipse and the eclipse of the "rescue"ceremony from different tends to be the same by tracing the solar eclipse and eclipse "rescue"ceremony.It not only has historical significance and academic significance,but also contribute to a better understanding of the ancient China traditional concepts and the mainstream ideology that research and systematic analyze the change.%中国古代丰富的天象记录中,日食与月食的记录比较系统和完备。从现有的记录和史料中,我们不难发现这一现象:在中国古代,当有日食或月食发生,上至统治者下至平民百姓都要施行相应的“救护”仪式,用以救护日月,这一传统礼制从周代一直延续至清末。追溯日食与月食的“救护”仪式从不同趋于相同,研究这一变化并且进行系统分析,不仅具有历史意义和学术意义,也有助于更好的了解中国古代的传统观念与主流思想。

  13. University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

  14. A recitation on the art characteristics and problems of the opening ceremony in Guangzhou Asian Games%广州亚运会开幕式艺术特点与问题评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁浩波

    2011-01-01

    By using the methods of documents,video observation,comparing,induce and deduce,this ar-ticle analyses the art characteristics of the opening ceremony in 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games,and sum-marizes its problems in order to provide some references for medit%运用文献资料法、录像观察法、对比分析法和归纳演绎法,对2010年广州亚运会开幕式文体表演所体现的艺术特点进行分析与研究,总结归纳广州亚运会开幕式艺术特点中存在的问题,以期为今后再次承办大型体育盛会的构思和设计提供借鉴。

  15. Investigation report on marriage ceremony in Christian House Churches--using M town, Shandong Province, as an example%基督教家庭教会婚姻仪式的调研报告--以山东省M镇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡勇

    2016-01-01

    作者以家庭教会的婚姻仪式作为切入点,从婚姻的缔结,婚姻的象征意义以及规制效应,婚姻的解除等方面对婚姻仪式进行了着重阐述,通过对家庭教会婚姻仪式的描述,为我们了解家庭教会提供了一个新的视角。%Using the marriage ceremony in Christian house churches as an entry point, the author presents a focused description of a typical Christian house church marriage ceremony, including the establishment of marriage, the symbolic meaning of marriage and the effects of regulation, the dissolution of marriage and other aspects, with the aim of providing a new perspective on the understanding of Christian house churches.

  16. 滇南彝族传统祭倮仪式的人类学建构——以云南省石屏县彝族尼苏颇为例%Anthropological construction of Yi people's Ceremony Offering a Sacrifice to Luo in South of Yunnan --Example of NiSuPo Yi in Shiping County of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥姣

    2012-01-01

    Yi people living in LongWu and ShaoChong call themselves as NiSuPo. They gather together to hold a grand ceremony of sacrificing to "Luo" in the woods each spring. Based on the field work about the ceremony offering a sacrifice to Luo on the region where NiSuPo Yi live, this paper will use functional theory, symbolism theory, the ritual process theory, interpretive theory and the practice theory to do the anthropological analysis of ceremony.%居住在云南省石屏县西北部龙武和哨冲一带的彝族尼苏颇,在每年春天都要举行隆重的祭倮活动。基于对云南省石屏县彝族尼苏颇地区的祭倮仪式的调查,本文用功能理论、象征符号理论、仪式过程理论、解释理论和实践理论对仪式进行深入的人类学分析。

  17. Separatism and Holism: Psychological Trauma Healing in Ceremony%分裂观与整体观——《典仪》中的精神创伤治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧荣

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses eco-criticism and archetypal criticism to analyze the hero's recovery from trauma in Ceremony and the different views of separation and holism in trauma healing. Traditional Western medicine, to be more acceptable in non-Western cultures,%本文以生态批评和原型批评等为理论框架,以小说《典仪》男主人公的精神创伤治疗为线索,以人与自然的分裂观和整体观对于精神创伤治疗的不同态度为方法,说明西方传统医学倡导理性,也需要分析非西方文化的特定历史文化因素,才能在更广泛意义上被接受。美国印第安神话反映的印第安医学关于人与神、人与自然、人与人相互联系的整体观概念不仅限于美国印第安文化本身.而且是任何一种文化、传统生存、发展的基础。

  18. 仪式与功能:体育人类学视野下的宾阳舞炮龙%Ceremony and Function:Binyang Firecracker-Dragon Dance from the Perspective of Sport Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱应华

    2015-01-01

    The article makes a specific description about Binyang Firecracker-Dragon dance ritual process based on the sport anthro⁃pology perspective,the literature research and field investigation,and analyzes its emotional catharsis,adjustment function,maintaining and the identity function,fitness and entertainment,cultural,educational,economic and social function. The paper holds the view that great changes in the functions of Binyang firecracker-Dragon dance ceremony is an inevitable result of cultural change because of the mo⁃dernity.%以体育人类学的视角,在文献资料调研和田野调查的基础上,对宾阳舞炮龙仪式过程进行了具体的描述,分析了舞炮龙仪式的情绪宣泄与调适功能、维系与认同功能、健身与娱乐功能、文化传承与教育功能、经济功能等社会功能,认为宾阳舞炮龙仪式由于现代性的切入所发生的功能意义上的嬗变是文化变迁的一种必然结果。

  19. 黔西北彝族献“吉禄”仪式的文化解析%A Cultural Analysis to Offering Jilu Ceremony of Yi People in Northwestern Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆刚; 熊蕊

    2015-01-01

    献“吉禄”是贵州西北部彝族的一种祈福仪式。彝族人崇拜自然,相信万物有灵,认为有超自然力量存在,并主宰着世间一切“。吉禄”被认为是保佑某一家人财运的神灵,彝族人通过对“吉禄”的献祭,祈求神灵保佑六畜兴旺、五谷丰登“。吉禄”由各家各户在家里供奉和献祭,对彝族人的日常生活和思想观念,都有着重大的影响。%Offering Jilu is one of the northwest of Guizhou Yi blessing ceremony. Yi people worship na⁃ture, believe that all things have spirit, think the existence of supernatural power, and dominated the world. Ji⁃lu is thought to be gods bless a family fortune, the Yi people through the sacrifice of the Jilu, pray the gods bless animals thrive, good harvest. Jilu by families in the home to worship and sacrifice, the Yi people's daily life and ideology, has a significant impact.

  20. Simple Analysis on the Influence and Transformation of Pre-Qin Days Ceremony System on Music Education%先秦礼乐制度对音乐教育的影响与转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷

    2011-01-01

    先秦礼乐制度对先秦的音乐文化产生了深刻影响,其中对音乐教育的转型影响尤为明显.在此影响下,音乐教育在教学内容、教授方式、教育思想等方面均发生了较大变化,体现了新旧交替、保守与进步纠缠的转型特点.%The pre-Qin days Ceremony System had a profound effect on the pre-Qin music culture, of which the impact on the transformation of music education is especially evident. Under the influence, great changes have occurred on music education, on particular in the aspects of the teaching content, methodology, and educational thought all of which reflect the entanglement of the features of transformation from the old to the new, the conservative to the progressive.

  1. 对加拿大印第安民族汗屋仪式的现代思考%Rethinking the Indian Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Canada from a Contemporary Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莉

    2011-01-01

    汗屋仪式,作为一种特殊的桑拿净化仪式,成为印第安民族身份认同,传承印第安民族文化,医治民族创伤,凝聚民族力量的重大文化盛事。本文从汗屋仪式起源和传统要素以及汗屋仪式的过程和祭品的象征意义等多个侧面探讨汗屋仪式与印第安民族生活的密切关系,论述了汗屋仪式在现代印第安民族的复兴中所应起到的重大引领作用。%The sweat lodge, as the special purifying sauna ceremony, has been a vital cultural event to emphasize Indian identity, inherit Indian culture, cure ethnic wounds, and gather the ethnic strength. The paper, from various perspectives such as sweat lodge or

  2. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  3. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  4. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  5. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  6. Religious participation and substance use behaviors in a Canadian sample of homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Strehlau, Verena; Linden, Isabelle Aube; Krausz, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This study examined religious behaviors in 380 homeless individuals. We hypothesized that higher frequency of religious attendance is associated with lower rates of use of all substances, lower rates of drug and alcohol dependence, and lower psychological distress. Individuals attending religious ceremonies at least weekly ("frequent attendees") were compared to infrequent attendees. Participants also provided qualitative information about their faith. In univariate analyses, frequent attendees had significantly lower rates of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid use than infrequent attendees. They also had lower rates of alcohol and drug dependence, lifetime suicide attempts, and psychological distress, but these differences were not significant. In multivariate analyses, religious attendance remained significantly associated with alcohol use and opioid use. Researchers need to examine how spiritual and religious practices can be effectively incorporated as a part of substance abuse treatment.

  7. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. Rethinking on Lip-synching Scandal in Beijing Olympic Games Opening Ceremony%北京奥运会开幕式“假唱门”事件的回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璐; 吴新宇

    2015-01-01

    以北京奥运会开幕式“假唱门”事件为案例,从法哲学的视角切入论述,着力于该事件法哲学阐释的一般性和特殊性,即在整个运行体系中体现了整体运行理念,在外部形象方面获得整体与局部的精神统一,当拥有这种外在的,且为体现开幕式演出真实性的权利要求时,事件的内在属性本身存在演出权利的分属性,由此形成了外在整体形象与内在属性本身的价值冲突。透过该事件的法哲学意义层面的思考,一方面认为中国离法治社会和现代公民社会的建立还有很长的路要走,也亟待相关政策法规和行业秩序的完善与发展。另一方面认为事件本身引起全社会广泛积极的参与互动反思,为推进中国法治社会与公民社会的未来发展打下了基础。最后,对“假唱门”事件与民众认知衔接过程中媒体的作用进行了论述,分析了该事件的国际媒体政治表现。%By studying relevant literatures and taking the "lip‐synching" incident happened on the opening ceremony of Beijing Olympic Games as a case ,the incident in details from the perspective of legal philoso‐phy was analyzed ,focusing on the general and special natures of the legal philosophy interpretation .The general and special natures are that the entire operation system reflects the overall operation concept and that the whole and partial spirit unity was achieved in terms of external image .When there are external claims of right to reflect the authenticity of the opening ceremony ,the intrinsic properties of the event it‐self has sub‐property of performance right ,thus forming the conflict between the external whole image and the intrinsic properties .Thinking about the significances of the event at legal philosophy level ,this pa‐per thought that ,on the one hand ,China still has a long way to go to establish legal and modern civil soci‐ety which needs to improve and

  10. 试论先秦冠礼和笄礼的象征意义%On the Symbolism of Crown Ceremony and Hairpin Rite during the Pre- Qin Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦杰

    2011-01-01

    The ceremony of adults evolved from the primitive society into the class society, its nature had changed. It was no longer the adult status symbol for young men and women into adults, but an effective tool for the patriarchal society depriving women's soc%从原始社会发展而来的男女成年礼在进入阶级社会以后,其性质已经发生了变化。它不再是步入成年的青年男女分别获得成人资格的象征,而是成为西周宗法社会剥夺女性社会权力,实现男性统治的有效工具。男子通过冠礼走出家庭走向社会,不但获得了社会性成人的资格,而且正式成为家族血缘的继承人,拥有了领导家庭和参与社会的双重权利。女子则通过笄礼的实施被剥夺了社会性成人资格,她们不再拥有任何权力,只能由一个家庭走向另一个家庭,通过结婚的方式获得人生的成年。

  11. La ceremonia de jura en la Nueva España: proclamaciones fernandinas en 1747 y 1808 The Oath ceremony in New Spain: proclamations to Ferdinand in 1747 and 1808

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Mínguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciudades de La Nueva España proclamaron a cada monarca hispano que ascendía al trono en sus respectivas plazas mayores. Este ritual de origen castellano servía para manifestar de manera pública la lealtad al nuevo rey, ausente físicamente pero materializado en el virreinato simbólicamente a través del arte. Imágenes, sonidos y palabras se combinaron con habilidad en cada ocasión dando lugar a un eficaz espectáculo propagandístico. En 1747 tienen lugar las ceremonias de jura por Fernando VI, y en 1808 las de Fernando VII. Comparar ambas celebraciones resulta especialmente interesante, pues la primera coincide con el apogeo de la colonia, mientras que la segunda transcurre en la grave coyuntura política de 1808. Este análisis permite establecer conclusiones sobre la pervivencia mexicana de este modelo celebraticio y sobre la transformación de los sentimientos monárquicos entre los súbditos novohispanos.All the Spanish Monarchs, which were ascended to the throne, were proclaimed in the Main Square of the New Spain's cities. This ritual, of Castilian origin, was made to demonstrate, in a public way, the loyalty to the new king, physically absent in the viceroyalty, but symbolically present thanks to the Art. Images, sounds and words were cleverly combined in each occasion making possible an effective propagandistic spectacle. In 1747 take place the oath by Fernando VI ceremonies, and in 1808 Ferndinand VII's. To compare both celebrations is quite interesting, because the first one coincides with the apogee of the colony, while seconds is celebrated in a serious political conjuncture of 1808. This analysis allows us to justify conclusions about the Mexican evolution of this celebration pattern and about the New Spain' subjects feelings about Monarchy.

  12. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  13. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  14. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  15. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  16. On the Folk Sports of Sacrificial Ceremony of Rural Temple in North Fujian---Taking Bench Dragon Dance as an Example%闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的民俗体育---以舞板凳龙为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣艾

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the contemporary remains, cultural characteristics, cultural changes and modern inheritance of bench dragon dance in sacrificial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian by using field investigation, literature date and so on. The result shows that the rural temple culture could provide an important carrier for bench dragon in Northern Fujian. Bench dragon dance in sacrifi-cial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian has five characteristics:religiousness, amalgamation, regionality, entertainment and group character. The basic sustainable development strategy of bench dragon dance in sacrificial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian in-cludes:cling to the parent folk activities, building of cultural-ecological villages, government support and so on.%采用田野调查﹑文献资料等研究方法,对闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的舞板凳龙习俗在当代遗存﹑文化特点﹑文化变迁和现代传承进行研究。研究结果表明:村庙文化是闽北板凳龙得以活态传承的重要载体;闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的板凳龙习俗具有宗教性﹑融合性﹑区域性﹑娱乐性和群体性等文化特点。依附民俗母体﹑文化生态村建设和政府支持等是闽北板凳龙可持续发展的主要策略。

  17. 从村落到社区的构建:壮族丧葬仪式参与者变迁解读——以南岭走廊中段广西钟山县清塘镇壮族为例%From the Village to the Community:the Unscramble about a Funeral Ceremony Participant of Zhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦浩明

    2012-01-01

    现有丧葬仪式的研究侧重于过程的描述和分析,缺乏对参与者的深入考察,尤其是对传统村落丧葬仪式转移到乡镇社区办理的参与者问题的探讨,更是难得一见。南岭走廊中段聚族而居的传统少数民族乡村,其丧葬仪式的参与者,主要是血缘群体,重在构建以血缘关系为纽带的家族凝聚力;当这一仪式由村落转移到乡镇社区办理时,其参与者不再是单一的血缘群体,而是牵涉到家族、宗族、社区三个主要集群,带有明显的家族、宗族与社区结合的特征。既有构建血缘群体凝聚力的成份,又增添了地缘群体凝聚力构建的内容。%The existing research about funeral ceremony focuses on the process description and analysis,lack of participants in-depth investigation,especially the discussion of the participants from traditional village funeral ceremony to the rural community is rare.In the traditional ethnic minority villages Nanling Corridor middle poly-clan,the funeral ceremony of the participants are mainly blood groups,they focus on building a link between the blood family cohesion;when the ceremony moved to town from the rural village,the participants are no longer a single blood group,but it involves the family,clan,community,with a clear family,clan and community integration features.So it constructs blood group cohesion components,but also adds a geographic group cohesion content.

  18. Traffic Organization Methods and Effects of Large-Scale Events Holding on Special Space: Case of 16th Asian Games Opening Ceremony%特殊场地举办大型活动的交通组织方法及效果——第16届亚运会开幕式为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兴栋; 甘勇华; 李健行; 林圣康

    2012-01-01

    Distinct from traditional gymnasium-inside patterns, the 16th Asian Games opening ceremony was held on the Pearl River Haixinsha island which is water surrounded, and strong opened central business district. Before the start of the opening ceremony, the parade function was conducted on the Pearl River, whose route cross through the whole central district. Because of the special venues and patterns which have not been used in the history of the Olympic and Asian Games, the traffic organization for this opening ceremony faced a real great challenge. Therefore, the organization mechanisms of flexible planning, hierarchical management, static and dynamic binding, time and space separation were applied and other useful methods of large-scale events are taken. The program design of traffic control, parking layout, public transportation organization, and the traffic flow line of approach-leave gymnasium were well developed and implemented, which successfully solved the traffic organization problem for large-scale events opening ceremony holding in CBD open space. Meanwhile, it provided valuable experiences for the traffic organization of large-scale events in the future.%第16届亚运会开幕式打破了在体育馆内举行的传统模式,在城市中央商务区(CBD)、四面环水、开放性强的珠江海心沙岛上举行.开幕仪式前还举行珠江巡游活动,路线穿越了城市中心区,场地和活动形式非常特殊,在奥运和亚运史上尚无先例,给开幕式交通组织带来巨大挑战.亚运会开幕式采用了“弹性规划、分层管理、动静结合、时空分离”等大型活动交通组织机理和方法,制定和实施了交通管控,停车布局,公共交通组织,进散场交通流线设计等方案.实施效果良好,成功解决了CBD开放式场地举办大型赛事开幕式的交通组织难题,为今后举办大型活动的交通组织提供了宝贵经验.

  19. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  20. Incense Offering as Pilgrimage---A Case Study on Incense Offering Ceremony to Mazu%作为朝圣行为的进香活动--以台湾地区妈祖进香仪式为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋嘉健

    2015-01-01

    妈祖进香是妈祖信仰行为的重要内容。近年来,随着妈祖影响力的不断增强,各类妈祖进香活动日渐频繁,妈祖进香活动成了妈祖信俗延续且不断扩展的一个重要表现。以维克托·特纳的“朝圣”概念为视角,理解妈祖进香仪式过程中的“朝圣”内涵,并就进香行为本身对妈祖信众的心灵冲击与现实生活的影响加以分析。在妈祖进香过程中,信众通过大范围、长时段内的进香行为不断重申着民间信仰主动适应当代社会的积极性,而进香过程中的能动者———信众,也在“朝圣”过程中进行了生命体验的更新,反观自我,增进群体生活认知与相互认同。%Mazu pilgrimage is one of the most important activities of Mazu belief.In recent years, with the growing influence of Mazu, all kinds of incense offering activities to Mazu are becoming more and more frequent, which embodies the continuity of Mazu belief.This trend shows that folk belief is developing with vigorous vitality in contemporary society.From the perspective of Victor Turner's“pilgrimage” concept, the paper discusses the connotation of the process of incense offering to Mazu, and analy-zes its impact on Mazu believers’ mentality and their life.Besides, this paper argues that the longtime and large-scale ceremo-ny of incense offering to Mazu reaffirms that the folk belief has been actively adapting itself to the contemporary society, and offers an opportunity for the believers not only to renew their life experiences and self-awareness, but also to increase the mutual rec-ognition and identity of each other in the process of pilgrimage.

  1. Behavioral epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, devel...

  2. Girls In STEM White Coat Ceremony 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Kelsey Ann Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coronado, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Like working with children? Who doesn’t? Girls in STEM has myriad opportunities for you to help local Title 1 students in the classroom. You can choose to volunteer from the Lab, from the Bradbury Science Museum, or to travel to Abiquiu Elementary School (car provided) to do a science demonstration. The best part is that you can use the Community Outreach Partnership Code.

  3. Beyond Ceremony: On Being a Chancellor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The oldest and most senior post in a university has come back into the limelight recently, as a string of well-known and distinguished figures have become Chancellors. Even those with the most glittering careers have been honoured to take on such a prestigious role. But, like many ancient offices, there is no job description beyond presiding at…

  4. Tu-144LL Rollout Ceremony Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A modified Russian Supersonic Passenger Jet is rolled out of its hangar at the Zhukousky Airfield March 17, 1996 to symbolize the start of a joint six-month research program between NASA and U.S. Industry Team and the Russian Aeronautics Establishment

  5. 婚礼仪式与物品所呈现的地方性知识--以印度尼西亚爪哇族婚礼为例%The presented local knowledge of the wedding ceremony and articles--Take indonesian Javanese family wedding as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖莉娴

    2012-01-01

      Indonesia Java family's wedding ceremony process complicated, before the wedding, the wedding and after the wedding different concrete manifestation of their ceremony, the use of the items also have a local folk characteristics, symbolism and connotations unique, representing the Indonesian Javanese ethnic culture of religious, natural and women leading characteristics of this faith the Arab countries of the Islamic culture very different.%  印度尼西亚爪哇族的婚礼仪式过程繁复多样,在婚礼前、婚礼时与婚礼后不同的具体体现,其仪式所用的物品也具有地方民俗特色,象征意义和内涵别具一格,代表着印度尼西亚爪哇族文化的宗教性、自然性和以女性为主导的特点,这与信仰的伊斯兰文化的阿拉伯国大不相同。

  6. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  7. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  8. Memorial Ceremony for the Yellow Emperor and Dynasty Temple Priest:Evaluation for Public Cultural Celebration in China and Korea%公祭黄帝大典与宗庙大祭:中韩传统庆典的当代意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小岩

    2016-01-01

    Ceremonies are important carriers of national cultural image.Festival activities can expand the cultural space, reveal the cultural styles and marks,as the East Asian neighbors,China and South Korea have their own traditional large public ceremonies.This paper is to study the remodeling of festivals,cultural activities and cultural space,at the same time comparing Memorial Ceremony for the Yellow Emperor in China with Worship for Ancestral Temple of a Ruling House in South Korea,by presenting analysis of China and Republic of Korea on the refinement and deduction of culture and the practice experience of ceremony classification.Learning"authenticity"attitude of the neighbor to historical and cultural heritage,referring to the practice of presenting ethnic cultural heritage through ceremonies,excavating culture and traditional connotation,trying to put forward the remodeling cultural space which lies on the festival culture,with soft power of spiritual resources as the core,then we can make the history close to the reality,maximize coverage of iden-tity,so as to cultivate and enhance the cohesion and charm of the Chinese soul.%重大庆典活动是勾勒与凸显国家文化形象的重要载体。节庆活动可以拓展文化空间,彰显文化风格与标记,互为东亚近邻的中韩两国都有民间的传统大型公共庆典仪式,以韩国的宗庙大祭和中国的公祭黄帝大典作为个案对比,通过分析中韩两国对历史文化的细化演绎和庆典仪式分类培育的做法经验,从中体会韩国对于历史文化遗产的“本真性”态度。应借鉴以庆典仪式呈递民族文化遗产的做法,充分挖掘我国的文化底蕴和传统内涵,以节庆文化为依托,软实力精神资源为内核,重塑文化空间,使历史贴近现实,最大覆盖认同,从而培育和体现循回不息、博大厚重的“中华魂”,以增强中华民族文化传统的凝聚力与感召力。

  9. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  10. Behavior subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  11. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  13. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  14. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  15. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  16. Behavior subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in many applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering changes in scene dynamics instead of changes in scene's photometric properties; the detection of unusual pedestrian or motor traffic patterns are but two examples. We propose a new model and computational framework that assume the dynamics of a scene, not its photometry, to be stationary, i.e., a dynamic background serves as the reference for the dynamics of an observed scene. Central to our approach is the concept of an event, which we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. Unlike in our earlier work, we compute events by time-aggregating vector object descriptors that can combine multiple features, such as object size, direction of movement, speed, etc. We characterize events probabilistically, but use low-memory, low-complexity surrogates in a practical implementation. Using these surrogates amounts to behavior subtraction, a new algorithm for effective and efficient temporal anomaly detection and localization. Behavior subtraction is resilient to spurious background motion, such as due to camera jitter, and is content-blind, i.e., it works equally well on humans, cars, animals, and other objects in both uncluttered and highly cluttered scenes. Clearly, treating video as a collection of events rather than colored pixels opens new possibilities for video analytics.

  17. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  18. 亚运会开幕式对广州居民文化认同的影响研究--基于仪式理论的分析%Impact of 2010 Asia Games Opening Ceremony on Cultural Identity of Residents in Guangzhou:Perspective on Events and Ritual Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋菊; 林潼

    2014-01-01

    广州亚运会开幕式既是体育事件的仪式部分,也是一个独立的文化事件。基于事件与仪式理论视角,阐述亚运会开幕式的文化呈现及文化象征符号意义,透过举办地本地居民对具有本地文化表征事件的态度,分析亚运会开幕式事件与举办地文化的关系,探讨在事件背景下文化认同的呈现及可能的变化趋势。透过对作为阈限的事件、事件的文化表演、事件的文化时代连结、事件对地方意识的激发等关系的阐释,呈现亚运会开幕式的文化认同。研究发现:①广州亚运会开幕式事件唤起的情绪是文化本体认同的体现,事件亦提供认识文化体系中文化符号及其意义的一个途径,同时广州亚运会开幕式事件推进了文化的整合;②广州亚运会开幕式事件影响文化认同的过程需要相关群体的积极参与,只有将暂时的情绪转化成人们对于文化的主动性思考、认知与认同,事件的刺激作用才能得以延续并最终作用于文化认同。此外,事件对文化认同的影响需要在时间延伸上进行讨论和完善,事件后文化的发展状态也需要被关注。%While the issue of cultural identity is highlighted under the circumstance of globalization and modernization, there is still lacking particular research on sports events’impacts on cultural identity. Thus more attention should be paid to the socio-cultural impacts in order to utilize more fully of the positive im-pacts of sports events. 2010 Asia Games opening ceremony in Guangzhou is not only part of the sports event, but also an independent cultural event. The article, through participant observation and interview, described the Lingnan Culture in Guangzhou Asian Games opening ceremony and interpreted the cultural symbols in it. The relationship between the ceremony and the culture of the host city was discussed by ana-lyzing the attitude of local residents to the

  19. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  20. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  1. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  2. 文化传承:德昂民歌与婚恋仪式——以云南保山市潞江坝德昂族为例%Cultural Heritage: De'ang Folk Songs and the Marriage Ceremony --.Taking Lujiangba De'ang People in Baoshan City of Yunnan Province for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国彬

    2012-01-01

    德昂族人的婚恋仪式是德昂民歌生存与发展的文化生态。德昂民歌是走向爱河的德昂青年男女的最佳试探手段。德昂族人的串姑娘习俗及其串姑娘调就是民歌主导恋爱环节的鲜明体现。德昂族的婚礼是在音乐歌舞中进行的,具有民族特色。从民歌的角度来说,德昂族人的婚礼也是一个民族文化的传承场,更是民歌得以永续发展的文化传承机制。从德昂族的婚恋仪式来看,民歌的文化传承主要有三个方面:压力机制、示范机制与融入机制。%De'ang people's marriage ceremony is the cultural ecology of the survival and development of De'ang folk songs. De'ang folk song is the best test means of De'ang young men and women entry into love. The customs and tune that the young men look for the girls as the lovers are the distinctive manifesta- tion that folk songs dominate aspects of love. The De'ang wedding is taken in the music and dance with national characteristics. The De'ang wedding is a heritage field of the national culture from the perspective of folk songs and more the cultural inheritance mechanism that folk songs can develop sustainably. The cul- tural heritage of folk songs mainly reflects in three aspects: stress mechanisms, demonstration mechanism, and integration mechanism from De'ang marriage ceremony.

  3. On the Regrets of Supplemental Shooting of the Soviet Five-color Movies from the Perspective of the Truth and Falsehood of the Images in The Ceremony of PLA Entering Beiping%从《北平入城式》影像真伪谈苏联五彩片补拍之憾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎煜

    2011-01-01

    本文从考证纪录片《北平入城式》真伪着手,主要借助口述历史访谈方式,探究苏联在1949年来华拍摄纪录片《中国人民的胜利》和《解放了的中国》时,在多大程度、多大规模上采用事后补拍、搬演的方式,并揭示其对中国电影所造成的负面影响。%Starting with the textual research into the truth and falsehood in the documentary film The Ceremony of PLA Entering Beiping, this paper, with the help of oral account of history and interviewing, investigates thoroughly to what extent and on what scale the Soviet Union adopted the methods like supplemental shooting and performing when they came to China in 1949 to shoot the documentary films The Chinese People's Victory and Liberated China, and brings to light the negative influences they have on Chinese films.

  4. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  5. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  6. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  7. Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Donald J.

    The movement within behavior therapy to introduce cognitive terms, constructs, and techniques reflects and involves an extension of the pervasive cognitive movement within the experimental field and the long-standing cognitive approach of many clinicians. Modern day attacks on behaviorism by cognitivists have been almost exclusively geared to the…

  8. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  9. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  10. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  11. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  12. Behaviorism and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Krapfl, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and...

  13. What determines our behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2001-01-01

    In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980) proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question a...

  14. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  15. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  16. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  17. Constructing Ritual and Musical Ceremony Based on Human Nature:Studies on Xunzi’s Human Nature%基于人性论的礼乐建构--荀子人性论再研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧子

    2014-01-01

    荀子从对人性分析入手,展开由个体到群体的制度建构,旨在解决群体生存的幸福与和谐问题。他的“性恶论”可以被重新诠释为人性自爱论。他认为,人都有自爱与自利的本性,这是人自我提升的原动因,也是利益纷争的起因;无限度的自爱、自利会导致社会无序和混乱;人是生活于群体中的关系性存在,群体的安定由正义所决定。基于自爱的人性观,他建立相应的伦理和法律思想以规范、约束无限度扩张的自爱本性所导致的社会失序;而个体有限度的、被压抑的自爱诉求则是通过音乐的调和力量得以保护、净化与提升。%Xunzi’s thought of social order based on his understanding of human nature, and his view of evil human nature can be reinterpreted into human nature of self-love. First of all, human beings do have nature of self-love and self-benefit, which are the reasons why people can promote themselves. Secondly, self-love and self-benefit without limitation and restriction will cause society in disorder, chaos and wars. Thirdly, people are living in relations of society, and the orders and regulation of society are based on justice. Therefore, based on the human nature of self-love, Xunzi tries to build social orders, laws and regulations to restrict people’s behavior and restrain bad things happen caused by the nature of self-benefit without limitation. In xunzi’s thought, the need of depressed human nature of self-benefit can be protected, promoted and cleaned by music education.

  18. Les cérémonies d’accueil dans la citoyenneté française et les « citizenship ceremonies » en Grande-Bretagne : quelques éléments de comparaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Puzzo

    2007-11-01

    analyse de deux des conditions requises que sont la maîtrise de la langue et l’adhésion à des valeurs démocratiques. On examinera enfin le déroulement de ces cérémonies qui tend progressivement vers une harmonisation de leurs différentes étapes.Over the past few years citizenship ceremonies for those acquiring British or French citizenship have been held in both countries. For the candidates these official celebrations mark the end of often lengthy administrative procedures to get naturalised and testify to their commitment to integrate into their new country. Both countries are intent to give a more political and ideological significance to the process of naturalisation. Conditions imposed on candidates, like the language tests and the UK life test are supposed to be for the host countries an unquestionable indication that each new citizen has a minimum knowledge about his/her new country, that he/she understands and respects its democratic values. Beyond the formal and theoretical aspects of these ceremonies, the differences observed reflect the diversity of the two models of integration.

  19. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  20. 越南彝族传统丧葬仪式的文化象征意义和社会文化功能%Research the Cultural Symbol and Social Function of Yi People's Traditional Funeral Ceremony Culture in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙倮贵

    2014-01-01

    文章以作者实地考察并纵观越南彝族“倮倮人”传统丧葬的续气装殓设灵堂、开丧祭奠、出殡下葬等仪式文化和特点,认为越南彝族传统丧葬仪式不仅反映出祖先崇拜理念为核心的文化象征意义,同时还具有生者情感安慰与精神寄托、生者争荣显贵、重构家族关系、整合村寨资源、稳固姻亲关系与增强族群认同,以及教化后代子孙等的社会文化功能。%In this article through the field survey, the author describes the Vietnam yi people “Luo Luo”renew traditional funeral customs such Die, departures, set up, funerals, festivals,the funeral and burial procedure and feature.The authors believe that Vietnam yi people's traditional funeral ceremony not only reflects the concept of ancestor worship as the core of cultural symbolism, at the same time also has the emotional comfort and spiritual living, the living, for honor dignitaries, refactoring family relations, integrate village resources, strong affinity to enhance ethnic identity, as well as social and cultural functions such as enlightenment descendants.

  1. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  2. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  3. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  4. 15 Kasım (Cumhuriyet Bayramı Törenlerinin Kıbrıs Türk Basınında Yansıtılma Şekilleri Formants Portrayed in the Turkish Cypriot Press November 15 Ceremonies (Repuplic Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver KATA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The reviews of this issue has done on Northern Cyprus (Turkish media. The ways of apperaing the 15th of Novermber of Republic Day in newspapers is the subject of analyse. The aim is to identify the ways of public opinion. In this way the questioning between media and political parties has already done. They tried to show the effect and routing of media on society using the ways of Theory of public Opinion and Critical Discourse Analysis. The Cyprus problem was also shown on the issues of newspapers with the organising of the Republic Day ceremonies. During the questioning of public opinion has been also shown the attitude of the members of media that supported this organization of a ceremony and that only followed the process witevh their slogans. Review was on 3 local newspapers: Kıbırs, Afrika and Volkan. The review was limited on R.R Denktash’s, M.A Talat’s and D. Eroglu’s exact period in their last years. 2004, 2009 and 2011 are the years included in this chronological order. The celebrations of 15th of November every year during the periods of the last duties of political leaders has been analysed the effectiveness of these celebrations in newspapers. Finally, the connection has shown between the news of political approch and ceremonies. Review has been focused on three local newspapers and has had the best results. We believe that the other newspapers of Turkish Cypriot press will use the ways of Theory of public Opinion and Critical Discourse Analysis and will be able to achieve same the results. Bu inceleme Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti basını üzerinde yapılmıştır. 15 Kasım Cumhuriyet Bayramının gazetelere yansıma biçimleri incelemenin konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Amaç gazetelerin kamuoyu oluşturma biçimlerini ve gücünü tespit etmektir. Böylece gazetelerin siyasi çevreyle olan ilişkileri sorgulanmıştır. Kıbrıs sorununa ilişkin yaklaşım gazetelerin Cumhuriyet bayramı için düzenlenen t

  5. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported...... entirely by hypothetical behavior as criterion, so far. Thus, in 2 studies and a reanalysis, we investigated "actual behavior" in the form of individually and socially consequential distribution decisions. As expected, HEXACO Honesty-Humility consistently predicted prosocial behavior, including a theory......-consistent pattern on the facet level. Importantly, this pattern might explain why five-factor Agreeableness has only sometimes been found to account for prosocial behavior. Indeed, further results indicate that five-factor Agreeableness comprises some aspects that are predictive of prosocial behavior-aspects well...

  6. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  7. About Teleological Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  8. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  9. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  10. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  11. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  12. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  13. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  14. Clarifying Behavior Management Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, Joseph E., III; Howerton, D. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Eight behavioral management terms/concepts commonly encountered in the special education literature are defined and discussed in terms of commonly occurring confusions. They are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior, timeout, response cost, and overcorrection. (DB)

  15. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  16. Competence Enhancement Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Hives, Jacqueline; Aaron, Annie; Jackson, Frances; Sgammato, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Competence Enhancement Behavior Management is presented as a framework for supporting students with challenging behaviors in general education classrooms. This approach emphasizes classroom management and discipline strategies that (a) help to build positive relations with students, (b) communicate to students that they are important, and (c)…

  17. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  18. Behaviorism and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R F

    1994-04-01

    The influence of the methods and theories of behaviorism on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of Watson's (1913) original call-to-arms. Behaviorist approaches to animal behavior, particularly in the study of processes of learning and memory, have had a profound and continual influence in the area of neuroscience concerned with animal studies of brain substrates of behavior. Similarly, contemporary behaviorists have not been opposed to the study of neurobiological substrates of behavior. On the other hand, classical behaviorist views of thinking, that is, as reflex chains, have been largely discounted by developments in neuroscience. Classical behaviorism is viewed by many as being most at odds with the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, particularly regarding "mind" and "consciousness." A modest attempt at reconciliation is offered.

  19. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  20. A Study on the Translation Strategies of the Opening Ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia---From the Perspective of Skopos Theory%博鳌亚洲论坛开幕式演讲词翻译策略探究--目的论视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芃方

    2016-01-01

    As a high level of Asian political and Economic Forum,the Boao Forum for Asia was held regularly every year in Boao,Hainan,every forum has a new theme,mostly related to the development of the Asian economy and the world peace.According to the core theory of German functional translation school,the purpose of translation should be decided by the whole translation skopos.In order to do a better job of publicity materials translation,explore translation strategies of the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia from the perspective of skopos theory.The results showed that in the translation of publici-ty materials,the translator should bear in mind the Skopos principle,to meet the expected demand for the target audience as a criterion,effectively promote the position of the Chinese government,transferring the voice of the Chinese government to the world to the maximum extent.%博鳌亚洲论坛作为亚洲各国政治经贸高层次论坛,每年定期在我国海南博鳌举行,每届论坛都有一个新的主题,大多与亚洲经济发展以及世界和平相关。根据德国功能翻译学派核心理论———目的论,翻译行为应由整体翻译目的决定。为了更好地做好外宣材料翻译工作,从目的论视角对博鳌亚洲论坛开幕式演讲词翻译策略进行探究,结果表明,在进行外宣材料翻译时,译者应牢记目的论翻译原则,以满足目的语受众的预期需求为准则,有效推介中国政府的立场,将中国政府的声音最大限度地传递给世界。

  1. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 14. septembril 2011. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  2. Review of the entrepreneurship contests' ceremonial award-gala 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Fotoreportaaž Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse, Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja ning Tööandjate Keskliidu ettevõtluse auhindade üleandmiselt Estonia kontserdisaalis 18. septembril 2008. Fotodel ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  3. Installation Ceremony for the 14th Living Buddha Gyamya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    InstallationCeremonyforthe14thLivingBuddhaGyamyaLIULONGAprilintheQinghai-TibetPlateaufeaturesbrightsunlightandgentlewind.thec...

  4. Speech by Tonga Princess Pilolevu Tuita At the Opening Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>It is a great pleasure and honor for me to be here again in Shanghai,in this energetic and ageless city,and in particular to participate in a conference that promotes the opportunity for a better tomorrow through the collective cooperation of individuals and organizations present here today.I am especially delighted to speak at this conference as the theme focuses on city cooperation for a better life.This is a concept that is personally familiar to me as the Tongan way of life,and indeed the Pacific way of life,is a family orientated and community founded way of life,where the individual’s obligations to the immediate and extended family,and of course the broader community,is of paramount value in defining a successful and productive life.It’s a way of life where we rely on and take care of each other.It’s a way of life that suggests no one person,community,or indeed a country for that matter,is big enough to be independent of each other.This is the perspective I wish to emphasize in the spirit of the conference theme.

  5. Opening Ceremony Speech by Former Togolese Prime Minister Edem Kodjo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>My theme is "Strategic Thinking for the protection of the urban environment,energy conservation and reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases,the exploration and use of new energy sources".Behind these statements,it is the question of human survival on our planet.Our various projections of the coming decades suggest a disaster,given the current damage that we have caused and the consequences of which now seem all too predictable.

  6. Speech by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu at the Opening Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>First of all,on behalf of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC) and China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA),I’d like to express our profound respect to our state leaders present here today,a sincere welcome to the delegates and guests representing various cities in China and other countries around the world,and,finally,cordial greetings and heartfelt thanks to all the friends who have over the years made unremitting efforts to the development of the cause of international friendship cities.

  7. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.

  8. Departure Ceremony for Chinese International Friendship Volunteers Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An; Xin

    2013-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC launched the"Program of Chinese International Friendship Volunteers"in 2012.On July 18 this year,it joined with the Program’s organizer,Zhongxie Human Resource Consulting Center(Zhongxie HR),to

  9. Doctoral Dissertation Defences: Performing Ambiguity between Ceremony and Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Arjen; Rufas, Alix; Supper, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Dissertation defenses are ambiguous affairs, which mark both the end of a long process of doctoral education and the inauguration of a doctoral candidate into a body of experts. At Maastricht University (and other Dutch universities), the decision to award a doctoral degree is made on the basis of t

  10. Opening Ceremony of American Flying Tiger Guilin Heritage Park Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Sanghua; Ba; Cuicui; Jin; Hanghang

    2015-01-01

    On March 28,Chinese Vice Premier Liu Yandong attended the opening of the Flying Tiger Guilin Heritage Park in Guilin,southwest China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region whose construction started in July 2011.Located at the former site of Yang Tang Airport,it has such historical relics as the Command Post

  11. Second China-Africa Friendship Awards Ceremony Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>As part of the activity of the"2nd China-Africa Friendship Award"jointly carried out by the CPAFFC and the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association(CAPFA) from March 2008 to November 2009,five African friends including former Zambian President Kenneth David Kaunda were chosen as the Five African People Who Deeply Moved the Chinese People while 10

  12. Ceremony to mark the installation of first magnet at LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Team

    1987-01-01

    Speech from French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac following the installation of the first magnet at LEP on 4 June 1987. And from Herwig Schopper, CERN Director-General; Swiss President Pierre Aubert and Wolfgang Kummer, President of the CERN Council.

  13. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  14. [A retrospective on behaviorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpcke-Duttler, A

    1987-01-01

    This essay regards the behaviorism as a component of the industrial civilization and the formation of science according to it. The power of the objectivistic "Aussenweg" (Husserl) and man's exteriorization are discovered in Skinner's analysis of human behaviour, in the thought of a psychologist who denies human freedom and follows a perspective of external controls. The behaviorism, the instrumentalization of men and of the human reason are connected with the philosophy of Descartes and Carnap. Finally the deficient truth of the behaviorism becomes distinct in the thoughts of a phenomenological "Selbstvertiefung" and a creative "Phänopraxie".

  15. Preliminary Study of the Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of the Rain Mitigation Operation during the Opening Ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games%2008年奥运会开幕式日人工消减雨作业中尺度数值模拟的初步结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晖; 金华; 李宏宇; 刘建忠

    2012-01-01

    2008年8月8日,在2008年北京奥运会开幕式举行之际,北京及周边地区出现了较强对流云团,给国家体育场内开幕式活动的顺利进行带来了极大威胁.根据云系的发展状况,北京市人工影响天气办公室有针对性地组织实施了大规模地面火箭人工消减雨作业,对抑制云、降水的形成和发展起到了一定作用.在中尺度数值模式MM5的Reisner2方案中引入了AgI粒子与云相互作用的过程,在MM5中实现了催化功能.参照2008年8月8日20:05至20:12进行的消减雨作业情况,利用加入催化方案的中尺度数值模式对该作业进行了数值模拟试验,就不同的播撒量对催化效果的影响进行了研究,并对其中的微物理机制进行了分析.研究结果表明:AgI播撒率对降水量改变影响很明显,当以5g·s-1的速率持续播撒AgI 7 min,在播撒作业后2h,催化区域内均表现为减雨,2h后为增雨.对于减雨的微物理机制主要是由于大量播撒AgI后导致空中云水大量减少,进一步导致霰减少,霰的减少导致雨水的减少;而2h后的增雨机制则是由于在雨水、云水、霰以及温度之间形成了正反馈,最终导致地面降水的增加.需要指出的是由于单参数方案的局限性,模拟的最大减雨率仅为8%~12%,离消雨的要求尚有差距,应利用双参数云方案作进一步模拟研究.%Strong convective clouds occurred in Beijing and its surrounding areas during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, which posed a threat to the ongoing ceremony activities at the National Stadium. According to the actual weather condition, rain mitigation by firing lots of special rockets was operated by the Beijing Weather Modification Office. The operation played a certain role in inhibiting the formation and development of cloud and precipitation. Based on the dynamic frame of MM5 and Reisner2 explicit cloud scheme, an Agl-seeding scheme is developed and used to

  16. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  17. Emotions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...

  18. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  19. Network-behavior dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina

  20. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing to worry about. ... feels good. If your child is preoccupied with masturbation (cannot be distracted from doing it), it could ...

  1. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  2. Behavior analysis in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Todorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of behavior analysis in Brazil began with the visit of Fred S. Keller as a FulbrightScholar to the University of São Paulo in 1961. Keller introduced Skinner works to the Brazilianpsychologists. His first assistant was Carolina Martuscelli Bori, then a social psychologistinfluenced by the work of Kurt Lewin. Initially guided by Keller, Carolina Bori was the majorforce in the diffusion of Behavior Analysis in Brazil, beginning with the psychology course ofthe University of Brasília, where the first course on Experimental Analysis of Behavior beganin August of 1964. Most of behavior analysts in Brazil today were students, directly or indirectly,of Carolina Bori. Several graduate programs throughout the country offer courses in behavioranalysis.

  3. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  4. Probability and radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

  5. Probability and radical behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforc...

  6. About Teleological Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological b...

  7. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  8. Behavioral Treatment of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Webb, Victoria; Thomas A. Wadden

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral treatment should be the first line of intervention for overweight and obese individuals. This paper provides an overview of the structure and principles of behavioral weight loss treatment. The short- and long-term effectiveness of this approach is reviewed. Strategies for improving weight loss maintenance are described, including prolonging contact between patients and providers (either in the clinic or via Internet or telephone), facilitating high amounts of physical activity, an...

  9. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  10. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  11. Biblical behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L

    1996-07-01

    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving.

  12. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  13. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  14. Exhibiting New Achievements & Carrying Forward Wine Culture ---Meeting Summary of Publishing Ceremony of Study on Chinese Wine Culture Volume Ⅱ (Forum of Chinese Wine Culture)%展示新成果 弘扬酒文化——《中国酒文化研究第二卷》发行仪式暨中国白酒文化论坛纪要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢美英; 钟小荷

    2012-01-01

    The publishing ceremony of Study on Chinese Wine Culture Volume Ⅱ(Forum of Chinese Wine Culture) was held in Yibin College on December 17- 19, 2011. The representatives in the meeting discussed topics including "the history of wine", "wine and its cultural connotation and value", "the marketing and developing strategies of wine culture", and "the exploration of the material foundation of wine culture" etc, Meanwhile, they gave a high evaluation of Study on Chinese Wine Culture Volume Ⅱ.%"《中国酒文化研究第二卷》发行仪式暨中国白酒文化论坛"于2011年12月17日至12月19日在宜宾学院召开。与会代表深入讨论了"酒的历史"、"酒及其文化的内涵及价值""、酒文化的营销发展战略""、酒文化的物质基础探析"等问题,同时高度评价了《中国酒文化研究第二卷》。

  15. [Dyspnea and behavioral control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T

    1992-04-01

    Respiration is automatically regulated via chemo- and mechanoreceptors existing in and outside the lungs, but it is also controlled voluntarily by behavioral factors. Voluntary increase in ventilation accentuates dyspnea and the sensory intensity at a given ventilation does not differ from that of exercise-induced hyperventilation, but it is significantly smaller than that during hypercapnia or hypoxia. Voluntary constraint of ventilation augments dyspnea in proportion to the degree of constraint even under isocapnic hyperoxia, and the respiratory sensation during constrained breathing is qualitatively more discomfortable than that during hyperventilation. Changes in the level and pattern of breathing under constant levels of chemical stimuli increase respiratory sensations and the intensity of dyspnea is minimal near the spontaneous levels, which supports the hypothesis that breathing is behaviorally regulated in part to minimize dyspnea. The system of behavioral control of breathing appears to be involved in the maintenance of body homeostasis by modifying the respiratory output through respiratory sensations.

  16. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  17. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  18. SPORT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior. A correct understanding and management of this phenomenon, of the factors that influence the attitudes and the decisions taken by the respective consumer, of the display manner for the consumer behavior have a major importance from the management and marketing point of view. This paper focuses on the football consumer and describes, first of all, the main characteristics of each of the typologies mentioned above from this perspective, presenting also the reasons for their transition from passive supporter to fan. Another issue we approach in the current paper refers to the changes appeared in the consumer behavior when the market segment is represented by those supporters whose teams are either relegated or liquidated, which is a global phenomenon in the football area. Having in mind this aspect and taking into consideration the influence of media (TV, press, Internet, social media etc, some individual benchmarks that influence those consumer’s behavior are identified within the context of the general typologies previously mentioned. These influences help the consumer to obtain benefits or satisfaction similar to those already lost. The findings may be used in further research focused on that particular market segment and could provide the necessary support data for further development of proper techniques and tools for reshaping and changing the respective consumer behavior.

  19. Rationality and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullberg, Jan

    2003-10-21

    This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for

  20. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.

    1978-01-01

    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  1. Teaching Behavioral Awareness in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a model for behavioral change which synthesizes behavioral awareness with empirically identified target behaviors. Stages of the model are presented and cautions for implementation are given. Suggests the model can help students gain an understanding of the consequences of behavioral problems. (BL)

  2. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  3. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  4. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how......During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...

  5. From mechanistic to functional behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, R A

    1992-11-01

    A shift from mechanistic behaviorism to functional behaviorism is presented against the background of two historical traditions, one with an emphasis on form, the other with an emphasis on function. Skinner's work, which made more contributions to a functional behaviorism than to a mechanistic behaviorism, exemplifies this shift. The two traditions and an account of Skinner's development of functional relations are presented in order to show Skinner's contributions to aligning modern behavior analysis with the functional tradition.

  6. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  7. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.

    1991-01-01

    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to advance toward that goal. PB has presented a framework that deals with not only the behavioral description of language but also with language function as well as language acquisition. This includes a treatment of the manner in which verbal stimuli generally can control motor behavior. This framework includes analyses in addition to those present in the behavior analytic framework, along with empirical developments, and these can be used to enhance a behavioral understanding of important parts of verbal behavior and the effects of verbal stimuli on behavior, including rule-governed phenomena. Our purpose is to use the particular topic of rule-governed behavior to argue that a more explicit interaction between radical and paradigmatic behaviorism would advance behaviorism and also enable it to have a stronger impact upon psychology and the scientific community. PMID:22477636

  8. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self...

  9. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  10. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    for a wide range of behavioral models of choice under uncertainty. We explain the components of this methodology, and illustrate with applications to major models from psychology. The goal is to build, and traverse, a constructive bridge between the modeling insights of psychology and the statistical tools...

  11. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  12. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  13. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus

    2015-01-01

    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  14. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  15. Evaluating meeting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This paper describes the development of an instrument for evaluating meeting behavior. An explorative research is done using a rating scale, questionnaires and information fl

  16. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  17. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  18. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We defi

  19. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  20. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  1. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  2. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  3. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Piccolo; C. Buengeler

    2013-01-01

    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  4. Scratch behaviors in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chen

    2000-10-01

    As part of a large effort toward the fundamental understanding of scratch behaviors in polymeric materials, studies were carried out on a broad range of polymers, with an emphasis on automotive thermoplastic olefins (TPOs). Two types of scratch tests were performed in this research, i.e., Ford constant load and instrumented progressive load scratch tests. A scratch model proposed by Hamilton and Goodman was applied to understand the fundamental mechanics of the scratch process. Several characterization techniques were used to investigate the scratch damage mechanisms in polymers. Both testing results and the scratch model analysis indicate that certain rigidity in polymers is essential to give good scratch resistance. Fundamental understanding of the scratching process in terms of basic material characteristics such as Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, friction coefficient, scratch hardness, penetration recovery and fracture toughness are discussed. Scratch damage investigation, on both surface and subsurface, shows that shear yielding is the main cause of the plastics flow scratch pattern, while tensile tear on the surface and shear induced fracture on the subsurface are the main damage mechanisms in the fracture scratch pattern. This study explains why automotive TPOs are susceptible to scratch under the current scratch test practiced in automotive industry. Shear deformation and fracture behavior in model TPOs are also studied using the Iosipescu shear test. Iosipescu shear deformation in terms of shear stress-strain curves of model TPOs is obtained experimentally. Shear fracture process and damage mechanisms in TPOs are also demonstrated and revealed. Further studies on the scratch damage in TPOs based on the roles of additives and fillers in the scratch behavior are addressed. The effects of phase morphology and toughening mechanisms on scratch behavior in TPOs are also discussed. This research has resulted in an increased understanding of the

  5. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  6. Clinical science and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J

    2001-09-01

    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors.

  7. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  8. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1978-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory.

  9. Religious thought and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Behavioral cusps: a developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Ruiz, J; Baer, D M

    1997-01-01

    Most concepts of development explain certain behavior changes as products or markers of the invariable succession of emerging periods, stages, refinements, or achievements that define and order much of an individual's life. A different but comparable concept can be derived from the most basic mechanisms of behavior analysis, which are its environmental contingencies, and from its most basic strategy, which is to study behavior as its subject matter. From a behavior-analytic perspective, the m...

  11. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Roethlisberger, David; Denker, Marcus; Tanter, Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, called unanticipated partial behavioral reflection, which is particularly well-suited for unanticipated adaptation of real-world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated reflection, i.e., ...

  12. Fracture Behavior under Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    discussed for the different loading rates ob- tai ned . 1. Introduction In static fracture mechanics crack tip stress intensity factors can easi- - ly...deviation to the left or to the right hand side of the original crack path was observed. Herrmann [151 speculated that this behavior results from stress...Materials’ Draft 2c, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, .. ,-- 1980. 15. Herrmann , G., "Dynamic Fracture of Beams in Bending

  13. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    D. Biolek; Z. Biolek; V. Biolkova

    2011-01-01

    Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  14. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  15. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  16. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  17. Brain and Behavior Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Disorder View All > Donate DONATE TODAY! > The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused ... and breakthroughs in scientific research. Copyright © 2016 the brain & behavior research foundation Privacy Policy Legal Notices and Disclaimers

  18. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  19. EUROPEAN MANAGERIAL PROFESSION AND BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Liset Ivascu

    2009-01-01

    The European manager‘s behavior must be flexible and adaptable to the behaviors of various employees of the enterprise. Its flexibility enables the manager to act efficiently in the current, so mobile environment

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  1. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  2. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  4. Creativity and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    Ways in which behavioral scientists can use both vertical (logical) and lateral (creative-intuitive) thinking to improve their research are discussed. Creativity in the selection of research questions would require that behavioral scientists ask questions whose answers could make a difference to societal and world well-being. Behavioral scientists…

  5. Behavior Plan, Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  6. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  7. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…

  8. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  9. The Present State of Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, O. Hobart

    1976-01-01

    Assesses the present status of behaviorism by dividing this study into an evaluation of Behaviorism 1, based explicitly on Pavlov's conception of conditioned-response learning, and Behaviorism 11, single-handedly launched and almost completely dominanted by Professor B. F. Skinner. (Author/RK)

  10. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  11. The Politics in the Memorial Ceremony of Dr. Sun Yat-sen by KMT Administration during the Anti-Japanese War --Based on the Study of "Shanghai Daily"(1937.7-1938.11)%全面抗战时期国民政府孙中山纪念与仪式政治——以《申报》为中心的考察(1937.7一l938.11)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟声; 高翔宇

    2011-01-01

    During the Anti-Japanese War, the KMT Administration, by means of birthday celebration and the memorial ceremonies of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, reinforced identity of the nation, of the country, of the KMT Party, of the political power, and of the leadership, and strengthened the theme of "Resistance of the Japanese Invasion and construction of the nation". It became an effective way to mobilize the people to join in the war, and an effective exploration of political discourse output, thus demonstrating the increasing maturity of the KMT Party in exercising its power.%全面抗战时期国民政府通过对孙中山诞辰纪念、孙中山逝世纪念等孙中山纪念仪式的运作.强化了民众对中华民族的民族认同、国家认同,对国民党的政党认同,对中华民国的政权认同,对孙中山及蒋介石的领袖认同,并且凸显了“抗战建国”的时代主题,成为国民政府进行抗战动员的一种有效形式.是现代民族国家进行政治话语输出的有效探索,也显示出“党国”在权力技术实践空间的日臻成熟。

  12. 清中期黟县民众的信仰世界及所蕴涵的文化意义——以《菩萨谱》所载祭祀科仪为中心展开的讨论%The Belief of People in Yi County in Mid-Qing and its Cultural Significance --Based on the Sacrificial Ceremony Recorded in Bodhisattva Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊嘉禄; 张孝进

    2012-01-01

    新近发现的清中期黟县钞本《菩萨谱》包含了大量民间信仰信息,所收信仰以家庭祭祀为主,广涉各路神众,反映出当时徽州民众生活在一个由多种祭祀仪式构成的民间信仰世界之中,生老病死、衣食住行,生产、生活的每一重要方面都与民间信仰息息相关。同时《菩萨谱》中反映出的信仰世界带有鲜明的小传统特色,揭示出了民间信仰世界中三教融合的真实情况。%The newly discovered hand-copied Bodhisattva Spectrum in Yi County in mid-Qing Dynasty contains a great amount of information about folk beliefs. The beliefs mainly involve family sacrifice and concern different gods, reflecting a folk belief world in which there are a variety of fete ceremonies conducted by Huizhou people in that period. Birth, senility, illness and death; food, clothing, shelter and traveling; production as well as every important aspect of life are closely linked with folk beliefs. At the same time, the belief world reflected in Bodhisattva Spectrum has distinctive traditional features, revealing the real situation of a fusion of three religions then.

  13. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  14. [Cognitive behavior therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munezawa, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.

  15. ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR IN WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESC MARCEL LAURENTIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By this study has been taken into account understanding roles of personality and values in determining behaviors that work, it is subsequently explain the process of perception and the way in which this affects the work behaviors and identify the work attitudes affecting the work behavior. To understand how much better intellectual asset management has been taken into account definition of the concept of person, organization, the form and the manner in which they affect behaviors. At the end key list shall be bounded on the set of behaviors that counts for organizational performance, more exactly every person to be able to develop your skills and positive attitude

  16. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  17. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  18. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  19. Behavioral endpoints for radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Hunt, W. A.; Dalton, T. B.; Kandasamy, S. B.; Harris, A. H.; Ludewig, B.

    1994-10-01

    The relative behavioral effectiveness of heavy particles was evaluated. Using the taste aversion paradigm in rats, the behavioral toxicity of most types of radiation (including 20Ne and 40Ar) was similar to that of 60Co photons. Only 56Fe and 93Nb particles and fission neutrons were significantly more effective. Using emesis in ferrets as the behavioral endpoint, 56Fe particles and neutrons were again the most effective; however, 60Co photons were significantly more effective than 18 MeV electrons. These results suggest that LET does not completely predict behavioral effectiveness. Additionally, exposing rats to 10 cGy of 56Fe particles attenuated amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning. This behavior is one of a broad class of behaviors which depends on the integrity of the dopaminergic system and suggests the possibility of alterations in these behaviors following exposure to heavy particles in a space radiation environment.

  20. [Challenging behavior: behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR) is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological.The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible) problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in the creation of

  1. BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing research into schizophrenia has remained highly fragmented, much like the clinical presentation of the disease itself. Differing theories as to the cause and progression of schizophrenia, as well as the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms, have made it difficult to develop a coherent framework suitable for animal modeling. However, a few animal models have been developed to explore various causative theories and to test specific mechanistic hypotheses. Historically, these models have been based on the manipulation of neurotransmitter systems believed to be involved in schizophrenia. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted to targeting relevant brain regions in an attempt to explore potential etiologic hypotheses. In the present review article, we have described in detail various behavioral models available in literature for screening of antipsychotic agents. In the next article, we propose to focus on chemical induced psychosis (Pharmacological models. We have highlighted the principle, end point, brief procedures, merits and demerit of all the behavioral models in the foregoing pages Emphasis is placed on the critical evaluation of currently available models because these models help to shape the direction of future research.

  2. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  3. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.

    1981-01-01

    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  4. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  5. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  6. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  8. Skinner and the rise of behavior modification and behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Francisco Javier

    2004-11-01

    Skinner is, without a doubt, one of the most predominant figures in the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Skinners' work is essential to the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Beginning with the social need for efficient psychotherapy, and after having generated a solid theoretical body of behavioral laws, Skinner indicated and also developed the appropriate path towards efficient interventions for unadaptive behavior. He developed a new theory regarding abnormal behavior (psychopathology), as well as a procedural model for evaluation (diagnosis) and intervention: "The functional analysis of behavior". His applications for this kind of work are pioneering and at the same time, he is the agglutinant figure of what we today call "Behavior Modification and/or Therapy". It is remarkable that a scientist could change the theories and practices of a discipline as radically as Skinner and his work did. His work, however, still has its limitations. The best way to acknowledge and pay tribute to Skinners' work is to overcome these limitations.

  9. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  10. Behavioral approaches to promoting play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Ingersoll, Brooke; Carter, Cynthia

    2003-12-01

    A variety of techniques grounded in behavioral psychology, and more specifically in applied behavior analysis, have been established to increase and improve play skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders. This article introduces a set of efficacious methods, which range from highly structured techniques to more naturalistic strategies. It focuses on object play as other authors in the issue discuss social play in greater depth. Behavioral techniques that are reviewed include: discrete trial training, use of stereotyped behaviors to increase play skills, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, in vivo modeling and play scripts, and video modeling. A discussion of expanding behavior techniques to teach more complex play as well as training in varied environments is also presented. References are provided to allow the reader to obtain more in-depth information about each technique.

  11. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  12. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  13. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  14. Homo Oeconomicus and Behavioral Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Brzezicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral trends in both economic theory and practical applications. As a science with vast potential for explaining complex market behaviors, behavioral economics is drifting away from the classical model of homo oeconomicus deployed by mainstream economics. This paper discusses the significance and role of the homo oeconomicus model in light of behavioral economics. It analyzes the direction of changes affecting homo oeconomicus, examines the definition of anomalies within the context of behavioral economics and discusses the anomalous status of homo oeconomicus. The paper proposes a hypothesis that the attitude characterizing homo oeconomicus is unique and incidental. The presented interdisciplinary analysis relies on economics, behavioral economics, economic psychology, behavioral finance and the methodology of science to discuss the homo oeconomicus model. The paper reviews change trends in economics, which are largely propelled by advancements in behavioral economics. The key methodological tools deployed in this paper are theoretical analysis and a compilation of extensive research findings. The results were used to formulate new theories advocating the development of a modern approach to the homo oeconomicus model, recognizing its significance and the growing importance of behavioral economics.

  15. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  16. Contexts for Behavior in Television Programs and Children's Subsequent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr

    Aggression is examined in this discussion of the role of television in the development of young children's social behaviors. The way aggression is interpreted by children watching television and program influences on the children's own aggressive behavior are among topics considered. Some suggestions are made in regard to context of aggression…

  17. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  18. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  19. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  20. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  1. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  2. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  3. Stress and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  4. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  5. Multiple sclerosis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, James B; Kablinger, Anita; Alekseeva, Nadejda

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently seen neurological causes of progressive disability in early to middle adulthood. The disease is variable in its presentation and course, affects roughly 100-300 per 100,000 persons within the United States alone, and is slightly more common among females than males. MS places substantial burdens on patients, families, and caregivers. It negatively affects cognitive abilities and psychiatric functioning, and can add a notably deleterious effect on a patient's quality of life. This chapter reviews the recent literature on the behavioral manifestations of MS. Cognitive domains discussed include executive functioning, processing speed, attention, learning and memory, language functioning, and visual spatial processing. Some attention will also be paid to differential diagnosis and the cognitive effects of treatment. Psychiatric manifestations are also discussed, including symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughter and crying, and psychosis, as well as maladaptive personality traits. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of MS on quality of life including such areas as fatigue, sexual dysfunction, pain, employment, and cognitive functioning.

  6. The Analysis of Identity Construction Function of Interpersonal Meaning in Political Speech---Taking Obama’s Speech in 2013 on the United States Naval Academy Graduation Ceremony as an Example%政治演讲中人际意义的身份建构功能分析--以奥巴马在美国海军学院2013届毕业生毕业典礼上的演讲为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春慧; 王健坤

    2014-01-01

    人际功能是系统功能语言学的三大元功能之一。本文以韩礼德系统功能语法中人际功能为主要理论,在语气和情态两个子系统的框架内,对奥巴马在海军学院2013届毕业生毕业典礼上的演讲进行了人际意义分析。通过分析发现:在政治演讲中,演讲者多使用陈述语气来阐述信念、表达肯定、树立权威;在情态方面,多使用中高量值情态动词来说服听众以响应自己的号召。借此,演讲者在演讲过程中运用人际功能的手段对自我形象进行有效建构,以实现其政治目的。%The interpersonal function is one of the three metafunctions in systemic functional linguistics .Taking the interpersonal function in Halliday’s systemic functional grammar as a theoretical framework ,this paper analyzes the interpersonal meaning in Obama’s Speech in 2013 on the United States Naval Academy graduation ceremony within the framework of two subsystems --- mood and modality .According to the analysis ,the speaker often adopts indicative mood to demonstrate faith ,express affirmation and build authority in political speech ;and from the perspective of modality ,the speaker usually employs high value modal verbs to persuade the audience to respond to his call .Based on this , the speaker uses the means of interpersonal function in the process of giving a speech to actively realize his identity construction and achieve his political purposes .

  7. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  8. Building and Defining Behavioral Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelom, F.

    2011-01-01

    George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at tha

  9. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  10. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  11. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  12. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  13. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  14. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  15. Perceptions of Teacher Brinkmanship Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Jan G.; Thompson, Bruce

    Brinkmanship behaviors are challenges to authority expressed in such a mannner that expected negative sanctions are typically avoided. They are usually extemporaneous, involve satire or sarcasm, and take place in front of an audience. This study investigated 43 principals' and 137 teachers' perceptions of teacher brinkmanship behaviors and sought…

  16. Littering Behavior in Public Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stuart N.

    1976-01-01

    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  17. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  18. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...

  19. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Handayani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  20. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  1. Information Recovery In Behavioral Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering micro behavior-related choice information from aggregate origin-destination data. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized, equilibrium-seeking behavior in a dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information theoretic, entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown parameters connecting the behavioral data. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral binary parameters analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we enlarge the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals and focus on three cases of particular interest. We then apply this information theoretic method to the analysis ...

  2. Respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    2001-09-01

    This article was written as an introduction to a special issue of Behavior Modification dedicated to studies in the field of respiratory psychophysiology. Although the invited articles that constitute this special issue cover a fairly broad range of topics, priority was given to articles that focus on the role of respiration in panic disorder. Attention is directed to the fundamental role of breathing in applied psychophysiology and to the encouragement of research in the modification of breathing behavior. The connection between respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification is explained by reference to (a) a recent article on Pavlovian and operant control of breathing behavior and (b) four published volumes of selected articles dedicated exclusively to the field of respiratory psychophysiology. The present special issue of Behavior Modification marks the fifth volume.

  3. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  4. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  5. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  6. Behavioral dimensions of food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2012-07-31

    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  7. Behavior genetics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Price, Thomas S; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-11-01

    The disciplines of developmental psychopathology and behavior genetics are concerned with many of the same questions about the etiology and course of normal and abnormal behavior and about the factors that promote typical development despite the presence of risk. The goal of this paper is to summarize how research in behavior genetics has shed light on questions that are central to developmental psychopathology. We briefly review the origins of behavior genetics, summarize the findings that have been gleaned from several decades of quantitative and molecular genetics research, and describe future directions for research that will delineate gene function as well as pathways from genes to brain to behavior. The importance of environmental contributions, at both genetic and epigenetic levels, will be discussed. We conclude that behavior genetics has made significant contributions to developmental psychopathology by documenting the interplay among risk and protective factors at multiple levels of the organism, by clarifying the causal status of risk exposures, and by identifying factors that account for change and stability in psychopathology. As the tools to identify gene function become increasingly sophisticated, and as behavioral geneticists become increasingly interdisciplinary in their scope, the field is poised to make ever greater contributions to our understanding of typical and atypical development.

  8. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  9. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, Victor G

    2003-01-01

    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search for new drugs. Psychologists, most of whom were skilled in the behavior-analytic approach, started to assume prominent positions as authors and editors for the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics as its emphasis on behavior increased. This also proved true with the other publications founded to deal with the popularity of behavioral pharmacology. Especially important were contributions by B. F. Skinner, Peter B. Dews, and Joseph V. Brady.

  10. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little longitudinal effectiveness, with detrimental outcomes for the referred student, particularly students from Latino backgrounds. With enrollment projections indicating Latinos will become the majority in U.S. schools, educators are presented with the opportunity to shift away from past practices and implement evidence-based practices that concurrently assist students while addressing challenging behaviors. In this paper, the authors discuss past disciplinary practices, the adverse effects on Latino students, and offer recommendations on implementing functional behavioral assessment as a means to better meet the needs of Latino students demonstrating challenging behaviors.

  11. Circadian Insights into Motivated Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, Michael C; Silver, Rae

    2016-01-01

    For an organism to be successful in an evolutionary sense, it and its offspring must survive. Such survival depends on satisfying a number of needs that are driven by motivated behaviors, such as eating, sleeping, and mating. An individual can usually only pursue one motivated behavior at a time. The circadian system provides temporal structure to the organism's 24 hour day, partitioning specific behaviors to particular times of the day. The circadian system also allows anticipation of opportunities to engage in motivated behaviors that occur at predictable times of the day. Such anticipation enhances fitness by ensuring that the organism is physiologically ready to make use of a time-limited resource as soon as it becomes available. This could include activation of the sympathetic nervous system to transition from sleep to wake, or to engage in mating, or to activate of the parasympathetic nervous system to facilitate transitions to sleep, or to prepare the body to digest a meal. In addition to enabling temporal partitioning of motivated behaviors, the circadian system may also regulate the amplitude of the drive state motivating the behavior. For example, the circadian clock modulates not only when it is time to eat, but also how hungry we are. In this chapter we explore the physiology of our circadian clock and its involvement in a number of motivated behaviors such as sleeping, eating, exercise, sexual behavior, and maternal behavior. We also examine ways in which dysfunction of circadian timing can contribute to disease states, particularly in psychiatric conditions that include adherent motivational states.

  12. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  13. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  14. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  15. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.

  16. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  17. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  18. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J

    2016-03-01

    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network.

  19. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  20. Infant behaviors influence mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Carrie A; Masur, Elise Frank

    2014-08-01

    Mother-infant interactions are important to infant development because they are predictive of infants' social, cognitive, and language development (Lamb, Bornstein, & Teti, 2002; Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein, & Baumwell, 2001). Because maternal responsive and directive behaviors are associated with differential infant outcomes, it is important to investigate influences on mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors. Yet, the dyadic interaction literature is predominantly unidirectional from maternal behavior to infant outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined infant initiating behaviors and consequent maternal responses in a sample of 26 13-month-old infants and their mothers, videotaped during 5 min of free-play. Findings revealed that infants produced a variety of initiatives, and that these different infant initiatives prompted differential patterns of maternal responsive versus directive behaviors. Further, results of analyses of divergent types of maternal directive behaviors - Responsive Directives, ReDirectives, and Intrusive Directives - also may help clarify major discrepancies in the current literature regarding the positive and negative effects of maternal directiveness.

  1. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  2. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  3. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  4. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  5. Behavioral Interactions under Noxious Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    between positive and negative reinforcement . Under many circumstances organisms terminate noxious environmental events and associated stimuli. This...behavior has typically been classified as escape and the process termed negative reinforcement (Skinner, 1953). The process of negative reinforce- ment

  6. Roles, Occupations, Behaviors, and Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, David M.; Reeder, Glenn D.

    1974-01-01

    Our theoretical position affirms that in-role behaviors are less informative and less trustworthy than out-of-role with positive motivation with the reverse holding for a negatively motivated stimulus person (SP). (Author/RK)

  7. Metabolic Cause of Hyperkinetic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female child with congenital ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD who presented with a hyperkinetic behavior disorder at 3 years is reported from the Medical School Hanover, Germany.

  8. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.

  9. Obesity and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Oguz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in physical activity, and behavior contracts. As part of the obesity treatment, combining cognitive-behavioral treatments with lifestyle changes such as increase in physical activity increases effectiveness of the treatment and ensures durability of the achieved weight loss. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 133-144

  10. INFORMATION: THEORY, BRAIN, AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. PMID:24122456

  11. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  12. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  13. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis research project explores cultural determinants that facilitate positive employee behavior. In the literature, this behavior is identified as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The dissertation also focuses on factors related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). CWB is

  14. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  15. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żułtak-Bączkowska, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena; Kotwas, Artur; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women's health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study Aim of the study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women's health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA), and health practices (HP). Material and methods The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). Results The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents). There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often). There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions Older women attached greater importance to positive mental

  16. Identity-based consumer behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk

    2012-01-01

    Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category label with which a consumer self-associates that is amenable to a clear picture ...

  17. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  18. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  19. Behavior models for software architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Monterey Phoenix (MP) is an approach to formal software system architecture specification based on behavior models. Architecture modeling focuses not only on the activities and interactions within the system, but also on the interactions between the system and its environment, providing an abstraction for interaction specification. The behavior of the system is defined as a set...

  20. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  1. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  2. STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang

    2004-01-01

    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  3. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  4. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  5. Extinction, relapse, and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. In this paper we present new data examining the role of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations on resistance to extinction and relapse using a variety of baseline training conditions and relapse operations. Furthermore, we evaluate the adequacy of a behavioral momentum based model in accounting for the results. The model suggests that relapse occurs as a result of a decrease in the disruptive impact of extinction precipitated by a change in circumstances associated with extinction, and that the degree of relapse is a function of the pre-extinction baseline Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation. Across experiments, relative resistance to extinction and relapse were greater in the presence of stimuli associated with more favorable conditions of reinforcement and were positively related to one another. In addition, the model did a good job in accounting for these effects. Thus, behavioral momentum theory may provide a useful quantitative approach for characterizing how differential reinforcement conditions contribute to relapse of operant behavior.

  6. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  7. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  8. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  9. Understanding Behaviors in Videos through Behavior-Specific Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  10. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  11. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  12. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  13. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  14. Valuable, but not maximal: it's time behavior therapy attend to its behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1999-04-01

    The field of behavior therapy is not in touch with itself in terms of its overarching behaviorism. Many erroneously consider its basic behaviorism to have been radical behaviorism and continue to look to develop behavior therapy (including behavior analysis and behavioral assessment) within that framework. But that approach turns out to be much less than maximal because there is a more advanced, better developed behaviorism within which to conduct and project the field. There is much that behavior therapy is not doing in practice and research because it is not making full use of that behaviorism foundation.

  15. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  16. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  17. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  18. Information recovery in behavioral networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  19. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  20. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  1. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  2. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  3. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  4. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  5. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students....

  6. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  7. Mechanical behavior of emerging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challapalli Suryanarayana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline and glassy materials, especially the bulk metallic glasses are of relatively recent origin and exhibit high strength, but lack sufficient plasticity. A clear understanding of the mechanical behavior of these novel materials is essential before these can be seriously considered for structural applications. A great deal of research has been conducted over the past couple of decades and a vast amount of data has been generated. Here, results on strength, ductility, and deformation behavior of these novel materials have been reviewed. Recent results have been highlighted and problems, wherever they exist, have been pointed out. New directions for enhancing the understanding of the mechanical behavior of these interesting materials have been suggested.

  8. Treatment of compulsive cybersex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Compulsive cybersex has become a significant problem for many men and women who have fallen prey to the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of online sexual behaviors. Some patients develop problems with compulsive cybersex due to predisposition or accidental conditioning experiences. Other compulsive users of cybersex present with underlying trauma, depression, or addiction. Three case studies highlighted obsession, compulsion, and consequence in the pathogenesis of compulsive cybersex. While men and women differ somewhat in their use of cybersex, both genders exhibit maladaptive coping, conditioned behavior, dissociative reenactment of life trauma, courtship disorder, intimacy dysfunction, and addictive behavior. Comprehensive treatment of compulsive cybersex would include the following components: relapse prevention, intimacy enhancement, lovemap reconstruction, dissociative states therapy, arousal reconditioning, and coping skills training. Thanks to recent treatment advances in several fields, help is available for those caught in the dark side of the net.

  9. Creativity, personality, and hoarding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dianne M; Hooley, Jill M

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive hoarding is a debilitating illness that is characterized by excessive collection of and failure to discard items, irrespective of their uselessness or hazardousness. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individuals who hoard may be more creative than individuals without hoarding behavior; however, this hypothesis has never been tested empirically. In the present study, we examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and performance on a series of creativity measures. We also explored the extent to which hoarding symptoms were associated with factors such as personality, impulsivity, distress tolerance, and attitudes about money and the environment. Our findings revealed no significant associations between hoarding behavior and any measure of creativity. Hoarding behavior was also unrelated to attitudes about money or concern about the environment. However, consistent with previous research, hoarding tendencies were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and impulsivity, as well as with lower levels of conscientiousness and distress tolerance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  11. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Keihanidoust MD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency on the development of behavioral disorders seen in children.Materials & Methods:In this study all patients referring to the Imam Khomeini pediatric neurology out patient clinic with the chief complaint of behavioral problems, between October 1996 and January 1998 were  enrolled; they were individually interviewed and underwent physical examinations, completing the relevant questionnaires.Results:Overall 139 patients (92boys and 47 girls were enrolled and the data were analyzed using SPSS and Harvard's graphic package. Analysis revealed that the most common behavioral disorders documented were: Sleep problems, in 38 patients (27.3%, Irritability in 37(26.6%, aggressiveness in 28 (20.1% staring in 27 (19.4%, altercation in 27(19.4%. Non psychiatric problem was seen in 77 patients (62.6%; neurological examinations in 36(25.9% revealed abnormal findings; 103 patients (74-8% had abnormal findings in other systems. 105 patients (76.6% had abnormal EEG and 72 of them (51.9% had abnormal findings in brain imaging. Iron deficiency was found in 88 (63.2% of the patients.Conclusion:According to these findings, treatment of organic disorders in patients with behavioral problems, can lead to partial or total control of their problems, which could otherwise result in major disturbances and disruptions in their own and in their family's lives.Key words:behavioral problems, EEG, Imaging, Iron deficiency

  12. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah eLee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item-response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item-response selection takes place whereby the animal either choose an item or inhibit such a response depending on item-context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for

  13. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior

  14. Behaviorism: Are reports of its death exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W J; Hawkins, R P; Davis, P

    1986-01-01

    Despite reports that behaviorism is dead or dying, examination of the data indicates otherwise. The opinions of psychology historians, the number of professional associations devoted to behaviorism, and the increasing number of behavioral publications all support the conclusion that behaviorism is vital and growing.

  15. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a theore

  16. Creep behavior of microbiotic crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The creep behavior of microbiotic crust at room temperature was revealed by the creep bending tests of cantilever beam under constant-load conditions.The variation in the deflection with time can be depicted well by a standard creep curve.Creep rupture is a fundamental failure mechanism of microbiotic crust due to creep.A simple theory was then applied to describe this new me-chanical behavior.The existence of creep phenomenon brings into question the validity of widely used methods for measuring the strength of microbiotic crust.

  17. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  18. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  19. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  20. Critical behavior in topological ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bulycheva, K; Nechaev, S

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relation between three physical problems: 2D directed lattice random walks in an external magnetic field, ensembles of torus knots, and 5d Abelian SUSY gauge theory with massless hypermultiplet in $\\Omega$ background. All these systems exhibit the critical behavior typical for the "area+length" statistics of grand ensembles of 2D directed paths. In particular, using the combinatorial description, we have found the new critical behavior in the ensembles of the torus knots and in the instanton ensemble in 5d gauge theory. The relation with the integrable model is discussed.

  1. Genetics and behavior: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Karen L; Tiira, Katriina; Broach, Desiree; Bryant, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    Phenotyping behavior is difficult, partly because behavior is almost always influenced by environment. Using objective terms/criteria to evaluate behaviors is best; the more objective the assessment, the more likely underlying genetic patterns will be identified. Behavioral pathologies, and highly desirable behavioral characteristics/traits, are likely complex, meaning that multiple genes are probably involved, and therefore simple genetic tests are less possible. Breeds can be improved using traditional quantitative genetic methods; unfortunately, this also creates the possibility of inadvertently selecting for covarying undesirable behaviors. Patterns of behaviors within families and breed lines are still the best guidelines for genetic counseling in dogs.

  2. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  3. Human behavior representation of military teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual structure for the behaviors of artificial intelligence agents, with emphasis on creating teamwork through individual behaviors. The goal is to set up a framework which enables teams of simulation agents to behave more realistically. Better team behavior can lend a higher fidelity of human behavior representation in a simulation, as well as provide opportunities to experiment with the factors that create teamwork. The framework divides agent behaviors into three...

  4. Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Martha

    This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

  5. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...

  6. Unethical behavior in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Landini, Fabio; Piovesan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    What are the individual demographic characteristics that correlate with unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young individuals...

  7. Behaviorism, Constructivism, and Socratic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship among behaviorism, constructivism and Socratic pedagogy. Specifically, it asks if a Socratic educator can be a constructivist or a behaviorist. In the first part of the paper, each learning theory, as it relates to the Socratic project, is explained. In the last section, the question of whether or not a…

  8. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main research efforts: geotechnical engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration into unsaturated soils, an important...

  9. Should Virtuous Behavior Be Rewarded?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shengxiang; Wu Ruowei; Fang Hua; Jin Zhen; Wan Xiaoyang; Wang Jie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally Chinese people place much value in virtue, with a long-held belief that one should never appropriate valuable items lost by others. However, a recent regulation by the government of south China's Guangdong Province has provaked heated debate on whether such virtuaus behavior should be rewarded with money.

  10. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  11. Conceptual Frameworks in Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Fidel, Raya; Bruce, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Reviews advancements in the development of conceptual frameworks for studying information behavior. Concludes that a unifying theoretical body is emerging that, beyond its user-centered core, emphasizes the contextual interplay of cognitive, social, cultural, organizational, affective, and linguistic factors and asserts that information behavior…

  12. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  13. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...

  14. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  15. Phase behavior of hard particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1995-01-01

    The phase behavior of hard particles and mixtures thereof is reviewed. Special attention is given to a lattice model consisting of hard hexagons and points on a triangular lattice. This model appears to have two disordered phases and an ordered phase.

  16. Transcending Behaviorism in Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartrick, Gwen

    1999-01-01

    Addresses limitations of a behavioral approach to communication. Explores the use of transformative learning theory in teaching communication. Outlines a learning map for nursing students: experiencing a disorienting dilemma, critically assessing internalized role assumptions, recognizing the social construction of practice, and exploring and…

  17. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  18. Supervisory Workbook on Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This workbook is designed to be used with the trainer's manual in supervisory training sessions on behavior modification of employees. This is one of four manuals prepared to aid supervisors in training disadvantaged groups using social reinforcement techniques. Related documents are available as VT 018 031-VT 018 035 in this issue. (MF)

  19. Personality and Pupil Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, A. Ray

    Pupil control behavior is conceptualized as a continuum ranging from custodialism, which views students as irresponsible and undisciplined and needing strictness and punishment, to humanism, which emphasizes a democratic atmosphere in which students are capable of self-discipline and are treated accordingly. The theoretical framework for this…

  20. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  1. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  2. Sexual Behavior of Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revadi, Santosh; Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Dekker, Teun; Becher, Paul G

    2015-03-09

    A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly's reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Sexual behavior in D. suzukii is characterized by distinct elements of male courtship leading to female acceptance for mating. Time of day and age modulate D. suzukii mating activity. As with other drosophilids, female sexual maturity is paralleled by a quantitative increase in CHCs. Neither female CHCs nor other olfactory signals were required to induce male courtship, however, presence of those signals significantly increased male sexual behavior. With this pilot study we hope to stimulate research on the reproductive biology of D. suzukii, which is relevant for the development of pest management tools.

  3. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this t

  4. Behavioral Expression of Teacher Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Thomas; Brophy, Jere E.

    In a replication and extension of work by Silberman (1969), differential teacher behavior toward different students was studied in relation to the attitudes teachers held toward those students. Using data on dyadic teacher-child interactions collected with the Brophy-Good system, contrasting patterns were noted in the ways teachers interacted with…

  5. Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C M

    2011-01-01

    The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.

  6. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  7. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  8. Behavior Modification in Marriage Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Redfering, David L.

    1975-01-01

    The spouses were counseled jointly with a cognitive approach and separately with behavior modification techniques for the husband's obesity and the wife's lack of affective verbalization. After eight weeks, the husband had lost thirty pounds and the wife's affective language had increased markedly. (Author)

  9. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch v

  10. Professional Behavior: Crossing the Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Tim J.; Rorrer, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    This case, which was inspired by actual events, describes the efforts of a district to create a culture of accountability for professional employee practice and behavior. In the midst of new district leaders and a shift in district priorities, numerous situations test the fortitude, organizational knowledge, ethical commitments, and political…

  11. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller.

  12. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  13. Behavioral approach to list decoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan Willem; Kuijper, Margreta

    2002-01-01

    List decoding may be translated into a bivariate interpolation problem. The interpolation problem is to find a bivariate polynomial of minimal weighted degree that interpolates a given set of pairs taken from a finite field. We present a behavioral approach to this interpolation problem. With the da

  14. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  15. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  16. Behavior of dislocations in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumino, Koji [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba Prefecture (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    A review is given of dynamic behavior of dislocations in silicon on the basis of works of the author`s group. Topics taken up are generation, motion and multiplication of dislocations as affected by oxygen impurities and immobilization of dislocations due to impurity reaction.

  17. COGNITIVE INTERVENTIONS IN BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANOPPEN, P

    1993-01-01

    In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndr

  18. Moral behavior in the marketplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dekker (Erwin)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The object of this paper is to understand how morality and the market are related. Morality is classically regarded as the study of how men ought to behave. This study has been inextricably linked with the way in which institutions shape behavior, or in which way ethica

  19. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  20. BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, THE "BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS." BY MAKING CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS AND PERFORMING SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, THE CHILDREN LEARN HOW TO APPROACH A PROBLEM, HOW TO INTERPRET AND EVALUATE DATA, AND, IN GENERAL, HOW TO CONDUCT A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. THE MATERIALS HAVE…