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Sample records for cerebrum

  1. NEUROFEEDBACK INFLUENCE ON CEREBRUM BIOELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN GYMNASTS-WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yu. Strizhkova; Cherapkina, L. P.; O. Yu. Strizhkova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) of highly skilled gymnasts-women (main group – 49, control group – 39) showed the availability of cerebrum bioelectrical activity features of sportswomen connected with left hemisphere dominance, predominance of theta-rhythm power and lower reaction to eyes closing, also character of neurodynamic changes generated by neurofeedback course depended on ovarian-menstrual cycle phases.

  2. NEUROFEEDBACK INFLUENCE ON CEREBRUM BIOELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN GYMNASTS-WOMEN

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    T. Yu. Strizhkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG of highly skilled gymnasts-women (main group – 49, control group – 39 showed the availability of cerebrum bioelectrical activity features of sportswomen connected with left hemisphere dominance, predominance of theta-rhythm power and lower reaction to eyes closing, also character of neurodynamic changes generated by neurofeedback course depended on ovarian-menstrual cycle phases.

  3. Variability of adult cerebrum mass of the Saratov-city residents

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    Vladimir N. Nikolenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the age-gender variability and extreme variants of individual cerebrum mass of Saratov citizens. Material and methods – Cerebrum preparations from 191 dead bodies of adults of 21-90 years were used as a material for the research. The whole material was divided into 4 age groups: the 1st group – the 1st adult period and 43 cerebrum preparations (26 male, 17 female; the 2nd group – the 2nd adult period – 82 preparations (66 male, 16 female; the 3rd group – the elderly age period – 34 preparations (16 male, 18 female; the senium age – 32 preparations (16 male and 16 female. The cerebrum was taken apart from the spinal cord at the border with the medulla oblongata and was weighed on analytical balance to within the accuracy of 1.0 g. Results – The cerebrum mass of Saratov adult citizens was 1323.69±19.81 g (M±SD (without including gender and age groups. For men it was 1371.05±20.39 g, for women – 1236.05±32.51 g, i.e. the cerebrum mass of men is more than the women’s one in average for 135 g (10.9 % (Р>0.05. The cerebrum mass decrease is registered at the 2nd adult period, which becomes more evident at the senium age. Thus the cerebrum mass at the 1st and the 2nd adult periods differs authentically from its value at the senium age, and at the 1st adult period it differs from its value at the elderly age as well (P<0.05. Considerable individual cerebrum mass variability has aroused the necessity to specify the groups of its extreme variables. An average cerebrum mass is at 47.1 % of Saratov citizens. Small, extremely small, and below average cerebrum mass is registered at 25.2 % of Saratov citizens, and large, above average, and extremely large mass – at 13.6 %. Conclusion – Thus the cerebrum mass of Saratov citizens subjected to age-gender variability which lies in the fact that male cerebrum is heavier comparing with female cerebrum, and the cerebrum mass is been decreased from the 2nd adult

  4. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

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    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio, E-mail: erikluis18@gmail.co [Center of Marine Bioproducts, Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry; Mendiola, Judith [Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri (IPK), Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Parasitology; Thomas, Olivier P. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France). Lab. de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes; Nogueiras, Clara [University of Havana, San Lazaro y L, Havana (Cuba). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Natural Products

    2011-07-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  5. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation.

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    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA. Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain.

  6. Maturational Patterns of Iodothyronine Phenolic and Tyrosyl Ring Deiodinase Activities in Rat Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and Hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Michael M.; Yaskoski, Kimberlee A.

    1981-01-01

    To explore the control of thyroid hormone metabolism in brain during maturation, we have measured iodothyronine deiodination in homogenates of rat cerebrum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus from 1 d postnatally through adulthood. Homogenates were incubated with 125I-l-thyroxine (T4) + [131I]3,5,3′-l-triiodothyronine (T3) + 100 mM dithiothreitol. Nonradioactive T4, T3, and 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) were included, as appropriate. The net production rate of [125I]T3 from T4 in 1-d cerebral homo...

  7. Multiagent data warehousing and multiagent data mining for cerebrum/cerebellum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2002-03-01

    An algorithm named Neighbor-Miner is outlined for multiagent data warehousing and multiagent data mining. The algorithm is defined in an evolving dynamic environment with autonomous or semiautonomous agents. Instead of mining frequent itemsets from customer transactions, the new algorithm discovers new agents and mining agent associations in first-order logic from agent attributes and actions. While the Apriori algorithm uses frequency as a priory threshold, the new algorithm uses agent similarity as priory knowledge. The concept of agent similarity leads to the notions of agent cuboid, orthogonal multiagent data warehousing (MADWH), and multiagent data mining (MADM). Based on agent similarities and action similarities, Neighbor-Miner is proposed and illustrated in a MADWH/MADM approach to cerebrum/cerebellum modeling. It is shown that (1) semiautonomous neurofuzzy agents can be identified for uniped locomotion and gymnastic training based on attribute relevance analysis; (2) new agents can be discovered and agent cuboids can be dynamically constructed in an orthogonal MADWH, which resembles an evolving cerebrum/cerebellum system; and (3) dynamic motion laws can be discovered as association rules in first order logic. Although examples in legged robot gymnastics are used to illustrate the basic ideas, the new approach is generally suitable for a broad category of data mining tasks where knowledge can be discovered collectively by a set of agents from a geographically or geometrically distributed but relevant environment, especially in scientific and engineering data environments.

  8. A case report of CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma in the cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Misawo; Kitajima, Masateru; Narita, Jun; Hattori, Shinya; Endo, Otone; Goto, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma (CIC-rearranged USRCS) is a recently established type of Ewing-like small round cell sarcomas, characterized by CIC gene rearrangement, most commonly CIC-DUX4 fusion. This report presents the second case of CIC-rearranged USRCS arising primarily in the cerebrum. A 64-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with a 1 × 1 cm sized hemorrhagic subcortical tumor in the left temporo-parietal lobe. The tumor repeatedly recurred, and the patient underwent three surgeries, chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide, and radiotherapy, as well as gamma knife surgery. Systemic examination revealed no other extracranial masses. Imprint cytology revealed small to moderate-sized round-to-ovoid tumor cells with mild pleomorphism and variations in size and shape. The nuclei contained finely granular chromatin, and some had easily-recognizable nucleoli. The tumor exhibited a mainly cytoplasmic pattern of CD99 immunostaining, rather than a diffuse membranous pattern. The tumor also exhibited diffuse positivity for calretinin and p16, as well as partial positivity for WT1 (nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern) and D2-40. FISH assessment showed CIC split signals. In conclusion, CIC-rearranged USRCSs can occur primarily in the cerebrum. It would be impossible to diagnose them through cytology alone, but cytology would be useful to rule out other small round cell brain tumors including gliomas, lymphomas, carcinomas, and germinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis including tests for CD99, calretinin, and WT1 would help to suggest CIC-rearranged USRCSs and distinguish them from Ewing sarcomas. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for p16 might be useful in the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:828-832. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324529

  9. Traumatic hematomas in deep middle portion of the cerebrum case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently we have encountered three cases of small traumatic hematoma in deep middle portion of the cerebrum. Patient 1: A 55-year-old male was admitted to our hospital 2-days after the traffic accident. CTscan showed small hematoma around septum pellucidi and fornix and in the posterior horn of left lateral ventricle. Patient 2: A 54-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma in the supraventral portion of the third ventricle. Patient 3: A 27-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma around quadrigeminal cistern and midbrain. Three cases reported here are traumatic hematomas without mass effect, which were pointed out only by autopsy. On traumatic hematoma in the deep middle portion of the brain we have only a few reports. On the mechanism of this bleeding Lindenberg and Kohno reported that the bleeding is caused by outward bending of the skull in injury. Lindenberg et al insisted that when traumatic force goes through corpus callosum over stretching of corpus callosum caused bleeding and that shearing force can damage septum pellucidi and fornix. Although these small hematomas are absorbed gradually functional prognosis is poor. Especially Korsakov syndrome and left hemiparesis in patient 1 shows no sign of recovery. In patient 2 and patient 3 decreased mental activity and hemiparesis have continued. Treatment of these cases cannot be surgical, as far as severe brain edema does not appeared. (author)

  10. Protection against radiation induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia asiatica fruit extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, Vit.C, etc.) was studied against radiation induced biochemical alterations in mice cerebrum. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg.b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (IR+Drug) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation respectively. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and cerebrum were removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein. GAE post treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in mice cerebrum. Radiation induced augmentation in the levels of LPO was significantly ameliorated by GAE post-treatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of GSH, protein was checked significantly by GAE administration

  11. Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats

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    Sajad Hamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  12. Comparative Analyses of H3K4 and H3K27 Trimethylations Between the Mouse Cerebrum and Testis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2012-06-08

    The global features of H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylations (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) have been well studied in recent years, but most of these studies were performed in mammalian cell lines. In this work, we generated the genome-wide maps of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 of mouse cerebrum and testis using ChIP-seq and their high-coverage transcriptomes using ribominus RNA-seq with SOLiD technology. We examined the global patterns of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in both tissues and found that modifications are closely-associated with tissue-specific expression, function and development. Moreover, we revealed that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes, which contradicts the findings in previous studies. Finally, we observed that bivalent domains, with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, existed ubiquitously in both tissues and demonstrated an invariable preference for the regulation of developmentally-related genes. However, the bivalent domains tend towards a “winner-takes-all” approach to regulate the expression of associated genes. We also verified the above results in mouse ES cells. As expected, the results in ES cells are consistent with those in cerebrum and testis. In conclusion, we present two very important findings. One is that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes. The other is that bivalent domains may adopt a “winner-takes-all” principle to regulate gene expression.

  13. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  14. Differential cortical laminar structure revealed by NeuN immunostaining and myeloarchitecture between sulcal and gyral regions independent of sexual dimorphisms in the ferret cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Sawada, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively clarify differences in laminar structure and myeloarchitecture of sulcal and gyral regions of the cerebral cortex of ferrets. Histological sections of cerebrum from male and female ferrets at postnatal day 90 were made at the coronal plane, and were immunostained with anti-NeuN or anti-myelin basic protein (MBP). Thickness was estimated in the entire depth or three strata, that is, layer I, outer (layers II-III) and inner (layers IV-VI) strata of the neocortex in representative five sulcal and seven gyral regions. As with the entire cortical depth, outer and inner strata were significantly thinner in the sulcal bottoms than in the gyral crowns, whereas layer I had about twofold greater thickness in the sulcal bottoms. However, thicknesses of the entire cortical depth and each cortical stratum were not statistically different among five sulcal regions or seven gyral regions examined. By MBP immunostaining, myelin fibers ran tangentially through the superficial regions of layer I in gyral crowns. Those fibers were relatively denser in gyri of frontal and temporal regions, and relatively sparse in gyri of parietal and occipital regions, although their density in any gyri was not different between sexes. These results show a differential laminar structure and myeloarchitecture between the sulcal and gyral regions of the ferret cerebral cortex present in both sexes. Myelination of layer I tangential fibers varied among primary gyri and was weaker in phylogenetically higher-order cortical gyri. Anat Rec, 299:1003-1011, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27144367

  15. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

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    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  16. MR, CT and clinical features from four dogs with nasal tumors involving the rostral cerebrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anesthesia on the radiographic appearance of the coxofemoral joints was evaluated by taking pelvic radiographs of thirty dogs. Each dog was radiographed twice, once under general anesthesia and once without anesthesia. The radiographs were submitted to the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals independently of one another to be evaluated for signs of hip dysplasia. Results suggest there was no statistical difference between the two groups of dogs. Twenty five dogs received the same reading. Three dogs received readings that were worse by one grade while under anesthesia and two dogs received readings that were one grade better while under anesthesia. This study failed to demonstrate any changes due to anesthesia on the radiographic appearance of the coxofemoral joints. Anesthesia may, however, be beneficial for proper positioning and to decrease unnecessary patient, and personnel exposure to radiation

  17. Polycystic brain (cerebrum polycystica vera) associated with ectodermal dysplasia: a new neurocutaneous syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a unique case of true polycystic brain in which multiple cysts of curvilinear, round, oval, or layered configuration occurred. These apparently represented extremely dilated Virchow-Robin spaces: the perivascular spaces lined by ependymal/leptomeningeal cells. Irregular retinal pigment epithelium was also evident. In addition, the patient showed ectodermal dysplasia manifesting as thin hair, dystrophic nails, and dental abnormalities. A common ectodermal origin for the brain cysts and the ectodermal changes is proposed, as it is known that the central nervous system (including the ependymal/leptomeningeal cells and the retinal cells), the epidermis (including hair and nails), and the enamel of the teeth have the same origin - the embryonic ectoderm. This association appears to be a new, distinct neurocutaneous syndrome. (orig.)

  18. Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Judith

    2002-05-01

    As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions of a library of test sounds designed to represent a speech-music continuum. Results highlighted individual differences plus similarities in terms of patterns of relative ear advantages, suggesting an organizational basis for brain asymmetries depending on physical dimensions of stimulus and gesture with analogs in auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor systems. My subsequent work has employed a number of noninvasive methods (OAEs, EPs, qEEG, PET, MRI) to explore the neurobiological bases of individual differences in general and functional asymmetries in particular. This research has led to (1) the AXS test battery for assessing the neurobiology of human sensory-motor function; (2) the handshaking model of brain function, describing dynamic relations along all three body/brain axes; (3) the four-domain EPIC model of functional asymmetries; and (4) the trimodal brain, a new model of individual differences based on psychoimmunoneuroendocrinology.

  19. Gas enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum using carbon dioxide and oxygen - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Ohlhues, Anders;

    meninges may obscure the signal from the arteries of interest. It is known that oxygen enhances the T1-weighted signal and that carbon dioxide increases the arterial blood flow. This paper presents preliminary results of gas enhanced MRA using combinations of atmospheric air, O2 and CO2. Subjects and...

  20. The morphological peculiarities of the cerebrum arteries under the hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the patients with the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Chuiko

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results of the morphological study of the cerebral arteries in the patients with the hemorrhagic ischemic stroke on the background of metabolic syndrome were submitted. We established that under hemorrhagic stroke on the background of metabolic syndrome one could observe the atherosclerotic damages in the form of plaques, hyalinosis of vessels walls, destructive and necrotic changes of the middle coat of vessel wall, which are, in our opinion, the main reason in morphogen...

  1. [MR scanning of cerebrum in the investigation of delayed development in children. Syntelencephaly--is it really so rare?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Pedersen, Søren; Balslev, Thomas; Christensen, Thorkil

    2002-09-01

    A 14-month-old boy presented with a mild global developmental delay, plagiocephaly, and a mild mid-face dysmorphology, including hypertelorism. At 24 months of age, early signs of a spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were noted. MRI of the brain showed middle interhemispheric fusion: syntelencephaly. PMID:12362834

  2. Dividing and newly produced cells in the corpus callosum of adult mouse cerebrum as detected by light microscopic radioautography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, J.A. (Winnipeg Univ., Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Anatomy)

    1983-01-01

    New cell production in the corpus callosum and subependyma of 4 month old mice was analyzed by light microscopic autoradiography after /sup 3/H-thymidine injections. In the subependymal region of the lateral ventricle, about 10% of cells were labelled in mice examined 2 h after /sup 3/H-thymidine, and 40 to 50% of cells were labelled after 7 d of isotope infusion. In corpus callosum of mice 2 h after precursor injection, the few cells (0.1 to 0.2 %) that were labelled had the appearance of 'immature cells', and were presumably incompletely differentiated neuroglial precursor cells which were preparing to divide. After 7 d of continuous /sup 3/H-thymidine administration, more labelled neuroglia (about 2%) were detected in corpus callosum; these newly produced cells included several astrocytes and some oligodendrocytes, as well as immature cells. Since the immature cells were the most frequently observed type of dividing cell within the normal adult corpus callosum, it is probable that the new astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were the products of divisions of their respective precursor cells.

  3. Development of laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum at 3.0T and 7.0T: a postmortem MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to show the condition of laminar organization on 3.0T and 7.0T postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyze developmental changes. Heads of 131 fetal specimens of 14-40 weeks gestational age (GA) were scanned by 3.0T MRI. Eleven fetal specimens of 14-27 weeks GA were scanned by 7.0T MRI. Clear images were chosen for analysis. On T1-weighted 3.0T MRI, layers could be visualized at 14 weeks GA and appeared clearer after 18 weeks GA. On 7.0T MRI, four zones could be recognized at 14 weeks GA. During 15-22 weeks GA, when laminar organization appeared typical, seven layers including the periventricular zone and external capsule fibers could be differentiated, which corresponded to seven zones in histological stained sections. At 23-28 weeks GA, laminar organization appeared less typical, and borderlines among them appeared obscured. After 30 weeks GA, it disappeared and turned into mature-like structures. The developing lamination appeared the most distinguishable at the parieto-occipital part of brain and peripheral regions of the hippocampus. The migrating thalamocortical afferents were probably delineated as a high signal layer located at the lower, middle, and upper part of the subplate zone at 16-28 weeks GA on T1-weighted 3.0T MRI. T1-weighted 3.0T MRI and T2-weighted 7.0T MRI can well demonstrate the laminar organization. Development of the lamination follows a specific spatio-temporal regularity, and postmortem MRI of the parieto-occipital part of brain obtained with 3.0T or 7.0T is an effective way to show developmental changes. (orig.)

  4. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on signal transduction pathway-related protein expression in liver and cerebrum of rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Mari; Akema, Satoshi; Tsuzuki, Masami; Kubota, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Korenaga, Tatsumi; Fukusato, Toshio [Teikyo Univ. of School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Asaoka, Kazuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Murata, Nobuo [Teikyo Univ. of School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan); Nomizu, Motoyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Arima, Akihiro [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to produce a wide range of toxic and biochemical effects in experimental animals, including immunological dysfunctions, chloracne, tetragenecity and carcinogenesis. Recently, the potential impact of dioxins on neurological disorders with particular focus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are concerned. Although a lot of information is available from studies in rodents, not much is known of the low dose effects of TCDD in non-human primates. In higher animals, dioxins are metabolized slowly, as evidenced by the estimated TCDD half-life of 5.8 to 14.1 years. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the long-term effects of TCDD on human health. Considering the pronounced species differences observed in some studies of TCDD, the studies using primates are needed for assessment of TCDD exposure on human health. We have been studying the metabolism and the effects of single administration of TCDD on pregnant monkey (F0) and F1 rhesus monkey. The focus of the present study is to study the effects of TCDD on signal transduction pathway-related protein levels in various organs, especially in liver and brain of F0 monkeys.

  5. 针刺足少阳胆经五输穴脑fMRI研究%Cerebrum fMRI study on the acupucture of Five Shu Points of gall bladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓陵; 于国强; 王丰; 徐英杰; 张秦宏; 赵桂君; 俆佐宇; 岳金换; 张帆

    2014-01-01

    目的 采用fMRI观察针刺足少阳胆经五输穴的脑功能区激活情况.方法 选取男性健康青年志愿者12名,针刺右侧足少阳胆经五输穴,在静息段与针刺段交替采集fMRI图像,获得数据通过random effect法对数据行组分析,以P<0.05的像素构成统计参数图,即实验任务脑激活区,按Talairach坐标行解剖定位,获得试验任务激活的脑区.结果 受试者脑激活区包括左侧眶回(BA11)、双侧顶上小叶(BA7)、右侧颞上回(BA22).负激活区包括右侧舌回(BA18)、右侧扣带回(BA24)、双侧顶上小叶(BA7)、右侧颞下回(BA20).结论 针刺足少阳胆经五输穴可影响边缘系统、听觉系统、语言、记忆等.针灸叠加针刺引起对应的脑功能区变化是大脑传导通路重新整合与分配的结果.%Objective To explore the activation of brain regions during the acupuncture of Five Shu Points of gall bladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang.Methods Twelve young male healthy volunteers were selected,the right gall bladder meridian Five Shu Points were acupunctured.The fMRI images were obtained in resting stage and acupuncture stage.Data were analyzed through random effect method,statistical parametric mapping was composed with pixels of P<0.05.According to the Talairach coordinate for anatomic localization,Experimental task activated brain regions were obtained.Results The activation area of brain included left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11),bilateral superior parietal lobule (BA7),right superior temporal gyrus (BA22).Negative active region included right lingual gyrus (BA18),right cingulate gyrus (BA24),bilateral superior parietal lobule (BA7),right inferior temporal gyrus (BA20).Conclusion The stimulates of the gall bladder Five Shu acupoints can affect the functions of limbic system,the auditory system,language,memory,etc.Superposition of acupuncture can induce corresponding changes in brain areas of the brain pathway re-integration and distribution.

  6. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into left and right ... can make complex movements without thinking. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord and ...

  7. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  8. A case of radiation necrosis seemingly appearing as brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56 years old female with late irradiation necrosis of the frontal cerebrum was presented. It appeared 3.5 years later of Betatron electron irradiation for the treatment of skin cancer along the forehead and simulated clinically to tumor of the frontal cerebrum. The patient underwent removal of that late irradiation necrosis and took satisfactory postoperative course. (auth.)

  9. Avian evolution: from Darwin's finches to a new way of thinking about avian forebrain organization and behavioural capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton

    2008-01-01

    The study of birds, especially the Galapagos finches, was important to Darwin in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Birds have also been at the centre of a recent reformulation in understanding cerebral evolution and the substrates for higher cognition. While it was once thought that birds possess a simple cerebrum and were thus limited to instinctive behaviours, it is now clear that birds possess a well-developed cerebrum that looks very different from the mammalian cerebrum but can support a cognitive ability that for some avian species rivals that in primates. PMID:18854290

  10. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... capacity to remember numerous pieces of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, ... with the spinal cord and is composed of 3 structures: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The ...

  11. Colpocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain -- are larger than normal because white matter in the posterior cerebrum has failed to develop or thicken. Colpocephaly, one of a group of structural brain disorders known as cephalic disorders , is characterized by microcephaly ( ...

  12. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sound, sight, and touch. The Cerebral Cortex Coating the surface of the cerebrum and the cerebellum ... is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is called an inhibitory neurotransmitter because ...

  13. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parietal, and occipital lobe. The cerebral cortex (gray matter) is the outside portion of the cerebrum and ... us to have a tremendous amount of gray matter inside of the skull. Deep to the gray ...

  14. Experiment list: SRX191026 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain ba...lance, and learn motor skills. 109436573,97.0,19.8,133486 GSM1014168: UW DnaseSeq Cerebrum adult-8wks C57BL/

  15. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  16. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  17. Recidive tumor and excessive cerebral angiofibrosis 28 years after high-dose conventional prolactinom-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.; Wowra, B.; Geissler, D.

    1983-09-01

    A fatal recurrence developed 28 years after conventional X-ray therapy of a hypophyseal adenoma with a focal dose of 10340 R. An organic psychosyndrome of many years preceded the recurrence. The immunocytologic examination of the recurrent tumor showed a prolactinoma. As radiogenic fibroses without primary parenchyma necrosis, massive angiofibroses within tumor, hypothalamus, and neostriatum and less massive angiofibroses in the cerebrum and cortex of cerebrum are opposed to the classical late radiation damage with plasmatic infiltration necrosis.

  18. Recidive tumor and excessive cerebral angiofibrosis 28 years after high-dose conventional prolactinom-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fatal recurrence developed 28 years after conventional X-ray therapy of a hypophyseal adenoma with a focal dose of 10340 R. An organic psychosyndrome of many years preceded the recurrence. The immunocytologic examination of the recurrent tumor showed a prolactinoma. As radiogenic fibroses without primary parenchyma necrosis, massive angiofibroses within tumor, hypothalamus, and neostriatum and less massive angiofibroses in the cerebrum and cortex of cerebrum are opposed to the classical late radiation damage with plasmatic infiltration necrosis. (orig.)

  19. Brain uptake and metabolism of [1-11C]octanoate in rats. Pharmacokinetic basis for its application as a radiopharmaceutical for studying brain fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of octanoate in rat brain and its metabolism were investigated by means of intravenously injecting [1-11C] or [1-14C] octanoate as a tracer. The radioactivity in the cerebrum was increased by an injection of [1-11C] octanoate, and reached its peak level (0.33% ID/g) in about 2 to 5 min, and then decreased slowly. The cerebrum-to-blood ratio of the radioactivity increased with time over a period of 30 min. At 30 sec, [1-11C]octanoate that remained unchanged in the cerebrum accounted for only 8% of the total radioactivity, in spite of there being about 90% in the blood. By means of an injection of [1-14C] octanoate, more than 70% of the total radioactivity in the cerebrum was found to be attributable to radiolabeled glutamate and glutamine at each time point measured between 30 sec and 30 min. The results show that [1-11C] octanoate enters rat brain easily and is trapped in the cerebrum, probably in the form of glutamate and glutamine, and the usefulness of [1-11C] octanoate as a radiopharmaceutical for studying brain fatty acid metabolism by positron emission tomography is therefore suggested. (author)

  20. Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-μm microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-μm microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 ± 26 (means ± SE) ml · min-1 · 100 g-1 in dogs and 385 ± 73 ml · min-1 100 g-1 in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by ∼ 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum

  1. MRI Neuroanatomy in Young Girls with Autism: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Courchesne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that young girls and boys with autism exhibit different profiles of neuroanatomical abnormality relative to each other and relative to typically developing children. Method: Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure gray and white matter volumes (whole cerebrum, cerebral lobes, and cerebellum) and…

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFD372 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFD372 (Link to dictyBase) - G00416 DDB0188713 Contig-U06073-1 VFD372P (Lin ... 00429 Plasmid Subtractive Library of Rat Cerebrum (stroke ) Rattus norvegicus cDNA clone 1stG9, mRNA sequence ...

  3. Tuberous sclerosis: unusual associations in four cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilgren, E B; Westmoreland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare disease with classic primary or secondary changes affecting mainly the cerebrum, skin, kidneys, and heart. Such lesions are generally hamartomatous and thus display malignant features only in rare cases. This paper describes four cases of tuberous sclerosis which were unique in their association with certain unusual congenital, metabolic, and tumorous conditions.

  4. Equal ≠ The Same: Sex Differences in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Editor’s Note: While advances in brain imaging confirm that men and women think in their own way and that their brains are different, the biomedical community mainly uses male animals as testing subjects with the assumption that sex differences in the brain hardly matter. This month’s Cerebrum highlights some of the thinking and research that invalidates that assumption.

  5. Splenic arteriovenous malformation manifested by thrombocytopenia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Yeong; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyeong Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung and cerebrum for HHT has been described, whereas little is known about AVMs of the spleen. We report here the radiological findings of a case of a splenic AVM manifested by thrombocytopenia in HHT.

  6. Realization and prospect of γ camera digital picture processing system based on microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-camera picture processing system, picture display system, picture memory and digital processing system are described. The quantitative analysis of cerebrum and heart diagnostic and qualitative analysis of liver, kidney, lungs and gallbladder diagnostic are given in the diagnostic software. Finally, the development of γ-camera digital picture processing system is discussed from the point of view of progress in technique

  7. Fonsecaea multimorphosa sp. nov, a new species of Chaetothyriales isolated from a feline cerebral abscess.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafzadeh, M.J.; Vicente, V.A.; Sun, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hoog, G.S. de

    2011-01-01

    A novel fungal species is described originating from the left occipital lobe of the cerebrum of an 18-month-old spayed female cat in Australia. Neurological disorder of the animal became apparent by circling movements and uncoordinated behaviour. Sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene reveals this strain a

  8. Social cognition and the cerebellum: A meta-analytic connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank; D'aes, Tine; Mariën, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) study explores the functional connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum in social cognitive processes. In a recent meta-analysis, Van Overwalle, Baetens, Mariën, and Vandekerckhove (2014) documented that the cerebellum is implicated in social processes of "body" reading (mirroring; e.g., understanding other persons' intentions from observing their movements) and "mind" reading (mentalizing, e.g., inferring other persons' beliefs, intentions or personality traits, reconstructing persons' past, future, or hypothetical events). In a recent functional connectivity study, Buckner et al. (2011) offered a novel parcellation of cerebellar topography that substantially overlaps with the cerebellar meta-analytic findings of Van Overwalle et al. (2014). This overlap suggests that the involvement of the cerebellum in social reasoning depends on its functional connectivity with the cerebrum. To test this hypothesis, we explored the meta-analytic co-activations as indices of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebrum during social cognition. The MACM results confirm substantial and distinct connectivity with respect to the functions of (a) action understanding ("body" reading) and (b) mentalizing ("mind" reading). The consistent and strong connectivity findings of this analysis suggest that cerebellar activity during social judgments reflects distinct mirroring and mentalizing functionality, and that these cerebellar functions are connected with corresponding functional networks in the cerebrum. PMID:26419890

  9. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  10. The disequilibrium of nucleosomes distribution along chromosomes plays a functional and evolutionarily role in regulating gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2011-08-19

    To further understand the relationship between nucleosome-space occupancy (NO) and global transcriptional activity in mammals, we acquired a set of genome-wide nucleosome distribution and transcriptome data from the mouse cerebrum and testis based on ChIP (H3)-seq and RNA-seq, respectively. We identified a nearly consistent NO patterns among three mouse tissues-cerebrum, testis, and ESCs-and found, through clustering analysis for transcriptional activation, that the NO variations among chromosomes are closely associated with distinct expression levels between house-keeping (HK) genes and tissue-specific (TS) genes. Both TS and HK genes form clusters albeit the obvious majority. This feature implies that NO patterns, i.e. nucleosome binding and clustering, are coupled with gene clustering that may be functionally and evolutionarily conserved in regulating gene expression among different cell types. © 2011 Cui et al.

  11. Automatic segmentation of cerebral MR images using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present an unsupervised clustering technique for multispectral segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. Our scheme utilizes the Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM) artificial neural network for feature mapping and generates a set of codebook vectors. By extending the network with an additional layer the map will be classified and each tissue class will be labelled. An algorithm has been developed for extracting the cerebrum from the head scan prior to the segmentation. Extracting the cerebrum is performed by stripping away the skull pixels from the T2 image. Three tissue types of the brain: white matter, gray matter and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are segmented accurately. To compare the results with other conventional approaches we applied the c-means algorithm to the problem

  12. Brain Swelling and Mannitol Therapy in Adult Cerebral Malaria: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj Kanti; Patnaik, Rajyabardhan; Dutt, Anil Kumar; Pradhan, Sudhir; Das, Bhabanisankar; Patnaik, Jayakrushna; Mohanty, Akshaya Kumar; Lee, Sue J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background.  Coma is a frequent presentation of severe malaria in adults and an important cause of death. The role of cerebral swelling in its pathogenesis, and the possible benefit of intravenous mannitol therapy to treat this, is uncertain. Methods.  A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the cerebrum and lumbar puncture with measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure were performed on admission for 126 consecutive adult Indian patients with cerebral malaria. Patients with brain swellin...

  13. Delays in Motor Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malak, Roksana; Kostiukow, Anna; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) present with delays in motor development. The reduced size of the cerebrum, brain maturation disorders, and pathophysiological processes lead to motor development delay. The aim of this study was to examine the gross motor function and estimate what motor abilities are significantly delayed in children with Down syndrome even if they attend physical therapy sessions. Another purpose of the study was to assess the functional balance. Material/Methods...

  14. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Sahngun Nahm; Zee-Yong Park; Sang-Soep Nahm; Yong Chul Kim; Pyung Bok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we perfo...

  15. Detection and functional annotation of misregulated microRNAs in the brain of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiang-jun; XIAO Yun; ZHANG Qi; MA Li-ping; LI Na; YANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain hypoplasia and mental retardation in Down syndrome (DS) can be attributed to a severe and selective disruption of neurogenesis.Secondary disruption of the transcriptome,as well as primary gene dosage imbalance,is responsible for the phenotype.MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is relatively abundant in brain tissue.Perturbed miRNA expression might contribute to the cellular events underlying the pathology in DS.Methods MiRNA expression profiles in the cerebrum of Ts65Dn mice,a DS model,were examined with a real-time RT-PCR array.MiRNA target gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting.Based on the prediction of their cerebrum-specific targets,the functions of the misregulated miRNAs were annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis.Results A total of 342 miRNAs were examined.Among them,20 miRNAs showed decreased expression in the brains of Ts65Dn mice,and some of these belonged to the same family.Two known targets of the miR-200 family,Lfng and Zeb2,were specifically selected to compare their expression in the cerebrum of Ts65Dn mice with those of euploids.However,no significant difference was found in terms of mRNA and protein expression levels of these genes.By enrichment analysis of the cerebrum-specific targets of each miRNA,we found that 15 of the differential miRNAs could significantly affect target genes that were enriched in the GO biological processes related to nervous system development.Conclusion Perturbed expression of multiple functionally cooperative miRNAs contributes to the cellular events underlying the pathogenesis of DS.

  16. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  17. Early phenotype expression of cortical neurons: evidence that a subclass of migrating neurons have callosal axons.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M. L.; Rakic, P.; Goldman-Rakic, P. S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of [3H]thymidine labeling in combination with various axonal transport tracers has revealed that a subset of migrating neurons in the fetal monkey cerebrum issue axons to the opposite cerebral hemisphere while still migrating to their final positions in the cortical plate. Other cortical neurons with the same "birthdate" (i.e., that underwent their last round of DNA synthesis on the same day) are not retrogradely labeled by tracer injections of the opposite hemisphere. These findings ...

  18. The right-hemisphere and valence hypotheses: could they both be right (and sometimes left)?

    OpenAIRE

    Killgore, William Dale; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The two halves of the brain are believed to play different roles in emotional processing, but the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. The right-hemisphere hypothesis suggests that the right cerebrum is dominant for processing all emotions regardless of affective valence, whereas the valence specific hypothesis posits that the left hemisphere is specialized for processing positive affect while the right hemisphere is specialized for negative affect. Here, healthy ...

  19. Modeling human brain development with cerebral organoids

    OpenAIRE

    Muzio, Luca; Consalez, G. Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new three-dimensional culture system for the derivation of cerebral organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells provides developmental neurobiologists with the first example of a three-dimensional framework for the study of human brain development. This innovative approach permits the in vitro assembly of a human embryonic brain rudiment that recapitulates the developing human cerebrum. Organoids contain progenitor populations that develop to yield mature cor...

  20. Laws of neurofeedback influence on condition of highly skilled gymnasts-women

    OpenAIRE

    Strizhkova, Tatiana; Cherapkina, Larisa; Strizhkova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Carried out research showed that changes of complex-coordinated activity, self-estimation of functional condition and cardiointervalographic indexes of the highly skilled gymnasts-women after neurofeedback course depended on dynamics of cerebrum theta-, alpha-rhythm during the neurofeedback sessions and successfulness of the alpha-rhythm increasing technical skill mastery generally. The neurofeedback which was begun in follicular phase of ovarian-menstrual cycle (OMC) led to the most pronounc...

  1. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholin...

  2. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. PMID:25441625

  3. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; Uchida, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the t...

  4. Comparison of the relationship between cerebral white matter and grey matter in normal dogs and dogs with lateral ventricular enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Martin J.; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of...

  5. Optimalizace marketingových kampaní na základě výsledků neuromarketingového výzkumu

    OpenAIRE

    Holíková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is relatively new field of study, which is mostly applied in marketing research and its goal is to uncertain what really goes on in customer's minds. Neuromarketing use neuroscience, which forms scientific basis for study of neural system and cerebrum. Findings of studies are used in building of marketing campaigns. In the Czech Republic is neuromarketing still in its beginning and the biggest expansion ought to come. Goal of this thesis was firstly compare the difference betwe...

  6. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  7. Clinical and morphopathological characteristics of an enzootic occurrence of acute coenurosis (Coenurus cerebralis) in a sheep herd

    OpenAIRE

    Farjani Kish, GH.; Khodakaram-Tafti, A.; Hajimohammadi, A.; Ahmadi, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 30 sheep from a flock suddenly showed acute neurological symptoms associated with more than 30 % mortality. At necropsy, thickening associated with congestion and turbidity of meningeal membranes particularly on cerebellum, focal to multifocal necrotic areas and whitish spots measuring 1 to 3 cm in diameter were observed in the cortex of cerebrum and cerebellum. Grossly, numerous white tracts were also observed in the myocardium. Histopathologically, the cross sections of coenu...

  8. Prevalence and clinical relevance of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing CT examinations of the cerebrum, the discovery of basal ganglia calcification becomes more frequent. In order to correlate these calcifications to the symptoms believed to be accompanied with Fahr's disease 2318 cranial CT scans were examined. There was an overall incidence of basal ganglia calcification of 12.5%. The most frequent location was the globus pallidus (96.4%). In the examined population there was no correlation found between the calcifications and symptoms having been described with striopallidentate calcifications. (orig.)

  9. Aberrant Ancylostoma sp. in the brain of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amie; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bolling, Melanie; Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-06-15

    A 14-month-old, male American Bulldog presented to Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital in August of 2012 for anorexia, hydrophobia and gradually worsening neurologic signs. Grossly hemorrhage on the left side of the caudal cerebrum and cerebellum was observed and histologically corresponded with necrohemorrhagic and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis associated with adult nematodes. Based on morphology and molecular analysis, these were identified as Ancylostoma sp. PMID:27198802

  10. Adolescent Mouse Takes on An Active Transcriptomic Expression During Postnatal Cerebral Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy, 59,257,530 (adolescence and 72,729,636 (adulthood reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of regulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regulation. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence; Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal development. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum.

  11. Capillary telangiectasia mimicking an active inflammatory MS-lesion in repetitive cMRIs

    OpenAIRE

    Harzheim, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Michael Harzheim1, Claudia Gemmel1, Bernd Sommer2, Ulf Kallweit1, Dieter Pöhlau11MS Center, Department of Neurology, Kamillus-Klinik, Asbach, Germany; 2Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Bad Honnef, GermanyAbstract: Repetitive cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions typical of multiple sclerosis (MS) with one Gd-enhancing focus in the left parietal cerebrum which correlated to the clinical symptoms of a secondary progressive female MS patient. Since this Gd-enhancing ...

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  13. Crossed cerebral - cerebellar diaschisis : MRI evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available MRI, done later in life, in two patients with infantile hemiplegia syndrome showed significant volume loss in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the side of the affected cerebrum. The cerebellar volume loss seemed to correlate with the degree of volume loss in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. These observations provide morphological evidence of the phenomenon of crossed cerebral-cerebellar diaschisis (CCD. Functional neuroimaging studies in support of the concept of CCD has been critically reviewed.

  14. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  15. Adolescent Mouse Takes on An Active Transcriptomic Expression During Postnatal Cerebral Development

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy), 59,257,530 (adolescence) and 72,729,636 (adulthood) reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of regulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF) analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regulation. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP)-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence; Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon. repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal development. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum. © 2014 .

  16. Injury Patterns and Sources of Non-Ejected Occupants in Trip-Over Crashes: A Survey of NASS-CDS Database from 1997 to 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jingwen; Lee, Jong B.; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the main injury patterns and sources of non-ejected occupants (i.e. no full/partial ejection) during trip-over crashes, using the NASS-CDS database. Specific injury types and sources of the head, chest, and neck were identified. Results from this study suggest that cerebrum injuries, especially subarachnoid hemorrhage, rib fractures, lung injuries, and cervical spine fractures need to be emphasized if cadaveric tests or numerical simulations are ...

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in nervous tissue. I. Adult brain, retina, and peripheral nerve

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Monospecific antibodies were prepared to a previously characterized chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain and used in conjunction with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique to localize the proteoglycan by immunoelectron microscopy. The proteoglycan was found to be exclusively intracellular in adult cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. Some neurons and astrocytes (including Golgi epithelial cells and Bergmann fibers) showed strong cytoplasmic staining. Although in the centr...

  18. Adolescent Mouse Takes on An Active Transcriptomic Expression During Postnatal Cerebral Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xu; Chengqi Xin; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Wei Gong; Yuanyuan Zhou; Jun Yu; Peng Cui; Songnian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy), 59,257,530 (adolescence) and 72,729,636 (adulthood) reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of reg-ulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF) analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regula-tion. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP)-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence;Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axon repulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal develop-ment. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum.

  19. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author)

  20. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  1. Studies of the macroscopic and microscopic morphology (hippocampus of brain in Vencobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Gupta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared. Paraffin blocks were cut, and slides were stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Photography was carried out both under lower (×10 and higher (×40 magnifications. Results: The brain structure (dorsal view of Vencobb bird resembled the outline of a playing card symbol of a “spade.” The brain subdivisions are cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cerebrum was devoid of usual convolutions (elevations, gyri, depressions (grooves, and sulci. The cerebral hemispheres were tightly apposed along a median sulcus called interhemispheric fissure and cerebrum and cerebellum were separated by a small transverse fissure. The olfactory bulb was small structures, and the pineal body was clearly visible. The optic lobes were partially hidden under cerebral hemispheres, but laterally, it was large, prominent rounded or spherical bodies of the midbrain. The hippocampal area appeared as dorso-medial protrusion. Different types of neurons were distinguished in the hippocampus were pyramidal neurons, pyramidal-like neurons, and multipolar neurons, etc. There was rich vascularization in the form of blood capillaries throughout the hippocampus. Conclusion: Cerebrum was pear shaped and largest part of the brain. Cerebrum hemisphere was smooth devoid of convolutions, gyri, and depressions, but in the surface of cerebellum, there was the presence of a number of transverse depression (grooves and sulci subdividing into many folds. Olfactory bulb was poorly

  2. DFP initiated early alterations of PKA/p-CREB pathway and differential persistence of β-tubulin subtypes in the CNS of hens contributes to OPIDN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken, which results in mild ataxia in 7-14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 mL/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were sacrificed at different time points such as 2, 4, and 8 h, as well as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for protein (western) and mRNA (northern) studies. Subcellular fractionation, SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the nuclear and supernatant fractions using standard protocols from spinal cord and cerebrum showed differential expression of protein levels of PKA, CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB). There was an increase in PKA level in spinal cord nuclear fraction after 4 h (130 ± 5%) and 8 h (133 ± 6 %), while cerebrum nuclear fraction showed decrease (77 ± 5%) at 4 h and remained at the same level at 8 h. No change was seen in either spinal cord or cerebrum soluble fraction at any time points. There was an increase in CREB level in the spinal cord supernatant (133 ± 3%) after 5 days, while nuclear and supernatant fraction of the cerebrum did not show any alterations at any time point. p-CREB was induced in the spinal cord nuclear fraction at 1 day (150 ± 3%) and 5 days (173±±7%) of treatment, in contrast to the decreased levels p-CREB (72 ± 4%) at 10 days in cerebrum nuclear fraction. Supernatant fraction of spinal cord and cerebrum did not show any

  3. Systemic pathological alterations caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Teibler, Pamela; Ruíz, Raquel; Leiva, Laura; Acosta, Ofelia

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about the systemic effects caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom. In this work, this venom was tested for its ability to induce histopathological changes in rats after its intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous administration, by light microscopic examination of some organs (cerebellum, cerebrum, lung, liver, kidney and heart). Four rats were used for each dose of 0.23, 0.45 and 0.90 mg of venom in 0.3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4). Aliquots of blood were withdrawn at different time intervals for enzymatic determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels. After 2h the animals were killed by an overdose of anesthetic, and samples of kidney, heart, liver, lung, cerebrum and cerebellum were taken to microscopic examination (hematoxylin and eosin stain). Histologically, no abnormality was observed in heart tissue, in none of the administration routes of the venom used. However, histological observations showed multifocal hemorrhage in cerebellum, cerebrum and lung sections, severe peritubular capillary congestion in kidney sections and hydropic degeneration in liver sections, when venom was administrated intravenously. The subcutaneous route showed similar results to the previous one, with the exception of cerebellar hemorrhage. Intramuscularly, neither cerebral nor cerebellar hemorrhage was observed. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increased levels were demonstrated, mainly when venom was administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Our results suggest that P. patagoniensis venom induces moderate histopathological changes in vital organs of rats. These changes are initiated at early stages of the envenomation and may be associated with a behavioral or functional abnormality of those organs during envenoming. PMID:16911815

  4. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  5. Some aspects of the craniofacial indices and macro neurometrics of the Nigerian local pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, James O; Igado, O O; Nwafor, C I; Alamu, A O; Onwuka, S K

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the craniofacial indices and neuromorphometrics of the Nigerian local pig and has been performed on twelve males and fourteen females of ages one and a half to two years. The average values obtained for the tongue length, tongue weight, rasp length, left pinna length, right pinna length, left pinna width, right pinna width, height of left external nares, height of right external nares and the rima oris length were 17 +/- 1.3 cm, 90 +/- 16 g, 4.6 +/- 0.58 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 13 +/- 1.3 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.5 cm, 8.7 +/- 1.4 cm, 0.98 +/- 0.12 cm, 0.96 +/- 0.13 cm and 19.51 +/- 2.89 cm respectively, while the mean brain weight, mean brain length, cerebrum and cerebellum lengths, brain and cerebellar heights were 84 +/- 12 g, 6.9 +/- 1.5 cm, 4.9 +/- 1.7 cm, 2.2 +/- 1.0 cm, 5.2 +/- 0.88 cm and 3.0 +/- 1.1 cm respectively. There was a negative correlation between the weight of the animal and the height of the cerebellum, the length of cerebrum and length of the cerebellum and between the weight of the head and height of the cerebellum. A positive correlation was however observed between the length of brain and the weight of brain, and between the length of the cerebrum and weight of brain. The cerebral length was statistically longer (P < 0.01) in the males than the females. The data obtained from this study will provide added information in the field of comparative anatomy and porcine neuroanatomy research. PMID:21898972

  6. Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. IV. Serotonergic involvement in the effects of buspirone on punished behavior of pigeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkin, J.M.; Mansbach, R.S.; Barrett, J.E.; Bolger, G.T.; Skolnick, P.; Weissman, B.

    1987-12-01

    Interactions of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone, with serotonin (5-HT) were studied using behavioral and neurochemical procedures. Punished responding was studied in pigeons as this behavior is a generally acknowledged preclinical predictor of anxiolytic activity and because buspirone increases punished responding of pigeons with greater potency and efficacy than in other species. Keypeck responses were maintained under either fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of food presentation; every 30th response produced a brief electric shock and suppressed responding (punishment). Buspirone (0.1-5.6 mg/kg i.m.) produced dose-related increases in punished responding which reached a maximum at 1 mg/kg. A serotonin agonist, MK-212 (0.01 mg/kg), antagonized whereas the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (0.01 mg/kg), potentiated the effects of buspirone without having behavioral effects of their own. The characteristics of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding in pigeon brain membranes were similar to results reported in mammalian brain. Neither buspirone, MJ-13805 (gepirone, a related analog), nor MJ-13653 (a buspirone metabolite), significantly affected (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding and none of the compounds appreciably inhibited uptake of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT into pigeon cerebral synaptosomes. Hill coefficients significantly less than unity for all drugs except 5-HT suggested multiple serotonergic binding sites for buspirone and analogs. Buspirone and MJ-13805 (1 nM) inhibited (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding (a measure of 5-HT2 binding sites) in pigeon cerebrum with Ki values above 10(-6) M. The number of (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding sites was estimated to be 109 fmol/mg of protein in pigeon cerebrum compared to 400 fmol/mg of protein in rat cerebrum.

  7. Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. IV. Serotonergic involvement in the effects of buspirone on punished behavior of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone, with serotonin (5-HT) were studied using behavioral and neurochemical procedures. Punished responding was studied in pigeons as this behavior is a generally acknowledged preclinical predictor of anxiolytic activity and because buspirone increases punished responding of pigeons with greater potency and efficacy than in other species. Keypeck responses were maintained under either fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of food presentation; every 30th response produced a brief electric shock and suppressed responding (punishment). Buspirone (0.1-5.6 mg/kg i.m.) produced dose-related increases in punished responding which reached a maximum at 1 mg/kg. A serotonin agonist, MK-212 (0.01 mg/kg), antagonized whereas the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (0.01 mg/kg), potentiated the effects of buspirone without having behavioral effects of their own. The characteristics of [3H]-5-HT binding in pigeon brain membranes were similar to results reported in mammalian brain. Neither buspirone, MJ-13805 (gepirone, a related analog), nor MJ-13653 (a buspirone metabolite), significantly affected [3H]-5-HT binding and none of the compounds appreciably inhibited uptake of [3H]-5-HT into pigeon cerebral synaptosomes. Hill coefficients significantly less than unity for all drugs except 5-HT suggested multiple serotonergic binding sites for buspirone and analogs. Buspirone and MJ-13805 (1 nM) inhibited [3H]ketanserin binding (a measure of 5-HT2 binding sites) in pigeon cerebrum with Ki values above 10(-6) M. The number of [3H]ketanserin binding sites was estimated to be 109 fmol/mg of protein in pigeon cerebrum compared to 400 fmol/mg of protein in rat cerebrum

  8. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  9. ADNP: A major autism mutated gene is differentially distributed (age and gender) in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Gal Hacohen; Barnea, Anat; Gozes, Illana

    2015-10-01

    ADNP is a protein necessary for brain development, important for brain plasticity, cognitive and social functioning, characteristics that are all impaired in autism and in the Adnp(+/-) mouse model, in a sex-dependent manner. ADNP was originally discovered as a protein that is secreted from glial cells in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP is a major neuroprotective peptide in the CNS and PNS and was also associated with social recognition in rodents and aggression, pair-bonding and parental behaviors in birds. Comparative sequence alignment revealed high evolutionary conservation of ADNP in Chordata. Despite its importance in brain function, ADNP has never been studied in birds. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are highly social songbirds that have a sexually dichotomous anatomical brain structure, with males demonstrating a developed song system, presenting a model to study behavior and potential sexually dependent fundamental differences. Here, using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we discovered sexually dichotomous and age related differences in ADNP mRNA expression in three different regions of the song bird brain-cerebellum, cerebrum, and brain stem. Higher levels of ADNP mRNA were specifically found in young male compared to the female cerebrum, while aging caused a significant 2 and 3-fold decrease in the female and male cerebrum, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison between the three tested brain regions revealed unique sex-dependent ADNP mRNA distribution patterns, affected by aging. Future studies are aimed at deciphering the function of ADNP in birds, toward a better molecular understanding of sexual dichotomy in singing behavior in birds. PMID:25895853

  10. Genomics-based screening of differentially expressed genes in the brains of mice exposed to silver nanoparticles via inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry. Despite the importance of AgNP in consumer products and clinical applications, relatively little is known regarding AgNP toxicity and its associated risks. We investigated the effects of AgNP on gene expression in the mouse brain using Affymetrix Mouse Genome Arrays. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to AgNP (geometric mean diameter, 22.18 ± 1.72 nm; 1.91 x 107 particles/cm3) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week using the nose-only exposure system for 2 weeks. Total RNA isolated from the cerebrum and cerebellum was subjected to hybridization. From over 39,000 probe sets, 468 genes in the cerebrum and 952 genes in the cerebellum were identified as AgNP-responsive (one-way analysis of variance; p < 0.05). The largest groups of gene products affected by AgNP exposure included 73 genes in the cerebrum and 144 genes in the cerebellum. AgNP exposure modulated the expression of several genes associated with motor neuron disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and immune cell function, indicating potential neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity associated with AgNP exposure. Real-time PCR data for five genes analyzed from whole blood showed good correlation with the observed changes in the brain. Following rigorous validation and substantiation, these genes may assist in the development of surrogate markers for AgNP exposure and/or toxicity.

  11. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  12. Marked cerebral atrophy is correlated with kidney dysfunction in nondisabled adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between kidney dysfunction, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), and brain morphology has attracted increasing attention, but the association between kidney dysfunction and cerebral atrophy has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between kidney function and a substantial degree of cerebral atrophy. A total of 610 consecutive Japanese adults without neurological disorders who had undergone health screening tests of the brain were studied prospectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Using a computer-assisted processing system, the percentage of cerebrum atrophy (%Cerebrum atrophy) was calculated as an index of cerebral atrophy. Atrophy was defined as >2 s.d.s below the mean %Cerebrum atrophy. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan. Kidney function variables included the GFR value and the prevalence of subjects with GFR -1 per 1.73 m2. Cerebral atrophy was found in 25 (4.1%) cases. Univariate analysis showed that age, male sex, hypertension, each kidney function variable, white matter hyperintensities and lacunae were associated with cerebral atrophy. On logistic regression analysis, GFR (odds ratio (OR), 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.98) and GFR -1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.82-19.27) were significantly associated with cerebral atrophy. On sub-analysis, GFR -1 per 1.73 m2 was significantly associated with cortical atrophy (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.15-9.11). Decreased GFR was significantly associated with cerebral atrophy, indicating that treatment of CKD may control age-related degenerative processes of the brain. (author)

  13. Objective classification of gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AZUPARDO, Mervic

    2007-01-01

    “Cerebral” is defined as pertaining to the brain, cerebrum or intellect, and “Palsy” refers to paralysis of muscle or group of muscles. Jointly, Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the term used to describe a group of conditions with motor impairments resulting from brain damage during the early stages of development. Cerebral palsy is non progressive and is usually not diagnosed until a child is about 2 to 3 years of age. About 2 to 3 children in 1,000 over the age of three have cerebral p...

  14. Guideline of procedures 2003 for the gammagraphic study of brain death; Guia de procedimientos 2003 para el estudio gammagrafico de muerte cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora R, R.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The diagnosis of brain death is a clinical diagnosis that is sometimes made with the help of cerebral perfusion scintigraphy. It is important that all physicians be knowledgeable about the clinical requirements for the diagnosis of brain death, especially the need to establish irreversible cessation of all function of the cerebrum and brain stem. Institutions performing scintigraphy for the evaluation of possible brain death should develop clinical guidelines and procedures for the clinical diagnosis that incorporate both clinical evaluations and the integration of ancillary tests such as perfusion scintigraphy. (Author)

  15. Architecture of top down, parallel pattern recognition system TOPS and its application to the MR head images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes about the system architecture of a new image recognition system TOPS (top-down parallel pattern recognition system), and its application to the automatic extraction of brain organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem) from 3D-MRI images. Main concepts of TOPS are as follows: (1) TOPS is the top-down type recognition system, which allows parallel models in each level of hierarchy structure. (2) TOPS allows parallel image processing algorithms for one purpose (for example, for extraction of one special organ). This results in multiple candidates for one purpose, and judgment to get unique solution for it will be made at upper level of hierarchy structure. (author)

  16. Guideline of procedures 2003 for the gammagraphic study of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of brain death is a clinical diagnosis that is sometimes made with the help of cerebral perfusion scintigraphy. It is important that all physicians be knowledgeable about the clinical requirements for the diagnosis of brain death, especially the need to establish irreversible cessation of all function of the cerebrum and brain stem. Institutions performing scintigraphy for the evaluation of possible brain death should develop clinical guidelines and procedures for the clinical diagnosis that incorporate both clinical evaluations and the integration of ancillary tests such as perfusion scintigraphy. (Author)

  17. A rare presentation of methanol toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is a highly toxic alcohol resembling ethanol in smell and taste. Methanol poisoning is a lethal form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic acidosis, visual disturbances, and neurological deficit. Brain lesions typically described in methanol toxicity are in the form of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and sub-cortical white matter. To our knowledge, lesions in the parietal, temporal, or frontal areas of cerebrum and cerebellar hemispheres have been rarely reported so far. We herewith report this rare presentation.

  18. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. PMID:26762405

  19. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning. PMID:25439284

  20. Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical significance of 18F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey studies. Thirty-two (58%) out of 55 patients examined showed regional decreases in the cerebrum and cerebellum, which were caused by ischemia, macroangiopathy of diabetes mellitus, crossed cerebellar diaschisis and Alzheimer's disease. Two patients with suspicious Alzheimer's disease (early stage) and one with cerebrovascular dementia were observed. One patient showed high uptake of 18F-FDG in the pituitary gland with pituitary adenoma. 18F-FDG PET is very useful not only to pick up early stage of dementia but also to examine several pathological conditions. (author)

  1. Massive calcification in basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum caused by postoperative hypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depicted case is of a 65 year old woman, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of excess sweating, dizziness and loss of consciousness. Symptomatic epilepsy was established after examination from a neurologist. A CT scan showed hyperdense symmetrical striation of the hemisphere of the small brain (parasagittal); symmetrical double-sided calcifications in the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus and medial to the capsula interna; snake-like calcifications of the sulcus (occipital, parasagittai). Paraclinical tests have found hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Past illnesses: resection of the thyroid due to a nodose struma 20 years before. Key words: Calcifications in Basal Ganglia. Calcifications in the Cerebrum. Hypoparathyroidism

  2. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology; Chand, R.P. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Medicine (Neurology); Gururaj, A.K. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Child Health; Jeans, W.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.).

  3. Hypernatremia in a Cat with Toxoplasma-Induced Panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Christiane; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Mathias; Kohn, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    A 12 yr old female neutered Carthusian crossbreed cat was presented due to progressive neurological signs. Clinical signs included dehydration, stupor, and anisocoria. Laboratory examination revealed severe hypernatremia, azotemia, hyperglobulinemia, and an erythrocytosis. Clinical signs and hypernatremia suggested an intracranial process. Imaging studies revealed a loss of structure in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Due to a poor prognosis, the cat was euthanatized. Histopathological examination revealed a subacute granulomatous and necrotizing panencephalitis with Toxoplasma-typical protozoa. The Toxoplasma-induced dysfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland led to diabetes insipidus, which was, in combination with insufficient water intake, the most likely cause for the hypernatremia. PMID:26606207

  4. Geometric optimal control of the contrast imaging problem in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, B; Glaser, S J; Lapert, M; Sugny, D; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to introduce the tools to analyze the contrast imaging problem in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Optimal trajectories can be selected among extremal solutions of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle applied to this Mayer type optimal problem. Such trajectories are associated to the question of extremizing the transfer time. Hence the optimal problem is reduced to the analysis of the Hamiltonian dynamics related to singular extremals and their optimality status. This is illustrated by using the examples of cerebrospinal fluid / water and grey / white matter of cerebrum.

  5. [STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM IN AFTER-DEATH STATE COMPARED TO INTRA-VITAM MRI IMAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiagina, O

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary results suggest that the corpus callosum is composed of a certain number of stringy formations visualized on macroscopic and microscopic level that we proposed to call commissural funiculi. They are treated as subcallous units of the first order. The purpose of this research is to find out the form of the above-mentioned corpus callosum formations as being displayed on its sagittal profile as well as the extent to which they are displayed. The material used was male and female cerebrum of mature age people, who died for reasons not related to the pathology of the central nervous system. Cerebrum extracted from the skull after being washed was exposed to a two week fixation in 10% formalin solution. The sagittal plane slicer was used for brain dissection. Photo fixation of the medial surface of hemispheres was implemented with a digital camera. It was found out that the sagittal cut of the corpus callosum can be represented as a formation having segmental structure principle. Also, according to our observations, the trunk of the corpus callosum has distinct morphological features of bilateral asymmetry. PMID:27348174

  6. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. PMID:26813679

  7. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sahngun Nahm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  8. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 108 and 2.54 X 108 n/cm2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Comparative expression analysis of the genes encoding polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and its neural homologue (brPTB) in prenatal and postnatal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleväli, K; Kulla, A; Ord, T

    2001-03-01

    The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and its recently discovered homologue brain-enriched PTB (brPTB) are RNA binding proteins involved in the control of alternative splicing. We have characterized expression patterns of the PTB and brPTB in course of mouse brain development, using mRNA in situ hybridization. PTB is expressed in choroid plexi and ependyma at all the stages of development and temporarily in the mantle layer of migrating neuroblasts of fore-, mid- and hindbrain and in the external granular layer of cerebellum. In the neurons of adult mouse cerebrum and cerebellum expression of PTB is undetectable. In contrast to this, brPTB is expressed ubiquitously in neuroblasts of various parts of embryonic brain and in the differentiated neurons of postnatal cerebrum and cerebellum. brPTB mRNA is not observed in choroid plexi and ependymal layer. Thus, in the embryonic brain expression patterns of PTB and brPTB overlap, but in the course of brain development the patterns become complementary to each other. PMID:11231079

  10. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the α-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of α1- and α2-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. α1-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. α/sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular α1-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet

  11. CT diagnosis of abnormal transparent septum in clinical meaning%透明隔异常CT诊断的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹连义; 张勇

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Abnormal transparent septum is common in clinical works but little in meaning,so some CT reports are not listed.We collected complete abnormal transparent septum cases to perform comparison analysis between CT diagnosis and clinical data.METHODS:109 abnormal transparent septum diagnosed by CT was compared with symptom of clinics.Axis scanning and no enhanced scanning were used in CT and 2 doctors in charge of sample collection.The 109 cases were excluded with abnormal transparent septum induced by secondary local cerebral atrophy and secondary perforation deformity.RESULTS:There were 15 cases with the fifth ventricle of cerebrum and 22 cases with the fifth and sixth ventricle of cerebrums,10 cases with transparent septum cyst,28 cases with translocation of transparent septum,8 cases with no crack in the forebrain,6 cases with poor development of keratoma and 20 cases of other deformity.CONCLUSION:Abnormal transparent septum cannot be omitted and should be clearly diagnosed by CT.

  12. Developmental changes of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscle, and brain of the piglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for the sequential quantitative separation and determination of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen from rat-liver homogenate is modified for application to frozen tissues of the piglet. The biochemical methods, including the biuret method, used in the present investigation are described and thoroughly checked. The effects of freezing and storage on the recovery of major tissue constituents are recorded. The modified scheme is applied to the determination of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscle, and brain of the developing piglet. Developmental changes for these major tissue constituents, including the biuret protein, are described with special reference to protein synthesis and physiology of growth at the cellular level from 45 days of foetal age to 35-42 days of postnatal age for liver and skeletal muscle, and from birth to 31-40 days of postnatal age for the cerebrum and cerebellum. The uniformly labelled amino acid, 14C-L-leucine, is used to study protein synthesis. Developmental patterns of labelling of protein and lipid in the liver, skeletal muscle, cerebrum, and cerebellum of the piglet from birth up to the age of two weeks are described. The results of the methodological, developmental, and experimental studies are thoroughly discussed in the light of the relevant literature and compared with those obtained in developmental and experimental studies on rats and other mammal species. (author)

  13. Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08 Upregulates the Expression of Neuronal and Glial Plasticity Markers in the Brain of Scopolamine Induced Amnesic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Konar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies on animal models have discerned the antiamnesic and memory-enhancing potential of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi crude extract and standardized extracts. These studies primarily focus on behavioral consequences. However, lack of information on molecular underpinnings has limited the clinical trials of the potent herb in human subjects. In recent years, researchers highlight plasticity markers as molecular correlates of amnesia and being crucial to design therapeutic targets. In the present report, we have investigated the effect of a special extract of B. monniera (CDRI-08 on the expression of key neuronal (BDNF and Arc and glial (GFAP plasticity markers in the cerebrum of scopolamine induced amnesic mice. Pre- and postadministration of CDRI-08 ameliorated amnesic effect of scopolamine by decreasing acetyl cholinesterase activity and drastically upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of BDNF, Arc, and GFAP in mouse cerebrum. Interestingly, the plant extract per se elevated BDNF and Arc expression as compared to control but GFAP was unaltered. In conclusion, our findings provide the first molecular evidence for antiamnesic potential of CDRI-08 via enhancement of both neuronal and glial plasticity markers. Further investigations on detailed molecular pathways would encourage therapeutic application of the extract in memory disorders.

  14. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffuse brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qi; Huang Ping; Xing Bo; Tuo Ya; Zhang Yongpan; Tian Weiping; Wang Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamics of the level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum following the diffuse brain injury in rats and provide the experimental evidences for estimating injury time. Methods ELISA was used to determine whether S100 protein is changed after diffuse brain injury in rats. Forty rats were sacrificed at 0.5 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 d and 7 d after diffuse brain injury and normal rats as control. Results The level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum increased, followed by a decrease, and then further increased. The level of S100 could be detected to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 4 hours after DBI. The level decreased gradually to the normal at 1d and till 3 d formed the second peak. The level returned to the normal at 7d following injury again. In the postmortem injury groups, there were no significant changes compared to the control group. Conclusion The present study showed that the time-dependent expression of S100 is obvious following diffuse brain injury in rats and suggested that S100 will be a suitable marker for diffuse brain injury age determination.

  15. Focal attenuation of specific electroencephalographic power over the right parahippocampal region during transcerebral copper screening in living subjects and hemispheric asymmetric voltages in fixed brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Lehman, Brendan; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Covering the heads of human volunteers with a toque lined with copper mesh compared to no mesh resulted in significant diminishments in quantitative electroencephalographic power within theta and beta-gamma bands over the right caudal hemisphere. The effect was most evident in women compared to men. The significant attenuation of power was verified by LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) within the parahippocampal region of the right hemisphere. Direct measurements of frequency-dependent voltages of coronal section preserved in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid from our human brain collection revealed consistently elevated power (0.2μV(2)Hz(-1)) in right hemispheric structures compared to left. The discrepancy was most pronounced in the grey (cortical) matter of the right parahippocampal region. Probing the superficial convexities of the cerebrum in an unsectioned human brain demonstrated rostrocaudal differences in hemispheric spectral power density asymmetries, particularly over caudal and parahippocampal regions, which were altered as a function of the chemical and spatial contexts imposed upon the tissue. These results indicate that the heterogeneous response of the human cerebrum to covering of the head by a thin conductor could reflect an intrinsic structure and unique electrical property of the (entorhinal) cortices of the right caudal hemisphere that persists in fixed tissue. PMID:27211475

  16. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions. PMID:25152393

  17. The influence of subacute sidnocarb treatment on cateholamine concentration in the structures of central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdov O.L.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychos stimulators are known to be able to excite catecholamine mechanisms in the nervous system, in particular to increase freeing of catecholamine from presynaptic completions. The purpose of work was an estimation of changes of catecholamine (adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of cerebrum after sidnocarb treatment in the conditions of ex-periment on 48 Vistar rats. The model of the proof pathological state of cerebrum for rats was created by intrastomach intro-duction of sidnocarb in the dose of 5 mg/kg 2 times per a day during 14 days. The concentration of adrenalin and noradrenalin in the structures of brain was determined by flyuorometric method. The frontal area of neocortex, striate body, medialis part of talamus, pons and hypocampus were chose. The accumulation of adrenalin was observed in hypocampus and medialis part of thalamus by the 3rd day, the increase of concentration was on 26,1% and 43,9% correspondly. The considerable increase of adrenalin concentration in the striate body have been determined (on 76,7% and in the neocortex (in 2,2 times. By the 14th day of sidnocarb treatment the level of adrenalin in the pons was lower on 48,1% that in control animals. Thus, the changes of noradrenalin concentration during the development of experimental psyxosis by sidnocarb treatment were significant and had different character.

  18. Parkinson-dementia complex and development of a new stable isotope dilution assay for BMAA detection in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed as a global contributor to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson-dementia complex (PDC) of Guam and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The literature on the effects of BMAA is conflicting with some but not all in vitro data supporting a neurotoxic action, and experimental animal data failing to replicate the pattern of neurodegeneration of these human diseases, even at very high exposures. Recently, BMAA has been reported in human brain from individuals afflicted with PDC or AD. Some of the BMAA in human tissue reportedly is freely extractable (free) while some is protein-associated and liberated by techniques that hydrolyze the peptide bond. The latter is especially intriguing since BMAA is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that has no known tRNA. We attempted to replicate these findings with techniques similar to those used by others; despite more than adequate sensitivity, we were unable to detect free BMAA. Recently, using a novel stable isotope dilution assay, we again were unable to detect free or protein-associated BMAA in human cerebrum. Here we review the development of our new assay for tissue detection of BMAA and show that we are able to detect free BMAA in liver but not cerebrum, nor do we detect any protein-associated BMAA in mice fed this amino acid. These studies demonstrate the importance of a sensitive and specific assay for tissue BMAA and seriously challenge the proposal that BMAA is accumulating in human brain.

  19. Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lu; Yugang Jiang; Jianyang Hu; Jing Li; Wei Pang; Yandan Hu; Hongpeng Yang; Wenjie Li; Chengyu Huang; Mingman Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and oral y administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet plemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident patho-logical damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against alumi-num-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg.

  20. Measuring the effects of aging and sex on regional brain stiffness with MR elastography in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Arvin; Murphy, Matthew C; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S; Kruse, Scott A; Jack, Clifford R; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-05-01

    Changes in tissue composition and cellular architecture have been associated with neurological disease, and these in turn can affect biomechanical properties. Natural biological factors such as aging and an individual's sex also affect underlying tissue biomechanics in different brain regions. Understanding the normal changes is necessary before determining the efficacy of stiffness imaging for neurological disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate global and regional changes in brain stiffness as a function of age and sex, using improved MRE acquisition and processing that have been shown to provide median stiffness values that are typically reproducible to within 1% in global measurements and within 2% for regional measurements. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the effects of age and sex over the entire cerebrum volume and over the full frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, deep gray matter/white matter (insula, deep gray nuclei and white matter tracts), and cerebellum volumes. In 45 volunteers, we observed a significant linear correlation between age and brain stiffness in the cerebrum (Psensory-motor regions (P=.32) of the brain, and a weak linear trend was observed in the deep gray matter/white matter (P=.075). A multiple linear regression model predicted an annual decline of 0.011 ± 0.002 kPa in cerebrum stiffness with a theoretical median age value (76 years old) of 2.56 ± 0.08 kPa. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the temporal (P=.03) and occipital (P=.001) lobes of the brain, but no significant difference was observed in any of the other brain regions (P>.20 for all other regions). The model predicted female occipital and temporal lobes to be 0.23 kPa and 0.09 kPa stiffer than males of the same age, respectively. This study confirms that as the brain ages, there is softening; however, the changes are dependent on region. In addition, stiffness effects due to sex exist in the occipital and

  1. Age and gender based biomechanical shape and size analysis of the pediatric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelson, Kerry A; Geer, Carol P; Stitzel, Joel D; Slice, Dennis E; Takhounts, Erik G

    2008-11-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of head injury and death for children in the United States. This study aims to describe the shape and size (morphologic) changes of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and ventricles of the pediatric occupant to better predict injury and assess how these changes affect finite element model (FEM) response. To quantify morphologic differences in the brain, a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) with a sliding landmark method was conducted to isolate morphologic changes using magnetic resonance images of 63 normal subjects. This type of geometric morphometric analysis was selected for its ability to identify homologous landmarks on structures with few true landmarks and isolate the shape and size of the individuals studied. From the resulting landmark coordinates, the shape and size changes were regressed against age to develop a model describing morphologic changes in the pediatric brain as a function of age. The most statistically significant shape change was in the cerebrum with p-values of 0.00346 for males and 0.00829 for females. The age-based model explains over 80% of the variation in size in the cerebrum. Using size and shape models, affine transformations were applied to the SIMon FEM to determine differences in response given differences in size and size plus shape. The geometric centroid of the elements exceeding 15% strain was calculated and compared to the geometric centroid of the entire structure. Given the same Haversine pulse, the centroid location, a metric for the spatial distribution of the elements exceeding an injury threshold, varied based on which transformation was applied to the model. To assess the overall response of the model, three injury metrics were examined to determine the magnitude of the metrics each element sustained and the overall volume of elements that experienced that value. These results suggested that the overall response of the model was driven by the

  2. The Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome examined by computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome is an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, mental deficiency, and skeletal abnormalities. We studied two adult siblings with Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome using anatomic and metabolic brain imaging techniques to characterize the pattern and nature of abnormalities in the brain. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse brain atrophy of mild to moderate degree, involving primarily the white matter of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and cervical spinal cord. The pattern of atrophy resembled that seen in diffuse leukoencephalopathies. Measurements of local cerebral glucose metabolic rates with positron emission tomography revealed no statistically significant differences from normal control subjects in most regions, but metabolic rate was decreased in the thalamus in one patient. The findings support a diffuse white matter disorder in Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome.Aut

  3. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y T [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tian, W M [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yu, X [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Cui, F Z [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hou, S P [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Xu, Q Y [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.

  4. Cerebellar blood flow in methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We looked at regional cerebellar blood flow in patients with Minamata disease (MD) using technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc-ECD). We carried out single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 15 patients with MD (eight men, seven women, aged 51-78 years, mean 70.5 years) and 11 control subjects (eight men, three women, aged 62-80 years, mean 72.5 years). Regional blood flow was measured in the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cerebral lobes. The degree of cerebellar atrophy was assessed on MRI. There were significant differences in regional blood flow in all parts of the cerebellum between patients and control, but no significant decrease was observed in the cerebrum. Blood flow was lower in the inferior cerebellum than in the other parts. Even in patients without cerebellar atrophy, flow was significantly decreased regional blood flow in the inferior part. (orig.)

  5. Clinical evaluation and MRI findings in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical courses and a follow-up study on the MRI findings in four cases with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) are reported. The patients consisted of one male and three females. The age at onset was before 15 days on life and the etiology was unknown in all cases. EEG improvement and a decrease in seizure frequency were seen after treatment with ACTH and anticonvulsants in three of the four patients, while no treatment was effective in the other patient who developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome through West syndrome. Psychomotor development of all patients was severely retarded, and it was impossible for three cases to gain head control until 12 months old. MRI findings revealed dysmyelination of white matter in the cerebrum in three patients and asymmetrical myelination in the other patient. These results suggested that EIEE is based on brain immaturity combined with dysmyelination. (author)

  6. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y. T.; Tian, W. M.; Yu, X.; Cui, F. Z.; Hou, S. P.; Xu, Q. Y.; Lee, In-Seop

    2007-09-01

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.

  7. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue

  8. Medulloblastoma in infants and children: computed tomographic follow-up after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six proven cases of medulloblastoma were reviewed by serial CT follow-up examinations from 4 months to 10 years, 2 months after the initial diagnosis, with a mean follow-up time of 3 years, 9 months. The tumor recurred at the primary site in 20 cases (56%). Leptomeningeal metastasis was demonstrated on CT in 14 cases (39%); seven of these patients also presented with solid subarachnoid metastases. Thirteen patients (36%) showed evidence of severe brain atrophy, which was confined to the posterior fossa in seven of the 13. Calcification resulting from mineralizing microangiopathy developed in five cases (14%), including three patients who had had extensive dystrophic calcification in the corticomedullary junction and the deep-seated nuclei of the cerebrum and cerebellum. The patterns of tumor recurrence in the posterior fossa that is severely deformed by surgery and other treatment modalities and leptomeningeal spread of tumor are discussed

  9. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  10. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Eiichiro (National Hospital of Nagoya (Japan)); Makino, Naoki

    1991-06-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author).

  11. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-01-01

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too. PMID:22947971

  12. [Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V

    2014-11-01

    Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation. PMID:25528830

  13. Study on dose-response relationship between prenatal exposure to 137Cs γ-ray and the developmental retardation of brain in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developmental retardation of brain in rats induced by prenatal exposure to 137Cs γ-rays had observed by measuring the five indexes reflecting changes in structure, function and biochemical substance of central nervous system. The results showed that when dose accumulatively absorbed by the offsprings was 0.07-2.7 Gy, with increase in the dose their cerebral weight was lightened, the cerebral ordinate length was reduced, the development of swimming function was delayed, the contents of eight kinds of free amino acids in the cerebrum were increased, the number of pyramidal cells in cerebral cortex was decreased as well as the relationship between percentages of the changes in the five indexes and logarithm absorbed doses (Gy) give a good fit to liner regression equation Y = A + BlgD

  14. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  15. 'Chasing the dragon': new knowledge for an old practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Juan P; Balan, Sabish; Romero, Jorge; Korniyenko, Aleksandr; Alviar, Carlos L; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Jean, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    Heroin administration by "chasing the dragon," whereby the user places freebase heroin on aluminum foil, heats it below with a flame, and inhales the pyrolysate through a straw, can be associated with the rare development of a delayed-onset spongiform leukoencephalopathy. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with a psychiatric diagnosis of depression and heroin dependence by "chasing the dragon" admitted with features of altered mental status and later development of catatonia, abulia, and akinetic mutism. A brain magnetic resonance image evidenced bilateral symmetric high-signal lesions in the white matter of the cerebrum and cerebellum on T2-weighted images compatible with toxic leukoencephalopathy. The patient's condition resolved after a hospital stay of 2 months with supportive treatment. Acute onset of neurobehavioral changes, including confusion, apathy, and cerebellar signs in a person with exposure to heroin, should prompt one to consider toxic leukoencephalopathy as a cause of presentation. PMID:21519216

  16. Radiotherapy for multiple brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuyuki Toshikuni; Kazuhiko Morii; Michinori Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with liver cirrhosis was found to have multiple hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs)and underwent 3 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Fourteen months after diagnosis,the patient presented with left hemiparesis. Contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple metastases with ring-shaped enhancement in the cerebrum and cerebellum. There were no metastases to other organs. The metastatic lesions almost completely disappeared after whole-brain radiotherapy with a total dose of 50 Gy. Neurologic symptoms decreased,and the patient's quality of life improved. The patient underwent 2 more sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Twelve months after the diagnosis of brain metastasis, the patient remains alive. The present case indicates that radiotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival in some patients with brain metastases from HCCs.

  17. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures

  18. Quantitative electrophoretic transfer of polypeptides from SDS polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: a method for their re-use in immunoautoradiographic detection of antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypeptides (233 μg) from brain synaptosomes resolved in SDS 7.5%-15% polyacrylamide gradient gels were electrophoretically transferred quantitatively to nitrocellulose sheets at 3 V/cm for 21 h in the following buffer: 25 mM Tris-192 mM glycine, pH 8.3/20% methanol/0.1% SDS. After immunoautoradiographic detection of antigens on this nitrocellulose replica with either rabbit anti-rat cerebrum immunoglobulins or a mouse monoclonal antibody to a rat synaptosomal protein, the antibody and [125I]protein A were removed from the replica by treatment with 8 M urea, 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol, and 5 mg/ml BSA at 600C for 1 h. The replicas were successfully re-used by re-exposing them to the antibody and [125I]protein A. (Auth.)

  19. Septicemia, endocarditis, and cerebral infarction due to Staphylococcus aureus in a harp seal (Phoca groenlandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Troan, Brigid V; Wolf, Karen N; DeVoe, Ryan S; Huijsmans, C J J; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C

    2009-06-01

    An adult, wild-collected, male harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) was transferred from a rehabilitation center to a display facility because of unilateral phthisis bulbi and decreased use of the right forelimb, which precluded its release. In quarantine, the animal demonstrated limited use of the right forelimb, which acutely progressed to complete disuse of the limb accompanied by intermittent lethargy. One month after transfer, the animal was found dead on exhibit. Necropsy showed septic arthritis of the right scapulohumeral joint, valvular endocarditis with systemic bacterial thromboembolism, and infarction of the cerebrum and myocardium. Culture of the blood and affected joint space revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues from the heart and brain were also positive for S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus infection should be considered as an additional cause of endocarditis and embolic encephalitis in seals. PMID:19569495

  20. Automatic extraction of soft tissues from 3D MRI images of the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an automatic extraction method of soft tissues from 3D MRI images of the head. A 3D region growing algorithm is used to extract soft tissues such as cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Four information sources are used to control the 3D region growing. Model of each soft tissue has been constructed in advance and provides a 3D region growing space. Head skin area which is automatically extracted from input image provides an unsearchable area. Zero-crossing points are detected by using Laplacian operator, and by examining sign change between neighborhoods. They are used as a control condition in the 3D region growing process. Graylevels of voxels are also directly used to extract each tissue region as a control condition. Experimental results applied to 19 samples show that the method is successful. (author)

  1. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  2. Assessment of brain activities during an emotional stress state using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated cerebrum activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a mental stress state. Thirty-four healthy adults participated. Before the experiment, we assessed their stress states using the Stress Self-rating Scale and divided the participants into Stress and Non-stress groups. The experiment consisted of 6 trials. Each trial consisted of a 20-s block of emotional audio-visual stimuli (4-s stimulation x 5 slides) and a fixation point. These processes were performed 3 times continuously (Relaxed, Pleasant, Unpleasant stimuli) in a random order. These results showed that the Non-stress group indicated activation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the Pleasant and Unpleasant stimuli while the Stress group indicated activation of the hippocampus in Pleasant stimuli, and the amygdala and hippocampus in Unpleasant stimuli. These findings suggested that the mental stress state engages the reduction of emotional processing. Also, the responsiveness of the memory system remained during and after the emotional stress state. (author)

  3. THE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE OF ABILITY BINDING BRAIN TUMOR CELLS WITH IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Ostreiko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Were researched IgG on the surface cells of different histological types tumors of cerebrum, using fluorescing staphylococcus A-protein. The study of target IgG shows divers intensive of microscopic fluorescent illumination. This results associate related with level amount IgG. The maximum concentrate of surface’s IgG was on the cells of malignant tumors and there was direct correlate with aggressive manner and quickly recurrence of tumor’s growth, and shot survival. The fraction of IgG with specific antitumor’s antibody covers tumor’s antigens has been block this antigens for receptors of T-lymphocytes. Linked with immunological anticell’s deficit phenomenon may be one from famous reasons of malignant clinical type tumor disease. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 593-596.

  4. HEpD: a database describing epigenetic differences between Thoroughbred and Jeju horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jeong-An; Lee, Sugi; Kim, Dae-Soo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Hong, Chang Pyo; Bae, Jin-Han; Moon, Jae-Woo; Choi, Yong-Seok; Cho, Byung-Wook; Cho, Hwan-Gue; Bhak, Jong; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2015-04-10

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, genome-wide maps of DNA methylation are now available. The Thoroughbred horse is bred for racing, while the Jeju horse is a traditional Korean horse bred for racing or food. The methylation profiles of equine organs may provide genomic clues underlying their athletic traits. We have developed a database to elucidate genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of the cerebrum, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle from Thoroughbred and Jeju horses. Using MeDIP-Seq, our database provides information regarding significantly enriched methylated regions beyond a threshold, methylation density of a specific region, and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for tissues from two equine breeds. It provided methylation patterns at 784 gene regions in the equine genome. This database can potentially help researchers identify DMRs in the tissues of these horse species and investigate the differences between the Thoroughbred and Jeju horse breeds. PMID:25637569

  5. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  6. Neurobufale? No, truffe belle e buone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mozzoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagio, dati inventati, immagini modificate al bisogno... Pesante l'accusa che Stephen G. Lisberger muove oggi alla comunità neuroscientifica dalle pagine di Cerebrum, rivista di Dana Foundation, con un articolo dal titolo esplosivo: “Fraud in Neuroscience”. Perché tanta impostura? L'eccessiva competizione per apparire sulle riviste più quotate, per assicurarsi “grant” e incarichi prestigiosi. Fin che dura. Ma gli scienziati non sono tenuti a “seguire un codice d'onore e di condotta, a riportare i risultati delle loro ricerche onestamente e accuratamente”? In teoria sì. In pratica il fenomeno di “frode scientifica” sembra essersi decuplicato negli ultimi dieci anni, secondo Lisberger, convinto che, pur non essendo certo facile, una soluzione al problema va trovata al più presto: “è necessario intensificare la vigilanza, anzi riformare l'intero sistema”.

  7. Cranial Endocast of the Lambeosaurine Hadrosaurid Amurosaurus riabinini from the Amur Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauters, Pascaline; Vercauteren, Martine; Bolotsky, Yuri L.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Information on the structure of the brain of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Late Maastrichtian of Blagoveschensk, Far Eastern Russia, is presented based on endocranial casts. The endocasts are compared with physical and digital endocasts of other dinosaurs. The olfactory tract was large. The cerebral hemispheres are enlarged and round, illustrating the important development of this part of the brain in hadrosaurids. The pituitary body is enlarged as well, perhaps prefiguring the large size attained by hadrosaurids. The EQ of Amurosaurus was similar to that of the lambeosaurine dinosaur Hypacrosaurus altispinus and was relatively larger than in most extant non-avian reptiles, including sauropod and ceratopsian dinosaurs. However, it was apparently relatively smaller than those of most theropod dinosaurs. The relatively large size of the cerebrum is consistent with the range and complexity of social behaviors inferred for lambeosaurine dinosaurs. PMID:24236064

  8. Cranial Endocast of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid Amurosaurus riabinini from the Amur region, Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Lauters

    Full Text Available Information on the structure of the brain of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Late Maastrichtian of Blagoveschensk, Far Eastern Russia, is presented based on endocranial casts. The endocasts are compared with physical and digital endocasts of other dinosaurs. The olfactory tract was large. The cerebral hemispheres are enlarged and round, illustrating the important development of this part of the brain in hadrosaurids. The pituitary body is enlarged as well, perhaps prefiguring the large size attained by hadrosaurids. The EQ of Amurosaurus was similar to that of the lambeosaurine dinosaur Hypacrosaurus altispinus and was relatively larger than in most extant non-avian reptiles, including sauropod and ceratopsian dinosaurs. However, it was apparently relatively smaller than those of most theropod dinosaurs. The relatively large size of the cerebrum is consistent with the range and complexity of social behaviors inferred for lambeosaurine dinosaurs.

  9. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dental Sciences; Uno, Kimiichi; Tomemori, Takashi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical significance of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey studies. Thirty-two (58%) out of 55 patients examined showed regional decreases in the cerebrum and cerebellum, which were caused by ischemia, macroangiopathy of diabetes mellitus, crossed cerebellar diaschisis and Alzheimer's disease. Two patients with suspicious Alzheimer's disease (early stage) and one with cerebrovascular dementia were observed. One patient showed high uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the pituitary gland with pituitary adenoma. {sup 18}F-FDG PET is very useful not only to pick up early stage of dementia but also to examine several pathological conditions. (author)

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to quantify the regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) in 11 diabetic patients (average age; 67.9 years) and 12 non-diabetic subjects (average age; 67.4 years), none of whom had (cerebrovascular disease (CVD) on CT studies. A reference sampling method by continuous arterial blood sampling was used to quantify r-CBF. There were no significant differences in physiological or laboratory data between diabetic and non-diabetic groups except for fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. The average of r-CBF in each region of cerebrum and cerebellum was significantly lower in diabetic group than that in the control group (p<0.01). These observations show that r-CBF of diabetic patients is reduced, even in the absence of findings of CVD on a CT study. (author)

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Ono, Shinnichi; Nishikawa, Takushi (Nichinan Hospital of Miyazaki Prefecture (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[sup 123]I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to quantify the regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) in 11 diabetic patients (average age; 67.9 years) and 12 non-diabetic subjects (average age; 67.4 years), none of whom had (cerebrovascular disease (CVD) on CT studies). A reference sampling method by continuous arterial blood sampling was used to quantify r-CBF. There were no significant differences in physiological or laboratory data between diabetic and non-diabetic groups except for fasting plasma glucose and HbA[sub 1c] levels. The average of r-CBF in each region of cerebrum and cerebellum was significantly lower in diabetic group than that in the control group (p<0.01). These observations show that r-CBF of diabetic patients is reduced, even in the absence of findings of CVD on a CT study. (author).

  12. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction. PMID:27468040

  13. Diabetic artefacts in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, O P

    2009-05-01

    A case is presented where confusion arose about skin lesions and whether they were diabetic or electrical in origin. The deceased was a known diabetic and hypertensive man. A middle-aged person in early fifties was found unconscious in the cell and judicial autopsy was performed. He was facing trial for capital punishment of being allegedly involved in drug trafficking and money laundering. He had few marks over his fingers and foot which were considered to be electric marks produced in electric torture. also had fracture of skull and ischemic necrosis of right side of cerebrum; and contrecoup lesions. Findings are documented with photographs of the lesions. The article also depicts photographs of the scene where the victim had fallen and sustained skull fracture. PMID:19329080

  14. Insomnia and chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Anstead, Michael I; Ho, Julia; Phillips, Barbara A

    2009-09-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease including chronic heart failure (CHF) and is a significant contributing factor to fatigue and poor quality of life. The pathophysiology of CHF often leads to fatigue, due to nocturnal symptoms causing sleep disruption, including cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and nocturia. Inadequate cardiac function may lead to hypoxemia or poor perfusion of the cerebrum, skeletal muscle, or visceral body organs, which result in organ dysfunction or failure and may contribute to fatigue. Sleep disturbances negatively affect all dimensions of quality of life and is related to increased risk of comorbidities, including depression. This article reviews insomnia in CHF, cardiac medication side-effects related to sleep disturbances, and treatment options. PMID:18758945

  15. Rare manifestations of Neu-Laxova syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakali, Meenakshi; Badakali, Ashok; Dombale, Vijay

    2012-02-01

    Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare lethal congenital disorder involving multiple systems. Intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, microcephaly, abnormal facial findings and limb contractures are its key features. We present a stillborn female baby of 1.5 kg with characteristic features including growth retardation, microcephaly, severe ectropion, micrognathia, flattened nose, eclabion, large ears, puffy hands and feet. In addition to these features, lissencephaly, severely hypoplastic cerebrum and corpus callossum, Dandy-Walker malformation, Transposition of Great Vessels and hepatomegaly were noted at autopsy. The patient was born at 38 weeks of gestation to consanguineous (second degree) Indian parents. The mother was 26 year old second gravida with lack of prenatal followup. Therefore, the condition was diagnosed postnatally. Because of the autosomal recessive inheritence of Neu-Laxova syndrome, in countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage, serial prenatal ultrasound examinations with genetic counseling should be performed on pregnant women at high risk to offer termination of affected pregnancies. PMID:22233503

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  17. Unique topographic distribution of greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, Eloisa; McConnell, J Fraser; Shiel, Robert E; McAllister, Hester; Behr, Sebastien; Priestnall, Simon L; Smith, Ken C; Nolan, Catherine M; Callanan, John J

    2012-01-01

    Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis is an idiopathic breed-associated fatal meningoencephalitis with lesions usually occurring within the rostral cerebrum. This disorder can only be confirmed by postmortem examination, with a diagnosis based upon the unique topography of inflammatory lesions. Our purpose was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of this disease. Four Greyhounds with confirmed Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were evaluated by MR imaging. Lesions predominantly affected the olfactory lobes and bulbs, frontal, and frontotemporal cortical gray matter, and caudate nuclei bilaterally. Fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 weighted spin-echo (T2W) sequences were most useful to assess the nature, severity, extension, and topographic pattern of lesions. Lesions were predominantly T2-hyperintense and T1-isointense with minimal or absent contrast enhancement. PMID:22742427

  18. Clinico-radiological findings of neuro-Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 21 cases of Neuro-Behcet's syndrome in detail, and present here their clinico-radiological characteristics. Clinically, signs of pyramidal tract and meningeal irritation were frequently observed. In contrast to previous reports, our study demonstrated a near equal frequency in the occurrence of focal cerebral lesions and that of focal brain stem lesions. Notably, our results showed that the atrophy of both the cerebrum and the brain stem was often observed, indicating the presence of continuous disease activity in the central nervous system (CNS). In accordance with the high frequency of meningeal irritation signs, all of our cases exhibited pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These results indicated the possibility that chemical mediators secreted from infiltrating cells in the CSF may somehow inflict damage to the CNS in Neuro-Behcet's syndrome. (author)

  19. The paediatric rheumatologist and orphan disease - a story without happy ending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkiewicz, Justyna; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Orphan diseases are not a common challenge in the everyday practice of the rheumatologist. Despite their extremely rare occurrence one of the patients under our care developed one of them - neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, the most frequent neurodegenerative disease observed in the paediatric population. We report a case of 2-year-old girl diagnosed with oligoarticular form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated in our Department with steroids and methotrexate and staying in the stage of disease remission. During routine checkups at Outpatient Clinic we observed progressive deterioration of girls neurological condition resulting in ataxia, gait disturbances with no rheumatological cause behind and speech impairment. The appearance of the symptoms was accompanied by frequent episodes of epileptic seizures, with little clinical improvement on combined antiepileptic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging that we performed showed a picture highly suggestive of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis - atrophy of the patients cerebrum and cerebellum. Genetic testing conducted resulted in the diagnosis of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL). PMID:27504025

  20. Preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging, electrocorticography, surgery and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The value of preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging was investigated. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 patients with intractable partial seizures which was difficult to control with anticonvulsant for long period. In order to preoperatively locate the epileptic foci, double SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed during interictal and ictal stage. The foci were confirmed with electrocorticography (EcoG), surgery and pathology. Results: The author checked with EcoG the foci shown by SPECT, 23 patients had all typical spike discharge. The regions of radioactivity increase in ictal matched with the abnormal electrical activity areas that EcoG showed. The spike wave originated in the corresponding cerebrum cortex instead of hyperplastic and adherent arachnoid or tumor itself. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging contributes to distinguishing location, size, perfusion and functioning of epileptogenic foci, and has some directive function on to making out a treatment programme at preoperation

  1. Medulloblastoma in infants and children: computed tomographic follow-up after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; van Eys, J.; Wallace, S.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-six proven cases of medulloblastoma were reviewed by serial CT follow-up examinations from 4 months to 10 years, 2 months after the initial diagnosis, with a mean follow-up time of 3 years, 9 months. The tumor recurred at the primary site in 20 cases (56%). Leptomeningeal metastasis was demonstrated on CT in 14 cases (39%); seven of these patients also presented with solid subarachnoid metastases. Thirteen patients (36%) showed evidence of severe brain atrophy, which was confined to the posterior fossa in seven of the 13. Calcification resulting from mineralizing microangiopathy developed in five cases (14%), including three patients who had had extensive dystrophic calcification in the corticomedullary junction and the deep-seated nuclei of the cerebrum and cerebellum. The patterns of tumor recurrence in the posterior fossa that is severely deformed by surgery and other treatment modalities and leptomeningeal spread of tumor are discussed.

  2. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome: a Japanese perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H

    1998-02-01

    To estimate and prevent the effects of prenatal alcohol on the central nervous system (CNS), brain dysfunction in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) was compared by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The FAS infants exhibited a more severe degree of CNS involvement than the FAE infants. The CNS involvement features were developmental delay and intellectual impairment in both FAS and FAE. The increased risk of low birth weight and CNS involvement were much more significant in women who were heavy drinkers or alcoholics and smoked. The beneficial effect of supplementary zinc on the fetal cerebrum of FAS or FAE rats was limited, never reaching the unexposed control level. One of the most vulnerable structures in the rat fetus exposed to ethanol in utero was the synaptic formation in the hippocampus. The consistent dysmorphogenesis of synapses during early brain development may be associated with the functional impairment of the CNS in FAS and FAE. PMID:9556086

  4. Wearable wireless cerebral oximeter (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral oximeters measure continuous cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology noninvasively. It has been involved into operating room setting to monitor oxygenation within patient's brain when surgeons are concerned that a patient's levels might drop. Recently, cerebral oxygen saturation has also been related with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency (CCVI). Patients with CCVI would be benefited if there would be a wearable system to measure their cerebral oxygen saturation in need. However, there has yet to be a wearable wireless cerebral oximeter to measure the saturation in 24 hours. So we proposed to develop the wearable wireless cerebral oximeter. The mechanism of the system follows the NIRS technology. Emitted light at wavelengths of 740nm and 860nm are sent from the light source penetrating the skull and cerebrum, and the light detector(s) receives the light not absorbed during the light pathway through the skull and cerebrum. The amount of oxygen absorbed within the brain is the difference between the amount of light sent out and received by the probe, which can be used to calculate the percentage of oxygen saturation. In the system, it has one source and four detectors. The source, located in the middle of forehead, can emit two near infrared light, 740nm and 860nm. Two detectors are arranged in one side in 2 centimeters and 3 centimeters from the source. Their measurements are used to calculate the saturation in the cerebral cortex. The system has included the rechargeable lithium battery and Bluetooth smart wireless micro-computer unit.

  5. Structural extremes in a cretaceous dinosaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character data to obtain the best estimate of phylogenetic relationships among diplodocoid sauropods. Nigersaurus taqueti shows extreme adaptations for a dinosaurian herbivore including a skull of extremely light construction, tooth batteries located at the distal end of the jaws, tooth replacement as fast as one per month, an expanded muzzle that faces directly toward the ground, and hollow presacral vertebral centra with more air sac space than bone by volume. A cranial endocast provides the first reasonably complete view of a sauropod brain including its small olfactory bulbs and cerebrum. Skeletal and dental evidence suggests that Nigersaurus was a ground-level herbivore that gathered and sliced relatively soft vegetation, the culmination of a low-browsing feeding strategy first established among diplodocoids during the Jurassic.

  6. Hypernatremia associated with intracranial B-cell lymphoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jo Ann; Fales-Williams, Amanda

    2006-09-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat with a history of hyperthyroidism, anorexia, dehydration, cervical ventroflexion, and behavioral changes was referred to the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The cat was obtunded, with severe dehydration (15%) and hypothermia (86 degrees F), and severe muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Serum biochemical abnormalities included severe hypernatremia (195 mmol/L, reference interval 155-165 mmol/L), hyperchloridemia (161 mmol/L, reference interval 123-131 mmol/L), and hypokalemia (3.6 mmol/L, reference interval 4.0-5.7 mmol/L). Calculated osmolality was 418 mOsm/kg (reference interval 280-305 mOsm/kg), attributable to the hypernatremia. The cat was kept warm and given fluid and glucocorticoid therapy and supportive measures but remained unresponsive. Hypernatremia and hyperosmolality improved through day 3, when the cat died suddenly. At necropsy, a 1.25-cm mass was found in the area of the thalamus and interthalamic adhesion that extended to the ventral aspect of the cerebrum. The histologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis was B-cell lymphoma. Hypernatremia and hyperosmolality in this cat were attributed to primary adipsia and hypothalamic dysfunction secondary to effacement of central nervous system tissue by neoplastic lymphocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of central nervous system lymphoma, confirmed by use of immunohistochemical analysis as a B-cell phenotype, associated with hypernatremia. It also is the first reported case of lymphoma in animals limited to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum, with no involvement of the spinal cord. PMID:16967428

  7. Roles of Fukutin, the Gene Responsible for Fukuyama-Type Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, in Neurons: Possible Involvement in Synaptic Function and Neuronal Migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutin is a gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), accompanying ocular and brain malformations represented by cobblestone lissencephaly. Fukutin is related to basement membrane formation via the glycosylation of α-dystoglycan (α-DG), and astrocytes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the brain lesion. On the other hand, its precise function in neurons is unknown. In this experiment, the roles of fukutin in mature and immature neurons were examined using brains from control subjects and FCMD patients and cultured neuronal cell lines. In quantitative PCR, the expression level of fukutin looked different depending on the region of the brain examined. A similar tendency in DG expression appears to indicate a relation between fukutin and α-DG in mature neurons. An increase of DG mRNA and core α-DG in the FCMD cerebrum also supports the relation. In immunohistochemistry, dot-like positive reactions for VIA4-1, one of the antibodies detecting the glycosylated α-DG, in Purkinje cells suggest that fukutin is related to at least a post-synaptic function via the glycosylation of α-DG. As for immature neurons, VIA4-1 was predominantly positive in cells before and during migration with expression of fukutin, which suggest a participation of fukutin in neuronal migration via the glycosylation of α-DG. Moreover, fukutin may prevent neuronal differentiation, because its expression was significantly lower in the adult cerebrum and in differentiated cultured cells. A knockdown of fukutin was considered to induce differentiation in cultured cells. Fukutin seems to be necessary to keep migrating neurons immature during migration, and also to support migration via α-DG

  8. An anatomically realistic brain phantom for quantification with positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom studies are useful in assessing and maximizing the accuracy and precision of quantification of absolute activity, assessing errors associated with patient positioning, and dosimetry. Most phantoms are limited by the use of simple shapes, which do not adequately reflect real anatomy. The authors have constructed an anatomically realistic life-size brain phantom for positron tomography studies. The phantom consists of separately fillable R + L caudates, R + L putamens, R + L globus passidus and cerebellum. These structures are contained in proper anatomic orientation within a fillable cerebrum. Solid ventricles are also present. The entire clear vinyl cerebrum is placed in a human skull. The internal brain structures were fabricated from polyester resin, with dimensions, shapes and sizes of the structures obtained from digitized contours of brain slices in the U.C.S.D. computerized brain atlas. The structures were filled with known concentrations of Ga-68 in water and scanned with our NeuroECAT. The phantom was aligned in the scanner for each structure, such that the tomographic slice passed through that structure's center. After calibration of the scanner with a standard phantom for counts/pixel uCi/cc conversion, the measured activity concentrations were compared with the actual concentrations. The ratio of measured to actual activity concentration (''recovery coefficient'') for the caudate was 0.33; for the putamen 0.42. For comparison, the ratio for spheres of diameters 9.5, 16,19 and 25.4 mm was 0.23, 0.54, 0.81, and 0.93. This phantom provides more realistic assessment of performance and allows calculation of correction factors

  9. Reproduction of a rat model of acute high-altitude sickness and evaluation of its related indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce a rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber to simulate the plateau environment, and to study the related physiological parameters. Methods A total of 70 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group, and 6 hypobaric hypoxia groups (10 each in which rats were housed in a hypobaric chamber and exposed to the enviroment simulating high altitude of 5000m and 6000m for 12h, 24h and 48h respectively. Memory Morris water maze test was conducted to evaluate the changes in working memory of rats in space. Histological changes in lung and brain tissue were observed. Blood from abdominal aorta was collected to analyze the parameters of blood gas. The histopathological changes in lung and cerebrum were observed, and their wet/dry ratios were calculated. Results Reduction in activity or even death was found in hypobaric hypoxia groups, and arterial PaO2 was significantly decreased in all rats of hypobaric hypoxia groups. Compared with NC group, rats exposed to a simulated altitude of 5000m for longer than 24h and 6000m for longer than 12h exhibited longer latency period in finding the hidden platform, shorter expedition time for target quadrant, and less frequency of platform crossing in the Morris water maze test (P<0.05. After exposure to simulated altitudes of both 5000m and 6000m for 48h, pathological changes were observed in lung and cerebrum, and wet/dry ratio of lung and brain was significantly increased compared with that of NC group. Conclusion Indexes of rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber show different changes at respective time points. Therefore the changes in multiple physiological indexes of mountain sickness can be assessed by using this animal model. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.06

  10. Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

  11. Treatment for Hereditary Spinocerebellar Ataxia from Spleen and Stomach%从脾胃论治遗传性脊髓小脑其济失调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑倩茹; 白金凤; 黄慧

    2013-01-01

    遗传性脊髓小脑共济失调属神经系统遗传性疾病,西医学目前尚无有效治疗方法,针刺作为治疗该病的手段之一,取得了一定的临床疗效.近年来针刺治疗共济失调的文献报道较多,但是针对遗传性共济失调的研究则相对较少.本文从脾胃立论,阐释脾胃与脑的关系,提出从脾胃论治该病,针刺选穴以调节脾胃气机升降为主,兼顾调理大小肠功能,为临床治疗遗传性共济失调提供思路,也为临床治疗遗传性脑病提供参考.%Genetic spinocerebellar ataxia is a kind of genetic disease of the nervous system, western medicine has no effective treatment method for this disease at present. Acupuncture is as one of the treatment methods, which has obtained a certain effect. A lot of reports about acupuncture therapy for ataxia have been published in recent years, but the reports which emphasize on genetic spinocerebellar ataxia is relatively less. This article focuses on spleen and stomach, expounding the relationship of spleen, stomach and cerebrum, putting forward the conclusion that emphasize on spleen and stomach to treat this disease. Treatment principle is regulating the movement of spleen Qi and stomach Qi, adjusting the function of large intestine and small intestine at the same time. We expect to provide a method for clinic to treat genetic spinocerebellar ataxia, and offer a reference to treat the genetic cerebrum disease.

  12. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko, E-mail: kxi14@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  13. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  14. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  15. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7–14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  16. A special radiation shielding for the radiotherapy of a pregnant patient; Eine Spezialabschirmung fuer die Strahlentherapie von Schwangeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchgeister, M.; Mondry, A. [Bereich Medizinische Physik, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Spillner, P.; Paulsen, F.; Belka, C.; Bamberg, M. [Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: measurement of the radiation dose of different radiotherapy techniques with a phantom at the position of the uterus of a pregnant patient with and without a special radiation shielding. Material and methods: a special radiation shielding for the radiation therapy of a pregnant patient was constructed in the shape of a tunnel over the abdomen from 1 cm thick lead to reduce scatter radiation to the uterus and the fetus therein. The reduction of the scatter radiation to the lower abdomen was measured for three typical cases (cerebrum with lateral opposed fields, 6-MV photons; tangential fields for mamma irradiation, 6 MV; and anteroposterior-posteroanterior [AP-PA] opposed fields of 15 MV for treatment of the mediastinum) at an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom with thermoluminescence dosimeters in different depths and with an ionization chamber positioned in an RW3 solid water phantom. In the case of lateral opposed fields, a movable lead wall was additionally positioned next to the accelerator's head to reduce the scatter radiation from this source. Results: depending on the geometry of the radiation fields and on the photon energy, a reduction of the dose to the lower abdomen averaged over the depths of 6, 9, and 12 cm from 16% (15 MV, mediastinum case) to 51% (6 MV, cerebrum with additional lead wall) was achieved. The absolute scattered dose with shielding in place for a 2-Gy fraction dose results to 3.85 mGy and 0.27 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: national and international recommendations on the radiation dose to a fetus of a pregnant patient state limits of 200 mSv (DGMP report no. 7) and 100 mGy (ICRP 84), below which an abortion should not be considered and above which an indication for termination of the pregnancy could be given, respectively. The dose to the fetus can be kept below these limits with the shielding described in this work. Therefore, a radiation therapy of a pregnant patient is possible when these special precautions to reduce

  17. Diphenyl diselenide, a simple organoselenium compound, decreases methylmercury-induced cerebral, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and mercury deposition in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Andressa Sausen; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Rotta, Mariana dos Santos; Bohrer, Denise; Mörschbächer, Vanessa; Puntel, Robson Luís; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been pointed out as an important molecular mechanism in methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. At low doses, diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2), a structurally simple organoselenium compound, has been shown to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we have examined the possible in vivo protective effect of diphenyl diselenide against the potential pro-oxidative effects of MeHg in mouse liver, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum. The effects of MeHg exposure (2 mg/(kg day) of methylmercury chloride 10 ml/kg, p.o.), as well as the possible antagonist effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 and 0.4 mg/(kg day); s.c.) on body weight gain and on hepatic, cerebellar, cerebral and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content, mercury concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were evaluated after 35 days of treatment. MeHg caused an increase in TBARS and decreased NPSH levels in all tissues. MeHg also induced a decrease in hepatic ascorbic acid content and in renal GPx and CAT activities. Diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg) conferred protection against MeHg-induced hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and at both doses prevented the reduction in hepatic NPSH levels. Diphenyl diselenide also conferred a partial protection against MeHg-induced oxidative stress (TBARS and NPSH) in liver and cerebellum. Of particular importance, diphenyl diselenide decreased the deposition of Hg in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney and liver. The present results indicate that diphenyl diselenide can protect against some toxic effects of MeHg in mice. This protection may be related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce Hg body burden. We posit that formation of a selenol intermediate, which possesses high nucleophilicity and high affinity for MeHg, accounts for the ability of diphenyl diselenide to ameliorate Me

  18. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, T.V., E-mail: tdamodar@nccu.edu [Dept of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Attia, M.K. [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Abou-Donia, M.B., E-mail: donia@mc.duke.edu [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7-14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  19. [Changes in the surgical treatment of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, T

    1988-01-01

    The principle in surgery for breast cancer is to clean out and remove en masse the primary lesion within the breast as well as the lymph nodes (metastases) in the vicinity. This fundamental approach to surgical intervention was established by Halsted and Meyer at the close of the nineteenth century. This has been termed typical mastectomy to this day and standard radical mastectomy has been the method used. Later, a more expanded type of radical surgery was performed on somewhat more advanced cases, but a less radical approach then came about. Since 1960, the excision of nodes in the cerebrum and cerebellum was not used for early cancer, and in some cases a more conservative approach in which only part of the breasts was removed resulted, as Europe and the United States were heavily toward reduced operations. Thus, it was considered that axillary expurgation was needed, but that excision of nodes in the cerebrum and cerebellum was not essential in every case. One approach is less aggressive, whether as to the expurgation or excision of the surrounding area of the breast; in certain cases, treatment may be combined with radiation and the surgery minimized. The above-mentioned operative procedure which leaves brain nodes intact has been called modified radical mastectomy. This is subdivided into the Auchincloss method, in which modes in the cerebellum are extirpated, and the Patey method, in which the cerebral nodes are preserved. In Japan this approach has been used for breast cancer in Stage I and Stage II, with surgery gradually becoming the mainstream. Conservative breast operation procedures such as tumor extirpation, partial breast removal or segmental resection are still rare in Japan but very common in Europe and the United States. Since remote metastases frequently occur through the circulation in breast cancer, in recent years it has generally been regarded as a whole-body disease and, in terms of the advance of the cancer in each case, the method of

  20. POSSIBLE THERAPEUTIC ROLE OF JASONIA CANDICANS AND JASONIA MONTANA EXTRACTS IN THE REGRESSION OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aimed to investigate the potential role of the ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Jasonia candicans and Jasonia montana in management of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD in experimental model. Supplementation of drinking water AlCl3 (0.3% for 16 weeks induced AD in male rats with siginifcant increase in brain Acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β and 8 hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. AlCl3 supplementation produced significant decrease in Brain insulin Like Growth Factor (IGF-1 and Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels as compared to the control values. Also, AlCl3 supplementation caused significant decline in the expression levels of nucleoporin P62 (P62 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM 17 genes accompanied with significant elevation in the expression levels of brain cyclooxygenase (Cox-2 gene. Brain histopathological examination of AD-induced rats showed formation of amyloid plaques in hippocampus and cerebrum. Oral administration of each of selected extract (150 mg/kg b.wt in AD-induced rats daily for 6 weeks resulted in significant decrease in brain AchE activity, TNF-α, TGF-β and 8-OHdG levels. The treatment produced significant increase in brain IGF-1 and BDNF levels as compared to AD–induced rats. The treatment with these extracts could significantly increase the gene expression levels of brain P62 and ADAM17 accompanied with significant decrease in the expression levels of Cox-2 gene in the brain. Histopathological examination of brain tissue of the treated rats showed marked improvement in the morphological structure of the brain especially in the hippocampus and cerebrum areas. High content of terpenes, sesquiterpenes and flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of the selected plants may responsible for the anticholinesterase activity, anti-inflammatory action, antioxidant capacity and neurotrophic effect as

  1. Distributions of ethanol and intubation-related lidocaine in the brain of a trauma patient who was brain dead for about 5 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Akinori

    2003-03-01

    A 48-year-old intoxicated man was admitted to a hospital with an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a blow to the head following a drinking session. Lidocaine jelly was used to facilitate intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. While his heart resumed beating, he was classified as brain dead and his heart stopped 114 h after admission. His brain was soft and weighed 1.7 kg at autopsy. A small rupture (0.5 by 0.3 cm) of the left vertebral artery and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Ethanol was detected only in the cerebrum, cerebellum and clotted blood in the superior sagittal sinus at 0.29, 0.15 and 0.12 mg/g, respectively. Lidocaine was also found in these areas at levels of 28, 24 and 7 ng/g, respectively. Significant amounts of ethanol were present in his brain because blood flow stopped after the injury. Smaller amounts of intubation-related lidocaine were probably distributed to the brain by limited cerebral circulation and remained there after circulation ceased. Toxicological analysis of the brain after death was useful for evaluating his state during treatment. PMID:12935567

  2. A method for measuring disease-specific iduronic acid from the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycan in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yohta; Wakabayashi, Taichi; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Hoshina, Hiroo; Higuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in multiple tissues. Accumulated GAGs are generally measured as the amount of total GAGs. However, we recently demonstrated that GAG accumulation in the brain of MPS II model mice cannot be reliably detected by conventional dye-binding assay measuring total GAGs. Here we developed a novel quantitative method for measurement of disease-specific GAGs based on the analysis of 2-sulfoiduronic acid levels derived from the non-reducing terminal end of the polysaccharides by using recombinant human IDS (rhIDS) and recombinant human iduronidase (rhIDUA). This method was evaluated on GAGs obtained from the liver and brain of MPS II mice. The GAGs were purified from tissue homogenates and then digested with rhIDS and rhIDUA to generate a desulfated iduronic acid from their non-reducing terminal end. HPLC analysis revealed that the generated iduronic acid levels were markedly increased in the liver and cerebrum of the MPS II mice, whereas the uronic acid was not detected in wild-type mice. These results indicate that this assay clearly detects the disease-specific GAGs in tissues from MPS II mice. PMID:26051019

  3. Early Clinical Outcomes Using Proton Radiation for Children With Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Amorim Bernstein, Karen; Sethi, Roshan; Trofimov, Alexei; Zeng, Chuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fullerton, Barbara [Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David [Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an uncommon and aggressive tumor that often affects infants. Irradiation improves survival but has traditionally been avoided in patients under the age of 3 due to the increasing risk of neurocognitive side effects. We report the first cohort of AT/RT patients treated with proton therapy. Methods and Materials: All patients with AT/RT treated at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Frances H. Burr Proton Beam Therapy Benter between July 2004 and November 2011 were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3-dimensional conformal proton therapy (3D-CPT). Results: Ten consecutive patients of a median 2.3 years of age and with a median follow-up of 27.3 months (range, 11.3-99.4 months) were identified. Two patients suffered distant relapse; 1 patient was successfully treated with involved field irradiation and chemotherapy, while the second patient died of disease. At last follow-up, 9 patients were alive without evidence of disease. Proton radiation demonstrated increasing sparing of the cerebrum, temporal lobe, cochlea, and hypothalamus. Conclusions: Initial clinical outcomes with proton therapy are favorable. The advantages of proton therapy are particularly suited to the treatment of AT/RT, a tumor that often requires irradiation treatment at an age when avoiding irradiation to healthy tissues is most desirable.

  4. Biological response and morphological assessment of individually dispersed multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the lung after intratracheal instillation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological responses of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were assessed after a single intratracheal instillation in rats. The diameter and median length of the MWCNTs used in this study were approximately 60 nm and 1.5 μm, respectively. Groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 0.04, 0.2, or 1 mg/kg of the individually dispersed MWCNT suspension. After instillation, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for inflammatory cells and markers, and the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and cerebrum were histopathologically evaluated at 3-day, 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month post-exposure. Transient pulmonary inflammatory responses were observed only in the lungs of the group of rats exposed to 1 mg/kg of MWCNTs. Morphology of the instilled MWCNTs in the lungs of rats was assessed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy examination revealed that MWCNTs deposited in the lungs of the rats were typically phagocytosed by the alveolar macrophages and these macrophages were consequently accumulated in the alveoli until 6-month post-exposure. The 400 TEM images obtained showed that all MWCNTs were located in the alveolar macrophages or macrophages in the interstitial tissues, and MWCNTs were not located in the cells of the interstitial tissues. There was no evidence of chronic inflammation, such as angiogenesis or fibrosis, induced by MWCNT instillation. These results suggest that MWCNTs were being processed and cleared by alveolar macrophages.

  5. Preparation of 6—[18F]fluoro—L—DOPA and its biodistribution in normal and unilateral PD model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGLan; TANGGang-Hua; 等

    2002-01-01

    No-carrier-added 6-[18F] fluoro-L-DOPA(6-FDOPA) was synthesized via a multistep procedure from a commercial available precursor,6-nitroveratraldehyde,The total synthesis time was 75min,with a radiochemical yield of (10±3)%,high radiochemical purity(>99%) and high enantiomeric purity(>95%).The biodistributions of 6-FDOPA in normal and unilateral PD model rats were measured.The results from normal rats showed the expected high concentration of radioactivity in striatum and low distrbutions in cerebrum,cortex and cerebellum.The ration of the radioactivity in striatum to cerebellum reached a peak value(5.9) at 60 min.In unilateral PD model rate.whose substania nigra of the right side had been damaged by pre-treated with 6-OHDA,the radioactive concentration in striatum of the damaged side was significantly lower than that of the undamaged side or that of both sides in striatum of control groups.

  6. Intracranial lesions in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of 85 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that underwent complete necropsy, including gross examination of the brain, was conducted. Grossly identifiable intracranial lesions were present in 17 dogs. Twelve of 85 dogs (14.2%) had brain metastases. Four of 85 dogs (4.7%) had hemorrhagic lesions and/or ischemic necrosis without identifiable tumor. One dog had a primary central nervous system tumor. Signs of intracranial disease were present in six of 85 dogs (7.1%) with HSA; four had brain metastases and two had nonneoplastic lesions. Metastases had a propensity for cerebrum and gray matter. Dogs with brain metastases had more widely disseminated disease than dogs without brain metastases (P less than 0.001). Dogs with pulmonary metastases were at greater risk for developing brain metastases than dogs without pulmonary metastases (odds ratio = 8.31). Although thoracic radiography accurately identified ten of 12 dogs (83%) with pulmonary metastases, too few cases were available to assess the applicability/accuracy of thoracic radiography in predicting the presence or absence of brain metastases in dogs with malignancy and signs of intracranial disease

  7. Susceptibility-weighted imaging in stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanipour Roshan, Sara; Salmela, Michael B.; McKinney, Alexander M. [University Of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome has a characteristic clinical presentation and postcontrast T1WI MRI appearance. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) may help distinguish SMART from other disorders that may have a similar postcontrast MRI appearance. The MRI examinations of four patients with SMART syndrome are described herein, each of which included SWI, FLAIR, DWI, and postcontrast T1WI on the presenting and follow-up MRI examinations. In each, the initial SWI MRI demonstrated numerous susceptibility hypointensities <5 mm in size throughout the cerebrum, particularly within the periventricular white matter (PVWM), presumably related to radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICHs). By follow-up MRI, each postcontrast examination had demonstrated resolution of the gyriform enhancement on T1WI, without susceptibility hypointensities on SWI within those previously enhancing regions. These preliminary findings suggest that SWI may help identify SMART syndrome or at least help discriminate it from other disorders, by the findings of numerous susceptibility hypointensities on SWI likely representing RICHs, gyriform enhancement on T1WI, and postsurgical findings or appropriate clinical history. (orig.)

  8. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Patients: Volumetry and Voxel-Based Morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to find structural brain abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. The volumes of the cerebrum, hippocampus and frontal lobe and the area of the corpus callosum's subdivisions were all semiautomatically measured, and then optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed in 19 JME patients and 19 age/gender matched normal controls. The rostrum and rostral body of the corpus callosum and the left hippocampus were significantly smaller than those of the normal controls, whereas the volume of the JME's left frontal lobe was significantly larger than that of the controls. The area of the rostral body had a significant positive correlation with the age of seizure onset (r=0.56, p=0.012), and the volume of the right frontal lobe had a significant negative correlation with the duration of disease (r=-0.51, p=0.025). On the VBM, the gray matter concentration of the prefrontal lobe (bilateral gyri rectus, anterior orbital gyri, left anterior middle frontal gyrus and right anterior superior frontal gyrus) was decreased in the JME group (corrected p<0.05). The JME patients showed complex structural abnormalities in the corpus callosum, frontal lobe and hippocampus, and also a decreased gray matter concentration of the prefrontal region, which all suggests there is an abnormal neural network in the JME brain

  9. Possibilities of magnetic resonance tomography in identification and diagnostics of neurosyphilis forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokolov O.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the possibilities of the magnetic resonance tomography (MRT in diagnostics and identification of neurosyphilis. Materials and methods: A total of 1387 patients with different forms of documented neurosyphilis were examined to study the deficiency of neurological function. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis was confirmed by CSF-study. MRT was performed in 57 cases. Results: Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT in 6 patients showed no pathology, 16 patients had arachnoid cystic changes and in 16 cases hydrocephaly occurred. Cerebral cortical atrophy was presented in 13 patients, in 12 cases — multifocal changes were visualized, 12 patients had white matter structural changes. Two cases required diagnostics. A 59-year-old man was hospitalized with epileptic seizure, progressive dementia and multifocal neurologic symptoms. A 40-year-old man was examined with recurring episodes of acute cere-brospinal accident and progressing cognitive disorders. Conclusion: MRT could be used in differential diagnostics of neurosyphilis imitating space-occupying lesions of cerebrum and spinal cord, tumors of central nervous system and could help to define the form of neurosyphilis

  10. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  11. Malingering and Factitious Disorder (Münchausen-syndrome) can be Mitochondrial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stefan, Lässer

    2016-01-01

    Malingering and factitious disorder (Münchausen-syndrome) has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial-disorder (MID). Here, we report a 46 years-old female with a MID due to a combined complex I-IV defect, manifesting in the cerebrum, muscle, bone marrow, kidneys, and the endocrine glands. Myopathy showed up as myalgia, easy fatigability, ptosis, and abnormal muscle biopsy. Endocrine involvement manifested as short stature and thyroid dysfunction. Involvement of the kidneys manifested as mild Fanconi syndrome. Bone marrow affection resulted in iron-deficient, chronic anemia with elevated transferrin. Cerebral manifestations included epilepsy with rare epileptic and frequent psychogenic seizures, and malingering and factitious disorder (Münchausen-syndrome). Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Since malingering-disorder dominated the phenotype, the patient was in the majority of the cases not taken seriously, resulting in 175 hospital admissions over 20 years, repeated expensive diagnostic work-ups and huge amount of avoidable interventions. MIDs also manifest as malingering personality disorder (Münchausen-syndrome) but normal cerebral imaging. Management of such patients could be difficult for institutions not familiar with MIDs and facilitated and improved if these patients are taken seriously and treated at departments particularly dedicated to handle MIDs. PMID:27570349

  12. Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in moyamoya: its potential role in postoperative assessment of circulation through the bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement (LMCE) is one of the MRI features of moyamoya. Its clinical significance, however, is not elucidated. Our purpose was to characterise LMCE on MRI and to evaluate its role in the assessment of circulation through a surgically established bypass in moyamoya. We studied 16 patients with idiopathic moyamoya (seven males, nine females, includingt four children, aged 7 to 54 years, mean 24 years) who underwent T1-weighted MRI before and after intravenous contrast medium. The presence of LMCE, its intensity and anatomical distribution, catheter angiographic findings, and relation of LMCE to the bypass surgery were assessed. More LMCE was seen in the cerebrum in most patients with moyamoya than in normal controls. LMCE in the brain stem and cerebellum was minimal, similar to that seen in the controls. LMCE was less prominent following surgery than before operation or in patients who did not undergo surgery. In three patients examined both before and after operation LMCE became less prominent following bypass surgery. As LMCE becomes less prominent after ''effective'' bypass surgery, this may be used for evaluation of effectiveness of surgery in moyamoya. (orig.)

  13. Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in moyamoya: its potential role in postoperative assessment of circulation through the bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yasui, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Kitano, S.; Sakamoto, H. [Dept. of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement (LMCE) is one of the MRI features of moyamoya. Its clinical significance, however, is not elucidated. Our purpose was to characterise LMCE on MRI and to evaluate its role in the assessment of circulation through a surgically established bypass in moyamoya. We studied 16 patients with idiopathic moyamoya (seven males, nine females, includingt four children, aged 7 to 54 years, mean 24 years) who underwent T1-weighted MRI before and after intravenous contrast medium. The presence of LMCE, its intensity and anatomical distribution, catheter angiographic findings, and relation of LMCE to the bypass surgery were assessed. More LMCE was seen in the cerebrum in most patients with moyamoya than in normal controls. LMCE in the brain stem and cerebellum was minimal, similar to that seen in the controls. LMCE was less prominent following surgery than before operation or in patients who did not undergo surgery. In three patients examined both before and after operation LMCE became less prominent following bypass surgery. As LMCE becomes less prominent after ''effective'' bypass surgery, this may be used for evaluation of effectiveness of surgery in moyamoya. (orig.)

  14. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on 123I-IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticholinergic drugs may be responsible for mental deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was thus performed to examine effects of anticholinergic drugs on the brain by using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine SPECT. The purpose of the study was twofold: (I) to compare regional cerebral uptake of tracer during treatment with anticholinergic drugs and one month after the discontinuation of the drugs in 7 PD patients given them for 6 months or more; and (II) to compare tracer uptake in 11 PD patients administered anticholinergic drugs and 25 PD patients not administered them. Each 16 regions in the bilateral cerebral cortexes and each one region in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum were assigned as regions of interest (ROI). The count ratio of each ROI in the cerebrum to ROI in the cerebellum was designated as regional cerebral uptake ratio (rCUR). A mean rCUR was lower during administration of anticholinergic drugs in all ROIs, except for two in Group I and one in Group II, than during the period not administered the drugs. The administration of anticholinergic drugs was sigificantly associated with decreased rCUR in 10 ROIs in Group I, and in 15 ROIs in Group II. The rCUR in the occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamus was independent of the administration of anticholinergic drugs. These results suggest that anticholinergic drugs may inhibit the cortical cholinergic system in PD patients. (N.K.)

  15. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  16. Brainy stuff of long-gone dogs: a reappraisal of the supposed Canis endocranial cast from the Pliocene of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Dmitry V.; Wolsan, Mieczysław; Marciszak, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The pre-Quaternary fossil record of Canis in the Old World is scarce, and the first appearance of this genus in Europe remains an enigma. Amongst the oldest fossils assigned to this genus, there is a natural cast of the brain (endocast) collected in Węże 1, Poland, from Pliocene deposits dated between 3.3 and 4.0 Ma. We reexamined this specimen and found that it differs from the brain of Canis in having its region medial to the coronal sulcus heart-shaped in dorsal view, its region rostral to the presylvian sulcus shorter and less constricted laterally, and its cerebellum less overlapped by the cerebrum and lacking a lateral twist of the posterior vermis. We identified this fossil, as well as another fossil canid endocast from Węże 1, as representing the raccoon dog genus Nyctereutes. The previously reported presence of Canis in Węże 1 is therefore not confirmed. Specifically, both endocasts can be referred to N. donnezani because this is the only species of Nyctereutes that has been recognised in this locality on the basis of craniomandibular and dental fossils. Our study represents a taxonomic application of comparative neuroanatomical and palaeoneurological data, an approach that may become increasingly useful with the growing knowledge of the endocranial morphology of fossil mammals.

  17. Patterns of mouse reticulon 3 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; QIANG Boqin; YUAN Jiangang; HUANG Xiaowei; PENG Xiaozhong; YANG Hongbo; YIN Bin; TAN Xinyu; FAN Ming; FAN Wenhong; LIU Bingyan

    2003-01-01

    Reticulons (RTN) are endoplasmic reticulumassociated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. At least four different RTN genes have been identified in mammals, but in most cases,the functions of the encoded proteins except mammalian RTN4-A and RTN4-B are still elusive. In the present study,mouse reticulon 3 (mRTN3) is cloned and its expression pattern in a variety of tissues is investigated. Three alternatively spliced transcripts of 1.8, 2.8 and 4.2 kb are revealed by Northern blotting hybridization. The 1.8 and 2.8 kb transcripts are expressed in many tissues. The 2.8 kb transcript has a high level in brain and the 4.2 kb transcript is only found in brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis indicated its high expression in non-glial cells in some particular region of mouse central nervous system, such as hippocampus, sub-thalamus nucleus, thalamus nucleus and cerebrum cortex.

  18. Modulation of. beta. -adrenergic response in rat brain astrocytes by serum and hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.K.; Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat cerebrum respond to isoproterenol, a ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, with a transient rise in cAMP production. This astroglial property was regulated by serum, a chemically defined medium (serum-free medium plus hydrocortisone, putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2/, insulin, and fibroblast growth factor) and epidermal growth factor. Compared to astrocytes grown in serum-supplemented medium, astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium were nonresponsive to isoproterenol stimulation, and this difference did not appear to be due to selection of a subpopulation of cells by either medium. The data suggest that a decreased ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number and an increased degradation of cAMP may account for the reduced response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. The nonresponsive state of astrocytes in the defined medium was reversible when the medium was replaced with serum-supplemented medium. An active substance(s) in serum was responsible for restoring the responsiveness of astrocytes. Each of the five components of the defined medium had little effect by itself; however, together they acted synergistically to desensitize astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, epidermal growth factor, a potent mitogen for astrocytes, was very competent by itself in reducing the cAMP response of astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. Thus purified astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium appear to be a good model for the study of hormonal interactions and of serum factors which may modulate the ..beta..-adrenergic response.

  19. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  20. A comparative study of the quality of SPECT images obtained by {sup 123}I-IMP, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Makoto; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Kasahara, Toshifumi; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Hatano, Masayoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the quality of SPECT images for the mapping of rCBF using three tracers, {sup 123}I-IMP, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. We performed three SPECT studies on seven patients with various cerebral diseases under the same conditions. An effect of Lassen`s correction on SPECT images obtained by HMPAO was also evaluated. The same irregular regions of interest were placed on the four transaxial SPECT images. To quantitatively evaluate the pattern of tracer uptake and image contrast, the uptake ratio, regional count/mean count of the cerebrum, and its coefficient variations (CV) were defined, respectively. The order of the value of CV was HMPAO with correction>IMP>ECD>HMPAO without correction. HMPAO with correction showed the best image contrast, but HMPAO without correction was the worst. Uptake ratios of ECD and HMPAO with correction were decreased in the brain stem and thalamus in comparison with those of IMP. Both uptake ratios of ECD and HMPAO without correction were increased in the occipital cortex. IMP provides high quality SPECT images. Images obtained by HMPAO should be modified by Lassen`s correction to increase image contrast. ECD or HMPAO should not be used to evaluate patients with spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging in stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome has a characteristic clinical presentation and postcontrast T1WI MRI appearance. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) may help distinguish SMART from other disorders that may have a similar postcontrast MRI appearance. The MRI examinations of four patients with SMART syndrome are described herein, each of which included SWI, FLAIR, DWI, and postcontrast T1WI on the presenting and follow-up MRI examinations. In each, the initial SWI MRI demonstrated numerous susceptibility hypointensities <5 mm in size throughout the cerebrum, particularly within the periventricular white matter (PVWM), presumably related to radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICHs). By follow-up MRI, each postcontrast examination had demonstrated resolution of the gyriform enhancement on T1WI, without susceptibility hypointensities on SWI within those previously enhancing regions. These preliminary findings suggest that SWI may help identify SMART syndrome or at least help discriminate it from other disorders, by the findings of numerous susceptibility hypointensities on SWI likely representing RICHs, gyriform enhancement on T1WI, and postsurgical findings or appropriate clinical history. (orig.)

  2. Differential gene expression from genome-wide microarray analyses distinguishes Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB layer lines have been selected for high egg production since more than 50 years and belong to the worldwide leading commercial layer lines. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the molecular processes that are different among these two layer lines using whole genome RNA expression profiles. The hens were kept in the newly developed small group housing system Eurovent German with two different group sizes. Differential expression was observed for 6,276 microarray probes (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05 among the two layer lines LSL and LB. A 2-fold or greater change in gene expression was identified on 151 probe sets. In LSL, 72 of the 151 probe sets were up- and 79 of them were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis accounting for biological processes evinced 18 GO-terms for the 72 probe sets with higher expression in LSL, especially those taking part in immune system processes and membrane organization. A total of 32 enriched GO-terms were determined among the 79 down-regulated probe sets of LSL. Particularly, these terms included phosphorus metabolic processes and signaling pathways. In conclusion, the phenotypic differences among the two layer lines LSL and LB are clearly reflected in their gene expression profiles of the cerebrum. These novel findings provide clues for genes involved in economically important line characteristics of commercial laying hens.

  3. Trousseau's Syndrome Caused by Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: An Autopsy Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Takashi; Kato, Kouta; Hirohara, y; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-01-01

    An autopsy case report of Trousseau's syndrome caused by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is presented, and seven previously reported cases are reviewed. A 73-year-old woman experiencing light-headedness and dementia of unknown cause for 6 months developed severe hypotonia. A hypointense lesion compatible with acute cerebral infarction was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an ill-defined large liver mass in the right lobe. The mass was not further investigated because of the patient's poor condition. She died of multiple organ failure, and an autopsy was conducted. Postmortem examination revealed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, fibrous vegetations on the mitral valves and multiple thromboemboli in the cerebrum, spleen and rectum. Trousseau's syndrome is defined as an idiopathic thromboembolism in patients with undiagnosed or concomitantly diagnosed malignancy. This syndrome is encountered frequently in patients with mucin-producing carcinomas, while the incidence in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is uncommon. We found that tissue factor and mucin tumor marker (CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA-125) expression in cancer cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism. A patient with unexplained thromboembolism may have occult visceral malignancy; thus, mucin tumor markers may indicate the origin of a mucin-producing carcinoma, and postmortem examination may play an important role in revealing the hidden malignancy. PMID:24987359

  4. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal.

  5. A neuropsychological model relating self-awareness to hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, H A; Harrison, D W

    1997-12-01

    Neuropsychological advances may help researchers better understand the relationship between psychological constructs. This paper proposes a neuropsychological model explaining the negative relationship between hostility and "self-awareness," which has been suggested by previous research [H. A. Demaree and D. W. Harrison (1995a) "Behavioral, Physiological, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Hostility," manuscript submitted for publication; L. H. Epstein and P. A. Cluss (1982) "A Behavioral Medicine Perspective on Adherence to Long-Term Medical Regimes," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 50, pp. 950-971; M. F. Scheier et al. (1974) "Self-Awareness and Physical Aggression," Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Vol. 10, pp. 254-273]. The authors review the role of the right cerebrum in both hostility and "self-awareness"--including arousal, perceptual, expressive, and integrative processes. Using identifiable tracts in the brain, the model suggests how deficits in "self-awareness"--poor awareness of physiological arousal, natural and emotional environment, etc.--may enhance the probability of hostility expression. This model is supported by previous empirical research and provides direction for future neuropsychological investigation. PMID:9471112

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Duffy, J C; Caseltine, S L

    2004-03-01

    The brain from a 15-month-old, black female Angus, with a 48-hour history of central nervous system disease, was submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Microscopic findings consisted of acute, multifocal meningoencephalitis, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis and gliosis. Viral isolation yielded noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus genotyping classified the virus as BVDV type 2. Immunohistochemical labeling for BVDV antigens with BVD MAb 3.12F1 clone was prominent in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells, ependymal epithelium, perivascular macrophages and spindle cells, smooth muscle cells, and intravascular monocytes of the cerebrum and brain stem. Laboratory results support that tissue alterations occurred as a result of BVDV type 2 infection. In the absence of other clinical signs related to BVDV infection and using the microscopic and laboratory evidence presented, we propose that the BVDV type 2 isolated from this case may represent a neurovirulent strain of the virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brain lesions and neuronal viral antigen localization in BVDV genotype 2 viral infection, acquired either congenitally or postnatally. PMID:15017036

  7. Diagnostic Clues in Multiple System Atrophy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yücel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is an adult-onset, sporadic, progressive neurodegenerative disease. According to the consensus criteria, patients with MSA are clinically classified into cerebellar (MSA-C and parkinsonian (MSA-P subtype. Besides the poor response to levodopa, and the additional presence of pyramidal or cerebellar signs (ataxia or autonomic failure as major diagnostic criteria, certain other clinical features known as ‘‘red flags’’ or warning signs may raise the clinical suspicion of MSA. Case report: A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to inability to walk. Neurological examination revealed severe Parkinsonism with poor response to levodopa therapy, ataxia. Brain MR imaging showed severe atrophy of the cerebellum, pons, minimal cerebrum, and revealed cross section at the pons in the axial section. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was normal, Median SEP within normal limits but left Tibial SEP was longer than right side (right: 41, left: 44.2. Although sympathetic skin response of upper extremities was normal, the sympathetic skin responses of lower extremities were absent. RR interval study and a graded head-up tilt test were consistent with autonomic dysfunction. We report a patient with MSA because in clinical practice a case who fullfits all criteria is really rare.

  8. Study of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose with positron emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using positron emission computed tomography with F-18 fluoro-D-deoxyglucose, regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) was measured in 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 3 healthy volunteers. A decreased rCMRglc was observed in the widespread cortex and basal ganglia of the cerebrum, but not observed in white matter, thalamus, and cerebellum. There was no bilateral difference. rCMRglc was the lowest in the parietal lobe, followed by the temporal lobe and the curvature of the frontal lobe. A decrease in rCMRglu was relatively mild in the inner part of the frontal lobe, primary sensory and motor area of the cerebral cortex, and cerebral basilar ganglia. Alzheimer's disease proved to be characterized by severe glucose metabolic disorder in the association area of the bilateral cerebral cortices. The degree of metabolic disorder was correlated with the degree of dementia in the outer part of the left frontal lobe and the curvature of the cerebral cortex. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine

  10. Mast cells in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropp, J J

    1976-01-01

    Mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. Although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephant) and in many nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (most rodents, tiger, lion, and fox). In some mammals, mast cells were also numerous in the stroma of the telencephalic choroid plexuses (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the putamen and the claustrum (chimpanzee), the subfornical organ (pack rat, tiger, chimpanzee), the olfactory peduncles (hooded rat, albino rat), the stroma of the diencephalic choroid plexus (lion, chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the pineal organ (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), some nuclei of the hypothalamus (tiger), the infundibulum (hooded rat, tiger, fox) the area postrema (pack rat, chinchilla, lion, spider monkey, chimpanzee, fox) and some nuclei and tracts of the metencephalon and the myelencephalon (tiger). Neither the sex of the animal nor electrolytic lesions made in the brains of some of the animals at various times prior to sacrifice appeared to effect the number and the distribution of mast cells. Age-related changes in mast cell number and distribution were detected in the albino rat. PMID:961335

  11. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  12. Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has recently been identified in Europe, North America, and Japan. It is classified as H-type and L-type BSE according to the molecular mass of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc. To investigate the topographical distribution and deposition patterns of immunolabeled PrPSc, H-type BSE isolate was inoculated intracerebrally into cattle. H-type BSE was successfully transmitted to 3 calves, with incubation periods between 500 and 600 days. Moderate to severe spongiform changes were detected in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. H-type BSE was characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques in the white matter of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Moreover, intraglial-type immunolabeled PrPSc was prominent throughout the brain. Stellate-type immunolabeled PrPSc was conspicuous in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus, but not in the brainstem. In addition, PrPSc accumulation was detected in the peripheral nervous tissues, such as trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, optic nerve, retina, and neurohypophysis. Cattle are susceptible to H-type BSE with a shorter incubation period, showing distinct and distinguishable phenotypes of PrPSc accumulation.

  13. tDCS of the Cerebellum: Where Do We Stand in 2016? Technical Issues and Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dun, Kim; Bodranghien, Florian C. A. A.; Mariën, Peter; Manto, Mario U.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an up-and-coming electrical neurostimulation technique increasingly used both in healthy subjects and in selected groups of patients. Due to the high density of neurons in the cerebellum, its peculiar anatomical organization with the cortex lying superficially below the skull and its diffuse connections with motor and associative areas of the cerebrum, the cerebellum is becoming a major target for neuromodulation of the cerebellocerebral networks. We discuss the recent studies based on cerebellar tDCS with a focus on the numerous technical and open issues which remain to be solved. Our current knowledge of the physiological impacts of tDCS on cerebellar circuitry is criticized. We provide a comparison with transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), another promising transcranial electrical neurostimulation technique. Although both tDCS and tACS are becoming established techniques to modulate the cerebellocerebral networks, it is surprising that their impacts on cerebellar disorders remains unclear. A major reason is that the literature lacks large trials with a double-blind, sham-controlled, and cross-over experimental design in cerebellar patients. PMID:27242469

  14. Delayed radiation necrosis of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cases of six patients are presented to delineate the clinical profile of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain. In five the diagnosis was verified histologically. Symptoms most often begin 9 months to 2 years after radiotherapy. Progressive visual impairment and dementia are common following perisellar irradiation, while hemispheric signs predominate following irradiation of the cerebrum. Cerebrospinal fluid protein may be elevated. Focal delta slowing is usually present on electroencephalography. The necrotic brain may appear on radionuclide brain scan as an area of abnormal uptake and also act as an avascular space-occupying lesion. With computerized tomography, radiation necrosis appears as an intracerebral area with diminished absorption coefficient that is often enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. The syndrome may be sufficiently characteristic to eliminate the need for surgical exploration and biopsy in some cases. Cumulative experience suggests that the risk-to-benefit ratio of radiotherapy becomes increasingly unfavorable for most patients with benign intracranial neoplasms when the standard brain tumor dose of 5000 to 7000 rads is fractionated at greater than 200 rads per day

  15. Brain networks governing the golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Han, Joung Kyue; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Golf, as with most complex motor skills, requires multiple different brain functions, including attention, motor planning, coordination, calculation of timing, and emotional control. In this study we assessed the correlation between swing components and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Ten female golf players and 10 age-matched female controls were recruited. In order to determine swing consistency among participants, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean swing speed time and the SD of the mean swing angle were assessed over 30 swings. Functional brain connectivity was assessed by resting state functional MRI. Pro-golfers showed greater positive left cerebellum connectivity to the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and both frontal lobes compared to controls. The SD of play scores was positively correlated with the SD of the impact angle. Constant swing speed and back swing angle in professional golfers were associated with functional connectivity (FC) between the cerebellum and parietal and frontal lobes. In addition, the constant impact angle in professional golfers was associated with improved golf scores and additional FC of the thalamus. PMID:25761601

  16. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON CEREBRAL IMAGES IN AUTISM CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 张继武; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on images in autism children. Methods: A total of 27 cases of autism children were subjected into this study. By using a SPECT, the cerebral images were collected before and after acupuncture treatment and analyzed according to the recommended methods in for assessing the state of blood flow, radioactivity quantity distribution and radioactivity count in bilateral hemispheres. "JIN's three-needling" was employed. The acupuncture treatment was given once every other day, with 4 months being a therapeutic course and an interval of one month between two courses. Results: After acupuncture treatment, of the 22 cases, 20 had remarkable improvement and 2 had improvement in cerebral blood flow, with the total effective rate of improving cerebral blood flow being 90.8%. Before the treatment there were significant differences between the left and right cerebrum (P0.05). After treatment, the radioactivity count in the whole brain decreased significantly in comparison with that of pretreatment (P<0.01). It indicates the improvement of cerebral blood flow and cellular metabolism after the treatment. Conclusion:Acupumcture con significantly improve cerebral blood flow in autism children.

  17. Determination of elements in different parts of goat brain using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researcher's interest is increasing worldwide to study the role of trace elements in brain tissues. This paper discusses the application of k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis to study the distribution of trace elements in seven different anatomical regions of goat brain. These regions include cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata, meninges, midbrain, pons and thalamus. The analysis protocol followed 1 h irradiation at 10 MW material testing type nuclear research reactor with nominal thermal neutron flux of 2 × 1013 cm-2 s-1. A total of 14 elements, namely Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Tb and Zn were determined in all parts. Reliability of the method was assessed by analyzing biological reference material IAEA-336 (lichen). On comparing the analytical results with the healthy human brain data, it showed that eight elements (Eu, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Tb) were found with relatively higher elemental concentrations in human brain. Principal component analysis revealed distribution of seven parts in different three groups having similar elemental concentrations of elements. (author)

  18. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  19. Outcome of LINAC radiosurgery for a cavernous angioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Se Mie; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Suk Won [College of Medicine, Halym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To establish the role of stereotactic radiosurgery using a linear accelerator for the treatment of patients with cavernous angioma. Between February 1995 and May 1997, 11 patients with cavernous angioma were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using a linear accelerator. Diagnoses were based on the magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients, and the histological in 3. The vascular lesions were located in the brainstem (5 cases), cerebellum (2 cases) thalamus (1 case) and cerebrum (3 cases), The clinical presentation at onset included previous intracerebral hemorrhages (9 cases) and seizures (2 cases). All patients were treated with a linac-based radiosurgery. The median dose of radiation delivered was 16 Gy ranging from 14 to 24 Gy, which was typically prescribed to the 80% isodose surface (range 50-80%), corresponding to the periphery of the lesion with a single isocenter. Ten patients were followed-up. The median follow-up was 49 months ranging from 8 to 73 months, during which time two patients developed an intracerebral hemorrhage, 1 at 8 months, with the other at 64 months post radiosurgery. One patient developed neurological deficit after radiosurgery, and two developed an edema on the T2 weighted images of the MRI surrounding the radiosurgical target. The use of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of a cavernous angioma may be effective in the prevention of rebleeding, and can be safely delivered. However, a longer follow-up period will be required.

  20. Colesteatomas dos plexos coróides dos eqüídeos: observação de 14 casos Çholesteatomas of the choroid plexus of equidae: report on 14 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Thiago de Mello

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor faz considerações sobre os colesteatomas dos plexos coróides dos ventrículos laterais do cérebro e da base do cerebelo dos eqüídeos, examinando alguns aspectos da etiologia dessas colesteatose, baseado na literatura e em suas observações pessoais. Descreve, pela primeira vez no Brasil, casos de colesteatomas em eqüídeos, em número de 14, num total de 38 solípedes examinados (38,8%. Constatou a presença da lesão em muar, fato ainda não registrado na literatura.The author discusses cholesteatomas of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles of the cerebrum and of the base of the cerebellum in Equidae, examining some aspects of aetiology of this cholesteatosis based on the literature and on his personal observations. He describes for the first time in Brazil, cases of cholesteatomas in Equidae, 14 in number of a total of 38 solipeds examined (36,8%. He found the presence of the lesion in the mule: a fact not yet men¬tioned in the literature.

  1. MRI in Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kalita, J. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Salwani, V. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gujral, R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the basal ganglia in one. The lesions were haemorrhagic in three of the four patients with lesions in the cortex, two of the three with lesions in the midbrain and cerebellum, but the pontine lesions were haemorrhagic in both patients. Spinal cord involvement was seen in one of the three patients who underwent MRI. In two patients MRI was repeated 3 years after the onset, showing marked reduction in abnormal signal; and all the lesions gave low signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially in endemic areas. (orig.)

  2. Wilson's disease: cranial MRI observations and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of MRI changes may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of Wilson's disease (WD). We aimed to describe and correlate the MRI abnormalities of the brain with clinical features in WD. MRI evaluation was carried out in 100 patients (57 males, 43 females; mean age 19.3±8.9 years) using standard protocols. All but 18 patients were on de-coppering agents. Their history, clinical manifestations and scores for severity of disease were noted. The mean duration of illness and treatment were 8.3±10.8 years and 7.5±7.1 years respectively. MRI of the brain was abnormal in all the 93 symptomatic patients. The most conspicuous observations were atrophy of the cerebrum (70%), brainstem (66%) and cerebellum (52%). Signal abnormalities were also noted: putamen (72%), caudate (61%), thalami (58%), midbrain (49%), pons (20%), cerebral white matter (25%), cortex (9%), medulla (12%) and cerebellum (10%). The characteristic T2-W globus pallidal hypointensity (34%), ''Face of giant panda'' sign (12%), T1-W striatal hyperintensity (6%), central pontine myelinosis (7%), and bright claustral sign (4%) were also detected. MRI changes correlated with disease severity scores (P<0.001) but did not correlate with the duration of illness. MRI changes were universal but diverse and involved almost all the structures of the brain in symptomatic patients. A fair correlation between MRI observations and various clinical features provides an explanation for the protean manifestations of the disease. (orig.)

  3. Decreased brain FDG uptake in patients with extensive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faint brain [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake has sporadically been reported in patients with FDG-avid large or diffusely extended tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between massive tumor uptake and decreased brain uptake on FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Sixty-five patients with histologically confirmed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent FDG-PET/CT were enrolled. Thirty control subjects were also included to evaluate normal brain FDG uptake. PET/CT examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The volumetric regions of interest were placed over lesions by referring to CT and PET/CT fusion images to measure mean standardized uptake value (SUVavg). The products of SUVavg and tumor volume were calculated as total glycolytic volume (TGV). The maximum SUV (SUVmax) and SUVavg were measured in the cerebrum and cerebellum. The values of TGV and brain FDG uptake were plotted and analyzed with a linear regression method. In the lymphoma patients, there were statistically significant negative correlations between TGV and brain SUVs. Demonstrating a significant negative correlation between TGV and brain uptake validated the phenomenon of decreased brain FDG uptake. Diversion of FDG from the brain to the lymphoma tissue may occur during the FDG accumulation process. Recognition of this phenomenon prevents unnecessary further neurological examinations in such cases. (author)

  4. Involvement of the Cerebral Monoamine Neurotransmitters System in Antidepressant-Like Effects of a Chinese Herbal Decoction, Baihe Dihuang Tang, in Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Baihe Dihuang Tang (BDT is a renowned Chinese herbal formula which is commonly used for treating patients with mental instability, absentmindedness, insomnia, deficient dysphoria, and other psychological diseases. These major symptoms closely associated with the depressive disorders. BDT was widely popular use for treating emotion-thought disorders for many years in China. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of BDT in mice was investigated by using the forced swim test (FST and the tail suspension test (TST. The underlying mechanism was explored by determining the effect of BDT on the level of cerebral monoamine neurotransmitters. BDT (9 and 18 g/kg, p.o. for 14 days administration significantly reduced the immobility time in both the FST and the TST without changing locomotion in the open field-test (OFT. Moreover, BDT treatment at the dose of 18 g/kg inhibited reserpine-induced ptosis. Meanwhile, BDT enhanced 5-HT and NA levels in mouse cerebrum as well as decreased the ratio of 5-HT compared to its metabolite, 5-HIAA, (turnover, 5-HIAA/5-HT after TST. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of BDT is mediated, at least partially, via the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system.

  5. Tc-99m HMPAO brain uptake patterns in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional gamma camera SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO (10 MBq/kg patient weight) was carried out in 21 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), fulfilling the criteria established by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the ADRDA criteria (nine with amnesia as the main symptom [group 1], 12 with amnesia, aphasia, and/or apraxia and agnosia [group 2], and eight age-matched control subjects. Perfusion was quantitatively studied by means of cerebrum-cerebellum activity ratios. In group 1, perfusion deficits in the mesial cortex of the temporal lobes (right, 0.70; left, 0.68) were found, and ratios were significantly lower than in the control group (right, 0.77; left, 0.76 [P < .05]). Group 2 showed low ratios throughout both temporal lobes (mesial and lateral cortex), bilaterally in the posterior parietal cortex (right, 0.69; left, 0.66 [control: right, 0.80; left, 0.81] [P < .001]), and left frontal cortex (0.75 [control, 0.79] [P < .05]). In conclusion, SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO identifies perfusion deficits in patients with DAT, and these correlate well with the clinical findings and are significantly different from those in the control group

  6. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O L; Jørgensen, P H; Hedemand, J; Jensenius, J C; Koch, C; Laursen, S B

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius, but MBL was present in non-identified cells in the interstitium, and in the cytoplasm of macrophage-like cells, located peripheral to the ellipsoid of the spleen. These findings indicate the liver as the primary site of MBL synthesis, and points to up-regulation as a result of the viral infections. The location outside the liver could indicate a role of MBL in the immune defence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9708196

  7. MRI Features of Intracranial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in Adults:Comparing with Histopathological Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩军; 孔祥泉; 徐海波; 徐丽莹; 刘定西

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The MRI appearances of 7 adult patients with pathologically proven intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) were retrospectively analyzed. The MRI features were compared with findings in pathology and surgery. In this group, the tumor masses were most commonly found in the semisphere of cerebrum and in the vermis of cerebellum. They were relatively large and 4 were in lobulated shape. All of them had well-defined margins. MR images showed the tumors to be mildly or obviously hypointense on Ti-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Most masses had heterogeneous appearances with some cystic and necrotic areas. Intratumoral haemorrhage and focal calcification were occasionally seen. Mostly, there was no or only mild surrounding edema. Marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in 6 cases except one. Two patients with multiple intracranial metastases were revealed on MR images. In this series, there was good correlation between MRI features and findings in pathology and surgery.These results showed that certain MRI features might suggest the diagnosis of intracranial PNET in adults. MRI is an effective technique to detect these tumors and is helpful to treatment planning and follow-up.

  8. Preliminary characterization of iron-containing material and of neuronal assembles responsive to magnetic stimulation in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Barrera, J.; Rizi, A.; Urrutia, J.; Gutierrez, G.

    2007-05-01

    Migration is a common process among animal groups. Most of the biological events underlying migratory behavior are yet unknown. This is especially true for the neural mechanisms and the sensory information used by migratory species to define their routes. Hence, the present work aimed at demonstrating that the Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may use magnetic cues to define their route of migration by mapping neuronal assembles responsive to magnetic stimuli. Because research conducted in other insect species suggests that magnetite-based receptors may transduce the magnetic information into neuronal codes, we also evaluated the presence of magnetite in the body of the monarch butterfly. Our electron microscopy results demonstrate that the butterfly's head, abdomen and thorax contain iron particles of about 1-5 mm in diameter. Accordingly, Prussian blue histochemical techniques revealed the presence of abundant ferric deposits in diverse regions of the nervous system and the ventral abdomen. In contrast, the thoracic segments have only a few deposits. Finally, magneto metric measures concord with the morphological results. With regard to the mapping of the neuronal assembles responsive to magnetic stimuli, we were able to revealed c-fos immunoreactivity in groups of neurons located in the retina, lamina, lobula and deutero-cerebrum in butterflies subjected to magnetic stimuli. In sum, we believe that our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the existence of 1) a neural pathway capable of processing magnetic information in the monarch butterfly and 2) the presence of magnetite-like material in the various segments of its body.

  9. Foreign body lesions in MR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazard involved in MR tomography if there are foreign parts in the body made of metal, is assessed. There are certain hazard-influencing factors. As far as the foreign body is concerned, these are: ability to become magnetised, size, length, elasticity, sharp edges or ends, and sharp surfaces. In the human body itself, risk factors are determined by the position of the foreign body in or near sensitive organs such as cerebrum, nerves, vessels, lungs, eyes, ears and the heart; other factors are the fixation to bones or lack of fixation in hollow organs. One should assume when assessing the risk that the foreign body consists of iron that is capable of complete magnetisation. In that case the attacking forces will not exceed the 25 to 36 fold value of the foreign body's own weight. It is thus possible to predict with some measure of probability whether the position of the foreign body will shift during MR examination and whether the examination can result in injury. (orig.)

  10. Studies of a nuclear matrix protein restricted to normal brain cells and lead-induced intranuclear inclusion bodies of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, K.; Egle, P.; Redford, K.; Bigbee, J.

    1986-05-01

    A nuclear matrix protein, p32/6.3, with an unusual tissue distribution, has been identified. Protein from 21 tissues was surveyed by immunoprobing Western blots. In normal adult rats p32/6.3 is found only in grey matter from the cerebrum and the cerebellum, occurring in both neurons and astrocytes. Other brain cell types have not been examined. The protein appears to be developmentally regulated. It is detectable in the brain within a few days after birth and reaches adult levels within one to two weeks. Brain p32/6.3 has been found in all animals tested including rat, mouse, dog, cow, pig, chicken and human. This conservation indicates a fundamental role for p32/6.3 in the nucleus of brain cells. Possible functions for p32/6.3 may be indicated by a second novel occurrence. Chronic lead poisoning characteristically induces intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells lining kidney proximal tubules. p32/6.3 is a major constituent of these inclusion bodies. They are also rich in lead and other metals including calcium, iron, zinc, copper and cadmium. These diverse observations suggest that p32/6.3 may have a role in metal homeostasis in the brain of normal animals.

  11. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  12. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. PMID:21782345

  13. Neuroradiological findings in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present the typical neuroradiological findings in three patients with neuro-Behcet in comparison with a review of neuroradiological and histopathological findings described in the literature. Material and Methods: In three male patients aged 32-57 years with Behcet's disease and neurological symptoms cranial CT and MRI studies were carried out. Findings were monitored over a period of 6-18 months. Additionally, cerebral and renal DSA were performed in two patients. Results: In two patients we found acute inflammatory lesions located in the brainstem and the periventricular white matter, some of which were associated with an acute inflammatory disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Lesions decreased in size under treatment, but complete resolution was not consistently noted. In the third patient we found a thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus but no other intracranial abnormalities. Conclusions: Our findings agree with those described in the literature as being typical of Behcet's disease. Inflammatory lesions most commonly occur in the brain stem, followed by the basal ganglia and the cortex and white matter of both the cerebrum and cerebellum. In contrast to venous sinus thrombosis, brainstem atrophy and cortical or cerebellar lesions, white matter lesions have little diagnostic value, irrespective of their location. The definitive diagnosis of Behcet's disease is made on the basis of clinical criteria. (orig.)

  14. The early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxu WANG; Hanxing WANG

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of Kunming mice, six-month-old mice (n=72) were pretreated with heat stress and subsequent ischemia/reperfusion by clipping of their bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min. According to different treatments, animals were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normal control group; (2) heat stress pre-treatment followed by ischemia and reperfusion group (HS/IR); (3) ischemia and reperfusion group (IR); (4) heat stress group (HS). Animals in the later three groups were subdivided into 3 subgroups (1 day, 4 days, 14 days), respectively. The changes in the expression of cAMP res-ponse element binding protein (CREB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected by immuno-histochemistry and computer image analysis methods. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the expressions of CREB in the hippocampal CA1 region increased significantly in the HS, HS/IR and IR groups (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, heat stress could result in CGRP excretion and redistribution in the cerebrum, with the highest level in the 4 d HS/IR group. Following heat stress, CGRP immunoreactivity was observed in varicose fibers and neuronal perikarya within the CA1 region. The results indicate that heat stress can induce CREB expression, which in turn stimulates CGRP secretion.

  15. Evaluation of linear registration algorithms for brain SPECT and the errors due to hypoperfusion lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semiquantitative analysis of perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images requires a reproducible, objective method. Automated spatial standardization (registration) of images is a prerequisite to this goal. A source of registration error is the presence of hypoperfusion defects, which was evaluated in this study with simulated lesions. The brain perfusion images measured by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT from 21 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 35 control subjects were retrospectively analyzed. An automatic segmentation method was developed to remove external activity. Three registration methods, robust least squares, normalized mutual information (NMI), and count difference were implemented and the effects of simulated defects were compared. The tested registration methods required segmentation of the cerebrum from external activity, and the automatic and manual methods differed by a three-dimensional displacement of 1.4±1.1 mm. NMI registration proved to be least adversely effected by simulated defects with 3 mm average displacement caused by severe defects. The error in quantifying the patient-template parietal ratio due to misregistration was 2.0% for large defects (70% hypoperfusion) and 0.5% for smaller defects (85% hypoperfusion)

  16. Phylostratigraphic profiles in zebrafish uncover chordate origins of the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestak, Martin Sebastijan; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav

    2015-02-01

    An elaborated tripartite brain is considered one of the important innovations of vertebrates. Other extant chordate groups have a more basic brain organization. For instance, cephalochordates possess a relatively simple brain possibly homologous to the vertebrate forebrain and hindbrain, whereas tunicates display the tripartite organization, but without the specialized brain centers. The difference in anatomical complexity is even more pronounced if one compares chordates with other deuterostomes that have only a diffuse nerve net or alternatively a rather simple central nervous system. To gain a new perspective on the evolutionary roots of the complex vertebrate brain, we made here a phylostratigraphic analysis of gene expression patterns in the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). The recovered adaptive landscape revealed three important periods in the evolutionary history of the zebrafish brain. The oldest period corresponds to preadaptive events in the first metazoans and the emergence of the nervous system at the metazoan-eumetazoan transition. The origin of chordates marks the next phase, where we found the overall strongest adaptive imprint in almost all analyzed brain regions. This finding supports the idea that the vertebrate brain evolved independently of the brains within the protostome lineage. Finally, at the origin of vertebrates we detected a pronounced signal coming from the dorsal telencephalon, in agreement with classical theories that consider this part of the cerebrum a genuine vertebrate innovation. Taken together, these results reveal a stepwise adaptive history of the vertebrate brain where most of its extant organization was already present in the chordate ancestor. PMID:25415965

  17. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts

  18. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of influences of cranial irradiation on cerebral energy metabolism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cranial irradiation on the cerebrum was studied. Energy metabolism in the brain was assessed before and after cranial irradiation using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). The subjects were 3 pediatric patients with initial acute lymphotic leukemia (ALL), who underwent induction chemotherapy and central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis according to the ALL high risk 911 protocol of Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group. The patients underwent 31P-MRS within one week before and after prophylactic CNS irradiation with a total dose of 18 Gy (i.e., 0.5 Gy in two fractions, 1.0 Gy in two fractions, and 1.5 Gy in 10 fractions - 4 times a week in 3-4 weeks). All 3 patients showed a decrease in phosphocreatine and ATP levels, which are indicators of energy metabolism, and also in the intracellular pH level in the brain tissue. Cranial irradiation was thus suggested to induce hypoxia in the brain tissue. (S.Y.)

  19. Combination of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 technique with the piggybac transposon system for mouse in utero electroporation to study cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man; Jin, Xubin; Mu, Lili; Wang, Fangyu; Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Wenchen; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In utero electroporation (IUE) is commonly used to study cortical development of cerebrum by downregulating or overexpressing genes of interest in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of small mammals. However, exogenous plasmids are lost or diluted over time. Furthermore, gene knockdown based on short-hairpin RNAs may exert nonspecific effects that lead to aberrant neuronal migration. Genomic engineering by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has great research and therapeutic potentials. Here we integrate the CRISPR/Cas9 components into the piggyBac (PB) transposon system (the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit) for cortical IUEs. The mouse Sry-related HMG box-2 (Sox2) gene was selected as the target for its application. Most transduced cortical NPCs were depleted of SOX2 protein as early as 3 days post-IUE, whereas expressions of SOX1 and PAX6 remained intact. Furthermore, both the WT Cas9 and the D10A nickase mutant Cas9n showed comparable knockout efficiency. Transduced cortical cells were purified with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and effective gene editing at the Sox2 loci was confirmed. Thus, application of the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit in IUE is a promising strategy to study gene functions in cortical NPCs and their progeny. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317429

  20. Effects of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal stem cells on cognitive impairment of the whole-brain irradiated rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous infusion of bone marrow stromal stem cells(MSCs) on cognitive function of rats after whole brain irradiation. Methods: MSCs were isolated and cultured from adult rats. After Sprague-Dawly female rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate, their whole cerebrum was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy by 6 MV X-ray. Seven days after irradiation, 4 x 106 Hoechst33342-1abelled MSCs were intravenously injected into the tail vein of these rats. Four and 8 weeks after transplantation, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Immunohistochemical method was used to identify MSCs or ceils derived from MSCs in the brain. Results: The learning and memorizing ability of irradiation groups were significantly different from that of normal control group (P < 0.01). Significant improvement of cognitive impairment was observed in rats treated with MSCs at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation as compared with the controll groups (P<0.05). This showed that the MSCs survived and were localized to the brain tissue. The number of Hoechst33342 immunohistofluorescence positive cells and double-immunostaining cells significantly decreased in 8 weeks group as compared with the 4 weeks group. Conclusion: Marrow stromal stem cells delivered to the irradiation brain tissue through intravenous route improve the cognitive impairment after whole brain irradiation. These cells may survive and differentiate in the brain tissue of irradiated rats. (authors)

  1. US and CT findings of hydranencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Pyung; Cha, Kyung Soo; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lee, Soo Hyun [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang Woo [Kwang Myung General Hospital, Kwangmyung (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Sik [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Hydranencephaly is congenital disorder involving total or near-total absence of cerebrum, but with intact meninges and cranial vault. CT offered a unique diagnostic tool for the evaluation of these infants, but diagnosis as well as precise localization of anomaly can be provided. We analysed US and CT findings of 5 patients, with hydranencephaly who examined at Sung Ae General Hospital during last 3 years. The result were as follows; 1. 3 patients were diagnosed with aged in 11 days to 40 days, 2 patients were diagnosed in prenatal US examination with intrauterine pregnancy 40 weeks and 28 weeks. The male to female ratio was 3:1 (unknown sex in one case with intrauterine pregnancy 28 weeks) 2. Cranial vault and brain stem were intact in 5 cases. 3. Cerebellum was absent in 1 case and intact in 4 cases. 4. Falx cerebri was intact in 2 cases, partial defect in 1 case and absent in 2 cases. 5. Remnant cerebral hemisphere were as follows; partial and unilateral parietal lobe in 3 cases, both parietal lobes in 1 case, parietal and unilateral occipital lobes in 1 case, thalamus and basal ganglia in 1 case. 6. All cavities were seen in echofree cystic nature in US and low densities in CT. 7. 4th ventricle was seen in 4 cases, 3rd ventricle in 2 cases and lateral ventricles communicating with echofree cystic areas. 8. Polyhydramnios and macrocephaly were seen in 2 cases in prenatal US examination.

  2. US and CT findings of hydranencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydranencephaly is congenital disorder involving total or near-total absence of cerebrum, but with intact meninges and cranial vault. CT offered a unique diagnostic tool for the evaluation of these infants, but diagnosis as well as precise localization of anomaly can be provided. We analysed US and CT findings of 5 patients, with hydranencephaly who examined at Sung Ae General Hospital during last 3 years. The result were as follows; 1. 3 patients were diagnosed with aged in 11 days to 40 days, 2 patients were diagnosed in prenatal US examination with intrauterine pregnancy 40 weeks and 28 weeks. The male to female ratio was 3:1 (unknown sex in one case with intrauterine pregnancy 28 weeks) 2. Cranial vault and brain stem were intact in 5 cases. 3. Cerebellum was absent in 1 case and intact in 4 cases. 4. Falx cerebri was intact in 2 cases, partial defect in 1 case and absent in 2 cases. 5. Remnant cerebral hemisphere were as follows; partial and unilateral parietal lobe in 3 cases, both parietal lobes in 1 case, parietal and unilateral occipital lobes in 1 case, thalamus and basal ganglia in 1 case. 6. All cavities were seen in echofree cystic nature in US and low densities in CT. 7. 4th ventricle was seen in 4 cases, 3rd ventricle in 2 cases and lateral ventricles communicating with echofree cystic areas. 8. Polyhydramnios and macrocephaly were seen in 2 cases in prenatal US examination

  3. Model of syllable confusion in sound fields with single reflection; Tan`itsu hanshaonba ni okeru onsetsu icho model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenaga, Y. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    This paper introduces findings on the human auditory organ involved in voice information processing and its function, and describes a discussion on perception of syllables in the cerebrum and on the identifying process of syllables. A model of syllable confusion was proposed from a viewpoint of voice processing in the auditory organ. In addition, a syllable confusion estimation expression was proposed that is defined by an inter-syllable distance measure that reflects dynamic features of voice in addition to static features of voice. In order to verify the effectiveness of the syllable confusion model and the accuracy of the confusion estimation expression, a sound field with single reflection was used to compare the measured values and the estimated values of the degree of confusion. The single reflection sound field in the estimation was synthesized in a computer by using template syllable data. As a result, it was found that this syllable confusion model has identified nearly completely the syllable hearing characteristics of a human body. Improving further the estimation accuracy of the model requires discussions on automatic gain control in the middle ear and the inner ear, side suppressing function in the inner ear, non-linearity in cochlea filter, and auditory masking. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Radiological symmetry of brain and head images: comparison and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing image-based approaches neglect the difference in radiological symmetry between the human brain and head. Thus, it is important to analyze and quantify the spatial relationship between the brain symmetry plane (BSP) and the head symmetry plane (HSP) on radiological images. The HSP and BSP were calculated through maximizing local symmetry within the head or cerebrum followed by outlier removal. The HSPs and BSPs for 145 diversified MRI datasets (80 normal, 23 pathological, and 42 synthesized) were extracted and compared. The average angular and distance deviations between the HSP and BSP were 0.49 and 1.65 mm, respectively. These deviations are dependent upon ethnicity and gender, being: (1) (0.56 , 1.85 mm) and (0.42 , 0.91 mm) for Caucasians and Asians, respectively; and (2) (0.33 , 1.17 mm) and (0.51 , 1.58 mm) for males and females, respectively. The HSP is generally different from the BSP on MR images. Statistically, they can be used interchangeably if accuracy of (0.49 , 1.65 mm) is acceptable. The BSP is preferred for a high accuracy Talairach transformation and localization of the anterior and posterior commissures. Either BSP or HSP can be used for medium accuracy Talairach transform. The HSP is preferred for detecting intracranial pathology. (orig.)

  5. Brain Abscess after Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.M. Berkel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids is transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD. We report a case of brain abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri following THD. Although a brain abscess after drainage of a perianal abscess has been described in the literature, no report exists of a brain abscess following treatment of hemorrhoids. A healthy 51-year-old man with hemorrhoids underwent THD. Two weeks later he presented with a headache, bradyphrenia, flattened behavior and a left hemiplegia. No perianal complaint and/or perianal abscess was present. A contrast CT scan of the cerebrum showed a right temporoparieto-occipital abscess, with edema and compression of the surrounding tissue and lateral ventricles. MRI showed an abscess with leakage in the right lateral ventricle. Treatment with dexamethasone and intravenous antibiotics was started. Because of progression of symptoms, 3 weeks later ventriculoscopy was performed and the abscess was drained. Culture of the punctuate showed S. milleri. Because of developing hydrocephalus 3 days after ventriculoscopy, first an external ventricle drain and later a ventriculoperitoneal drain was placed. Hereafter the hemiplegia and cognitive disorders improved. This case report describes a severe complication following treatment of hemorrhoids with THD which until now, to our knowledge, has never been described in the literature.

  6. Methodical investigations regarding the influence of narcosis on the distribution of L-3H-fucose in the brain of rats after intracerebral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 3H-fucose in the rat brain after intraventricular injection was investigated in wake and pentobarbital-anaesthetized test animals, using a method for autoradiography of water-soluble substances. By a specially developed procedure a director cannula was stereotactically implanted into a calotte through which, a few days later, an injection needle could be introduced into the lateral ventricle without narcosis. The autoradiogrammes were prepared from cryostat cuts of the cerebrum. The investigation proved the distribution of 3H-fucose in the different sections of the brain to be very inhomogeneous and revealed that the tracer had mainly labelled the areas near the ventricle. With the aid of a micro-videomat, the blackened areas were measured in a certain frontal plane. The areas reached by the tracer, which were determined as parameters, were shown to increase as a function of the experimental time and to be always more extended in anaesthetized animals than in wake rats. (orig./MG)

  7. MRI findings of multiple malignant gliomas. Differentiation from multiple metastatic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple malignant gliomas are relatively uncommon, but are sometimes difficult to differentiate from multiple metastatic brain tumors. We analyzed the MR finding of four cases of multiple gliomas, comparing them with 12 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. All tumors were pathologically proven by surgical operation or autopsy. Gliomas were located in the deep white matter of the cerebrum, with none found in the posterior fossa. Tumors were relatively large, and irregular, thick, ring-like enhancement was noted after the administration of Gd-DTPA. Intratumoral hemorrhage was noted in only one case. High signal intensity on T2WI around the tumor suggested that edema was greater and more extensive than in metastatic tumors and was seen even in the corpus callosum. One autopsied case that showed this high intensity presented not only edema but also tumor infiltration. Metastatic tumors were located mainly in the corticomedullary junction of the brain. They were relatively small, and eight of 12 tumors showed, nodular or smooth ring-like enhancement. Intratumoral hemorrhage was noted in four cases. Edema was noted mainly around the tumor. We conclude that differential diagnosis between gliomas and metastases is possible to some extent by MRI. (author)

  8. Computed tomography in brain metastases of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancers are relatively rare. In previous reports, the incidence ranged from 3 to 5 percent of all metastatic brain tumors. We report 7 cases of metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancers. The time interval from the diagnosis of the primary tumors to the brain metastasis was 3 years on the average. Metastasis to the lung and liver were also found in 6 cases at the time of the diagnosis of the brain metastasis. The CEA levels in the serum were highly elevated in all cases. Solitary metastasis was found in all cases; cancers tend to metastasize in the deep area of the cerebrum or cerebellum. On a plain CT scan, tumors were demonstrated as ring-type, with a high-density mass, and ring-like enhancement was seen in 6 cases. Prognosis was very poor in most cases. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 4.5 months in the 2 cases with surgery and 3.5 months in the 4 cases without surgery. (author)

  9. Fatal transorbital penetrating intracranial injury caused by a bicycle hand brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A transorbital penetrating intracranial injury is a rare and severe traumatic brain injury. Patients with this type of injury may present dramatically, but often the injury is subtle and therefore easily overlooked and not recognized in the first place. We present the case of a 45-year-old female admitted to the emergency department after she fell with her bike and the bicycle brake handle penetrated her left eye. A computerized tomography of the cerebrum showed a fracture of the superior orbital roof with multiple bone fragments extending into the brain near the circle of Willis. A pneumocephalus and traumatic frontobasal, intraventricular and subdural hemorrhage was seen. The patient deteriorated suddenly and was transferred to a neurosurgical center where she underwent an emergency craniotomy with evacuation of the intracerebral hematoma and an intraventricular drain was placed. After surgery, the patient’s condition deteriorated, and total compression of the brain stem occurred, upon which the patient was declared brain dead. Our case report shows that the Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission is not always a good predictor of the severity of the injury. Even when there is minimal suspicion of a penetrating intracranial injury, a computerized tomography should be performed immediately, independent of the patient’s Glasgow Coma Scale score. A direct transfer to a specialized neurosurgical center is recommended because this injury often results in death due to fatal complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage, pneumocephalus and brain stem injury. PMID:22989177

  10. Brain modularity across the theropod-bird transition: testing the influence of flight on neuroanatomical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanoff, Amy M; Smaers, Jeroen B; Turner, Alan H

    2016-08-01

    Living birds constitute the only vertebrate group whose brain volume relative to body size approaches the uniquely expanded values expressed by mammals. The broad suite of complex behaviors exhibited by crown-group birds, including sociality, vocal learning, parental care, and flying, suggests the origins of their encephalization was likely driven by a mosaic of selective pressures. If true, the historical pattern of brain expansion may be more complex than either a gradual expansion, as proposed by early studies of the avian brain, or a sudden expansion correlating with the appearance of flight. The origins of modern avian neuroanatomy are obscured by the more than 100 million years of evolution along their phylogenetic stem (from the origin of the modern radiation in the Middle Jurassic to the split from crocodile-line archosaurs). Here we use phylogenetic comparative approaches to explore which evolutionary scenarios best explain variation in measured volumes of digitally partitioned endocasts of modern birds and their non-avian ancestors. Our analyses suggest that variation in the relative volumes of the endocranium and cerebrum explain most of the structural variation in this lineage. Generalized multi-regime Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models suggest that powered flight does not appear to be a driver of observed variation, reinforcing the hypothesis that the deep history of the avian brain is complex, with nuances still to be discovered. PMID:26538376

  11. The Blockade of NF-κB Activation by a Specific Inhibitory Peptide Has a Strong Neuroprotective Role in a Sprague-Dawley Rat Kernicterus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengwen; Song, Sijie; Li, Shengjun; Feng, Jie; Hua, Ziyu

    2015-12-11

    Kernicterus, the permanent nerve damage occurring as a result of bilirubin precipitation, still occurs worldwide and may lead to death or permanent neurological impairments. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and effective therapeutic strategies are lacking. The present study aims to investigate the activation of NF-κB and to identify the effect of NF-κB inhibition on the newborn rat kernicterus model. The NF-κB essential modifier-binding domain peptide (NBD), coupled with the HIV trans-activator of transcription peptide (TAT) was used to inhibit NF-κB. NF-κB was significantly activated in the cerebrum at 1 and 3 h (p model was established, as measured by EMSA. NF-κB activation was inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of TAT-NBD. The general conditions of the TAT-NBD-treated rats were improved; meanwhile, these rats performed much better on the neurological evaluation, the rotarod test, and the Morris water maze test (p NBD group, and these cells displayed less neurodegeneration and astrocytosis. Simultaneously, apoptosis in the brain was attenuated, and the levels of the TNF-α and IL-1β proteins were decreased (p NBD not only attenuated the acute neurotoxicity, apoptosis, and inflammation, but also improved the long term neurobehavioral impairments in the kernicterus model rats in vivo. Thus, inhibiting NF-κB activation might be a potential therapeutic approach for kernicterus. PMID:26499797

  12. Brain Injury Differences in Frontal Impact Crash Using Different Simulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao; Ma, Chunsheng; Shen, Ming; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2015-01-01

    In the real world crashes, brain injury is one of the leading causes of deaths. Using isolated human head finite element (FE) model to study the brain injury patterns and metrics has been a simplified methodology widely adopted, since it costs significantly lower computation resources than a whole human body model does. However, the degree of precision of this simplification remains questionable. This study compared these two kinds of methods: (1) using a whole human body model carried on the sled model and (2) using an isolated head model with prescribed head motions, to study the brain injury. The distribution of the von Mises stress (VMS), maximum principal strain (MPS), and cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) was used to compare the two methods. The results showed that the VMS of brain mainly concentrated at the lower cerebrum and occipitotemporal region close to the cerebellum. The isolated head modelling strategy predicted higher levels of MPS and CSDM 5%, while the difference is small in CSDM 10% comparison. It suggests that isolated head model may not equivalently reflect the strain levels below the 10% compared to the whole human body model. PMID:26495029

  13. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  14. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  15. Malingering and factitious disorder (Münchausen-syndrome can be mitochondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malingering and factitious disorder (Münchausen-syndrome has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial-disorder (MID. Here, we report a 46 years-old female with a MID due to a combined complex I-IV defect, manifesting in the cerebrum, muscle, bone marrow, kidneys, and the endocrine glands. Myopathy showed up as myalgia, easy fatigability, ptosis, and abnormal muscle biopsy. Endocrine involvement manifested as short stature and thyroid dysfunction. Involvement of the kidneys manifested as mild Fanconi syndrome. Bone marrow affection resulted in iron-deficient, chronic anemia with elevated transferrin. Cerebral manifestations included epilepsy with rare epileptic and frequent psychogenic seizures, and malingering and factitious disorder (Münchausen-syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Since malingering-disorder dominated the phenotype, the patient was in the majority of the cases not taken seriously, resulting in 175 hospital admissions over 20 years, repeated expensive diagnostic work-ups and huge amount of avoidable interventions. MIDs also manifest as malingering personality disorder (Münchausen-syndrome but normal cerebral imaging. Management of such patients could be difficult for institutions not familiar with MIDs and facilitated and improved if these patients are taken seriously and treated at departments particularly dedicated to handle MIDs.

  16. Could lysine supplementation prevent Alzheimer’s dementia? A novel hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Rubey

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert N RubeyRetired, Red Lodge, Montana, USAAbstract: There is a growing body of evidence that implicates the herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1 in the development of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. HSV-1 has been found to be present in the cerebrum of the great majority of older adults, and in many of the same areas of the brain that are affected by AD. When active, the virus may contribute to the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques characteristic of AD. Like AD, HSV-1 encephalitis may cause long term memory loss. HSV-1 replication is suppressed in lysine-rich/arginine – poor environments, and population studies suggest that diets high in lysine and low in arginine may be associated with lower rates of AD. There are no prospective studies of the efficacy of lysine supplementation to prevent or reduce the incidence of AD. Supplementation with adequate doses of lysine could prevent the development of AD.Keywords: lysine, herpes, Alzheimer’s dementia, HSV-1

  17. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  18. Latent central nervous disorders observed in the acute lymphocytic leukemia children after treatment. Comparison between the evaluation of electroencephalogram and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 8 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) which finished the treatment, the existence of the latent central nervous disorders was examined and was compared of MRI and brain wave. In the MRI, the T2-weighted image showed the large number of nodule abnormal high signal lesions in the cerebral white matter in 2 of 8 patients, and one of these patients was accompanied by the slight cerebrum atrophy. There was the diffuse high signal tendency of periventricular white matter and the slight expansion of ventriculus cerebri in one patient. In the brain wave, there was the abnormality of the basic pattern in 3 of 8 patients, and there was the slowing tendency in 2. There was no case which showed the paroxysm extraordinary wave. The patient who showed the abnormality by the MRI was all accompanied by the brain wave abnormality. The frequency of the latent central nervous disorders incidence in ALL treatment was high (3/8 on the brain wave, 5/8 on the MRI). The brain wave was supersensitively able to detect the failure than the MRI, if the finding of the basic pattern is evaluated in detail. (A.N.)

  19. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  20. Clinical and neuroradiological study on adult cases of familial microcephaly associated with mental retardation and convulsive seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microcephaly results from various causes, some genetic and some non-genetic. Recently, we encountered two families with microcephaly, mental retardation and convulsive seizure. These conform to an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. All adult cases were analyzed to describe the characteristic neuroradiographic findings. Although each presented a similar neurologic outlook, two cases secondarily resulting from infection or injuries to the developing brain during postnatal periods showed a specific variation. Skull X-P and CT scan of these two cases showed thickening of the carvarium, predominantly fronto-parietal lobe atrophy of the cerebrum, enlargement of the ventricle, and compensatory hypertrophy of sinuses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe micropolygyria and hypogenesis of corpus callosum. Abnormalities such as skull X-P, CT scan and MRI were severer in the secondary than in the primary microcephalics. Although brain volume was reduced, the volume ratio of cortex to white watter was similar to that of normal brain. MRI on severe cases of microcephaly revealed a high signal intensity in inversion-recovery images on the brain stem where markedly atrophy was noted. In adult microcephaly, the extent of cerebral development was thought to be reflected in the corpus callosum and brain stem where neuron fibers were densely gathered. (author)

  1. The protective effects of vitamin E on microcephaly in rats X-irradiated in utero: DNA, lipid peroxide and confronting cisternae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetuses from rats given either water or 0.03% D,L-α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) as a drinking fluid and X-irradiated with 100 rad on gestational day 13 were examined on gestational day 21. Mean cerebral weight which was significantly reduced by the X-irradiation was increased by vitamin E supplementation but the level did not reach that in sham-irradiated controls. Administration of vitamin E caused an increase in DNA concentration which was significantly reduced by X-irradiation with water treatment. An increase in the mean level of lipid peroxide formation was observed in the water-treated, X-irradiated group in the sample at zero time but not in the vitamin E-treated, X-irradiated group. In the cytoplasm of fetal cerebral neurons from X-irradiated dams with vitamin E supplementation, confronting cisternae were frequently observed between two nuclear envelopes. Confronting cisternae may be considered as a repair mechanism of vitamin E against X-irradiated neuronal damage in the fetal cerebrum. This study provides evidence of the protection by vitamin E of neuronal development in X-irradiated fetuses, through its antioxidant properties, against attacks by free radicals and/or lipid peroxide. (orig.)

  2. Effect of histamine on the electric activities of cerebellar Purkinje cell

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of histamine (HA) on the electric activities of Purkinje cell (PC) is studied on the cerebellum slice. We find that: (1) HA's main effect on PC is excitative (72.9%); there are also a small amount of PC showing inhibitive (10.2%) or no (16.9%) response to HA. (2) Different from the conventional opinion, HA's excitative effect on PC is mutually conducted by H1 and H2 receptors; the antagonist for H1 receptor could weaken HA's excitative effect on PC, while the antagonist for H2 receptor could weaken or even block the excitative effect of HA on PC. (3) PC's reaction to HA is related to its intrinsic discharge frequency; there exists a frequency at which PC is highly sensitive to HA, and well above this frequency PC becomes stable against HA. These results indicate that the histaminergic afferent fibre can adjust PC's electric activities by releasing HA, and thereby influence the global function of the cerebellar cortex; and that just like the $\\gamma $ region of cerebrum, cerebellum may also have som...

  3. Iron autointoxication in a 16-year-old girl: a protective role for hepcidin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonse, E; Valk-Swinkels, C G H; van 't Veer, N E; Ermens, A A M; Veldkamp, E J M

    2013-01-01

    Intentional iron overdose appears to be an increasingly common form of attempted suicide. We present a case of iron overdose in a 16-year-old girl who was found unconscious in her bed and brought to our emergency department. The most remarkable diagnostic findings were the patient's comatose condition, divergent eye position and positive Babinski foot pad reflexes. Laboratory tests showed hyperglycaemia and mild metabolic acidosis. A computed tomography scan of the cerebrum showed no signs of intracerebral haemorrhage or elevated intracerebral pressure. Toxicology screening showed no use of acetaminophen, ethanol or drugs of abuse. The patient was stabilized and monitored on the intensive care ward. When she woke up, she confessed to having taken Fero-Gradumet(®). Retrospectively analysed, the serum iron concentration in the first blood sample (seven hours after ingestion) was 62 μmol/L which corresponds with moderate iron intoxication. The patient received whole bowel irrigation with 2 L polyethyleneglycol solution and de-ironing treatment with intravenous deferoxamine 20 mg/kg in eight hours. She was discharged from the hospital after three days in a good clinical condition. Retrospectively, serum hepcidin concentrations were determined and evaluated in conjunction with serum iron concentrations and the installed treatment. Before medical de-ironing interventions were started, we saw that the serum iron concentration in our patient was already declining. At the same time, we observed a sharp increase in the serum hepcidin concentration. After normalization of serum iron concentrations, hepcidin normalized as well. PMID:23108765

  4. Medulloblastoma in infants and children: computed tomographic follow-up after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y Y; Glass, J P; van Eys, J; Wallace, S

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-six proven cases of medulloblastoma were reviewed by serial CT follow-up examinations from 4 months to 10 years, 2 months after the initial diagnosis, with a mean follow-up time of 3 years, 9 months. The children ranged in age from 10 months to 16 years, 7 months at the time of follow-up. The tumor recurred at the primary site in 20 cases (56%). Leptomeningeal metastasis was demonstrated on CT in 14 cases (39%); seven of these patients also presented with solid subarachnoid metastases. Thirteen patients (36%) showed evidence of severe brain atrophy, which was confined to the posterior fossa in seven of the 13. Calcification resulting from mineralizing microangiopathy developed in five cases (14%), including three patients who had extensive dystrophic calcification in the corticomedullary junction and the deep-seated nuclei of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Only one case of leukoencephalopathy was observed. The patterns of tumor recurrence in the posterior fossa that is severely deformed by surgery and other treatment modalities and leptomeningeal spread of tumor are discussed. PMID:3969470

  5. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  6. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  7. Cortical and thalamic connectivity of the auditory anterior ectosylvian cortex of early-deaf cats: Implications for neural mechanisms of crossmodal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, M Alex; Clemo, H Ruth; Corley, Sarah B; Chabot, Nicole; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-03-01

    Early hearing loss leads to crossmodal plasticity in regions of the cerebrum that are dominated by acoustical processing in hearing subjects. Until recently, little has been known of the connectional basis of this phenomenon. One region whose crossmodal properties are well-established is the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (FAES) in the cat, where neurons are normally responsive to acoustic stimulation and its deactivation leads to the behavioral loss of accurate orienting toward auditory stimuli. However, in early-deaf cats, visual responsiveness predominates in the FAES and its deactivation blocks accurate orienting behavior toward visual stimuli. For such crossmodal reorganization to occur, it has been presumed that novel inputs or increased projections from non-auditory cortical areas must be generated, or that existing non-auditory connections were 'unmasked.' These possibilities were tested using tracer injections into the FAES of adult cats deafened early in life (and hearing controls), followed by light microscopy to localize retrogradely labeled neurons. Surprisingly, the distribution of cortical and thalamic afferents to the FAES was very similar among early-deaf and hearing animals. No new visual projection sources were identified and visual cortical connections to the FAES were comparable in projection proportions. These results support an alternate theory for the connectional basis for cross-modal plasticity that involves enhanced local branching of existing projection terminals that originate in non-auditory as well as auditory cortices. PMID:26724756

  8. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  9. Oligodendrocyte Injury and Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Xiong, Huangui

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum), which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and resultant white matter damage is an interesting area of current HIV research. In this review, we tentatively address recent progress on oligodendrocyte dysregulation and HAND pathogenesis. PMID:27455335

  10. “脑功复得”改善脑老化的基础研究%xperimental study on the effect of Naogongfude on the aging of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小川; 蔡文琴; 李泽桂; 杨忠

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Naogongfude (NGFD, a traditional Chinese medicine orally administrated) on learning and memory and the expressions of synaptophysin (SY) and Tau-protein in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in aged rats and to explore the possible mechanism. Methods Rats were divided into normal and neural disturbance groups according to the outcomes of active avoidance reaction (AAR) test, and then each group was randomly divided into control and NGFD-treated experimental groups. Animals were orally fed with NGFD for 2 months (5 ml/d) in experimental group or routinely fed in control and taken AAR and passive avoidance reaction (PAR) tests. After the rats were sacrificed, the synaptosome count, the expression of SY and Tau-protein, and the neuron apoptosis in cerebrum were examined. Results The rats after 2-month NGFD administration had an increased AAR acquisition, obviously delayed AAR extinction and prolonged step through latency (STL) of PAR. The number of synaptosomes was raised and the immunoreactive intensity of synaptophysin was increased remarkedly, while Tau-protein immunoreactivity and apoptotic cells were decreased in cerebrum. Conclusion NGFD does have the effect of improving brain function and putting off the aging of rat brain according to the results of behavior study and morphological observation.%目的 研究中药合剂 “脑功复得”口服液(以下简称脑功复得)对老龄大鼠学习记忆能力及大脑皮质海马突触泡膜素(Synaptophysin, SY)、Tau-蛋白表达等的影响,探讨其延缓脑老化的功效及可能机制。方法 应用爬杆主动回避反应(Active avoidance reaction,AAR)将动物分为学习记忆正常组和障碍组,再随机分别设置对照组(普食)和实验喂药组(5 ml/d,2月)。在此基础上进行AAR和多功能箱被动回避反应(Passive avoidance reaction,PAR)训练、突触体计数、突触泡膜素和Tau蛋白免疫组化染色

  11. Modern status and tendencies of the development of radionuclide diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    emissive tomograph combined with X-ray tomograph, which is now in the commercial offer of the firm of General Electric. It allows at the same time not only to see inclusion our preparation into some pathologic process, organ, especially at the oncologic diseases, but also sharply determine spatial localization by the picture tomographic cut. Other technical novelty, which is known and taking root at the market, is the working out of the firm ADAC. This is a block of coincidence for carrying out positron researches on the emissive tomograph and block to correct of absorption, which considerably improves a quality of scintigraphy image and allows to raise a sharpness of diagnostics. In the same time with it exist and are under working out specialized gamma-cameras and gamma- tomographs in the first place for such fields as cardiology, oncology (scinthymammography), researching of cerebrum and others. If talk is about an equipment of the sections of radio nuclear diagnostics, then many profile hospital or institute must have universal tomographic gamma camera with a large fields for all types of research and specialized apparatus for the research of different organs (heart, cerebrum, thyroid gland, scinthymammography)

  12. 小檗碱对泼尼松性大鼠脑损害的防治作用%Preventive effects of Berberine on prednisone-induced cerebra injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文双; 张新乐; 徐道华

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察超生理剂量醋酸泼尼松致大鼠脑损害的特点,并探讨小檗碱对其的防治作用.方法 50只3月龄雄性SD大鼠,随机分成5组,每组10只,分别给予泼尼松与不同剂量小檗碱12w,观察大鼠脑匀浆与神经活动有关的酶含量变化,并对脑组织的形态进行计量学分析.结果 长期超剂量使用糖皮质激素后,脑匀浆中单胺氧化酶(MAO)含量明显增高(P<0.01);海马CA2区神经元排列无序、分散,有较多的神经细胞变性坏死.小檗碱高、中、低剂量组均可有效预防泼尼松所致的大鼠中枢神经系统功能和结构改变,明显减少糖皮质激素长期应用造成的不良反应.结论 长期应用泼尼松可对大鼠造成脑损害,小檗碱对其有较好的预防作用.%Objective To study the cerebra damaged by super-physiological dose of prednisone, and investigate the preventive effects of Berberine in rats. Methods Fifty Sprague- Dawley male rats at age of 3 months were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group) and treated with distilled water or prednisone or different dose berberine plus prednisone for 12 w. At the experimental endpoint, animals were drawn blood from right ventricle under anesthesia. The left half cerebrum was milled in 10% homogenate to test the content of monoamine oxidase ( MAO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) . The right half cerebrum was for histological observation. Results After super-physiological dose of prednisone, the concentration of MAO was increased significantly in that of GC group( P < 0.01). The cells were arranged disorderly, dispersed, Dropsical and necrotic nerve cells were found in CA2 region of GC group. Yet Berberine prevented the changes of nerve centre in prednisone rats. Conclusions Cerebra damage occurs in three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats after prednisone-treated for 12 w. The treatment of Berberine in different dose can prevent the damage.

  13. Psychophysical evaluation of Catphan®600 CT image quality findings using human observers and software analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A comparison of image quality obtained from human observers and software analysis of CT phantom images. Methods and materials: A Catphan®600 CT QA phantom was scanned for: posterior fossa; cerebrum; abdomen and chest on three CT models, as part of a dose optimisation strategy. CT image data sets (n = 24) obtained pre and post optimisation were blindly evaluated by radiographers (n = 8) identifying the number of distinct line pairs and contrast discs for each of the three supra-slice sets within the phantom's high and low contrast resolution modules. The same images were also reviewed using the web based service – Image Owl for automatic analysis of Catphan®600 images. Results: Inter-observer reliability measured using Cronbach's α between human observers and again including software analysis as the 9th observer gave α = 0.97 for both instances, indicating comparable internal consistency with and without software analysis. Results of a paired sample t-test showed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between human observers and software analysis in 37.5% of observations for line pairs and 37.5%; 12.5% and 50% for the sets of contrast discs representing nominal contrast of 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.3% respectively. Software analysis findings improved compared to observer readings as contrast levels reduced. Conclusion: Combined use of human observers and software analysis for evaluation of image quality in CT using phantoms is recommended. However the sole use of software analysis may provide more detail than that obtained by human observers. Further research to investigate the clinical relevance of such image quality findings is recommended

  14. Study of single dose test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jin Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of pure melittin(Sweet Bee Venom-Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom by utilizing protein isolation method of gel filtration. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study and determined 30㎎/㎏ which is 4285 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 15 and 7.5㎎/㎏ as mid and lose dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage groups. Hyperemia and movement disorder diminished with elapsed time. 3. For the weight measurement, male groups showed larger reduction in weight in accordance with higher dosage. Female groups didn't s how significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal nerves were removed and conducted histological observation with H-E staining. No abnormalities were detected in any of organs and tissues. 5. One female rat in the 30㎎/㎏ group had amputated toe near the administered area and histopathological finding was hemorrhage with inflammation. This is presumed as a secondary infection after the administration of Sweet BV. Conclusion: Above findings suggest Sweet BV is relatively s safe treatment medium. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  15. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Takikita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A. In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes. This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism.

  16. Neocortex and allocortex respond differentially to cellular stress in vitro and aging in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Posimo

    aggregations through the cerebrum may reflect differential responses to low level protein-misfolding stress but also reveal impressive compensatory adaptations in allocortex.

  17. Alternative promoter usage of the membrane glycoprotein CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatling Carl

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues and cell types, with a tissue specific expression pattern that is a result of a complex regulation for which the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. There are several alternative mRNA isoforms described for the gene. We have investigated the expression patterns of five alternative first exons of the CD36 gene in several human tissues and cell types, to better understand the molecular details behind its regulation. Results We have identified one novel alternative first exon of the CD36 gene, and confirmed the expression of four previously known alternative first exons of the gene. The alternative transcripts are all expressed in more than one human tissue and their expression patterns vary highly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, spinal cord, cerebrum and monocytes. All alternative first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins. The alternative promoters lack TATA-boxes and CpG islands. The upstream region of exon 1b contains several features common for house keeping gene and monocyte specific gene promoters. Conclusion Tissue-specific expression patterns of the alternative first exons of CD36 suggest that the alternative first exons of the gene are regulated individually and tissue specifically. At the same time, the fact that all first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins may suggest that the alternative first exons are coregulated in this cell type and environmental condition. The molecular mechanisms regulating CD36 thus appear to be unusually complex, which might reflect the multifunctional role of the gene in different tissues and cellular conditions.

  18. Discussion on Modern Engineering Graphics Education Developing Spatial Thinking%探讨发展空间思维的现代工程图学教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲玲

    2001-01-01

    The paper Inquires engineering graphics education developing spatial thinking from view of cognition psychology and points out emphatically that the spatial skills which cerebrum processes spatial images play an important part in developing spatial thinking according to analysing characteristics of spatial thinking in solving spatial geometry problems. It points out that the sense of graphics education work is not only teaching graphics concepts and drawing skills but also a work of scheme and enforcement in student's "not language" intellectual development. Teaching methods to spur improving effectively spatial thinking ability of students are put forward.%从认知心理学观点出发,对发展空间思维的工程图学教育研究进行了探讨。根据对解决空间几何问题时空间思维特征分析,强调指出大脑加工空间表象的技能性因素,对发展该思维有着重要作用。指出图学教育工作的意义不仅在于讲授图学概念、图示技能,还是一项开发学生的这种"非语言"智力的策划与实施工作。提出了几点教学法以促使有效提高学生的空间想象力。

  19. MRI/MRS as a surrogate marker for clinical progression in GM1 gangliosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Debra S; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Johnston, Jean; Golas, Gretchen; Yang, Sandra; Wiggs, Edythe; Latour, Yvonne; Thomas, Sarah; Portner, Cindy; Adams, David; Vezina, Gilbert; Baker, Eva H; Tifft, Cynthia J

    2016-03-01

    Background GM1 gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in GLB1, encoding β-galactosidase. The range of severity is from type I infantile disease, lethal in early childhood, to type III adult onset, resulting in gradually progressive neurological symtpoms in adulthood. The intermediate group of patients has been recently classified as having type II late infantile subtype with onset of symptoms at one to three years of age or type II juvenile subtype with symptom onset at 2-10 years. To characterize disease severity and progression, six Late infantile and nine juvenile patients were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Since difficulties with ambulation (gross motor function) and speech (expressive language) are often the first reported symptoms in type II GM1, patients were also scored in these domains. Deterioration of expressive language and ambulation was more rapid in the late infantile patients. Fourteen MRI scans in six Late infantile patients identified progressive atrophy in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Twenty-six MRI scans in nine juvenile patients revealed greater variability in extent and progression of atrophy. Quantitative MRS demonstrated a deficit of N-acetylaspartate in both the late infantile and juvenile patients with greater in the late infantile patients. This correlates with clinical measures of ambulation and expressive language. The two subtypes of type II GM1 gangliosidosis have different clinical trajectories. MRI scoring, quantitative MRS and brain volume correlate with clinical disease progression and may serve as important minimally-invasive outcome measures for clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26646981

  20. Interventional model establishment and computed tomography perfusion imaging for early diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish interventionally a new canine model of focal cerebral infarction suitable to the study of imaging diagnosis and thrombolytic therapy, and to evaluate the application of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in super acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Ten beagle adult dogs with self white thrombi of venous blood, injected into the left internal carotid arteries through 4F headhunter catheter selectively were created under fluoroscopic guidance. The cerebral angiography was performed before and after the embolization and the patency of the occluded cerebral arteries was observed with angiography at 1, 2 and 5 hours after the procedure. The CTP was performed at 2 hours after embolization. These dogs were sacrificed and their cerebra were taken out for pathologic study at 24th hour. Results: The occlusions of middle cerebral artery were shown angiographically in all 10 dogs with additional other cerebral arteries occlusion in 4. All occluded arteries were not recanalized at 2 hours after embolization, but the occluded arteries of 2 canines were partly recanalized at 5 hours. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was decreased to 48.3% ± 13.2% (33.7%-69.2%) in CTP of 9 canines showing no significant difference between digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CTP (P>0.05). All dogs were survived at 24 hours without any severe complications. The cerebral infarction was found in deep part of cerebrum of all dogs. Conclusions: The establishment of acute cerebral infarction model in dogs with interventional technique is simple, micro invasive and reliable, for investigating CTP as a fast, accurate and no invasive method in evaluating the canine super acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. (authors)

  1. Protection of DFP-induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration by antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treated acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p 2-isoprostanes, F2-IsoPs; and F4-neuroprostanes, F4-NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p 2-IsoPs, F4-NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity.

  2. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40±14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40±12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922±0.045 in patients and 1.066±0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892±0.060 in patients and 1.034±0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). We investigated 62 of 156 patients with unilateral supratentorial SICH using 320-detector row CT scanning. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time to peak (rTTP) levels were measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually outlined on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for the cerebrum, including normal-appearing brain tissue that surrounded the perilesional low-density area (NA) and the perihematomal low-density area (PA) in all patients and the cerebellum (ipsilateral and contralateral) in CCD-positive patients. Of 62 cases, a total of 14 met the criteria for CCD due to cerebellar perfusion asymmetry on CTP maps. In the quantitative analysis, significant differences were found in the perfusion parameters between the contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum in CCD-positive cases. No significant differences were found between the CCD-positive group and the CCD-negative group according to the hematoma volume, NIHSS scores, and cerebral perfusion abnormality (each P > 0.05). The correlation analysis of the degree of NA, PA perfusion abnormality, and the degree of CCD severity showed negative and significant linear correlations (R, -0.66∝-0.56; P < 0.05). 320-detector row CT is a robust and practicable method for the comprehensive primary imaging work-up of CCD in unilateral supratentorial SICH patients. (orig.)

  4. Crossed aphasia with jargonagraphia due to right putaminal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient was a 47 year-old right handed male. He had been dextral since infancy with no familial background of sinistrality. On June 10, 1982 he suddenly developed hemiplegia, hemisensory disturbance on the left side and aphasia. On the same day he fell into a coma. CT scan revealed right putaminal hemorrhage. The patient was operated on to evacuate the hematoma. On October 25 he was admitted to our hospital, when left spastic hemiplegia, sensory deficit and left Babinski sign were noted. Neuropsychological examination showed fluent spontaneous speech but no dysprosodia. The result of Standard language test of aphasia were fairly good except for naming low frequency words. Repetition and auditory comprehension were normal. Dyslexia was not observed. Dyscaliculia was also observed. Idiomotor apraxia, ideational apraxia and dressing apraxia were not observed. This case is characterized by 1) fluent aphasia without agrammatism, and 2) jargonagraphia. Fluent aphasia in a right-hander is said to be caused by a left postrolandic lesion. Lesions judged by computed tomography were located from the right putamen to the corona radiata. Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed with the 133Xe inhalation method. SPECT revealed a low blood flow area in the basal ganglia, a branch of the right anterior cerebral and of the middle cerebral artery. Furthermore the low blood flow area extended to the post-central gyrus of the right cerebrum. No obvious low blood flow area was seen in the left hemisphere. The most difficult problem for clinical diagnosis of crossed aphasia is whether the lesion is localized solely in the right hemisphere or not. SPECT is very helpful for detecting lesions not revealed by CT. (J.P.N.)

  5. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11C-glucose, 11CO2 and 11CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  6. Changes of rCBF 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in a selected disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and HMPAO a noninvasive examination of regional cerebral blood flow can be performed (rCBF). The purpose of the SPECT examinations was to define the location and magnitude of blood flow disorder in selected diseases and the assessment of the results as complementary to morphological tests CT and MRI or functional tests, such as EEG. The examinations were carried out in 455 patients: 91 - patients with depression, 29 - congenital hypothyroidism, 66 - migraine, 34 - epilepsy, 6 - Landau-Kleffner syndrome, 20 - Alzheimer disease, 55 - with suspected Alzheimer disease, 105 - cerebral stroke, and 48 - transient cerebral ischemia. The control group comprised of 26 subjects. The SPECT method was used to perform examinations. The images were evaluated based on semiquantitative method. The asymmetry of activity and activity referred to the referential region were measured using symmetrical ROIs localized in hypoperfusion foci. The differences in perfusion in symmetric locations exceeding 10% were considered abnormal. During the depression stage, in patients with depression, a decrease of rCBF occurred. Regression of depression results in an increase of rCBF almost in the entire cerebrum. In patients with depression, SPECT examination is a useful method to monitor course of a disease and to objectively verify the results of treatment. 2. Disorders of rCBF, a decrease and/or asymmetry, occurred in patients with congenital hypothyroidism, migraine, and epilepsy. 3. There is a relation between patterns of cerebral perfusion in stroke, visible in SPECT image, and an extent and intensity of cerebral ischemia. (author)

  7. Imaging hemorrhagic stroke with magnetic induction tomography: realistic simulation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a noncontact method for detecting the internal conductivity distribution of an object. This technology has the potential to be used in the biomedical area to check bio-impedance change inside the human body, for example to detect hemorrhage in the human brain. In this study the hemorrhagic stroke detectability with a 16-channel MIT system operating at 10 MHz was evaluated. Since the conductivity distribution is changed by the hemorrhagic stroke as well as the squeezed brain tissue around the stroke, deformation of the brain tissue is also considered and simulated with the help of a FEM-based linear bio-mechanical model in this paper. To simulate the raw measurement data as realistically as possible, the noise estimated from the experimental MIT system with hypothesis testing methods at 95% confidence level is added to the simulated measurements. Stroke images of 600 noisy samples for each detection assignment are reconstructed by the one-step Tikhonov-regularized inverse eddy current solution. Under the statistical framework, the detection failure is in control of a high false negative rate which represents a large artifact visualized in the reconstruction domain. The qualitative detectability of 18 detecting assignments, with three hemorrhagic positions (shallow, medial and center of the cerebrum) and two volume values (10 ml and 20 ml), overlaid by noise with three levels (standard deviation of phase change at 5 × 10−3°, 2.5 × 10−3°, 10 × 10−3°), are investigated. These detecting assignments are compared with each other to find out which volumes of deformed spherical hemorrhagic stroke can be detected by the modeled MIT system

  8. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Siblings from Families with Two or More Children with Learning or Intellectual Disabilities and Need for Full-Time Special Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannerkoski, M.; Heiskala, H.; Aaberg, L. (Child Neurology, HUCH Dept. of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)); Raininko, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Sarna, S. (Dept. of Public Health, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)); Wirtavuori, K. (HUCH Dept. of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)); Autti, T. (HUCH Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Several factors are involved in determining a child's need for special education (Sweden). Thus, the value of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities is uncertain. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic process of siblings with learning and intellectual disabilities and need for full-time SE. Material and Methods: Altogether, 119 siblings (mean age 11.9 years) from families in which two or more children attended/had previously attended full-time SE underwent prospective brain MRI. SE grouping included three levels, from specific learning disabilities (level 1) to global intellectual disabilities (level 3). Forty-three controls (level 0, mean age 12.0 years) attended mainstream education groups. Signal intensity and structural abnormalities were analyzed, and areas of the cerebrum, posterior fossa, corpus callosum, vermis and brain stem, and diameters of the corpus callosum were measured. In analyses, all area measurements were calculated in proportion to the total inner skull area. Results: Abnormal finding in MRI was more common for siblings (n=62; 52%) in SE (58% for level 3; 49% for level 2; 35% for level 1) than for controls (n=13; 16%). The siblings showed enlarged supra- (P<0.001) and infratentorial (P=0.015) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and mild corpus callosum abnormalities (P=0.003) compared to controls. Siblings in SE had smaller inner skull area than controls (P<0.001). Further, the relative area of the mesencephalon (P=0.027) and the diameter of the body of the corpus callosum (P=0.015) were significantly smaller than in controls. In binary logistic regression analysis, enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces increased the probability of SE (odds ratio 4.2; P=0.023). Conclusion: Subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities commonly have more MRI findings than controls. Enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces were a frequent finding in siblings in full

  9. A comparative study of computerized tomograms and neuropathological findings in cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases was studied by comparing CT images and neuropathological findings in 38 autopsied cases. Our special concern was directed toward several factors which caused false positive and false negative results in CT: the size and location of lesions, and the interval between the onset of the disease and the time of CT studies. Infarctions smaller than 5 mm should be interpreted as such with great care, because only 32.1% of them could be detected in CT, and 81.0% of small low density areas supposed to be small infarctions in CT films proved to be false positive in postmortem examination. 41.9% of middle-sized infarctions were detected in CT and 40.9% of middle-sized low density areas were false positive. Most of false positive low density areas appeared on the surface of the cerebrum where deep sulci join, or in the white matter anterior to the anterior horn or posterior to the posterior horn of the lateral ventricles. The possibility of false positive findings became far less, when the number of slices showing low density areas increased. All of the large infarctions were detected in CT. However, immediately after stroke they did not stand out as low density areas. In such cases, the decrease of cerebral sulci due to brain edema and signs of compression in the ventricular system could be the clues to make the diagnosis of large infarctions. The diagnosis of hemorrhagic infarctions was often difficult. Cerebral bleeding could be diagnosed easily by CT in its early period. However, old hematomas which rapidly resolved and became shrunken, could hardly be identified in CT. (author)

  10. Neuropathological diagnostic criteria for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other human spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budka, H; Aguzzi, A; Brown, P; Brucher, J M; Bugiani, O; Gullotta, F; Haltia, M; Hauw, J J; Ironside, J W; Jellinger, K

    1995-10-01

    Neuropathological diagnostic criteria for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) are proposed for the following disease entities: CJD--sporadic, iatrogenic (recognised risk) or familial (same disease in 1st degree relative): spongiform encephalopathy in cerebral and/or cerebellar cortex and/or subcortical grey matter; or encephalopathy with prion protein (PrP) immunoreactivity (plaque and/or diffuse synaptic and/or patchy/perivacuolar types). Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) (in family with dominantly inherited progressive ataxia and/or dementia): encephalo(myelo)pathy with multicentric PrP plaques. Familial fatal insomnia (FFI) (in member of a family with PRNP178 mutation): thalamic degeneration, variable spongiform change in cerebrum. Kuru (in the Fore population). Without PrP data, the crucial feature is the spongiform change accompanied by neuronal loss and gliosis. This spongiform change is characterised by diffuse or focally clustered small round or oval vacuoles in the neuropil of the deep cortical layers, cerebellar cortex or subcortical grey matter, which might become confluent. Spongiform change should not be confused with non-specific spongiosis. This includes status spongiosus ("spongiform state"), comprising irregular cavities in gliotic neuropil following extensive neuronal loss (including also lesions of "burnt-out" CJD), "spongy" changes in brain oedema and metabolic encephalopathies, and artefacts such as superficial cortical, perineuronal, or perivascular vacuolation; focal changes indistinguishable from spongiform change may occur in some cases of Alzheimer's and diffuse Lewy body diseases. Very rare cases might not be diagnosed by these criteria. Then confirmation must be sought by additional techniques such as PrP immunoblotting, preparations for electron microscopic examination of scrapie associated fibrils (SAF), molecular biologic studies, or experimental

  11. Tissue structure and inflammatory processes shape viscoelastic properties of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jason M; Guo, Jing; Berndt, Dominique; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an imaging method that reveals the mechanical properties of tissue, modelled as a combination of " viscosity" and " elasticity" . We recently showed reduced brain viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared with healthy controls, and in the relapsing-remitting disease model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which these intrinsic tissue properties become altered remain unclear. This study investigates whether distinct regions in the mouse brain differ in their native viscoelastic properties, and how these properties are affected during chronic EAE in C57Bl/6 mice and in mice lacking the cytokine interferon-gamma. IFN-γ(-/-) mice exhibit a more severe EAE phenotype, with amplified inflammation in the cerebellum and brain stem. Brain scans were performed in the sagittal plane using a 7 T animal MRI scanner, and the anterior (cerebral) and posterior (cerebellar) regions analyzed separately. MRE investigations were accompanied by contrast-enhanced MRI scans, and by histopathology and gene expression analysis ex vivo. Compared with the cerebrum, the cerebellum in healthy mice has a lower viscoelasticity, i.e. it is intrinsically " softer" . This was seen both in the wild-type mice and the IFNγ(-/-) mice. During chronic EAE, C57Bl/6 mice did not show altered brain viscoelasticity. However, as expected, the IFNγ(-/-) mice showed a more severe EAE phenotype, and these mice did show altered brain elasticity during the course of disease. The magnitude of the elasticity reduction correlated with F4/80 gene expression, a marker for macrophages/microglia in inflamed central nervous system tissue. Together these results demonstrate that MRE is sensitive enough to discriminate between viscoelastic properties in distinct anatomical structures in the mouse brain, and to confirm a further relationship between cellular inflammation and mechanical alterations of the brain. This

  12. Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jun; Chen, Wei-jian; Wang, Mei-hao; Li, Jian-ce; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Neng-zhi; Yang, Yun-jun [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China); Wu, Gui-yun [Cleveland Clinics Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cheng, Jing-liang; Zhang, Yong [Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhuge, Qichuan [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). We investigated 62 of 156 patients with unilateral supratentorial SICH using 320-detector row CT scanning. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time to peak (rTTP) levels were measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually outlined on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for the cerebrum, including normal-appearing brain tissue that surrounded the perilesional low-density area (NA) and the perihematomal low-density area (PA) in all patients and the cerebellum (ipsilateral and contralateral) in CCD-positive patients. Of 62 cases, a total of 14 met the criteria for CCD due to cerebellar perfusion asymmetry on CTP maps. In the quantitative analysis, significant differences were found in the perfusion parameters between the contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum in CCD-positive cases. No significant differences were found between the CCD-positive group and the CCD-negative group according to the hematoma volume, NIHSS scores, and cerebral perfusion abnormality (each P > 0.05). The correlation analysis of the degree of NA, PA perfusion abnormality, and the degree of CCD severity showed negative and significant linear correlations (R, -0.66∝-0.56; P < 0.05). 320-detector row CT is a robust and practicable method for the comprehensive primary imaging work-up of CCD in unilateral supratentorial SICH patients. (orig.)

  13. Ontogenesis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in guinea pig neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cerebrum there exist two distinct types of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Type I neurons are large in size and exhibit heavy nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d histochemical reaction, while type II cells are small with light NADPH-d reactivity. The time of origin of these cortical neurons relative to corticogenesis remains largely unclear among mammals. Here we explored this issue in guinea pigs using cell birth-dating and double-labeling methods. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chasing (2 doses at 50 mg/kg, 12 hours apart was given to time-pregnant mothers, followed by quantification of NADPH-d/BrdU colocalization in the parietal and temporal neocortex in offspring at postnatal day 0 (P0, P30 and P60. Type I neurons were partially colabeled with BrdU at P0, P30 and P60 following pulse-chasing at embryonic day 21 (E21, E28 and E35, varied from 2% to 11.3% of total population of these neurons for the three time groups. Type II neurons were partially colabeled for BrdU following pulse-chasing at E21, E28, E35 and E42 at P0 (8.6%-16.5% of total population for individual time groups. At P60, type II neurons were found to co-express BrdU (4.8%-11.3% of total population for individual time groups following pulse-chasing at E21, E28, E35, E42, E49, E56 and E60/61. These results indicate that in guinea pigs type I neurons are generated during early corticogenesis, whereas type II cells are produced over a wide prenatal time window persisting until birth. The data also suggest that type II nitrinergic neurons may undergo a period of development/differentiation, for over one month, before being NADPH-d reactive.

  14. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of 54MnCl2 was injected intravenously to 7 groups of each 5 male rats, and the distribution of 54Mn in the organs and tissues, its biological half life, and the retention and excretion of 54Mn were investigated. Most of the injected 54Mn was excreted rather rapidly in a few days, and only 25.3% of the dose was retained 3 days after the injection. However thereafter, the gradual excretion from whole body continued, and 1.8% of the dose still remained 113 days after the injection. The biological half life of the 54Mn in whole body was estimated as 31.6 days. At the early stage after the injection, the thick distribution was found in pancreas, liver, kidney, salivary gland, adrenal, and pituitary gland, but it decreased rather rapidly, and the biological half life was short. On the contrary, cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord showed the highest accumulation 3 - 14 days after the injection though the initial concentration was low, and the biological half life was long. The biological half life in thighbone was also long, and after 113 days, the thick distribution was found in thighbone and central nerve. Within 7 days after the injection, 83.6% of the dose was excreted into feces and 0.5% into urine. The excretion of absorbed metal to small intestine through bile is regarded as an important route as the distribution was thick in the contents of small and large intestines. (Kako, I.)

  15. The procyonid social club: comparison of brain volumes in the coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether increased relative brain size, including regional brain volumes, is related to differing behavioral specializations exhibited by three member species of the family Procyonidae. Procyonid species exhibit continuums of behaviors related to social and physical environmental complexities: the mostly solitary, semiarboreal and highly dexterous raccoons (Procyon lotor); the exclusively arboreal kinkajous (Potos flavus), which live either alone or in small polyandrous family groups, and the social, terrestrial coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 adult skulls including 17 coatimundis (9 male, 8 female), 14 raccoons (7 male, 7 female), and 14 kinkajous (7 male, 7 female) were used to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts. Endocranial volume was positively correlated with two separate measures of body size: skull basal length (r = 0.78, p raccoons. The dexterous raccoon had the largest relative posterior cerebrum volume, which includes the somatosensory cortex, in comparison to the other procyonid species studied. The exclusively arboreal kinkajou had the largest relative cerebellum and brain stem volume in comparison to the semi arboreal raccoon and the terrestrial coatimundi. Finally, intraspecific comparisons failed to reveal any sex differences, except in the social coatimundi. Female coatimundis possessed a larger relative frontal cortical volume than males. Social life histories differ in male and female coatimundis but not in either kinkajous or raccoons. This difference may reflect the differing social life histories experienced by females who reside in their natal bands, and forage and engage in antipredator behavior as a group, while males disperse upon reaching adulthood and are usually solitary thereafter. This analysis in the three procyonid species supports the comparative neurology principle that behavioral specializations correspond to an expansion of neural tissue involved in

  16. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis: comparison of [{sup 11}C]MeDAS, [{sup 11}C]CIC and [{sup 11}C]PIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Faria, Daniele de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Center of Nuclear Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Copray, Sjef [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijbesma, Jurgen W.A.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Vries, Erik F.J. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Buchpiguel, Carlos A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Center of Nuclear Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, we compared the ability of [{sup 11}C]CIC, [{sup 11}C]MeDAS and [{sup 11}C]PIB to reveal temporal changes in myelin content in focal lesions in the lysolecithin rat model of multiple sclerosis. Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed to determine the best method to quantify tracer uptake. Sprague-Dawley rats were stereotactically injected with either 1 % lysolecithin or saline into the corpus callosum and striatum of the right brain hemisphere. Dynamic PET imaging with simultaneous arterial blood sampling was performed 7 days after saline injection (control group), 7 days after lysolecithin injection (demyelination group) and 4 weeks after lysolecithin injection (remyelination group). The kinetics of [{sup 11}C]CIC, [{sup 11}C]MeDAS and [{sup 11}C]PIB was best fitted by Logan graphical analysis, suggesting that tracer binding is reversible. Compartment modelling revealed that all tracers were fitted best with the reversible two-tissue compartment model. Tracer uptake and distribution volume in lesions were in agreement with myelin status. However, the slow kinetics and homogeneous brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]CIC make this tracer less suitable for in vivo PET imaging. [{sup 11}C]PIB showed good uptake in the white matter in the cerebrum, but [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake in the cerebellum was low, despite high myelin density in this region. [{sup 11}C]MeDAS distribution correlated well with myelin density in different brain regions. This study showed that PET imaging of demyelination and remyelination processes in focal lesions is feasible. Our comparison of three myelin tracers showed that [{sup 11}C]MeDAS has more favourable properties for quantitative PET imaging of demyelinated and remyelinated lesions throughout the CNS than [{sup 11}C]CIC and [{sup 11}C]PIB. (orig.)

  17. Neonatal neosporosis in a 2-week-old Bernese mountain dog infected with multiple Neospora caninum strains based on MS10 microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini da Costa Reis, Rodrigo; Crisman, Robin; Roser, Margie; Malik, Richard; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Neonatal neosporosis is a challenging disease to diagnose in neonatal and young puppies because the first signs of this condition may not be strongly suggestive of an infectious aetiology. Within two weeks of birth, three of four pups died with a subacute clinical course, some with dyspnea, some with diarrhoea and some with neurologic signs. Neosporosis was diagnosed post-mortem, but only after microscopic examination of tissues collected at necropsy. Histological findings consisted of (i) necrotizing, diffuse interstitial pneumonia associated with intralesional protozoa and (ii) necrotizing multifocal myocarditis with mineralization and intralesional protozoa. No significant alterations were found in the cerebrum or cerebellum (spinal cord was not examined). Immunohistochemistry confirmed protozoal stages and cysts were Neospora caninum. Immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was negative. Lung and heart were the most severely affected tissues with large numbers of free zoites, BAG5 positive bradyzoites and tissue cysts of N. caninum further confirmed by N. caninum-specific quantitative real-time PCR. One affected pup which displayed knuckling, ataxia and diarrhoea were treated with trimethoprim sulfadiazine and clindamycin, and made a complete recovery. This surviving pup (at 8 weeks-of-age) and dam were both positive for N. caninum antibody (reciprocal titres 4096 and 256, respectively). Three other intact bitches on the same property were seropositive for N. caninum, suggesting horizontal transmission and a common source of infection, possibly due to consumption of infected meat. Analysis using microsatellite-10 (MS10) demonstrated that multiple strains of N. caninum were present. It was likely that all MS10 N. caninum strains were transplacentally transmitted from dam to pups. This is the first time that multiple N. caninum strains have been demonstrated to be vertically transmitted in dogs. N. caninum should be considered in the differential diagnosis for

  18. Cognitive and affective disturbances following focal brainstem lesions: a review and report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aes, Tine; Mariën, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Although insights in cerebellar neurocognition and affect are continuously growing, little is known about the role of the brainstem in cognitive and behavioural processing. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the brainstem is an inherent functional part of the cerebellocerebral network subserving cognition and affect, and that isolated brainstem damage may cause a constellation of symptoms closely resembling the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) following cerebellar pathology. In order to investigate these premises, the available literature on cognitive and affective disturbances following brainstem lesions was critically reviewed starting from the pioneer descriptions in the 1950s till June 2012. Three personal cases were added to a study group of 75 cases with isolated vascular brainstem damage. In a cohort of 30 patients that allowed construction of anatomoclinical correlations in a reliable way, a range of cognitive and behavioural symptoms, typically associated with impairment of cortical or limbic areas, were identified. Executive dysfunction, attentional deficits and a decline in general intellectual capacity represent the most common cognitive findings, but memory, visuospatial skills, language and praxis may be impaired as well. Almost half of the cases presented with behavioural or affective changes. Analysis of SPECT findings indicates that functional suppression of frontal, parietal and to a lesser extent also the temporal areas are common phenomena after isolated brainstem stroke. As reflected by diaschisis affecting the cerebellocerebral network, a loss of excitatory input from the brainstem to the cerebellum and cerebrum may induce disruption of several cortical regions as well as emotional control centres resulting in and a constellation of symptoms closely resembling the CCAS. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying brainstem-induced cognitive and affective disturbances is discussed. PMID:25520275

  19. 认知语境与英语词汇学习的相关性%Cognitive Context and Its Relevance to English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宏声

    2012-01-01

    As an important concept in cognitive linguistics, cognitive context is one of a series of contexts reflected in cerebrum and is regarded as a kind of psychological construct. Cognitive context, different from traditional context, is not static but dynamic. The success of communication depends on cognitive context, which will reflect mental states of the addresser and addressee in communication. Vocabulary is the basic component in English language. It has been well recognized that vocabulary is a central part of language learning and also seen as one of the barriers in college English. Vocabulary learning is connected with cognitive context, which will help students improve their vocabulary learning strategies.%作为认知语言学中的一个概念,认知语境是内化于大脑中的一系列语境因素,它被认为是一种心理结构体。认知语境呈动态而非静态状,这点与传统语境不同。认知语境反映了交际双方的心理状态,也决定了交际能否成功。词汇是英语的基本要素之一,是语言学习的核心部分,同时又是大学英语中的一个学习障碍。了解认知语境与词汇之间的相关性,将有助于学生改进词汇学习策略。

  20. Automatic extraction of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images using model driven analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an automatic extraction system (called TOPS-3D : Top Down Parallel Pattern Recognition System for 3D Images) of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images by using model driven analysis algorithm. As the construction of system TOPS we developed, two concepts have been considered in the design of system TOPS-3D. One is the system having a hierarchical structure of reasoning using model information in higher level, and the other is a parallel image processing structure used to extract plural candidate regions for a destination entity. The new points of system TOPS-3D are as follows. (1) The TOPS-3D is a three-dimensional image analysis system including 3D model construction and 3D image processing techniques. (2) A technique is proposed to increase connectivity between knowledge processing in higher level and image processing in lower level. The technique is realized by applying opening operation of mathematical morphology, in which a structural model function defined in higher level by knowledge representation is immediately used to the filter function of opening operation as image processing in lower level. The system TOPS-3D applied to 3D MRI head images consists of three levels. First and second levels are reasoning part, and third level is image processing part. In experiments, we applied 5 samples of 3D MRI head images with size 128 x 128 x 128 pixels to the system TOPS-3D to extract the regions of soft tissues such as cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. From the experimental results, the system is robust for variation of input data by using model information, and the position and shape of soft tissues are extracted corresponding to anatomical structure. (author)

  1. Pms2 suppresses large expansions of the (GAA·TTCn sequence in neuronal tissues.

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    Rebecka L Bourn

    Full Text Available Expanded trinucleotide repeat sequences are the cause of several inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Disease pathogenesis is correlated with several features of somatic instability of these sequences, including further large expansions in postmitotic tissues. The presence of somatic expansions in postmitotic tissues is consistent with DNA repair being a major determinant of somatic instability. Indeed, proteins in the mismatch repair (MMR pathway are required for instability of the expanded (CAG·CTG(n sequence, likely via recognition of intrastrand hairpins by MutSβ. It is not clear if or how MMR would affect instability of disease-causing expanded trinucleotide repeat sequences that adopt secondary structures other than hairpins, such as the triplex/R-loop forming (GAA·TTC(n sequence that causes Friedreich ataxia. We analyzed somatic instability in transgenic mice that carry an expanded (GAA·TTC(n sequence in the context of the human FXN locus and lack the individual MMR proteins Msh2, Msh6 or Pms2. The absence of Msh2 or Msh6 resulted in a dramatic reduction in somatic mutations, indicating that mammalian MMR promotes instability of the (GAA·TTC(n sequence via MutSα. The absence of Pms2 resulted in increased accumulation of large expansions in the nervous system (cerebellum, cerebrum, and dorsal root ganglia but not in non-neuronal tissues (heart and kidney, without affecting the prevalence of contractions. Pms2 suppressed large expansions specifically in tissues showing MutSα-dependent somatic instability, suggesting that they may act on the same lesion or structure associated with the expanded (GAA·TTC(n sequence. We conclude that Pms2 specifically suppresses large expansions of a pathogenic trinucleotide repeat sequence in neuronal tissues, possibly acting independently of the canonical MMR pathway.

  2. Statins for post resuscitation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Silfvast, Tom; Tenhunen, Jyrki

    2009-07-01

    After sudden cardiac arrest, successful resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation, a multi-faceted ischaemia/reperfusion related disorder develops. This condition now known as post resuscitation syndrome is characterised by marked increases in the inflammatory response and changes in coagulation profile and vascular reactivity. Additionally, the production of reactive oxygen species and activation of cytotoxic cascades of metabolism add to these injury mechanisms resulting in multiorgan perfusion deficits and dysfunction. Especially in the cerebrum these injuries may be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has shown that statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) exert numerous beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases irrespective of the lipid status. Remarkably, these pleiotropic effects seem to extended beyond cardiovascular diseases such as immunomodulative and antioxidative properties. We hypothesised that administration of statins early in the post resuscitation phase would prove beneficial in the resuscitated patient via several pleiotropic effects. These include inhibition of excessive coagulation and inflammatory response, suppression of oxygen radical production and improved vascular reactivity. The discussed effects are mediated via multiple pathways activated in the cardiac arrest victim, to which statins have been shown to have a beneficial modulating effect in experimental settings and non-cardiac arrest patients. To test this hypothesis in clinical practice, a randomized, controlled trial with sufficient power and standardised post resuscitation treatment would be necessary. The generally good tolerance of statin therapy with minimal adverse effects would support this experiment, although a parenteral form of the drug to ensure adequate dosage might be a prerequisite. PMID:19254829

  3. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

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    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  4. The gateway theory: bridging neural and immune interactions in the CNS

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    MasaakiMurakami

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS is considered an immune-privileged tissue protected by a specific vessel structure, the brain-blood barrier (BBB. Upon infection or traumatic injury in the CNS, the BBB is breached, and various immune cells are recruited to the affected area. In the case of autoimmune diseases in the CNS like multiple sclerosis (MS, autoreactive T cells against some CNS-specific antigens can theoretically attack neurons throughout the CNS. The affected CNS regions in MS patients can be detected as multiple focal plaques in the cerebrum, thoracic cord, and other regions. Vision problems are often associated with the initial phase of MS, suggesting a disturbance in the optic nerves. These observations raise the possibility that there exist specific signals that direct autoreactive T cells past the BBB and into particular sites of the CNS. Using a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, we recently defined the mechanism of the pathogenesis in which regional neural stimulations modulate the status of the blood vessel endothelium to allow the invasion of autoreactive T cells into specific sites of the CNS via the fifth lumbar cord. This gate for autoreactive T cells can be artificially manipulated by removing gravity forces on the hind legs or by electric pulses to the soleus muscles, quadriceps, and triceps of mice, resulting in an accumulation of autoreactive T cells in the intended regions via the activation of regional neurons. Gating blood vessels by regional neural stimulations, a phenomenon we call the gateway theory, has potential therapeutic value not only in preventing autoimmunity, but also in augmenting the effects of cancer immunotherapies.

  5. A New Brain Positron Emission Tomography Scanner With Semiconductor Detectors for Target Volume Delineation and Radiotherapy Treatment Planning in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We compared two treatment planning methods for stereotactic boost for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): the use of conventional whole-body bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator positron emission tomography (PETCONVWB) versus the new brain (BR) PET system using semiconductor detectors (PETNEWBR). Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with NPC were enrolled in this study. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET images were acquired using both the PETNEWBR and the PETCONVWB system on the same day. Computed tomography (CT) and two PET data sets were transferred to a treatment planning system, and the PETCONVWB and PETNEWBR images were coregistered with the same set of CT images. Window width and level values for all PET images were fixed at 3000 and 300, respectively. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was visually delineated on PET images by using either PETCONVWB (GTVCONV) images or PETNEWBR (GTVNEW) images. Assuming a stereotactic radiotherapy boost of 7 ports, the prescribed dose delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) was set to 2000 cGy in 4 fractions. Results: The average absolute volume (±standard deviation [SD]) of GTVNEW was 15.7 ml (±9.9) ml, and that of GTVCONV was 34.0 (±20.5) ml. The average GTVNEW was significantly smaller than that of GTVCONV (p = 0.0006). There was no statistically significant difference between the maximum dose (p = 0.0585) and the mean dose (p = 0.2748) of PTV. The radiotherapy treatment plan based on the new gross tumor volume (PLANNEW) significantly reduced maximum doses to the cerebrum and cerebellum (p = 0.0418) and to brain stem (p = 0.0041). Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that the new brain PET system using semiconductor detectors can provide more accurate tumor delineation than the conventional whole-body BGO PET system and may be an important tool for functional and molecular radiotherapy treatment planning.

  6. Generalized cerebral atrophy seen on MRI in a naturally exposed animal model for creutzfeldt-jakob disease

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    Dasanu Constantin A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging has been used in the diagnosis of human prion diseases such as sCJD and vCJD, but patients are scanned only when clinical signs appear, often at the late stage of disease. This study attempts to answer the questions "Could MRI detect prion diseases before clinical symptoms appear?, and if so, with what confidence?" Methods Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep, was chosen for the study because sheep can fit into a human sized MRI scanner (and there were no large animal MRI scanners at the time of this study, and because the USDA had, at the time of the study, a sizeable sample of scrapie exposed sheep, which we were able to use for this purpose. 111 genetically susceptible sheep that were naturally exposed to scrapie were used in this study. Results Our MRI findings revealed no clear, consistent hyperintense or hypointense signal changes in the brain on either clinically affected or asymptomatic positive animals on any sequence. However, in all 37 PrPSc positive sheep (28 asymptomatic and 9 symptomatic, there was a greater ventricle to cerebrum area ratio on MRI compared to 74 PrPSc negative sheep from the scrapie exposed flock and 6 control sheep from certified scrapie free flocks as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MRI imaging can detect diffuse cerebral atrophy in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep infected with scrapie. Nine of these 37 positive sheep, including 2 one-year old animals, were PrPSc positive only in lymph tissues but PrPSc negative in the brain. This suggests either 1 that the cerebral atrophy/neuronal loss is not directly related to the accumulation of PrPSc within the brain or 2 that the amount of PrPSc in the brain is below the detectable limits of the utilized immunohistochemistry assay. The significance of these findings remains to be confirmed in human subjects with CJD.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of gemfibrozil, morphine, and its two active metabolites in different mouse brain structures using solid-phase extraction with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zizhao; Wang, Lu; Xu, Mingcheng; Gu, Jingkai; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay was established and validated to simultaneously determine gemfibrozil, morphine, morphine-3β-glucuronide, and morphine-6β-glucuronide in mouse cerebrum, epencephalon, and hippocampus based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The deuterated internal standard, M6G-d3, was mixed with the prepared samples at 10 ng/mL as the final concentration. The samples were transferred into the C18 solid-phase extraction columns with gradient elution for solid-phase extraction. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05% formic acid (pH 3.2). Multiple reaction monitoring has been applied to analyze gemfibrozil (m/z 249.0 → 121.0) in anion mode, and M6G-d3 (m/z 465.1 → 289.1), morphine (m/z 286.0 → 200.9), and M3G and M6G (m/z 462.1 → 286.1) in the positive ion mode. The method has a linear calibration range from 0.05 to 10 ng for gemfibrozil, morphine, and M3G and M6G with correlation coefficients >0.993. The lower limit of quantitation for all four analytes was 0.05 ng/mL, relative standard deviation of intra- and interday precision was less than 10.5%, and the relative error of accuracy was from -8.2 to 8.3% at low, medium, and high concentrations for all the analytes. In conclusion, gemfibrozil can influence the morphine antinociception after coronary heart disease induced chronic angina by the change in one of morphine metabolites', M3G, distribution in mouse brain. PMID:27060926

  8. Experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in Argentina: a clinic and pathological correlation with special consideration on the central nervous system

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    Elvio E. Ríos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, aguapei or mandiyura, is responsible for lysosomal storage in goats. The shrub contains several alkaloids, mainly swansonine which inhibits lysosomal α-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoning occurs by inhibition of these hydrolases. There is neuronal vacuolation, endocrine dysfunction, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal injury, and immune disorders. Clinical signs and pathology of the experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea in Argentina are here described. Five goats received fresh leaves and stems of Ipomoea. At the beginning, the goats did not consume the plant, but later, it was preferred over any other forage. High dose induced rapid intoxication, whereas with low doses, the course of the toxicosis was more protracted. The goats were euthanized when they were recumbent. Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons and colliculi, were routinely processed for histology. In nine days, the following clinical signs developed: abnormal fascies, dilated nostrils and abnormal postures of the head, cephalic tremors and nystagmus, difficulty in standing. Subsequently, the goats had a tendency to fall, always to the left, with spastic convulsions. There was lack in coordination of voluntary movements due to Purkinje and deep nuclei neurons damage. The cochlear reflex originated hyperreflexia, abnormal posture, head movements and tremors. The withdrawal reflex produced flexor muscles hypersensitivity at the four legs, later depression and stupor. Abnormal responses to sounds were related to collicular lesions. Thalamic damage altered the withdrawal reflex, showing incomplete reaction. The observed cervical hair bristling was attributed to a thalamic regulated nociceptive response. Depression may be associated with agonists of lysergic acid contained in Ipomoea. These clinical signs were correlated with lesions in different parts of the CNS.

  9. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

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    Martin J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause

  10. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin J; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  11. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism

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    Semmler Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alterations contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Methods To investigate the relation of electrophysiological, metabolic and morphological changes caused by SE, we simultaneously assessed systemic circulation, regional cerebral blood flow and cortical electroencephalography in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, cerebral glucose uptake, astro- and microglial activation as well as changes of inflammatory gene transcription were examined by small animal PET using [18F]FDG, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Results While the systemic hemodynamic did not change significantly, regional cerebral blood flow was decreased in the cortex paralleled by a decrease of alpha activity of the electroencephalography. Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus. Sepsis enhanced the transcription of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta, and monocot chemoattractant protein 1 in the cerebrum. Regional analysis of different brain regions revealed an increase in ED1-positive microglia in the cortex, while total and neuronal cell counts decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus. Conclusion Together, the present study highlights the complexity of sepsis induced early impairment of neuronal metabolism and activity. Since our model uses techniques that determine parameters relevant to the clinical setting, it might be a useful tool to develop brain specific therapeutic strategies for human septic encephalopathy.

  12. Neurovirulence of H5N1 infection in ferrets is mediated by multifocal replication in distinct permissive neuronal cell regions.

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    Jennifer R Plourde

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI, subtype H5N1, remains an emergent threat to the human population. While respiratory disease is a hallmark of influenza infection, H5N1 has a high incidence of neurological sequelae in many animal species and sporadically in humans. We elucidate the temporal/spatial infection of H5N1 in the brain of ferrets following a low dose, intranasal infection of two HPAI strains of varying neurovirulence and lethality. A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN1203 induced mortality in 100% of infected ferrets while A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (HK483 induced lethality in only 20% of ferrets, with death occurring significantly later following infection. Neurological signs were prominent in VN1203 infection, but not HK483, with seizures observed three days post challenge and torticollis or paresis at later time points. VN1203 and HK483 replication kinetics were similar in primary differentiated ferret nasal turbinate cells, and similar viral titers were measured in the nasal turbinates of infected ferrets. Pulmonary viral titers were not different between strains and pathological findings in the lungs were similar in severity. VN1203 replicated to high titers in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, and brain stem; whereas HK483 was not recovered in these tissues. VN1203 was identified adjacent to and within the olfactory nerve tract, and multifocal infection was observed throughout the frontal cortex and cerebrum. VN1203 was also detected throughout the cerebellum, specifically in Purkinje cells and regions that coordinate voluntary movements. These findings suggest the increased lethality of VN1203 in ferrets is due to increased replication in brain regions important in higher order function and explains the neurological signs observed during H5N1 neurovirulence.

  13. Agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype

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    Niedermeyer, K.K.; McCorquodale, M.M.; Burton, B.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report an unusual case of agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with Down syndrome due to a 21/21 translocation. The patient presented prenatally at 21 wks gestation. A fetal ultrasound revealed multiple CNS anomalies including hydrocephalus, compressed cerebellum, absent septum pellucidum and possible cranial meningocele or encephalocele. High resolution ultrasound & fetal karyotype were recommended. The patient refused & elected to have a pregnancy termination. Chromosomal analysis performed on products of conception revealed a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and confirmed the 21/21 translocation chromosome. An autopsy revealed agnathia and multiple CNS anomalies including absence of the septum pellucidum, absence of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, an occiptal meningoencephalocele, dilation of the lateral ventricles, and extensive dysgenesis & heterotopias of the central cerebrum & mid-brain. Additional abnormalities included a persistent left superior vena cava, atrial & ventricular septal defects, irregular length of the fingers with absence of the middle phalanges of the right 2nd and 5th & left 5th digits and bilateral simian creases. Agnathia can be an isolated abnormality but often is associated with holoprosencephaly and/or situs inversus. The majority of familial case of agnathis-holoprosencephaly was caused by an inherited unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of 6p and monosomy of 18p. Our patient had a translocation form of trisomy 21 but did not have a phenotype consistent with Down syndrome. Trisomy 21 has not been previously reported in other cases of agnathia-holoprosencephaly. Whether the chromosomal abnormality caused the phenotypic abnormalities or if it is a coincidental finding cannot be determined.

  14. Observation of gold binding substances in tissues of mouse injected with AuCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Drugs which include gold are used as therapeutics of rheumatoid. However, little is known about the metabolite and attack mechanisms. We observed gold binding substances in tissues of mice using HPLC-ICP-MS. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with AuCl3 (10 mg Au/kg) and organs were removed and blood and urine collected in a time-dependent manner. 10% homogenate was prepared with 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and cytosol fraction was obtained through centrifugation. After filtration, 50 μl of sample was applied to HPLC-ICP-MS system. TSK G3000-SW column was used and elution was 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. At 8 hrs after the injection, gold appeared to bind to albumin, transferin, and the other high molecular weight protein in plasma. There were four peaks in liver and kidney, and three peaks were the same proteins among the four peaks detected in plasma. In addition, those three peaks were detected in the testes. In the pancreas, one peak was detected at 8 hrs, and a small molecular weight peak was additionally observed at 24 hrs. There was one large peak detected in urine and the peak was the same as observed in the kidney. Furthermore, there were no detectable peaks in cerebrum and cerebellum. In conclusion, Au mainly binds to several proteins and peptides in tissues after its injection.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of interictal 18F-FDG PET images for presurgical evaluation of epileptic foci in extratemporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interictal 18F-FDG PET is beneficial to patients with epilepsy to define the epileptic foci before operation, especially to decide the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However usefulness has not been clearly established in extra TLE. We retrospectively applied Z-score analysis to interictal preoperative 18F-FDG PET images for detection of the epileptic foci in order to achieve better performance. Seventeen epileptic patients (women/men; 8/9, age; 11-55 yrs) underwent resection of epileptic foci with good outcome (Engel's stage of I or II) even after more than a year from operation. Presurgical 18F-FDG PET images were spatially normalized using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99) with an original Japanese template for 18F-FDG and compared with normal database constructed from 31 healthy volunteers (women/men; 14/17, age; 19-59 yrs). A software program, easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), for analysis of patient data was developed by calculating Z-score in each voxel and visualizing the score in a standardized stereotactic space; Z-score=(normal mean-patient's value)/a standard deviation of normal data. Detectability of epileptic foci for this computer-aided analysis was compared with visual inspection of original 18F-FDG PET images by five radiologists without any clinical information. In all cases, there was significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the operated area. The sensitivities of the detection of epileptic foci obtained from visual inspection were 47-59%. In contrast to, computer analysis by eZIS showed 71% sensitivity when we defined the highest Z-score in the cerebrum to be the focus diagnosed by eZIS. Computer-aided diagnosis with eZIS for 18F-FDG PET study is useful for detecting epileptic foci in extra TLE. (author)

  16. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation mechanism of brain

  17. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. PMID:25202854

  18. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Siblings from Families with Two or More Children with Learning or Intellectual Disabilities and Need for Full-Time Special Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Several factors are involved in determining a child's need for special education (SE). Thus, the value of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities is uncertain. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic process of siblings with learning and intellectual disabilities and need for full-time SE. Material and Methods: Altogether, 119 siblings (mean age 11.9 years) from families in which two or more children attended/had previously attended full-time SE underwent prospective brain MRI. SE grouping included three levels, from specific learning disabilities (level 1) to global intellectual disabilities (level 3). Forty-three controls (level 0, mean age 12.0 years) attended mainstream education groups. Signal intensity and structural abnormalities were analyzed, and areas of the cerebrum, posterior fossa, corpus callosum, vermis and brain stem, and diameters of the corpus callosum were measured. In analyses, all area measurements were calculated in proportion to the total inner skull area. Results: Abnormal finding in MRI was more common for siblings (n=62; 52%) in SE (58% for level 3; 49% for level 2; 35% for level 1) than for controls (n=13; 16%). The siblings showed enlarged supra- (P<0.001) and infratentorial (P=0.015) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and mild corpus callosum abnormalities (P=0.003) compared to controls. Siblings in SE had smaller inner skull area than controls (P<0.001). Further, the relative area of the mesencephalon (P=0.027) and the diameter of the body of the corpus callosum (P=0.015) were significantly smaller than in controls. In binary logistic regression analysis, enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces increased the probability of SE (odds ratio 4.2; P=0.023). Conclusion: Subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities commonly have more MRI findings than controls. Enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces were a frequent finding in siblings in full-time SE

  19. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution.

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    Robison, R Aaron; Taghva, Alexander; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have sought a physical means of altering disordered behavior and consciousness. This quest has spawned numerous innovations in neurosurgery and the neurosciences, from the earliest prehistoric attempts at trepanation to the electrocortical and anatomic localization of cerebral function that emerged in the 19th century. At the start of the 20th century, the overwhelming social impact of psychiatric illness intersected with the novel but imperfect understanding of frontal lobe function, establishing a decades-long venture into the modern origin of psychosurgery, the prefrontal lobotomy. The subsequent social and ethical ramifications of the widespread overuse of transorbital lobotomies drove psychosurgery to near extinction. However, as the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric illness was established, numerous concomitant technical and neuroscientific innovations permitted the incremental development of a new paradigm of treating the disordered mind. In this article, we retrospectively examine these early origins of psychosurgery and then look to the recent past, present, and future for emerging trends in surgery of the psyche. Recent decades have seen a revolution in minimalism, noninvasive imaging, and functional manipulation of the human cerebrum that have created new opportunities and treatment modalities for disorders of the human mind and mood. Early contemporary efforts were directed at focal lesioning of abnormal pathways, but deep-brain stimulation now aims to reversibly alter and modulate those neurologic activities responsible for not only psychiatric disorders, but also to modulate and even to augment consciousness, memory, and other elements of cerebral function. As new tools become available, the social and medical impact of psychosurgery promises to revolutionize not only neurosurgery, but also humans' capability for positively impacting life and society. PMID:23916496

  20. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

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    Adem Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further

  1. Biologie se uniekheid as substraat vir die tipies menslike funksionering

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    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological similarities between humans and apes are great but they should not obscure the differences. Some differences are of such great consequence that man should be considered truly unique kind of organism with a marvellous plasticity of mind. All of the uniquely human traits are adaptations to the environments in which man evolved; these Include profound modifications of anatomy, physiology and behaviour. The morphological differences between man and his nearest relatives are very conspicuous. The form of the skeleton is adapted to fully erect posture and bipedal locomotion. The pelvis is broadened to provide adequate attachment for the powerful striding muscles. The transformation of the tail vertebrae is unique among the vertebrates. The joint for the neck is in the middel of the base of the skull. The hands are prehensile, with a large and strongly opposable thumb. The brain is uniquely large in proportion to the body and has a particularly large and complex cerebrum; the cerebral cortex contains the cent res for memory and complex computation. The enlarged brain requires prolonged infant dependency and high quality nutrition. Differences between humans and animals are grea tes t in the realm of behaviour: Ability to make tools (associated with bipedalism; ability to anticipate the future; development of symbolic communication (associated with expansion of cortex. Direct evidence of man's language capabilities comes form the anatomy of the modern human vocal tract. Man is the only species that succeeded in creating a truly productive language, and it is the scaffolding of human culture and civilization.

  2. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

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    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  3. Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Natural history and long-term outcome, an Indian experience

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    Sujit Abajirao Jagtap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO has evolved from devic′s classical description to a broader disease spectrum, from monophasic illness to a polyphasic illness with multiple recurrences, disease confined to optic nerve and spinal cord to now brain stem, cerebrum and even endocrinopathy due to hypothalamic involvement. Objectives: To report, the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentations, recurrence rate, treatment and response to therapy in 26 patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder among the Indian population. Methods: We performed observational, retrospective analysis of our prospectively maintained data base of patients with NMO, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis during the period of January 2003-December 2012 who satisfied the national multiple sclerosis society (NMSS task force criteria for diagnosis of NMO and NMO spectrum disorder. Results: There were 26 patients (female: male, 21:5, the mean age of onset of symptom was 27 years (range 9-58, standard deviation = 12. Twenty-one patients (80% fulfilled NMSS criteria for NMO while rest 5 patients (20% were considered as NMO spectrum disorder. Seven patients (27% had a monophasic illness, 19 patients (73% had a polyphasic illness with recurrences. The Median recurrence rate was 4/patient in the polyphasic group. 13 (50% patient were tested for aquaporin 4 antibody, 8 (61% were positive while 5 patients (39% were negative. All patients received intravenous methyl prednisolone, 9 patients (35% required further treatment for acute illness in view of unresponsiveness to steroids. Thirteen patients (50% received disease-modifying agents for recurrences. Mean duration of follow-up was 5 years. All patients had a good outcome (modified Rankin scale, <3 except one who had poor visual recovery. Conclusion: Neuromyelitis optica/NMO spectrum disorder is demyelinating disorder with female predominance, polyphasic course, myelitis being most common event although brain

  4. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the author (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants. (J.P.N.)

  5. Expression and localization of X11 family proteins in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motodate, Rika; Saito, Yuhki; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2016-09-01

    The X11/Mint family of proteins comprises X11/X11α/Mint1, X11L/X11β/Mint2, and X11L2/X11γ/Mint3. Each of these molecules is an adaptor protein that contains a phosphotyrosine interaction/binding (PI/PTB) and two PDZ domains in its carboxy-terminal region. X11/Mint family members associate with a broad spectrum of membrane proteins, including Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), alcadeins, and low density lipoprotein receptor proteins, as well as various cytoplasmic proteins including Arf, kalirin-7, and Munc18. In particular, X11 and X11L are thought to play various roles in the regulation of neural functions in brain. Nevertheless, the protein levels and respective localization of individual family members remain controversial. We analyzed the protein levels of X11 and X11L in the corresponding single- and double-knockout mice. X11 and X11L did not exhibit obvious changes of their protein levels when the other was absent, especially in cerebrum in which they were widely co-expressed. In cerebellum, X11 and X11L localized in characteristic patterns in various types of neurons, and X11 protein level increased without an obvious ectopic localization in X11L-knockout mice. Interestingly, only X11L protein existed specifically in brain, whereas, contrary to the accepted view, X11 protein was detected at the highest levels in brain but was also strongly detected in pancreas, testis, and paranephros. Together, our results indicate that both X11 and X11L exert largely in brain neurons, but X11 may also function in peripheral tissues. PMID:27268412

  6. Characterization of the genomic region containing the Shadow of Prion Protein (SPRN gene in sheep

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    Van Zeveren Alex

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TSEs are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases occurring in man and animals. They are caused by prions, alternatively folded forms of the endogenous prion protein, encoded by PRNP. Since differences in the sequence of PRNP can not explain all variation in TSE susceptibility, there is growing interest in other genes that might have an influence on this susceptibility. One of these genes is SPRN, a gene coding for a protein showing remarkable similarities with the prion protein. Until now, SPRN has not been described in sheep, a highly relevant species in prion matters. Results In order to characterize the genomic region containing SPRN in sheep, a BAC mini-contig was built, covering approximately 200,000 bp and containing the genes ECHS1, PAOX, MTG1, SPRN, LOC619207, CYP2E1 and at least partially SYCE1. FISH mapping of the two most exterior BAC clones of the contig positioned this contig on Oari22q24. A fragment of 4,544 bp was also sequenced, covering the entire SPRN gene and 1206 bp of the promoter region. In addition, the transcription profile of SPRN in 21 tissues was determined by RT-PCR, showing high levels in cerebrum and cerebellum, and low levels in testis, lymph node, jejunum, ileum, colon and rectum. Conclusion Annotation of a mini-contig including SPRN suggests conserved linkage between Oari22q24 and Hsap10q26. The ovine SPRN sequence, described for the first time, shows a high level of homology with the bovine, and to a lesser extent with the human SPRN sequence. In addition, transcription profiling in sheep reveals main expression of SPRN in brain tissue, as in rat, cow, man and mouse.

  7. HSV-1 as a novel therapy for breast cancer meningeal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, D; Tanabe, K K

    2015-10-01

    Meningeal metastasis is a fatal complication of breast cancer that affects 5-8% of patients. When cancer cells seed in the meninges, their subsequent growth results in severe neurological complications involving the cranial nerves, cerebrum and spinal cord, limiting life expectancy to less than 4 months. The incidences of meningeal metastases increase with prolonged lifespan resulting from treatment advances for primary breast cancer and their metastases. Currently, there is no cure. Aggressive multimodal therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy (intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and systemic) are ineffective. Therapeutic agents are often quickly cleared from the CSF, while higher doses that can achieve a therapeutic response are highly toxic. The secure guarding of the subarachnoid space by the blood-brain barrier on one side and the blood-CSF barrier on the other prevents chemotherapy from reaching cancer cells in the meninges. These challenges with treating meningeal metastases highlight the urgent need for a new therapeutic modality. An ideal treatment would be an agent that avoids rapid clearance, remains within the CSF, reaches the meninges and selectively destroys tumor cells. Replication conditional oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be effective in this regard. Viral oncolysis, the destruction of cancer cells by replicating virus, is under clinical investigation for cancers that are unresponsive to current therapies. It is based on the model of multiple cycles of lytic virus replication in cancer cells that amplify the injected dose. The therapeutic potential of oncolytic HSV-1 for breast cancer meningeal metastases is discussed here. HSV-1 could be a potential novel treatment for meningeal metastases that can be translated to the clinic. PMID:26384139

  8. Quantitative evaluation of brain involvement in ataxia telangiectasia by diffusion weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firat, Ahmet Kemal [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya 44280 (Turkey); Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya 44280 (Turkey)]. E-mail: hkarakas@inonu.edu.tr; Firat, Yezdan [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malatya (Turkey); Yakinci, Cengiz [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and to investigate the spatial distribution of cerebral microstructural changes caused by the disease. Methods: Six AT patients (9-13 years) and nine healthy control subjects were examined on 1.5 T scanner. In addition to conventional MR images, DWI were performed with a fat suppressed, multishot spin echo EPI sequence using B values of 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. Mean ADC values were measured from 16 different supra and infratentorial location. The difference between controls and AT patients regarding ADC values, and the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of them in discrimination were analyzed with t-tests, logistic regression analysis, ANOVA and ROC curves. Results: Conventional images of the controls were normal. In AT patients, the only conventional MR abnormality was cerebellar atrophy. The difference between both groups regarding mean ADC values was not significant for any of the cerebral structures. In contrary to cerebrum, cerebellar mean ADC values of patients and controls were statistically different (p < 0.011-0.0001). Patients and controls were classified with 100% accuracy using ADC values of cerebellar white matter and cortex together (p < 0.016). The cut-off ADC value (0.699 mm{sup 2}/s) for middle cerebellar cortex had produced highest (100%) sensitivity and specificity. There was a difference between superior, middle and inferior cerebellar cortex regarding ADC values (p < 0.026). Superior cerebellar cortex (0.987 {+-} 0.1956 mm{sup 2}/s) had higher ADC values than the middle and inferior cerebellar cortex. Conclusion: DWI provides a supplementary and objective imaging finding in AT. This finding is highly accurate in the radiological discrimination of healthy subjects and AT. Our findings also implicate that AT causes a diffuse atrophy and mostly affects superior part of the cortex.

  9. STUDY OF POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS BY HIGH RESOLUTION MRI

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    Sree Hari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  10. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy); Funktionelle Bildgebung bei Hirntumoren (Perfusion, DTI, MR-Spektroskopie)

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    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  11. Kinetic analysis of transport and opioid receptor binding of [3H](-)-cyclofoxy in rat brain in vivo: Implications for human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]Cyclofoxy (CF: 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6-beta-fluoromorp hinan) is an opioid antagonist with affinity to both mu and kappa subtypes that was synthesized for quantitative evaluation of opioid receptor binding in vivo. Two sets of experiments in rats were analyzed. The first involved determining the metabolite-corrected blood concentration and tissue distribution of CF in brain 1 to 60 min after i.v. bolus injection. The second involved measuring brain washout for 15 to 120 s following intracarotid artery injection of CF. A physiologically based model and a classical compartmental pharmacokinetic model were compared. The models included different assumptions for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB); estimates of nonspecific tissue binding and specific binding to a single opiate receptor site were found to be essentially the same with both models. The nonspecific binding equilibrium constant varied modestly in different brain structures (Keq = 3-9), whereas the binding potential (BP) varied over a much broader range (BP = 0.6-32). In vivo estimates of the opioid receptor dissociation constant were similar for different brain structures (KD = 2.1-5.2 nM), whereas the apparent receptor density (Bmax) varied between 1 (cerebellum) and 78 (thalamus) pmol/g of brain. The receptor dissociation rate constants in cerebrum (k4 = 0.08-0.16 min-1; koff = 0.16-0.23 min-1) and brain vascular permeability (PS = 1.3-3.4 ml/min/g) are sufficiently high to achieve equilibrium conditions within a reasonable period of time. Graphical analysis of the data is inappropriate due to the high tissue-loss rate constant for CF in brain. From these findings, CF should be a very useful opioid receptor ligand for the estimation of the receptor binding parameters in human subjects using [18F]CF and positron emission tomography

  12. Highly sensitive detection of S-nitrosylated proteins by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyang; Circu, Magdalena L; Zhou, Hu; Figeys, Daniel; Aw, Tak Y; Feng, June

    2011-09-23

    S-nitrosylated proteins are biomarkers of oxidative damage in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report a new method for detecting and quantifying nitrosylated proteins by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Dylight 488 maleimide was used to specifically label thiol group (SH) after switching the S-nitrosothiol (S-NO) to SH in cysteine using the "fluorescence switch" assay. In vitro nitrosylation model-BSA subjected to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) optimized the labeling reactions and characterized the response of the LIF detector. The method proves to be highly sensitive, detecting 1.3 picomolar (pM) concentration of nitrosothiols in nanograms of proteins, which is the lowest limit of detection of nitrosothiols reported to date. We further demonstrated the direct application of this method in monitoring protein nitrosylation damage in MQ mediated human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The nitrosothiol amounts in MQ treated and untreated cells are 14.8±0.2 and 10.4±0.5 pmol/mg of proteins, respectively. We also depicted nitrosylated protein electrophoretic profiles of brain cerebrum of 5-month-old AD transgenic (Tg) mice model. In Tg mice brain, 15.5±0.4 pmol of nitrosothiols/mg of proteins was quantified while wild type contained 11.7±0.3 pmol/mg proteins. The methodology is validated to quantify low levels of S-nitrosylated protein in complex protein mixtures from both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21820121

  13. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis: comparison of [11C]MeDAS, [11C]CIC and [11C]PIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compared the ability of [11C]CIC, [11C]MeDAS and [11C]PIB to reveal temporal changes in myelin content in focal lesions in the lysolecithin rat model of multiple sclerosis. Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed to determine the best method to quantify tracer uptake. Sprague-Dawley rats were stereotactically injected with either 1 % lysolecithin or saline into the corpus callosum and striatum of the right brain hemisphere. Dynamic PET imaging with simultaneous arterial blood sampling was performed 7 days after saline injection (control group), 7 days after lysolecithin injection (demyelination group) and 4 weeks after lysolecithin injection (remyelination group). The kinetics of [11C]CIC, [11C]MeDAS and [11C]PIB was best fitted by Logan graphical analysis, suggesting that tracer binding is reversible. Compartment modelling revealed that all tracers were fitted best with the reversible two-tissue compartment model. Tracer uptake and distribution volume in lesions were in agreement with myelin status. However, the slow kinetics and homogeneous brain uptake of [11C]CIC make this tracer less suitable for in vivo PET imaging. [11C]PIB showed good uptake in the white matter in the cerebrum, but [11C]PIB uptake in the cerebellum was low, despite high myelin density in this region. [11C]MeDAS distribution correlated well with myelin density in different brain regions. This study showed that PET imaging of demyelination and remyelination processes in focal lesions is feasible. Our comparison of three myelin tracers showed that [11C]MeDAS has more favourable properties for quantitative PET imaging of demyelinated and remyelinated lesions throughout the CNS than [11C]CIC and [11C]PIB. (orig.)

  14. [Determination of irreversibility of clinical brain death. Electroencephalography and evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A

    2016-02-01

    Principally, in the fourth update of the rules for the procedure to finally determine the irreversible cessation of function of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem, the importance of an electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are confirmed. This paper presents the reliability and validity of the electrophysiological diagnosis, discusses the amendments in the fourth version of the guidelines and introduces the practical application, problems and sources of error.An EEG is the best established supplementary diagnostic method for determining the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. It should be noted that residual brain activity can often persist for many hours after the onset of brain death syndrome, particularly in patients with primary brainstem lesions. The derivation and analysis of an EEG requires a high level of expertise to be able to safely distinguish artefacts from primary brain activity. The registration of EEGs to demonstrate the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome is extremely time consuming.The BAEPs can only be used to confirm the irreversibility of brain death syndrome in serial examinations or in the rare cases of a sustained wave I or sustained waves I and II. Very often, an investigation cannot be reliably performed because of existing sound conduction disturbances or failure of all potentials even before the onset of clinical brain death syndrome. This explains why BAEPs are only used in exceptional cases.The SEPs of the median nerve can be very reliably derived, are technically simple and with few sources of error. A serial investigation is not required and the time needed for examination is short. For these reasons SEPs are given preference over EEGs and BAEPs for establishing the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. PMID:26785843

  15. The effects of dopamine on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after L-dopa. Measurement by Xe-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using the stable xenon enhanced CT method in previously untreated 13 patients with Parkinson's disease to evaluate CBF abnormality related to dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The patients comprised 5 men and 8 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Age at onset ranged from 51 to 73 years (mean±SD, 61.8±8.9) and the duration of illness ranged from 1 to 96 months (15.1±24.1 months). In this series, there was no clinical evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment. rCBF was measured during 4-5-minutes inhalation, of 33% stable xenon gas-67% oxygen. The first measurement of rCBF was performed in all of the patients before L-dopa treatment. After initiation of L-dopa treatment (333.3±47.1 mg/day), the second measurement was carried out in 6 patients (1 man and 5 women) who had shown symptomatic improvement. The interval between both measurements was 57.7±16.9 days. The following results were obtained. 1) No significant CBF asymmetry was noted in any of the striatum, pallidum, thalamus, cerebrum, cerebellum and frontal lobe in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease. 2) After L-dopa treatment, rCBF was significantly increased only in the striatum as compared with the pretreatment level (51.9±9.3→63.1±9.9 ml/100g/min, p<0.01). 3) This increase was significantly greater on the more severely affected side (contralateral to the predominantly symptomatic limb) (p<0.05). These results suggest that the increase of rCBF in the striatum is closely related to functional improvement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. (author)

  16. CT findings of the brain post cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects were 88 cases of non-traumatic CPA excluding those with primary brain disease. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the duration of cardiac arrest: Group A (less than 15 minutes, 2 cases), Group B (15-30 minutes, 11 cases), Group C (more than 30 minutes, 40 cases), Group D (no resuscitation after cardiac arrest, 35 cases). All cases in Group A were observed to be clear consciousness after resuscitation. Not only the functional outcome but also the survivals rates were poorer as the duration of cardiac arrest increased in Groups B and C compared to Group A. The mortality rate was 85% or higher for cardiac arrest of 15 minutes or longer. Brain edema after resuscitation was examined by head CT in the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and in the corticomedullary junction of the cerebrum. In the cases of short duration of cardiac arrest, the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and the corticomedullary junction were clearly visible on CT. On the other hand, these areas were poorly or not visible (marked brain edema) in the cases of longer duration of cardiac arrest. The borders of the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and the corticomedullary junction were not obscured in any of the cases in Group A. However, the borders of these regions were poorly visible or not visible more frequently as the duration of cardiac arrest increased. In particular, the corticomedullary junction was not visible more frequently after cardiac arrest of long duration. Brain edema is caused and intensified by prolongation of hypoxia, but it is also reported to be caused by external cardiac massage, which increases the intracranial pressure. This was also suggested by the more notable brain edema in the corticomedullary junction than in the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions. These findings of brain edema appeared on head CT within 4 hours after CPR. Findings suggestive of vascular occlusion were also obtained. (K.H.)

  17. Clinical course of a partially thrombosed, symptomatic aneurysm of the basilar artery tip with partial recanalization subsequent to coiling; Verlaufsbeschreibung eines teilthrombosierten symptomatischen Basilariskopfaneurysmas mit teilweiser Rekanalisierung nach Coiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Homburg (Germany); Klinikum Saarbruecken, Institut fuer bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionen, Saarbruecken (Germany); Axmann, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Homburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    A 72-year-old patient was referred to the neuroradiological department for diagnostic angiography. She was suffering from vertigo and double vision. Magnetic resonance imaging performed elsewhere had demonstrated a giant aneurysm of the basilar artery tip 2 cm in diameter. Angiography revealed a large aneurysm with a broad neck that was partially thrombosed, which precluded closure by coiling. Neurosurgical management by clipping also appeared to be unsuitable because of the proximity to the cerebrum. The decision was reached to proceed expectantly by closely monitoring the clinical course. When the aneurysm increased in size in the ensuing weeks, coiling was performed successfully. Angiographic follow-up showed reperfusion of the aneurysm neck and closure was again achieved by repeat coiling. Reperfusion is not a rare complication following coiling and often necessitates renewed intervention. (orig.) [German] Eine 72-jaehrige Patientin wurde in der neuroradiologischen Abteilung zur diagnostischen Angiographie vorgestellt. Sie litt unter Schwindel und Doppelbildern. Eine auswaertige MR-Untersuchung des Gehirns zeigte ein Riesenaneurysma des Basilariskopfes mit einem Durchmesser von 2 cm. Die Angiographie zeigte ein grosses Aneurysma mit breitem Hals, das teilweise thrombosiert war. Dies liess einen Verschluss durch Coiling nicht zu. Eine neurochirurgische Behandlung durch Klippung erschien wegen der Naehe zum Mittelhirn ebenfalls ungeeignet. Man einigte sich auf ein abwartendes Vorgehen durch eine engmaschige Verlaufsbeobachtung. Als das Aneurysma in den folgenden Wochen eine Groessenzunahme zeigte, wurde erfolgreich ein Coiling durchgefuehrt. Eine angiographische Verlaufskontrolle zeigte eine Reperfusion des Aneurysmahalses. Erneut konnte ein Verschluss durch Coiling erzielt werden. Eine Reperfusion ist keine seltene Komplikation nach Coiling, die oft eine erneute Intervention erfordert. (orig.)

  18. The architecture of the nervous system of Echiniscus testudo (Echiniscoidea, Heterotardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schulze

    2013-03-01

    -, deuto- and trito-cerebrum.

  19. Auditory brain-stem response, CT and MR imaging in a family with classical type Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, M.; Ookuni, H.; Sugita, T.

    1987-05-01

    A family in which 5 males in successive generations were clinically suspected to be affected with the classical X-linked recessive form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is presented. Two brothers and their maternal uncle were examined by one of the authors (MS). In two brothers, aged 3 years and 2 years, the disease became obvious within a month after birth with nystagmus and head tremor. Head control and sitting were achieved at the age of 18 months at which time they began to speak. They could not stand nor walk without support. They had dysmetria, weakness and hyper-reflexia of lower extremities, and mild mental retardation. Their maternal uncle, aged 37 years, showed psychomotor retardation from birth and subsequently developed spastic paraplegia. He had been able to walk with crutches until adolescence. He had dysmetria, scanning speech, athetoid posture of fingers and significant intellectual deficits. Auditory brainstem response in both brothers revealed well defined waves I and II, low amplitude wave III and an absence of all subsequent components. CT demonstrated mild cerebral atrophy in the elder brother and was normal in the younger brother, but in their uncle, CT showed atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum, and low density of the white matter of the centrum semiovale. MRI was performed in both brothers. Although the brainstem, the internal capsule and the thalamus were myelinated, the myelination in the subcortical white matter was restricted to periventricular regions on IR sequence scans. On SE sequence, the subcortical white matter was imaged as a brighter area than the cerebral cortex. These results demonstrate that the degree of myelination in these patients was roughly equal to that of 3-to 6-month old infants.

  20. Treatment with Huisheng oral solution inhibits the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Mei; Gou, Si; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Huisheng oral solution (HSOS) has an inhibitory effect on the development of pulmonary thrombosis and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. A mouse model of LLC was developed, and model mice were divided into either a treatment group or a control group to undergo treatment with HSOS or normal saline. Normal mice treated with saline were used as normal controls. On day 25 after treatment, blood samples were drawn from the eyes of half the mice in each group to determine blood cell counts and plasma levels of D-Dimer and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while heart blood samples were collected from the remaining mice to measure the rate of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. For all mice, pathological analyses of the cerebrum, lung, mesentery, femoral vein, external iliac vein and spleen were performed. Tumors were weighed to assess the impact of HSOS treatment on tumor growth, and the number of thrombi, metastatic nodules and neovessels in the tumor tissue were counted. In addition, 24 normal New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups and treated with either HSOS or normal saline to determine the rates of ADP-, collagen- or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Compared with the model group, HSOS treatment decreased the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis, the number of metastatic nodules, the plasma levels of D-dimer and VEGF, the rate of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits and the numbers of leukocytes and tumor neovessels (Pplatelets (Pplatelet aggregation in mice and rabbits, ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits, or the number of red blood cells. The reduced rate of tumor growth was 9.7% in mice treated with HSOS. HSOS treatment effectively reduced the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice bearing LLC via mechanisms possibly associated with ameliorating a blood

  1. A study of cranial computed tomography scan in acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serial follow-up of cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in total of 55 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in order to elucidate the early and late influences of the chemoradiotherapy to the cerebrum. Scoring system was applied in evaluation of the cerebral surface changes, namely atropy, counting 0 to 2 points for the widening of extracerebral space, surface sulici, Sylvian fissure, and rounding of the gyri respectively. Lateral vetricular measurement was also performed at the level of basal ganglia, calculating the anterior horn width/maximum cerebral width (C/B), and bicaudate width/maximum cerebral width (D/B). All the patients except for 3 in the remission (CR) group, and for 1 in the relapsed group (REL) had been treated with cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate as a prophylaxis of central nervous system leukemia. Analysis of CR patients showed mild to moderate degree of cerebral atropy early at the preprophylactic stage, with mean surface score of 3, C/B of 26.5 %, and D/B of 12.7 %. The main factor for this change may well be corticosteroid used at the time of initial remission induction. Serial follow-up of CT revealed that these changes improved even after the cranial irradiation phase in most cases. In the period from 12 to 36 months after diagnosis, 28 % of CR patient showed atrophic changes, and 13.3 % from 36 to 60 months, and 16.6 % from 60 months or later. No remarkable alterations were observed after the first 12 months in individual cases, indicating that the major changes in CT findings in these patient occur in quite early phase of the therapy, and persist with various degree of improvements during the long course of chemotherapy. In the relapsed group of patients, the atrophic changes of the cranial CT progressed as they repeated the relapse, either of marrow or CNS, including 5 cases of leukoencephalopathy. (author)

  2. Rapid evolution of a recently retroposed transcription factor YY2 in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, C; Lu, X; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2005-11-11

    YY2 was originally identified due to its unusual similarity to the evolutionarily well conserved, zinc-finger gene YY1. In this study, we have determined the evolutionary origin and conservation of YY2 using comparative genomic approaches. Our results indicate that YY2 is a retroposed copy of YY1 that has been inserted into another gene locus named Mbtps2 (membrane-bound transcription factor protease site 2). This retroposition is estimated to have occurred after the divergence of placental mammals from other vertebrates based on the detection of YY2 only in the placental mammals. The N-terminal and C-terminal regions of YY2 have evolved under different selection pressures. The N-terminal region has evolved at a very fast pace with very limited functional constraints whereas the DNA-binding, C-terminal region still maintains very similar sequence structure as YY1 and is also well conserved among placental mammals. In situ hybridizations using different adult mouse tissues indicate that mouse YY2 is expressed at relatively low levels in Purkinje and granular cells of cerebellum, and neuronal cells of cerebrum, but at very high levels in testis. The expression levels of YY2 is much lower than YY1, but the overall spatial expression patterns are similar to those of Mbtps2, suggesting a possible shared transcriptional control between YY2 and Mbtps2. Taken together, the formation and evolution of YY2 represent a very unusual case where a transcription factor was first retroposed into another gene locus encoding a protease and survived with different selection schemes and expression patterns.

  3. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  4. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  5. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    six percent of the cases were of neuroepithelial in origin. Twenty eight percent were meningiomas. Only one case was metastatic in origin and in two patients the pituitary adenomas were confirmed. The study is in agreement with the other studies when compared. CONCLUSION Cerebrum was the commonest site of intracranial tumours. Neuroepithelial tumours were the most common histological type followed by pituitary tumours and meningiomas. Majority of malignant intracranial tumours were WHO grade I. Rare variant like clear cell type was also observed. Most meningiomas were of grade I, but most astrocytomas were of higher grade.

  6. MRI findings of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the imaging characteristics of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen MRI examinations of the brain and spinal cord in five patients with angiostrongyliasis cantonensis of the central nervous system were performed. The final diagnosis was based on typical clinical symptoms, results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, and the presence of nematode larvae in the CSF. The sequential MRI follow-up examinations were carried out at a different stage for every patient from 1 to 28 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The features of the lesions in the brain, spinal cord, meninges and nerve roots on MRI were studied, moreover, the development of the lesions was analysed on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Abnormalities were demonstrated on MRI in all five cases. They included three cases of meningoencephalitis, one case of encephalitis and one myelomeningitis. The locations and appearances of the lesions were as follows: (1) brain involvement in four cases (including cerebrum in four, cerebellum in two and brain stem in three), and spinal cord involvement in one case. These lesions were diffuse or scattered and appeared as similar or slightly reduced signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and turbo fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence (FLAIR) images. After administration of gadolinium chelate (Gd-DTPA), multiple round or oval enhancing nodules, with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm, were seen on T1WI, a few lesions appeared as stick-shaped enhancement whose longest measurement was 14 mm. Diffuse or local oedema around the lesion could be seen. (2) Meningeal involvement in four cases, a case of ependymal involvement and a case of nerve root involvement were among them. These lesions appeared as linear or nodular enhancement of the leptomeninges and ependyma, as well as nerve root

  7. The effect, identification and correction of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans on brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the effect of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain on brain PET imaging, and the Methods to identify and correct it. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 8 volunteers. The emission images were reconstructed with attenuation correction after some translations and rotations in the x-axis and transverse plane were given, 1 mm and 1 degree each step, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans was used to identify the suspected misalignment on 10 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. Three Methods were used to correct the misalignment. First, to quantitate the amount of the misalignment by 3-D volume registration of PET emission and transmission scans, the emission images were reconstructed with corrected translations and rotations in x-direction and transverse plane. Second, the emission images were reconstructed with mathematic calculation of brain attenuation. Third, 18F-FDG PET brain imaging was redone with careful application of laser alignment. Results: The translations greater than 3 mm in x-direction and the rotations greater than 8 degrees in transverse plane could lead to visible artifacts, which were presented with decreasing radioactivity uptake in the cortex of half cerebrum and in the frontal cortex at the side in the translating or rotating direction, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans could identify and quantitate the amount of misalignment between PET emission and transmission scans of brain. The PET emission images reconstructed with corrected misalignment and mathematic calculation of brain attenuation were consistent with redone PET brain imaging. Conclusions: The misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain can lead to visible artifacts. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans can identify and quantitate the amount of the misalignment. The visible artifacts caused by the misalignment can be

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  9. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培

    2000-01-01

    RHRSP. Myocardial infarction occurred spontaneously in 41.8% of RHRSP. The animal models have been used for the studies on mechanisms of stroke and myocardial infarction. Futhermore, RHlRSP with cercbrovascular basal pathological changes can be induced as cerebral thrombosis by thc photochemical method, which is quite similar to that of human being in evolution. Therefore. RHRSP with photochemical cerebral thrombosis can be used to appraised therapeutic effects of medication more objectively Conclusions Because the vascular lesions in cerebrum and heart in RHRSP are similar to that in human beings with hypertension, RHRSP can be used in the studies on mechanisms of hypertensive arterioscle-rotic stroke and cardiac lesions and on verifying the effects of different medications to complications of hypertension, and thc results might be more reliable than that in animal models without hypertension.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of corticobasal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the frequency of each magnetic resonance (MR) finding in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) patients, and to evaluate correlations between the predominant side of MR findings and the most affected side of cortical dysfunction and extrapyramidal symptoms. In 30 patients with clinically diagnosed CBD, MR images were reviewed retrospectively. Two experienced neuroradiologists evaluated previously reported MR findings of CBD (cortical atrophy, subcortical high intensity on T2WI, ventricular dilatation, atrophy of basal ganglia, high or low intensity of basal ganglia on T2WI, and atrophy of corpus callosum) using a 4 step-scale (absent, mild, moderate, and severe). Asymmetrical changes in the cortex and basal ganglia were also evaluated. A neurologist reviewed clinical records of all 30 patients and determined the most affected side of cortical dysfunction and extrapyramidal symptoms. Cortical atrophy was observed in all 30 CBD patients (mild=10, moderate=14, severe=6), particularly at paracentral region (17/30), frontotemporal lobe (6/30), and whole cerebrum (7/30). Other findings such as subcortical high intensity on T2WI (n=11), ventricular dilatation (n=26), atrophy of basal ganglia (n=16), high or low intensity of putamen on T2WI (n=15) were also observed. Asymmetrical atrophic and/or intensity changes were seen in cortex (n=26) and basal ganglia (n=13). Atrophy of corpus callosum was observed in 10 out of the 19 patients who underwent sagittal imaging, and was limited to the middle of corpus callosum. In 16 patients with predominantly left-sided body symptoms due to cortical dysfunction, MR images showed right dominant (n=12) or symmetrical (n=4) cortical atrophy. All 13 patients with predominantly right body symptoms due to cortical dysfunction showed left dominant cortical atrophy on MR images. In 13 patients with predominantly left body extrapyramidal symptoms, MR images showed right dominant (n=3), symmetrical (n=4), or no

  11. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (Cvol) evaluation in Recife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (CVOL) and air kerma length product (PKL,CT) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms (nCW), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the CVOL values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the PKL,CT, from 150 to 750 mGy·cm. The CVOL values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the PKL,CT, between 120 and 460 mGy·cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, CVOL values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the PKL,CT values varied between 24 and 67 mGy·cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the ACR requirements, suggesting the need to implement quality assurance programs at the

  12. The autism puzzle: Diffuse but not pervasive neuroanatomical abnormalities in children with ASD

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    D. Sussman

    2015-01-01

    pallidus, were smaller in volume relative to total cerebrum in the ASD participants. Various sub-structures showed an interaction of diagnosis-by-age, diagnosis-by-sex, and diagnosis-by-age-range, in the case where age was divided into childhood (age < 12 and adolescence (12 < age < 18. This is the most comprehensive imaging-based neuro-anatomical pediatric and adolescent ASD study to date. These data highlight the neurodevelopmental differences between typically developing children and those with ASD, and support aspects of the hypothesis of abnormal neuro-developmental trajectory of the brain in ASD.

  13. Determination of free D-proline and D-leucine in the brains of mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamase, K; Inoue, T; Morikawa, A; Konno, R; Zaitsu, K

    2001-11-15

    A new procedure to accurately measure a trace amount of d-proline in biological samples has been developed. This D-amino acid was derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole and was determined by a column-switching HPLC system, a combination of a micro-ODS column and a chiral column. The detection limit for D-proline spiked in a mouse cerebrum sample is 1 fmol (injection amount, S/N = 3). Within-day precision and day-to-day precision obtained for spiked d-proline (10 fmol) are 2.14 and 5.35% (RSD), respectively. Using the new method, the amount of free D-proline in eight brain regions and sera of mutant ddY/DAO- mice, lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity, and control ddY/DAO+ mice was determined. The amount of free D-leucine was also investigated. The amount and distribution of D-proline in the brains of ddY/DAO+ mice and ddY/DAO- mice are almost the same, and relatively high amounts of D-proline have been observed in the pituitary gland and in the pineal gland. On the other hand, the amount of D-leucine is different between the two strains. In the brains of ddY/DAO+ mice, a relatively high amount of D-leucine has been observed in the pineal gland compared with other regions. In the brains of ddY/DAO- mice, D-leucine amounts are approximately 10 times higher than those obtained in ddY/DAO+ mice and regional difference has not been observed, while the amounts of L-proline and L-leucine are not significantly different between the two strains. In the serum, the amounts of both free D-proline and d-leucine are significantly higher in the ddY/DAO- mice than those obtained in ddY/DAO+ mice. PMID:11700980

  14. Treatment with a herbal formula B401 enhances neuroprotection and angiogenesis in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington’s disease

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    Wang SE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheue-Er Wang,1 Ching-Lung Lin,1 Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,2 Chiang-Ting Chien,1 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 2Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor dysfunction and early death. Despite years of research, the mechanisms responsible for chronic neurodegeneration of HD remain elusive. Chinese traditional medicines might provide new insights or new therapy for HD. The Chinese herbal formula B401 is a well-known Taiwan–US patent formula and a health supplement for promoting blood circulation and enhancing brain function. This study aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of the Chinese herbal formula B401 on the syndrome of HD. Then, we compared the life span and body weight of R6/2 HD mice with and without oral B401 treatment. The ameliorative effects of B401 on the symptom of HD mice were investigated through behavior tests. Expressions of proteins for neuroprotection, angiogenesis, and inflammation in the brain tissue of R6/2 HD mice were compared by using immunostaining and Western blotting techniques. Our study in vitro showed that viabilities of glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y cells were significantly increased under B401 treatment. Our results in vivo showed that duration of survival was increased, body weight loss was reduced, and motor ability was improved in R6/2 HD mice under oral B401 treatment. Subcutaneous microcirculation was enhanced in 3-month R6/2 HD mice under intraperitoneal B401 injections as observed by using moorFLPI laser Doppler imager. Atrophy of cerebrum, midbrain, and cerebellum in 3-month R6/2 HD mice under oral B401 treatment was alleviated as observed by utilizing magnetic resonance imaging. Evidence from immunostaining and Western blotting analysis showed that expressions of mutant huntingtin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were reduced, while expressions

  15. Neuroradiological findings in Behcet's disease; Neuroradiologische Befunde beim Morbus Behcet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhof, K.; Jansen, O.; Sartor, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    1999-08-01

    Purpose: We present the typical neuroradiological findings in three patients with neuro-Behcet in comparison with a review of neuroradiological and histopathological findings described in the literature. Material and Methods: In three male patients aged 32-57 years with Behcet's disease and neurological symptoms cranial CT and MRI studies were carried out. Findings were monitored over a period of 6-18 months. Additionally, cerebral and renal DSA were performed in two patients. Results: In two patients we found acute inflammatory lesions located in the brainstem and the periventricular white matter, some of which were associated with an acute inflammatory disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Lesions decreased in size under treatment, but complete resolution was not consistently noted. In the third patient we found a thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus but no other intracranial abnormalities. Conclusions: Our findings agree with those described in the literature as being typical of Behcet's disease. Inflammatory lesions most commonly occur in the brain stem, followed by the basal ganglia and the cortex and white matter of both the cerebrum and cerebellum. In contrast to venous sinus thrombosis, brainstem atrophy and cortical or cerebellar lesions, white matter lesions have little diagnostic value, irrespective of their location. The definitive diagnosis of Behcet's disease is made on the basis of clinical criteria. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Darstellung typischer neuroradiologischer Befunde von Patienten mit gesichertem Neuro-Behcet in Zusammenschau mit den in der Literatur beschriebenen neuroradiologischen und histopatholoischen Befunden. Material und Methode: Drei Maenner mit neurologischen Symptomen bei klinisch gesichertem M. Behcet im Alter von 32-57 Jahren wurden CT- und MR-tomographisch untersucht. Die Befunde wurden ueber einen Zeitraum von 6-18 Monaten verlaufkontrolliert. Zwei Patienten erhielten zusaetzlich eine Angiographie der Hirn

  16. HIPOPLASIA CEREBELAR E PORENCEFALIA EM BOVINOS CHAROLÊS NO SUL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA AND PORENCEPHALY IN CHAROLAIS CATLLE IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Schild

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dois casos de hipoplasia cerebelar congênita observados em terneiros da raça Charolês, pertencentes a um estabelecimento localizado no município de Capão do Leão. Um dos animais apresentava sinais clínicos cerebelares ao nascimento, caracterizados por severa incoordenação motora, hipermetria e tremores de intenção, principalmente da cabeça e do pescoço. O outro animal não conseguia manter-se em estação e apresentava opistótono acentuado. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizaram-se por hipoplasia cerebelar, observando-se apenas remanescentes das regiões do flóculo e do paraflóculo cerebelares e uma cavidade preenchida por líquido e recoberta pelas leptomeninges, que estavam aderidas aos resquícios das folhas cerebelares. Ao corte do encéfalo, havia hidrocefalia discreta e a presença de cavidades císticas (porencefalia. São discutidas as possíveis etiologias, sugerindo-se a possibilidade de que a enfermidade tenha sido causada pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina-doença das mucosas, apesar dos resultados negativos da imuno-histoquímica realizada em fragmentos do cerebelo dos animais doentes para detecção desse vírus.Two cases of cerebellar hypoplasia in Charolais calves from a herd of a farm located in the municipality of Capão do Leão, Southern Brazil are described. One calf with cerebellar clinical signs at birth, showed incoordination, hypermetria and intention tremors, mainly in the neck and head. The other calf was recumbent with opisthotonos. The gross lesions were characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, with only remnants of cerebellar floculus and parafloculus and an expanded fluid-filled space covered by leptomeninges. Mild hydrocephalus and porencephaly were observed in the cerebrum. It was discussed the possible etiologies and suggested the possibility of the disease has been caused by bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD virus despite of negative results of imuno

  17. Reef sponges of the genus Agelas (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Greater Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Zea, Sven; Van Soest, Rob W M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Agelas comprises a group of tropical and subtropical reef sponges that contains large, long-lived, often brightly colored and conspicuous species, distributed throughout the tropica l western Atlantic, temperate northern Atlantic (Mediterranean Sea), and western and central Indo-Pacific Realms. Among tropical sponge genera, Agelas is one with similar species richness in the Greater Caribbean in comparison to the Indo Pacific. The presence of verticillated acanthostyle spicules and a fibroreticulate skeleton of spongin fibres cored and/or echinated by spicules characterize this group. Taxonomic identification relies on a combination of characters, where external morphology and color play a key role, owing to the paucity of microscopical characters. Thus, there is still a great deal of taxonomic confusion, even for the more common species. We carried out a detailed revision of Agelas species throughout the Greater Caribbean area using classic taxonomic tools. Samples and observations covered Colombia, Belize, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Barbados, Curaçao and Venezuela, and included type material from major museum collections. According to our results, the genus Agelas in the Caribbean has at least thirteen valid species, viz. Agelas sceptrum (Lamarck, 1815); A. dispar Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864;  A. dilatata Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864; A. clathrodes (Schmidt, 1870);  A. cervicornis (Schmidt, 1870); A. conifera (Schmidt, 1870); A. schmidti Wilson, 1902;   A. tubulata Lehnert & van Soest, 1996; A. wiedenmayeri Alcolado, 1984;  A. citrina Gotera & Alcolado, 1987; A. sventres Lehnert & van Soest, 1996; A. repens Lehnert & van Soest, 1998; and A. cerebrum Assmann et al., 2001. We found that variation of microscopic characteristics like skeleton arrangement, number of verticills and their spines, and spicule length and width, can be used as taxonomic tools, but only in a thorough comparison with other species in the same sub-regional context. Thus, a

  18. Automated retinofugal visual pathway reconstruction with multi-shell HARDI and FOD-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Alexandra; Law, Meng; Tjan, Bosco S; Toga, Arthur W; Shi, Yonggang

    2016-01-15

    Diffusion MRI tractography provides a non-invasive modality to examine the human retinofugal projection, which consists of the optic nerves, optic chiasm, optic tracts, the lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) and the optic radiations. However, the pathway has several anatomic features that make it particularly challenging to study with tractography, including its location near blood vessels and bone-air interface at the base of the cerebrum, crossing fibers at the chiasm, somewhat-tortuous course around the temporal horn via Meyer's Loop, and multiple closely neighboring fiber bundles. To date, these unique complexities of the visual pathway have impeded the development of a robust and automated reconstruction method using tractography. To overcome these challenges, we develop a novel, fully automated system to reconstruct the retinofugal visual pathway from high-resolution diffusion imaging data. Using multi-shell, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data, we reconstruct precise fiber orientation distributions (FODs) with high order spherical harmonics (SPHARM) to resolve fiber crossings, which allows the tractography algorithm to successfully navigate the complicated anatomy surrounding the retinofugal pathway. We also develop automated algorithms for the identification of ROIs used for fiber bundle reconstruction. In particular, we develop a novel approach to extract the LGN region of interest (ROI) based on intrinsic shape analysis of a fiber bundle computed from a seed region at the optic chiasm to a target at the primary visual cortex. By combining automatically identified ROIs and FOD-based tractography, we obtain a fully automated system to compute the main components of the retinofugal pathway, including the optic tract and the optic radiation. We apply our method to the multi-shell HARDI data of 215 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Through comparisons with post-mortem dissection measurements, we demonstrate the retinotopic

  19. Genetic and infectious profiles of Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nationwide surveys conducted in Japan over the past thirty years have revealed a four-fold increase in the estimated number of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, a decrease in the age at onset, and successive increases in patients with conventional MS, which shows an involvement of multiple sites in the central nervous system, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and infectious backgrounds correlate to distinct disease phenotypes of MS in Japanese patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies specific for Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA in 145 MS patients and 367 healthy controls (HCs. Frequencies of DRB1*0405 and DPB1*0301 were significantly higher, and DRB1*0901 and DPB1*0401 significantly lower, in MS patients as compared with HCs. MS patients with DRB1*0405 had a significantly earlier age of onset and lower Progression Index than patients without this allele. The proportion and absolute number of patients with DRB1*0405 successively increased with advancing year of birth. In MS patients without DRB1*0405, the frequency of the DRB1*1501 allele was significantly higher, while the DRB1*0901 allele was significantly lower, compared with HCs. Furthermore, DRB1*0405-negative MS patients were significantly more likely to be positive for EBNA antibodies compared with HCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that MS patients harboring DRB1*0405, a genetic risk factor for MS in the Japanese population, have a younger age at onset and a relatively benign disease course, while DRB1*0405-negative MS patients have features similar to Western-type MS in terms of association with Epstein-Barr virus infection and DRB1*1501. The recent increase of MS in young Japanese people may be caused, in part, by an increase in DRB1*0405-positive MS patients.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis for Identification of Genes Related to Gonad Differentiation, Growth, Immune Response and Marker Discovery in The Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus.

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    Deyou Ma

    Full Text Available Turbot Scophthalmus maximus is an economically important species extensively aquacultured in China. The genetic selection program is necessary and urgent for the sustainable development of this industry, requiring more and more genome background knowledge. Transcriptome sequencing is an excellent alternative way to identify transcripts involved in specific biological processes and exploit a considerable quantity of molecular makers when no genome sequences are available. In this study, a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of S. maximus was produced on basis of an Illumina platform.Total RNA was isolated from liver, spleen, kidney, cerebrum, gonad (testis and ovary and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each type of tissues were pooled to construct two cDNA libraries (male and female. Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, nearly 44.22 million clean reads in length of 100 bp were generated and then assembled into 106,643 contigs, of which 71,107 were named unigenes with an average length of 892 bp after the elimination of redundancies. Of these, 24,052 unigenes (33.83% of the total were successfully annotated. GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis were performed to predict potential genes and their functions. Based on our sequence analysis and published documents, many candidate genes with fundamental roles in sex determination and gonad differentiation (dmrt1, growth (ghrh, myf5, prl/prlr and immune response (TLR1/TLR21/TLR22, IL-15/IL-34, were identified for the first time in this species. In addition, a large number of credible genetic markers, including 21,192 SSRs and 8,642 SNPs, were identified in the present dataset.This informative transcriptome provides valuable new data to increase genomic resources of Scophthalmus maximus. The future studies of corresponding gene functions will be very useful for the management of reproduction, growth and disease control in turbot aquaculture breeding programs. The

  1. Effects of geliogeophysical disturbances in haemorheological parameters of human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionova, V.; Sergeenko, N.; Sazanova, E.

    The changes of the rheological characteristics of blood at healthy people and patients with cerebrum-vascular pathology during 23 geomagnetic disturbances were studied. The analysis of dynamics of haemorheological parameters of both human groups has shown that the most of parameters are beginning statistically authentically to fall outside the normal limits already prior the beginning of the magnetic disturbance, others - per day of a beginning of disturbance. This fact specifies at an increase of variability for functional activity of blood cell in conditions of geomagnetic disturbance and allows to assume presence of direct influences of an environmental physical processes at the blood cell. The deterioration of deformation properties of erythrocytes is observed in the blood of people. The analysis of the data has resulted in occurrence of a hypothesis about appearance of instability at thrombosis-vascular part of haemostasis under influence of variation of electromagnetic field in during of magnetospheric disturbances. Such effect can be caused as direct and indirect action of an electrîmagnetic field of the Earth on the cells of blood. Haemoglobin of erythrocytes includes atoms of iron, having a deflection of the magnetic moment. In the cells, which had their erythrocytes membrane under influence of an electrîmagnetic field, had diminution of electrical mobility, that can influence the dynamics of physiological process of aggregation --disaggregation of erythrocytes in a stream of blood. Another channel of influence of geomagnetic disturbances on rheological property of blood can be connected with the action of electrîmagnetic fields through synchronization of rhythms of electromagnetic oscillations of cells of central nervous system. From the entire spectrum of an electrîmagnetic field apparent on the surface of the Earth, biologically effective factor is in a range of ultralow frequencies from 0,0001 up to 100 Ãö. The biorhythms of the brain, such as an

  2. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the

  3. Comparison Study on Clinical and Neuropathological Characteristics of Hamsters Inoculated With Scrapie Strain 263K in Different Challenging Pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN ZHANG; XIAO-BO ZHOU; GUI-PING MA; YONG LIU; CAI-MIN XU; XIAO-PING DONG; LAN CHEN; BAO-YUN ZHAN; JUN HAN; XIN-LI XIAO; HAI-YAN TIAN; BIN-LING LI; CHEN GAO; JIAN-MEI GAO

    2004-01-01

    Objective To understand the infectious characteristics of a hamster-adapted scrapie strain 263K with five different routes of infection including intracerebral (i.c.), intraperitoneal (i.p.),intragastrical (i.g.), intracardiac and intramuscular (i. m.) approaches. Methods Hamsters were infected with crude- or fine-prepared brain extracts. The neuropathological changes, PrPSc deposits,and patterns of PK-resistant PrP were analyzed by HE stain, immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot. Reactive gliosis and neuron loss were evaluated by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)and neuron specific enolase (NSE) specific IHC. Results The animals inoculated in i.m. and i.p.ways with crude PrPSc extracts showed clinical signs at the average incubation of 69.2+-2.8 and 65.5±3.9 days. Inoculation in i.c. and intracardiac ways with fine PrPSc extracts (0.00035 g) caused similar,but relative long incubation of around 90 days. Only oneout of eight hamsters challenged ini.g way with low dosage (0.01 g) became ill after a much longer incubation (185 d), while all animals (4/4)with high dosage (0.04 g) developed clinical signs 105 days postinfection. The most remarkable spongiform degeneration and PrPsc deposits were found in brain stem among the five challenge groups generally. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes increased distinctly in brain stems in all infection groups, while the number of NSE-positive cells decreased significantly in cerebrum, except i.c. group. The patterns of PK-resistant PrP in brains were basically identical among the five infection routes. Conclusion Typical TSE could be induced in hamsters by inoculating strain 263K in the five infection ways. The incubation periods in bioassays depend on infective dosage, administrating pathway and preparation of PrPSc. The neuropathological changes and PrPSc deposits seem to be related with regions and inoculating pathways.

  4. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 healthy adult volunteers. Intravenous sedation involved a single administration of 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, or 6 mg/kg/h propofol, administered for 5 minutes and then continuously administered for 25 minutes at 3 mg/kg/h. For nitrous oxide inhalation sedation, 10-30% nitrous oxide was used. Clinical sedation and the BIS were measured in a variety of circumstances. To examine the effects of midazolam on the central nervous system, changes in brain oxygen consumption in visual memory tasks were assessed through observing changes in areas of brain activation using 3T fMRI. With intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS decreased immediately after drug administration, and the BIS at which optimal sedation was clinically determined was about 65. In contrast, no decrease in the BIS was noted with nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. In observing areas of brain activation by fMRI, the oxygen consumption mainly of visual cortices in the occipital lobe increased as a result of stimulation by visual memory tasks. Regardless of the amnestic effect midazolam produced in subjects, it did not suppress activation of the visual cortices in the occipital lobe. In intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS is effective in determining optimal sedation, and appropriate perioperative management can be performed using the BIS. However, in nitrous oxide inhalation sedation it appears that the BIS cannot be used to monitor levels of sedation. Amnestic

  5. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

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    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  6. Investigations of the Connection between Vitamin E Deficiency and the Selenium Content in Animal Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly toxic effects of selenium have been well known for a long time. Just ten years ago, however, the important role of Se in the prophylaxis of certain pathological symptoms, e.g. in the exudative diathesis of chickens, was recognized. In particular, the connection between Se and vitamin E has attracted considerable attention. Detailed feeding experiments with laboratory animals have shown some relation between the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency and Se, but up to now the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. To contribute to clearing up these questions we have used activation analysis to determine whether a deficiency of vitamin E alters the Se content of certain typical organs. For this purpose 40 Cobb's one-day-old chicks were bred in batteries. One group was fed with vitamin-E-free standard diet; the other group was given the same diet but with an additive of 30 ppm of vitamin E. The Se content was 5 ppm in both cases. At an age of three weeks the chicks were killed and preparations of blood, plasma, cerebrum, cerebellum, pectoral muscle, liver, kidney and gonads were taken. In order to assay the Se content of some 600 preparations in a reasonable time a fast method of analysis was chosen using the 17. 5-s 77mSe. In this way the following advantages were obtained: (i) the short half-life and high activation cross-section made possible a high sensitivity even after very short irradiation times (20 s); (ii) problems arising from the matrix activity (mainly 24Na) were minimized and a chemical separation was unnecessary. To eliminate the critical influence of the half-life, each sample was irradiated and measured simultaneously with a Se standard using a multichannel analyser with an input facility for two detectors. The statistical evaluation of the measurements showed various interesting results. It was established that the Se content of certain organs is influenced by the vitamin E supply. Thus, the muscle preparations from vitamin-E deficient

  7. S-Glutathionyl quantification in the attomole range using glutaredoxin-3-catalyzed cysteine derivatization and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Rodriguez, Cynthia; Circu, Magdalena L; Aw, Tak Yee; Feng, June

    2011-10-01

    S-glutathionylation (Pr-SSG) is a specific post-translational modification of cysteine residues by the addition of glutathione. S-Glutathionylated proteins induced by oxidative or nitrosative stress play an essential role in understanding the pathogenesis of the aging and age-related disorder, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this research is to develop a novel and ultrasensitive method to accurately and rapidly quantify the Pr-SSG by using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). The derivatization method is based on the specific reduction of protein-bound S-glutathionylation with glutaredoxin (Grx) and labeling with thiol-reactive fluorescent dye (Dylight 488 maleimide). The experiments were performed by coupling the derivatization method with CGE-LIF to study electrophoretic profiling in in vitro oxidative stress model-S-glutathionylated bovine serum albumin (BSA-SSG), oxidant-induced human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, brain tissues, and whole blood samples from an AD transgenic (Tg) mouse model. The results showed almost an eightfold increase in S-glutathionyl abundance when subjecting HT-29 cells in an oxidant environment, resulting in Pr-SSG at 232 ± 10.64 (average ±SD; n=3) nmol/mg. In the AD-Tg mouse model, an initial quantitative measurement demonstrated the extent of protein S-glutathionylation in three brain regions (hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebrum), ranging from 1 to 10 nmol/mg. Additionally, we described our developed method to potentially serve as a highly desirable diagnostic tool for monitoring S-glutathionylated protein profile in minuscule amount of whole blood. The whole blood samples for S-glutathionyl expression of 5-month-old AD-Tg mice are quantified as 16.3 μmol/L (=7.2 nmol/mg protein). Altogether, this is a fast, easy, and accurate method, reaching the lowest limit of Pr-SSG detection at 1.8 attomole (amol) level, reported to date. PMID:21842197

  8. 快速稳态进动采集序列MR检查在胎儿成像中的应用%Application of MR imaging with fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence in normal fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石银龙; 王传兵; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨快速稳态进动采集序列(FIESTA)在胎儿MR检查中的应用价值.方法 对30例20周以上正常胎儿行MR检查,采用FIESTA序列对胎儿头颅、躯干行轴位、冠状位、矢状位扫描,观察胎儿各系统主要器官,包括脑、肺、心脏、肝、脾、胃肠道等的解剖和MR表现.结果 孕20周时,胎儿各主要器官均已发育.中枢神经系统在FIESTA图像脑室系统高信号的衬托下,大脑三层结构清晰可辨,脑室系统呈生理性扩大状态.30周后脑沟、回形成逐渐明显;非神经系统亦可较清晰显示.结论 FIESTA可清楚显示胎儿各主要器官的正常解剖和发育变化,胎儿主要器官和MR表现与新生儿有较大区别.%Objective To investigate the value of MR imaging with fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence in normal fetus. Methods Thirty normal fetuses with gestational age greater than 20 weeks underwent MR imaging with FIESTA sequence on sagittal and axial view of the fetus body and the head. The normal fetus anatomy of the brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen,gastrointestinal tract and their MR manifestations were observed. Reulls The main organs of fetus had developed in 20 weeks gestation. In the central nervous system .against the high signal of the ventricular system, three layers of the cerebrum were identified, and the ventricular system was extended physiologically. Cerebral gyri and sulcus developed significantly after 30 weeks gestation. Non-central nervous system( non-CNS) tissues could also be clearly observed. Conclusion FIESTA sequence MR imaging can clearly show the normal fetal anatomy of main organs, which are quite different from those in newborns.

  9. Protective effect of Angelica sinensis on cerebral neurons from rat embryos under hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Wu; Hongxian Zhao; Hong Yu

    2007-01-01

    L/kg),then put into 2 L wide-mouthed bottle containing 100 g sodalime, and then the lid of the bottle was closed tightly to induce hypotonic hypoxia for 1 hour followed by 1-hour re-oxygenation. The pregnant rats were killed under anesthesia, and then fetuses were taken out by rapid cesarean. Part of the brain tissues were exposed and then fixed in formaldehyde (40 g/L). The pregnant rats in the Angelica group were treated the same as those in the hypoxia group except that saline was replaced by 250 g/L Angelica sinensis injection which was injected via caudal vein (8 mL/kg). The rats in the control group were injected with saline (8 mL/kg) slowly via caudal vein, but not put into the wide-mouthed bottle for hypoxia, and then the brain tissues were removed and fixed as those in the hypoxia group after 1 hour. ② Twenty embryos from rats were chosen randomly in each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections of 4 μm thick were prepared through the anterior fontanelle of head of the fetal rats. The sections were immunohistologically stained with c-Fos/NSE. ③ The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of measurement data among the groups, and the q test was applied in the two-two comparison.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The numbers of c-Fos and c-Fos/NSE positive neurons in cerebrum from rat embryos were observed.RESULTS: ① Numbers of NSE positive neurons in cerebrum of rat embryos in the control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group were (84.3 ± 9.0), (90.2 ± 12.5) and (86.7 ± 9.7) cells/high power field (P > 0.05).② The number of c-Fos/NSE positive neurons was more in the hypoxia group than in the control group and Angelica group [(38.4±5.28), (11.35±2.67), (20.65±4.07) cells/high power field, q =29.17, 19.14, P <0.05].CONCLUSION: Hypoxia can stimulate the expression of c-Fos in cerebral neurons from rat embryos.Angelica sinensis injection could reducing the damage of hypoxia to neurons and play a

  10. Changes in brain function and anatomical structure following treatment of hyperbaric oxygen for visual pathway abnormalities In 16 cases Evaluation of functional magnetic resonance Imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Ping Ni; Hui Xiao; Jinhua Chen; Gennian Qian; Youqiang Ye; Shangwen Xu; Jinliang Wang; Xizhang Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is a growing research focus on the combination of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging(BOLD-fMRI)and diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)to evaluate visual cortical function and structural changes in the cerebrum,as well as morphological changes to the white matter fiber tracks,after visual pathway lesions.However,the combined application of BOLD-fMRI and DTI in treating of visual pathway abnormalities still requires further studies. OBJECTIVE:To observe and evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on visual pathway abnormalities,and to evaluate the characteristics of cerebral function and anatomic structural changes by using BOLD-fMRI combined with DTI technique. DESIGN:Case contrast observation. SETTING:Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Sixteen patients(9 males and 7 females,15-77 years old)with lateral or bilateral visual disorder induced by visual pathway lesions were selected from the Department of Neurology,Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January 2006 to May 2007.These patients comprised the lesion group.Measures of interventional therapy:hyperbaric oxygen of two normal atmospheres for three courses(10 d/course)and routine internal medicine treatment.In addition,12 healthy subjects of similar sex and age to the lesion group were regarded as the control group.The control group underwent routine ophthalmological and ocular fundus examinations; diagnostic results were normal. The experiment received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee,and all patients provided informed consent.METHODS:BOLD-fMRI and DTI manifestations in the lesion group were observed before and after hyperbaric oxygen intervention,and the results were compared with the control group.The subjects were positioned on their back,and BOLD-fMRI images were collected with the following GRE EPI sequence:TR= 2 000 ms,TE=40 ms,layer thickness=5 mm

  11. Tratamiento con farmacología antihomotóxica de los síntomas asociados a fibromialgia Use of antihomotoxic drug therapy for the management of symptoms associated to fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Egocheaga

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La fibromialgia es una enfermedad crónica generalizada, cuya etiopatogenia se desconoce. Los pacientes afectos presentan dolores de características músculo-esqueléticas de localización sistémica, así como numerosas localizaciones sensibles o puntos gatillo, que suelen presentar situaciones concretas. Se asocia igualmente una clínica psicológica determinada por depresión, cansancio general y trastornos del sueño. Las pruebas complementarias habituales como hemograma, bioquímica, VSG, enzimas musculares, función tiroidea, factor reumatoide y ANA resultan negativas. Los fármacos más habitualmente utilizados son la amitriptilina, la fluoxetina y el alprazolam, todos ellos con importantes efectos secundarios. Material y métodos: En el presente trabajo pretendemos valorar la eficacia a corto plazo (8 semanas de un tratamiento farmacológico antihomotóxico (Traumeel®, Spascupreel®, Graphites Homaccord®, Cerebrum compositum® y Thalamus compositum® frente a un placebo (suero fisiológico (doble ciego en 20 pacientes diagnosticadas de fibromialgia. El análisis de los síntomas se realizó mediante una escala subjetiva (todos los parámetros analíticos objetivos son negativos y numérica que señalase la intensidad de los mismos. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos nos muestran una mejora significativa en la sintomatología muscular y psicológica con respecto al estado previo en el tratamiento con los fármacos, no existiendo respuesta significativa en el trato con placebo. En relación a la patología articular, no se observan mejoras significativas ni con fármaco ni con placebo. Con los fármacos propuestos determinamos una mejora en la calidad de vida que se reflejó igualmente en la incorporación al medio laboral en un número importante de las pacientes tratadas. Conclusiones: A la vista de los resultados obtenidos consideramos que la terapia propuesta puede resultar eficaz en el tratamiento de los s

  12. Infecção aguda e latente em ovinos inoculados com o herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5 Acute and latent infection in sheep inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Silva

    1998-07-01

    ções naturais de ovinos por este vírus podem potencialmente ocorrer. Ness sentido, uma possível participação da espécie ovina como reservatório natural desse vírus deve ser melhor investigada.Experimental inoculation of lambs with bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5 reproduced several aspects of the BHV-5 infection in cattle. Intranasal inoculation was followed by efficient viral replication and shedding, establishment and reactivation of latency, and even the development of meningoencephalitis in one animal. Lambs inoculated with the brazilian isolate EVI-88 showed transient hipertermia, nasal hiperemia and discharge ranging from serous to muco-purulent. The animals shed virus in nasal secretions in titers up to 107.11 TCID50/ml during up to 16 days. One lamb showed clinical signs of encephalitis on day 10 post inoculation (pi, being euthanized in extremis on day 13. Infectious virus was recovered from several areas of the brain of this lamb, including anterior and posterior cerebrum, dorso- and ventro-lateral hemisphere, cerebellum, pons, midbrain and olfactory bulb. Histological changes were observed in several regions of the brain, most consistently in the anterior cerebrum, ventro-lateral cortex and midbrain, and consisted mainly of meningitis, perivascular mononuclear cuffing, focal gliosis, neuronal necrosis and intranuclear inclusions. Four lambs used as sentinels acquired the infection and shed virus starting at the 2nd day pi during up to 7 days. Lambs inoculated with the argentinian isolate A663 showed only mild respiratory signs, although they shed virus for up to 15 days. Administration of dexamethazone to the animals starting at day 50 pi was followed by reactivation of the latent infection and viral shedding during up to 11 days by 76.9% (10/13 of the inoculated lambs and 100% (3/3 of the sentinels. These results demonstrate that sheep are susceptible to BHV-5 acute and latent infection and suggest that natural infections by this virus in sheep may

  13. Evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage by multi spiral CT perfusion%多层螺旋CT灌注成像评价蛛网膜下腔出血后区域脑灌注不足的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏清; 杨运俊; 陈伟建; 梁盼; 吴楠; 林伯法

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH)后多层螺旋CT灌注成像(MS-CTP)评价区域脑灌注减低的应用价值.方法 将32只清洁级雄性日本大耳白兔随机分成两组,其中A组(正常组)8只,B组(SAH组)24只.采用枕大池二次注血法构建兔SAH模型,在造模后第7天行MS-CTP扫描.原始数据通过灌注分析软件获得两侧额顶及基底节的平均脑血流量(CBF)灌注参数图.并于MS-CTP扫描结束后立即处死、取脑,观察SAH情况.结果 两组实验动物额部(t=1.740,P=0.092)、顶部(t=1.868,P=0.072)平均CBF值差异无统计学意义,基底节区差异有统计学意义(t=2.481,P=0.O19).B组实验动物兔基底池可见血凝块分布,而额、顶部未见血凝块存在.结论MS-CTP能够监测SAH后兔脑微循环灌注的变化,并得出区域脑灌注减低与血凝块的分布有关,从而指导SAH后脑灌注减低的早期诊断,有利于临床进行早期的干预治疗.%Objective To explore the chiaical value of cerebral perfusion reduction after subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)by multi spiral CT perfusion in rabbits.Methods 32 male Japanese big-ear rabbits of clean level were randomly divided into 2 groups:Group A(n =8),the normal group,were to obtain normal MS-CTP values of rabbit cerebrums;Group B(n =24),the SAH group was made into two-hemorrhage animal models,checked on seven day by multi spiral CT perfusion.The source data was transmitted to the post-processing workstation ADW 4.2.Perfusion parameters maps(CBF)of both sides of frontal,parietal and basal ganglia were got by computing.Each rabbit was killed immediately after scanning,and the spider blood was observed.Results The average CBF value of the two groups:The difference was not statistically significant at the frontal(t =1.740,P =0.092)and parietal(t =1.868,P =0.072); The average values of CBF were significantly decreased at the basal ganglia(t =2.481,P =0.019).Group B showed the distribution of blood clot in the basal cistern,but there was

  14. Effect of erhuangfang on cerebral and spinal demyelination and regeneration as well as expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ventricle) and spinal cord (cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement) collections,and then haematine-eosin (HE) staining and SLG myelin staining were used to observe demyelination and regeneration; meanwhile, immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the expression of glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cerebral and spinal demyelination and regeneration as well as expression of GFAP in EAE rats.RESULTS: All 70 Lewis rats were involved in the final analysis. ① Demyelination and regeneration:Infiltration of inflammatory cells surrounding cerebrum and small venous vessels of spinal cord white matter,demyelination surrounding vessels and plentiful foam cells at myelinolysis sites were observed in the model group. Symptoms were relieved in the western medicine group and the Chinese herb group as compared with those in the model group. While, numbers of inflammatory infiltrated cells and vascular cuffs were decreased in focal region as compared with those in the model group; in addition, areas of softening focus and demyelination were decreased. ② Expression of GFAP: Volumes and numbers of positive cells of GFAP in white matter region were respectively bigger and higher than those of normal cells in the model group.Plentiful positive cells of GFAP were disorderly aggregated in hippocampus and surrounding small vessel cuffs. While, expression of GFAP was mildly increased surrounding focus in the Chinese herb group;however, GFAP did not express surrounding focus in the western medicine group. In addition, expressions of GFAP were not increased in non-focal region in both Chinese herb group and western medicine group.CONCLUSION: Both erhuangfang and hormone can relieve inflammatory reaction of central nervous system and demyelination of EAE rats. On one hand, erhuangfang can regulate reaction of astrocyte in two ways, relieve reaction and proliferation of astrocyte in non-focal region and maintain the protective effect of astrocyte on brain

  15. Clinical relevance of cranial CT under emergency conditions. Basic neuroradiologic investigations; Klinische Relevanz der kranialen Computertomographie unter Notdienstbedingungen. Radiologische Basisdiagnostik auf neuroradiologischem Gebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Lehner, E.; Adam, G. [Radiologisches Zentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Grzyska, U. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of cranial CT under emergency conditions. Material and Methods: Four hundred cranial CT examinations (cerebrum, petrosal bone, fascial bone, sinuses, orbita) were evaluated retrospectively and correlated with the initial neurologic examination, the discharge and surgical diagnoses, and the results of other imaging modalities (conventional X-ray, MRI, angiography). The average age was 49 (2 to 89) years, with 42% male and 58% female patients. The discharge diagnosis was defined as the gold standard, assuming that clinical examinations and laboratory and imaging studies were maximized to establish the diagnosis, together with any possible surgery. Results: Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy was 85%, 70% and 82% for cranial CT, 66%, 45% and 61% for the initial neurologic examination, 79% and 29% for acute cerebral infarction, and 65% and 13% for intracranial bleeding. Correlation of the CT diagnoses to the discharge and surgical diagnoses was high (82% and 80%, respectively; p < 0.01), to the diagnosis of conventional X-ray moderate and to the diagnoses of angiography and MRI unsatisfactory (74% and 68% and 60%, respectively; p > 0.05). Craniotomy was performed in 47 of 40 (12%) patients after cranial CT, within 12 hours in 29, in 12 to 2 hours in 8, and after 24 hours in 10 patients. The risk for intracranial bleeding in patients with a skull fracture was increased by factor of 3.3. Conclusion: The high diagnostic accuracy of cranial CT in establishing a precise, timely and reproducible diagnosis confirms the important role of CT as primary diagnostic method under emergency conditions. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Diagnostische Treffsicherheit der kranialen Computertomographie unter Notdienstbedingungen eines Krankenhauses der Maximalversorgung. Material und Methoden: Innerhalb des definierten Studienzeitraums (2 Jahre) wurden 400 kraniale Computertomographien (Neurokranium, Felsenbein, Gesichtsschaedel

  16. Clinical Analysis of 36 Cases of Misdiagnosed Pulmonary Embolism in Emergency Department%肺栓塞36例急诊误诊临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红军; 蒋志锋; 李树; 金爱春; 刘福军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the diagnostic recognition and the rate of early definite diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), and explore diagnostic program of PE in emergency department. Methods Clinical data of 36 cases with misdiagnosed PE in emergency department were reviewed and the revised Geneva score was compared. Results 25 cases were misdiagnosis as cardiovascular disease (69.4% ) , 9 cases regarded as other respiratory disease (25% ) and 2 cases as cerebrum disease (5.6% ). There were 30 patients (83.3% ) with risk factors. The revised Geneva scores were obtained, 26 cases with intermediate probability clinical assessment and 10 cases with low probability. There were high D-dimer concentration in 36 cases. 32 cases were diagnosed as pulmonary embolism by spiral CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and 4 cases by Lung ventilation/perfusion scan. Conclusion Misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis are usually due to PE, It is nessesary to improve the knowledge of PE for doctors in Emergency department. To improve the rate of early definite diagnosis of PE and the risk factors of PE is necessary, the revised Geneva scores are used to assess clinical probability and the D-dimer concentration should be taken into account for patients with suspected PE. CTPA is optional.%目的 提高急诊科医生对肺血栓栓塞( pulmonary thromboembolism,PTE)的认识,探索急诊可行的PTE诊断程序,以提高本病早期确诊率.方法 回顾性分析近5年来我院急诊误诊的36例PTE的临床资料,并进行改良Geneva评分评估临床诊断可能性.结果 本组36例误诊为心血管疾病25例(69.4%),误诊为其他呼吸系统疾病9例(25%),误诊为脑血管疾病2例(5.6%),其中30例(83.3%)有易患因素.进行改良Geneva评分显示PTE中度可能性26例,低度可能性10例.查D-二聚体36例均升高,后经螺旋CT肺动脉造影(CTPA)确诊32例、肺通气灌注扫描确诊4例,均予抗凝治疗好转出院.结论 PTE临床易误漏诊,急诊科医生

  17. The similarities between the hallucinations associated with the partial epileptic seizures of the occipital lobe and ball lightning observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. Ball lightning is usually observed during thunderstorms but large number of ball lightning observations is also reported during fine weather without any connection to thunderstorms or lightning. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is photographed very rarely and in many cases the authenticity of them is questionable. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. Indeed, the visual hallucinations associated with simple partial epileptic seizures, during which the patient remains conscious, may also be categorized by a patient unaware of his or her condition as ball lightning observation. Such visual hallucinations may occur as a result of an epileptic seizure in the occipital, temporo-occipital or temporal lobes of the cerebrum [1,2,3]. In some cases the hallucination is perceived as a coloured ball moving horizontally from the periphery to the centre of the vision. The ball may appear to be rotating or spinning. The colour of the ball can be red, yellow, blue or green. Sometimes, the ball may appear to have a solid structure surrounded by a thin glow or in other cases the ball appears to generate spark like phenomena. When the ball is moving towards the centre of the vision it may increase its intensity and when it reaches the centre it can 'explode' illuminating the whole field of vision. During the hallucinations the vision is obscured only in the area occupied by the apparent object. The hallucinations may last for 5 to 30 seconds and rarely up to a minute. Occipital seizures may spread into other regions of the brain giving auditory, olfactory and sensory sensations. These sensations could be buzzing sounds, the smell of burning rubber, pain with thermal perception especially in the arms and the face, and numbness and tingling sensation. In some cases a person may experience only

  18. Surto de babesiose cerebral em bovinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Cerebral babesiosis outbreak in bovines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Aline Bobbi Antoniassi

    2009-06-01

    and death after 1 to 2 days. The necropsy revealed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, enlarged and yellowish liver, congested and edematous gall bladder containing viscous granular bile. The kidneys and urine were dark red. The gray matter of cerebrum and cerebellum had a characteristic cherry-pink color. Hemorrhage was seen in the epicardium and endocardium. The histological findings consisted of hemoglobinuric nephrosis, paracentral hepatic necrosis, bile stasis, spleen congestion. The gray matter of the brain exhibited congestion with erythrocytes parasitized by Babesia bovis, which were also seen in the brain impression smear. The death of 28 heifers in 5 days was attributed to inadequate immunity against the parasite. The application of imidocarb dipropionate in animals presenting the initial stage of the disease and in all other animals of the herd was adopted as preventive treatment and no new cases of the disease happened in the next two months, when they were sent to slaughter.

  19. Electroacupuncture at Du channel and meridian of foot- Taiyang for hippocampal neurons in rats with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Pi; Wenshu Luo; Lihong Diao; Xiaodan Rao; Haibo Yu; Zhuoxin Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term anti-depression treatment can promote the regeneration of hippocampal regeneration. Up-regulation of hippocampal regeneration can reverse or prevent against the injury of stress to cerebrum, especially to hippocampal structure and function. Therefore, promoting hippocampal neuronal regeneration may be a new strategy for treating depression and anxiety.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture at Du channel and meridian of foot-Taiyang on hippocampal neurons from model rats of depression.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shenzhen Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Twenty-four Wistar rats, of either gender, aged 2 months old, weighing 200 - 220 g, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Clinical Molecular Biochemical Laboratory, Shenzhen Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between October 2006 and April 2007.①The involved rats were randomized into 4 groups according to body mass: blank control group,model group, electroacupuncture A group and electroacupuncture B group, with 6 in each. Rats in the blank control group were free to access to water, and were not given any intervention. Rats in the latter 3 groups were developed into rat depression models by chronic stress combined with feeding alone, and received 21-day unpredictable various stresses. Rats in the model group were euthanized at 14 days after modeling,and their brain tissues were harvested. Rats in the electroacupuncture A group were modeled, then points "Baihui" and "Shenting" were chosen, and given electroacupuncture, once a day, 20 minutes once. Rats in the electroacupuncture B group were modeled, then points "Baihui", "Shenting", "Xinshu"and "Ganshu" were chosen, and frequency and therapeutic time were

  20. The relevance of MRI for patient modeling in head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: A comparison of CT and CT-MRI based tissue segmentation on simulated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaart, René F., E-mail: r.f.verhaart@erasmusmc.nl; Paulides, Margarethus M. [Hyperthermia Unit, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Cancer Institute, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3008 AE (Netherlands); Fortunati, Valerio; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F. [Biomedical Imaging Group of Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50/60, Rotterdam 3015 GE (Netherlands); Verduijn, Gerda M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Cancer Institute, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3008 AE (Netherlands); Lugt, Aad van der [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50/60, Rotterdam 3015 GE (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: In current clinical practice, head and neck (H and N) hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is solely based on computed tomography (CT) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior soft-tissue contrast over CT. The purpose of the authors’ study is to investigate the relevance of using MRI in addition to CT for patient modeling in H and N HTP. Methods: CT and MRI scans were acquired for 11 patients in an immobilization mask. Three observers manually segmented on CT, MRI T1 weighted (MRI-T1w), and MRI T2 weighted (MRI-T2w) images the following thermo-sensitive tissues: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, myelum, sclera, lens, vitreous humor, and the optical nerve. For these tissues that are used for patient modeling in H and N HTP, the interobserver variation of manual tissue segmentation in CT and MRI was quantified with the mean surface distance (MSD). Next, the authors compared the impact of CT and CT and MRI based patient models on the predicted temperatures. For each tissue, the modality was selected that led to the lowest observer variation and inserted this in the combined CT and MRI based patient model (CT and MRI), after a deformable image registration. In addition, a patient model with a detailed segmentation of brain tissues (including white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) was created (CT and MRI{sub db}). To quantify the relevance of MRI based segmentation for H and N HTP, the authors compared the predicted maximum temperatures in the segmented tissues (T{sub max}) and the corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) of the patient models based on (1) CT, (2) CT and MRI, and (3) CT and MRI{sub db}. Results: In MRI, a similar or reduced interobserver variation was found compared to CT (maximum of median MSD in CT: 0.93 mm, MRI-T1w: 0.72 mm, MRI-T2w: 0.66 mm). Only for the optical nerve the interobserver variation is significantly lower in CT compared to MRI (median MSD in CT: 0.58 mm, MRI-T1w: 1.27 mm, MRI-T2w: 1.40 mm

  1. 1株致病性兔无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与系统发育分析%Isolation, identification and phylogenetic analysis of a pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思宇; 耿毅; 汪开毓; 罔赵英; 刘星星; 吴春艳

    2013-01-01

    从患病家兔肝、肺、脑和心血中分离到1株链状革兰阳性球菌P110323,以1×106 CFU/mL菌液灌胃感染健康家兔后,表现出站立不稳、四肢划动、惊厥和呼吸障碍等症状,感染96 h后,死亡率为60%.解剖见肺淤血、出血;肝、脾和肾肿大,坏死;大脑肿胀,脑膜充血,脑回肿胀扁平,脑沟变浅.分离菌在BHI平板上形成湿润、边缘整齐的灰白色菌落;在5%的脱纤维羊血平板上形成透明的β溶血环;V-P试验、水解精氨酸与马脲酸等为阳性;水解七叶苷和利用甘露醇、山梨醇和乳糖产酸为阴性.16S rDNA系统发育分析显示分离菌与Streptococcus difficilis和Streptococcus agalactiae聚在一簇.gyrB基因系统发育分析表明分离菌属于无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),结合细菌形态特点和生理生化特性鉴定该病原菌为无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae),多重PCR方法确定该菌荚膜多糖类型为Ia型.%A pathogenic bacterium (P110323) was isolated from the liver,lung,cerebrum and heart blood of the diseased rabbit.Artificial infection of rabbits with P110323 proved that it was the pathogen of the disease,disease signs and a mortality rate of 60% were noted after 96 h postinoculation with 106 CFU/mL bacterium.The clinical symptoms of infected rabbits included incoordination,lateral prostration,paddling and convulsions with acute respiratory distress syndrome.Necropsy revealed degeneration and necrotic changes in many organs,especially,serious lesions occurred in the liver and kidney.Hemorrhage and swelling of the lung and spleen were considerable;The surfece of gyri was swollen and flattened with the shallow cerebullar sulci,hyperemia of meninges was obvious.The isolated bacterium was a Gram-positive cocci which possessed β-hemolytic activity on agar media with 5% sterile sheep's blood and had moistening and gray colonies in BHI.Arginine,hippuric acid and V-P test were positive; esculin,sorbitol,lactose and mannitol were

  2. Regional cerebral metabolic changes after acupuncture by FDG PET: Effects and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Objectives: To observe the regional cerebral metabolism changes in cerebrovascular ischemic patients and normal volunteers while acupuncture by using FDG PET. To definite the locations of the influence of these acupoints on brain function in certain regions of the cerebrum, as well as to explore the laws of therapeutic effects of acupuncture on subjects and established the One-day method for brain FDG PET scan. Methods and Materials Using FDG PET, cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral functional changes before and after electro-acupuncture treatment were investigated in 12 normal volunteers and 8 cerebrovascular ischemic patients. These subjects were treated with acupuncture in the following points: Hegu (LI4) and Quchi (LI11) of Hand Yang-Ming meridian, Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) of Foot Yang-Ming meridian and added Motor Area and Fengchi (B20). Limbs points were contralateral to the brain points. In the normal group, the side of the body treated by acupuncture was randomly selected and in the patients groups, the sides treated were on the side of paralysis. PET imaging was read by visual interpretation and calculated in multiple ROI semi-quantitative analysis method. Therefore, the image subject method was used to demonstrate the variety of glucose metabolism after acupuncture. Results One-day method was established in these studies. PET imaging was read by visual interpretation in blind method and calculated by semi-quantitative analysis. This results shows that cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral functional activity of the normal is higher in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus, Sensorimotor, Parietal bilaterally and cerebellum contralaterally. After acupuncture, the increase ratio of ipslateral glucose metabolism was between 23% and 38%; while the contralateral increase ratio between 22% and 40%. Above all, the variation in cerebral glucose metabolism was predominantly contralateral cerebral regions. The cerebrovascular ischemic

  3. Sinais clínicos, distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso e epidemiologia da raiva em herbívoros na região Nordeste do Brasil Clinical signs, distribution of the lesions in the central nervous system and epidemiology of rabies in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Ferreira Lima

    2005-12-01

    clinical signs were due to lesions in the cerebrum, and 2 had the paralytic form. From 4 sheep and 2 goats affected, 4 showed clinical signs of the paralytic form; but in 1 goat and 1 sheep the main clinical signs were caused by cerebral lesions. All affected animals, except 1 goat, had a clinical manifestation period of 2-8 days. The only gross lesions were distention of the urinary bladder in 4 cattle and distention of the rectum in 2 others. Two horses had skin lesions due to traumatic injury. Histologic lesions were diffuse non-suppurative encephalomyelitis and meningitis. In the horses, and in one goat with a clinical manifestation period of 35 days, the lesions were more severe, with neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, and presence of axonal spheroids. Negri bodies were found in 87% (20/23 of the cattle cases examined histologically. In small ruminants Negri bodies were found in 83% (5/6 of the cases. In sheep, goats and cattle, Negri bodies were more frequent in the cerebellum, but they were found also in brain stem, spinal cord and cerebrum. In horses, Negri bodies were found in small amounts only in the cortex of one animal, and in the cortex and hippocampus of another. Histologic lesions and Negri bodies in the trigeminal ganglia were less frequent than in the CNS. These results show that in rabies of herbivores, clinical signs and distribution of lesions in the CNS are variable, so that for the diagnosis and adequate clinical evaluation and the histologic study of different areas of the CNS are necessary. This also suggests that when the fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test are negative, they should be repeated with samples from different areas of the brain and spinal cord. Frequency data of diseases from 4 diagnostic laboratories were used to estimate cattle deaths due to rabies in 3 Brazilian states. In Paraíba, with a population of 918,262 cattle, the annual death rate is estimated in 8,609 heads. In Mato Grosso do Sul, with a population of 23

  4. Study on the correlation between daily total fluoride intake and children′s intelligence quotient%总摄氟量与儿童智商的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广吉; 高明献; 张明访; 杨明利; 向全永

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the exact relationship between daily total intake of fluoride and children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Methods: Wamiao village (severely endemic fluorosis area,drinking water fluoride was 0.57-4.50 mg o L-1)and Hinhuai village (non-endemic fluorosis area, drinking water fluoride was 0.18-0. 76 mg o L-1) in Shong County,Jiangsu Province,were selected for this study. All 8-13 years old students in two village's primary school were recruited as subjects in this study. Children's IQ, drinking water fluoride in children's household shallow well, daily total intake of diet and water, and fluoride level in indoor and outdoor air were investigated, and the daily total intake of fluoride was calculated. The children were divided into 5 subgroups according to the daily total intake of fluoride, which were: < 1.00,1.00-1.99,2.00-2.99,3. 00-3.99,≥4. 00 mg o (per person o d)-1. Children's IQ and the rate of IQ < 80 in the subgroup were calculated. Results: Children's IQ in Xihuai village was significant higher than that in Wamiao village(100.41 ± 13. 21vs 92. 02 ± 13. 00). Children's IQ decreased and the rate of IQ < 80 increased according to the increasing of daily total intake of fluoride. There were significant dose-response relationship between the daily total intake of fluoride and the children's IQ (y = -3.519x +103.310),and the rate of IQ < 80 (y = 5.779x -1.347). Conclusions: High level of fluoride intake may affect the development of cerebrum for infant and adolescent, and would resulte the lower IQ.%目的:探讨总摄氟量与儿童智商间的剂量-效应关系.方法:选择江苏省泗洪县瓦庙村(氟中毒地区,饮水中氟含量为0.57~4.50 mg·L-1)和新淮村(非氟中毒地区,饮水含氟量为0.18~0.76 mg·L-1)为研究地点,两村所有在校的8~13岁小学生为研究对象,调查学生智商、学生家庭饮水中含氟量、每日各种食物、饮水的摄入量,检测室内外空气中氟含量,并计算每日

  5. Neuropathological changes of central nervous system in Guillain-Barré syndrome.%吉兰-巴雷综合征中枢神经系统病理改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世和; 赵节绪; 江新梅; 宋晓南

    2001-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the neuropathological changes of central nervous system in Guillain-Barré syndrom. Methods Brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve were obtained from 22 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Eight cases were examined by general autopsy, 14 cases were examined by limited autopsy. HE, KB, Bielschowsky, Weil and Sudan Ⅲ staining were carried out, the sections were observed by light microscopy. Results 1.Cerebral superficial veins congested, widening of the cortical sulci, narrowed gyri and mild cerebellar tonsillar hernia were present. 2. Majority of cerbral neurons presented an ischemic changes. Slightly loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons were found. There was chromatolysis of motor neurons of brain stem. Lymphocytic infiltration around the small vessels occurred in the pons and medullary oblongata in 8 cases. Focal demyelination was noted in pons and frontal white matter in 2 cases. Loss of Purkinje cells and appearance of glial nodules were observed in molecular layer of cerebellum. 3. Swellin, central chromatolysis and eccentric nuclei of anterior horn cells appeared in 16 cases, which were pronounced in cervical and lumbal segment of spinal cord. Vaculated neuroplasma and lymphacytic infiltrition could be seen. 4. Segmental demyelination and lymphocytic infiltration were the main neuropathological changes observed in 20 cases. There were two other cases in which the axon were severely involved, which showed swelling and breakdown of axons and as well as axonal bulbs. Conclusions 1. Lymphocytic infiltration in brain stem and spinal cord were in continuousness of pathological changes of peripheral nerves. 2. Finding of glial nodules suggested that there was possibility of infection of neurotropic virus. 3. Occurence of focal demyelination in cerebrum and brain stem indicated that Guillain-Barré syndrome may have combined involvement of central and peripheral nervous system.%目的观察

  6. 颞叶癫痫脑灰质和白质减少及其与病程的相关分析%Reduction of Gray and White Matters in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Its Correlation with Disease Duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆菁菁; 李文静; 何晖光; 冯逢; 金征宇; 吴立文

    2013-01-01

    ) algorithm.The global and local gray matter and white matter volume of each subject were calculated and compared between the TLE patients and normal controls.The potential correlations between the changes of the global and local gray and white matters in the TLE patients and the clinical parameters including the age at onset and the duration of epilepsy were explored.Results Compared to the normal controls,the TLE patients had diffuse volumetric reduction of gray and white matters in cerebrum both ipsilateral and contralateral to the seizure focus (P < 0.05).Local gray matter reduction was found extensively in bilateral cerebral lobes,especially in the temporal and frontal lobes.Local white matter reduction was found in bilateral temporal,parietal and frontal lobes,in addition to the cingulate gyrus.The global gray matter volume (Global GMV) and the global white matter volume (Global WMV) were negatively correlated to the duration of epilepsy with the most significant change occurring in the first year of epilepsy.Global WMV dropped more quickly than Global GMV during the prolonged disease course.Conclusions TLE patients have diffuse gray matter and white matter reduction,particularly in the early stage of epilepsy.The reduction of the white matter is more obvious than the gray matter.

  7. The Contralateral Connections of Optical Pathway in Chick Brain%鸡脑光信息通路的对侧联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春凌; 胡满; 王鹏; 张利卫; 杨昊; 刘振斌

    2012-01-01

      Purpose:In order to further understand the nerve regulation mechanism in affect of light on chick pro-duction performance so as to provide some theoretical basis for the application on the using of light to improve the chick production performance and on the veterinary nerve surgery, the contralateral connections of optical pathway in chick brain were observed using HRP tracing method. Methods: Small amount of 3% WGA-HRP was injected into Rt in chicken brain using the stereotaxic instrument. After survival period of 30 hours, the chicks were per-fused to fix the animals. The brains were removed and were sectioned by the cryostat. The HRP labeled nervous cells projecting to contralateral side in the optical pathway were tested using TMB method. Results: After injecting WGA-HRP into nucleus rotundus, besides the numerous labled nervous cells in the ipsilateral SGC and SP/IPS of the chicken tectofugal optical pathway, some HRP labeled nervous cells and fibers were also observed in the con-tralateral SGC, SP/IPS and nucleus rotundus. Their number is fewer than those of the ipsilateral side, having smaller distributing area. The locations of the labeled nervous cells and fibers are different with the regions of the contralateral nucleus rotundus. Their labeled extent showed a spindlye shape from the anterior to the posterior part of the nucleus rotundus. Discussion: The results indicated that the ipsilateral projection is the main projection in the tectofugal optical pathway. There are also some contralateral projections in it. The contralateral projections may play a role by assistant and inhibition process. The projection could make the specific units combined and man-aged the messages came from binoculus, being helpful for the cerebrum to gain more exact and overall messages.%  目的:为了进一步阐明光照对鸡生产性能的神经调节机制,为养鸡生产科学利用光照和兽医神经外科学提供一定的理论依据,用 HRP 追踪技术

  8. 实时三维超声辐照对晚孕胎鼠大脑神经细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of diagnostic live three-dimensional ultrasound on apoptosis of embryo-cerebral cells in late pregnant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗建辉; 张雷

    2010-01-01

    in abnormal neuron morphological changes and apoptosis in fetal mouse cerebrum.%目的 探讨不同实时三维超声辐照剂量对晚孕胎鼠大脑神经细胞凋亡的影响.方法 30只孕鼠随机等量分配到对照组、假辐照组、辐照5 min、10 min、20 min及30 min组.辐照组在孕鼠孕16 d时行实时三维超声辐照.每组选生后24 h乳鼠2只,取大脑右侧顶叶做标本,透射电镜下观察.其余乳鼠于生后10 d行灌流固定,取大脑标本,HE染色光镜观察及原位末端标记(TUNEL)法检测凋亡大脑细胞.结果 光镜结果:对照组、假辐照组、辐照5 min组及辐照10 min组光镜观察未见明显异常,辐照20 min组及30 min组,神经细胞排列紊乱,部分神经细胞坏死.TUNEL法标记结果:辐照5 min组凋亡细胞表达率与对照组和假辐照组间比较差异无统计学意义;辐照10 min组凋亡细胞开始增多,辐照20 min、30 min组凋亡细胞表达率明显增强,与其他各组相比差异具有统计学意义.电镜结果:对照组、假辐照组、辐照5 min组未见明显异常;辐照10 min组可见部分线粒体膨大,嵴断裂,内质网呈空泡化,偶见凋亡细胞;辐照20 min、30 min组线粒体与粗面内质网异常改变增多,凋亡细胞明显增多.结论 实时三维超声辐照超过10 min可引起大脑神经细胞形态改变和凋亡细胞增加.

  9. MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in assessing correlation of activation of cortical motor function and manifestations of corticospinal tract with muscle strength in patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Hui Xiao; Biyun Zhang; Gennian Qian; Ping Ni; Xizhang Yang

    2006-01-01

    brain was observed. ② The DTI image was processed with the dTV.Ⅱ.R1 software part of the anisotropic image and color anisotropic image were shown,and the three-dimensional white matter image of bilateral corticospinal tracts of the patients were reconstructed. ③ The muscle strength of the affected hand of the stroke patients was judged with the Brunnstorm standard.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The manifestations of MRI,DTI and corticospinal tracts of the 9 stroke patients were mainly observed.RESULTS: All the 9 stroke patients and 9 healthy subjects were involved in the analysis of results. ① Results of MRI examination: The handed exercise of the healthy subjects mainly activated contralateral sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and bilateral supplementary motor areas. For the exercise of ipsilateral hand of 7 stroke patients, contralateral sensorimotor cortex was weakly activated, but ipsilateral posterial parietal cortex was obviously activated, and the activation of cerebrum was observed in 3 of them. For the other two patients, bilateral sensorimotor cortexes were activated during the exercise of ipsilateral hand, and the ipsilateral activated area was greater than the controlateral one.The exercise of contralateral hand activated contralateral sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and contralateral supplementary motor area, and no obvious ipsilateral activated area was observed. ② Results of DTI examination: The anisotropic values of the infarcted area were obviously lower than those of the contralateral part (t=4.570, P < 0.01). The anisotropic value of the infarcted area were obviously was obviously correlated with bilateral muscle strength (t=0.888,P < 0.05). ③ Results of the examination for corticospinal tracts: The reconstruction of bilateral corticospinal tracts, contralateral anatomic form were generally identical with those of normal subjects, the consistency of each continuous form from anterior central gyrus downward to

  10. Changes of Brain Function in Patients With MiId Cognitive Impairment:ResuIts of A 3-year FoIIow-up Study%基于脑电谱分析的轻度认知功能障碍患者脑功能变化的三年随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    随瑞斌; 盛倩倩; 陶华英

    2015-01-01

    ,left central region,left occipital region of MCI group was lower than that of HC group (P﹤0. 05). At the end of the three years,the two groups αRPP in whole brain,left brain,right brain,left frontal region, right frontal region,left temporal region,right temporal region,left central region,right central region,left parietal region, right parietal region,left occipital region and right occipital region were lower than that of at baseline(P﹤0. 05). At baseline, the MCI group of αRPP in right brain,right frontal region,right central region,right parietal region and right occipital region were higher than that of contralateral ( P ﹤0. 05 ). ConcIusion The score in associative learning subtest of CMS may be a sensitive indicator to distinguish MCI from aging. The function of cerebrum shows a loss by age in both MCI and HC. However, MCI subjects show more serious and earlier hypofunction than HC subjects in the dominant hemisphere,and obvious hypofunction may also emerge in the nondominant hemisphere as MCI worsening.

  11. Intoxicação experimental por Tetrapterys multiglandulosa (Malpighiaceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by Tetrapterys multiglandulosa (Malpighiaceae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Riet-Correa

    2005-06-01

    (g/kg/bw, daily, during 9 days. After 9 days the steer showed nervous signs, and on the 12thday was euthanatized. No gross lesions were observed at necropsy. Status spongiosus was observed on the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Six male sheep were divided in three groups of two sheep each. Group 1 (Sheep 1 and 2 received daily doses of 6 g/kg/bw of the dry plant, during 30 days; Group 2 (Sheep 3 and 4 received daily doses of 3 g/kg/bw, during 60 days; and Group 3 was the control group. Sheep 1 was euthanatized 30 days after the start of the ingestion. Only cardiac arrhythmia was observed clinically, and no lesions were observed at necropsy. Sheep 2, 3 and 4 had also cardiac arrhythmia from day 9, 12 and 18, respectively. From day 52 they started to show depression, reluctance to move and incoordination. Clinical signs got gradually worst and the sheep were euthanatized on days 60, 70 and 80, when clinical signs were marked, and the animals will die at any moment. Hydrothorax, hydropericardium, ascites, nutmeg appearance of the liver and hard whitish myocardium, mainly in the interventricular septum and left ventricle, were observed at necropsy. Histologically, the heart of Sheep 2, 3 and 4 had areas of fibrosis associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. No lesions were found in the heart of Sheep 1. The 4 treated sheep had status spongiosus in different areas of the cerebrum and brain stem, mainly of the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Status spongiosus were also observed in the cerebellar white matter and cervical medulla. In the later the vacuolization was moderate in the white matter and mild in the grey matter. Status spongiosus were mild in Sheep 1 and moderate to severe in Sheep 2, 3 and 4. On electron microscopy it was observed that the status spongiosus is due to an intramyelinic edema. No gross or histologic lesions were observed on the two control sheep, which were euthanized on day 80

  12. Characteristics of global cerebral ischemia models constructed by modified four-vessel occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbao Li; Lai Jiang; Hua Xu; Yuanchang Xiong; Xiaoming Deng

    2006-01-01

    (n =15): ischemia 15 minutes and reperfusion 180 minutes. ② Preparation of the model of global cerebral ischemia: Four-vessel occlusion- induced global cerebral ischemia rat models were modified, I.e. Bilateral vertebral arteries could be electrocauterized and blocked, and bilateral common carotid arteries were enclosed with 10-0 suture loosely. On the second day, keeping the animal awake, the suture was tightened and kept tense to block the blood flow of bilateral common carotid artery. After certain duration of ischemia, the suture was cut off and drawn out, thus the reperfusion of bilateral common carotid artery was resumed. ③Observation of physiological indexes: VSM hemodynamic monitor and temperature monitor (Thermal ert TH-5,U.S.A) were used to record and measure the changes of blood pressure, rectal temperature, brain temperature ,arterial blood gas and other physiological indexes of the rats in the control group before, 5 and 15 minutes after ischemia and 10,30,60,120 and 180 minutes after reperfusion. ④Preparation of brain tissue pathological samples: Except for ischemia control group, rats of other groups were anesthetized and their brain tissues were harvested and subjected to haematoxylin and eosin staining at 72 hours after reperfusion. ⑤ Evaluation of pathological change of brain tissue: The coronal plane of anterior commissure of cerebrum was used to evaluate corpora striatum, and the coronal plane of anterior hippocampus was used to evaluate hippocampal CA1/2 region, CA3 region and CA4 region, subiculum, superior pyramidal lobe and inferior pyramidal lobe of dentate gyrus as well as neocortex. Irreversible neuronal damage included pyknotic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and trachychromatic nucleus, homogenous cytoplasm and naked nucleus. Neurons without the above changes were considered to be normal. The number of normal neurons in the above-mentioned brain regions was counted under the microscope. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The changes of