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Sample records for cerebrospinal fluid flow

  1. Intracranial flow of cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the third ventricle, aqueduct, fourth ventricle, basal cisterns, and subarachnoid spaces at the cervical-medullary junction evaluated in 25 patients and 10 normal volunteers. Information was acquired on 1.5-T magnet with a cardiac-gated, single-section, gradient-echo technique and displayed via closed-loop cine imaging. Qualitative assessment of flow patterns via magnitude reconstruction was correlated with quantitative data generated via phase reconstruction. Normal patterns of CSF flow were established. Pathologic changes involving these pathways altered the flow patterns, either causing increased turbulence and flow of CSF or decreasing the expected flow

  2. A quantitative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow in posttraumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow within the spinal canal and syrinx in posttraumatic syringomyelia were studied by cardiac-gated phase images of magnetic resonance imaging in 12 normal volunteers and 8 patients with syringomyelia. The cardiac-gated phase method was simple and useful for detection of CSF flow. Phase modulation was in direct proportion to flow velocity. Phase modulation was not affected by the T1 or T2 relaxation time. In normal volunteers, CSF flows caudally during systole and cranially during diastole. The maximum caudal CSF flow velocity at C2 level was from 0.45 cm/sec to 1.71 cm/sec, average; 1.27 cm/sec. All of symptomatic posttraumatic syringomyelia patients had the flow in the syrinx. (author)

  3. Fourier analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities: MR imaging study. The Scandinavian Flow Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F; Stubgaard, M;

    1990-01-01

    An interleaved pseudocinematographic FLASH (fast low-angle shot) sequence with additional pulsed gradients for flow encoding was used to quantify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities and CSF production. Flow-dependent phase information was obtained by subtracting two differently encoded phase...

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using 111In-DTPA ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (111In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid flow and production in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus studied by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C;

    1994-01-01

    An interleaved velocity-sensitised fast low-angle shot pulse sequence was used to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cerebral aqueduct, and supratentorial CSF production in 9 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 9 healthy volunteers. The peak aqueduct CSF flow, both caudal...

  6. Changes in cerebral artery blood flow velocity after intermittent cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempley, S T; Gamsu, H R

    1994-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound was used to measure blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery of six premature infants with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus, before and after intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, on 23 occasions. There was a significant increase in mean blood flow velocity after the drainage procedures (+5.6 cm/s, 95% confidence interval +2.9 to +8.3 cm/s), which was accompanied by a decrease in velocity waveform pulsatility. CSF pressure also fell significantly. In pat...

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid flow in empty sella syndrome and normal sellar regions measured by phase-contrast quantitative magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Hu; Li Xiang; Xiurong Wang

    2011-01-01

    We used MRI to examine 38 healthy females and 38 female patients with empty sella syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid flow was examined in six regions of interest, including the anterior clinoid processes, posterior clinoid processes, and 1.0 mm, -1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, -2.0 mm from the midpoint of the line between the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. The results revealed no significant differences in cerebrospinal fluid flow velocity and discharge in a single cardiac cycle, or indicators of cardiac cycles in the control group, indicating that the cerebrospinal fluid flow was relatively steady in the saddle area of the normal brain. In the empty sella syndrome group, cerebrospinal fluid hernia into the saddle area triggered a fluctuation of the anterior and posterior clinoid processes in the saddle area, while the flow in other regions in the saddle area was relatively steady; this resulted in significant differences in cerebrospinal fluid flow velocity and discharge, as well as the cardiac cycle.

  8. Assessing cerebrospinal fluid flow connectivity using 3D gradient echo phase contrast velocity encoded MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using three-directional velocity encoded 3D gradient echo (GE) phase contrast (PC) imaging to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow connectivity in the human brain. Five healthy volunteers were scanned using low velocity sensitivity (Venc = 0.04–0.05 m s−1). Flow–time curves were compared to standard 2D PC scans. The 3D data were used to reconstruct in vivo CSF flow volumes based on time-averaged phase-difference information, and the patency of the CSF flow pathways was assessed using nearest-neighbour connectivity. A pulsatile flow phantom was used to gauge the measurement accuracy of the CSF flow volumes at low flow velocities. Flow connectivity from the lateral ventricles down to the cisterna magna was successfully demonstrated in all volunteers. The phantom tests showed a good distinction between the flow cavities and the background noise. 3D PC imaging results in CSF flow waveforms with similar pulsatility but underestimated peak velocities compared to 2D PC data. 3D time-resolved velocity encoded GE imaging has successfully been applied to assess CSF flow connectivity in normal subjects

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid flow in patients with dilated ventricles studied with MR imaging

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    Parkkola, R.K.; Komu, M.E.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Turku (Finland); Kotilainen, E.M.; Valtonen, S.O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Turku (Finland); Thomsen, C. [Department of Radiology, National Danish University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gideon, P. [Danish Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) velocity and flow in the aqueduct in patients with wide ventricles with or without signs of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after shunt surgery. We studied 18 patients with wide ventricles with MRI and measured the CSF velocity values in the aqueducts. Twelve patients with the clinical triad of NPH were examined. Six patients were studied only before shunt surgery and 6 patients were studied both before and after shunt surgery. Three patients with wide ventricles without clinical triad of NPH, and 3 patients with hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage were also examined. Seven NPH patients with hyperdynamic CSF flow and three NPH patients with normal CSF velocity and flow values showed a positive clinical response to shunt surgery. Two of the three patients with hydrocephalus and hyperdynamic CSF flow values in the aqueduct secondary to subarachnoid bleeding responded to shunt surgery. One patient with same disease and low CSF velocity and flow values did not respond. No change was detected in the CSF flow values of the aqueduct when measurements before and after shunt surgery were compared. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting does not change the CSF dynamics in the aqueduct. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional cerebrospinal fluid flow within the human ventricular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, L; Giddings, D; Power, H; Aroussi, A; Vloeberghs, M; Garnett, M; Walker, D

    2008-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a Newtonian fluid and can, therefore, be modelled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Previous modelling of the CSF has been limited to simplified geometric models. This work describes a geometrically accurate three dimensional (3D) computational model of the human ventricular system (HVS) constructed from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the human brain. It is an accurate and full representation of the HVS and includes appropriately positioned CSF production and drainage locations. It was used to investigate the pulsatile motion of CSF within the human brain. During this investigation CSF flow rate was set at a constant 500 ml/day, to mimic real life secretion of CSF into the system, and a pulsing velocity profile was added to the inlets to incorporate the effect of cardiac pulsations on the choroid plexus and their subsequent influence on CSF motion in the HVS. Boundary conditions for the CSF exits from the ventricles (foramina of Magendie and Lushka) were found using a "nesting" approach, in which a simplified model of the entire central nervous system (CNS) was used to examine the effects of the CSF surrounding the ventricular system (VS). This model provided time varying pressure data for the exits from the VS nested within it. The fastest flow was found in the cerebral aqueduct, where a maximum velocity of 11.38 mm/s was observed over five cycles. The maximum Reynolds number recorded during the simulation was 15 with an average Reynolds number of the order of 0.39, indicating that CSF motion is creeping flow in most of the computational domain and consequently will follow the geometry of the model. CSF pressure also varies with geometry with a maximum pressure drop of 1.14 Pa occurring through the cerebral aqueduct. CSF flow velocity is substantially slower in the areas that are furthest away from the inlets; in some areas flow is nearly stagnant. PMID:18297492

  11. Visualisation of cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns in albino Xenopus larvae in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogi Kazue

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been known that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, its composition and flow, play an important part in normal brain development, and ependymal cell ciliary beating as a possible driver of CSF flow has previously been studied in mammalian fetuses in vitro. Lower vertebrate animals are potential models for analysis of CSF flow during development because they are oviparous. Albino Xenopus laevis larvae are nearly transparent and have a straight, translucent brain that facilitates the observation of fluid flow within the ventricles. The aim of these experiments was to study CSF flow and circulation in vivo in the developing brain of living embryos, larvae and tadpoles of Xenopus laevis using a microinjection technique. Methods The development of Xenopus larval brain ventricles and the patterns of CSF flow were visualised after injection of quantum dot nanocrystals and polystyrene beads (3.1 or 5.8 μm in diameter into the fourth cerebral ventricle at embryonic/larval stages 30-53. Results The fluorescent nanocrystals showed the normal development of the cerebral ventricles from embryonic/larval stages 38 to 53. The polystyrene beads injected into stage 47-49 larvae revealed three CSF flow patterns, left-handed, right-handed and non-biased, in movement of the beads into the third ventricle from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius. In the lateral ventricles, anterior to the third ventricle, CSF flow moved anteriorly along the outer wall of the ventricle to the inner wall and then posteriorly, creating a semicircle. In the cerebral aqueduct, connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles, CSF flow moved rostrally in the dorsal region and caudally in the ventral region. Also in the fourth ventricle, clear dorso-ventral differences in fluid flow pattern were observed. Conclusions This is the first visualisation of the orchestrated CSF flow pattern in developing vertebrates using a live animal imaging approach. CSF flow

  12. Quantitative measurement of normal and hydrocephalic cerebrospinal fluid flow using phase contrast cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow using phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed on a phantom, 12 normal subjects and 20 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The phantom study demonstrated the applicability of phase contrast in quantitative measurement of the slow flow. The CSF flows of the normal subjects showed a consistent pattern with a to-and-fro movement of the flow in the anterior subarachnoid space at the C2/3 level, and they were dependent on the cardiac cycle in all subjects. However, the patients with NPH showed variable patterns of the CSF pulsatile flow and these patterns could be divided into four types according to velocity and amplitude. The amplitudes of each type were as follows: type 0 (n=1), 87.6 mm; type I (n=2), 58.2 mm (mean); type II (n=6), 48.0±5.0 mm (mean±SEM); and type III (n=11), 19.9±1.8 mm (mean±SEM). The decrease of the amplitudes correlated to a worsening of the clinical symptoms. After the shunting operation, the amplitude of to-and-fro movement of the CSF increased again in the patients with NPH who improved clinically. Some of the type III cases were reclassified type II, I and 0 and also one of the type II cases changed type I after the shunting operation. We conclude that the phase contrast cine MR imaging is a practically and clinically applicable technique for the quantitative measurement of the CSF flow. (author)

  13. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml

  14. Magnetic resonance 4D flow analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Chiari I malformation with and without syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics in patients with Chiari type I malformation (CM) with and without syringomyelia using 4D magnetic resonance (MR) phase contrast (PC) flow imaging. 4D-PC CSF flow data were acquired in 20 patients with CM (12 patients with presyrinx/syrinx). Characteristic 4D-CSF flow patterns were identified. Quantitative CSF flow parameters were assessed at the craniocervical junction and the cervical spinal canal and compared with healthy volunteers and between patients with and without syringomyelia. Compared with healthy volunteers, 17 CM patients showed flow abnormalities at the craniocervical junction in the form of heterogeneous flow (n = 3), anterolateral flow jets (n = 14) and flow vortex formation (n = 5), most prevalent in patients with syringomyelia. Peak flow velocities at the craniocervical junction were significantly increased in patients (-15.5 ± 11.3 vs. -4.7 ± 0.7 cm/s in healthy volunteers, P < 0.001). At the level of C1, maximum systolic flow was found to be significantly later in the cardiac cycle in patients (30.8 ± 10.3 vs. 22.7 ± 4.1%, P < 0.05). 4D-PC flow imaging allowed comprehensive analysis of CSF flow in patients with Chiari I malformation. Alterations of CSF hydrodynamics were most pronounced in patients with syringomyelia. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance 4D flow analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Chiari I malformation with and without syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunck, Alexander C. [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Kroeger, Jan Robert; Juettner, Alena; Heindel, Walter; Schwindt, Wolfram; Niederstadt, Thomas [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Brentrup, Angela [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Neurosurgery, Muenster (Germany); Fiedler, Barbara [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of General Pediatrics, Muenster (Germany); Crelier, Gerard R. [ETH and University of Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Bryn A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Technology, School of Engineering, Interfaculty Institute of Bioengineering, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maintz, David [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    To analyse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics in patients with Chiari type I malformation (CM) with and without syringomyelia using 4D magnetic resonance (MR) phase contrast (PC) flow imaging. 4D-PC CSF flow data were acquired in 20 patients with CM (12 patients with presyrinx/syrinx). Characteristic 4D-CSF flow patterns were identified. Quantitative CSF flow parameters were assessed at the craniocervical junction and the cervical spinal canal and compared with healthy volunteers and between patients with and without syringomyelia. Compared with healthy volunteers, 17 CM patients showed flow abnormalities at the craniocervical junction in the form of heterogeneous flow (n = 3), anterolateral flow jets (n = 14) and flow vortex formation (n = 5), most prevalent in patients with syringomyelia. Peak flow velocities at the craniocervical junction were significantly increased in patients (-15.5 {+-} 11.3 vs. -4.7 {+-} 0.7 cm/s in healthy volunteers, P < 0.001). At the level of C1, maximum systolic flow was found to be significantly later in the cardiac cycle in patients (30.8 {+-} 10.3 vs. 22.7 {+-} 4.1%, P < 0.05). 4D-PC flow imaging allowed comprehensive analysis of CSF flow in patients with Chiari I malformation. Alterations of CSF hydrodynamics were most pronounced in patients with syringomyelia. (orig.)

  16. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...... as to monitor the performance of disease-modifying drugs. This chapter presents methods for SELDI-TOF profiling of CSF as well as useful advice regarding pre-analytical factors to be considered....

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, Jost B; Ningli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and those with high-pressure glaucoma can show a similar optic nerve head appearance, while eyes with vascular optic neuropathies show a markedly different optic disc appearance. Factors in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Clinical and experimental studies showed that (1) physiologic associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, systemic arterial blood pressure, IOP a...

  18. Simulation of cerebrospinal fluid transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otáhal, Jakub; Štěpáník, Z.; Kaczmarská, A.; Maršík, František; Brož, Z.; Otáhal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, 11-12 (2007), s. 802-809. ISSN 0965-9978 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 112/2005; GA UK(CZ) 114/2005; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cerebrospinal fluid * pulsation * mathematical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2007

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid endorphins in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opioid-receptor-active material, endorphins, has been measured in cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from schizophrenics. A chromatographic procedure isolated the Fraction I endorphin which was quantitated in a receptorassay. At least two cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from each patient, at day 0 with no medication and at days 30 and 60 after medication with fluphenazine under standardized conditions. Three series of patients were included: acute schizophrenics (n=11); re-entry schizophrenics (n=7) who have previously been treated with neuroleptics but were readmitted to hospital usually as a consequence of stopped medication, and chronic schizophrenics (n=9) who had been without neuroleptics for at least 2 weeks prior to day 0. At day 0, 6/9 acute cases, 4/6 of re-entry and 2/9 chronic cases had endorphin levels above the range of healthy volunteers. The levels in chronic cases were significantly lower than those in acute cases. Treatment with neuroleptics significantly lowered the endorphin levels in acute cases. These results confirm and extend previous observations. (author)

  20. On-line preconcentration of fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines in cerebrospinal fluid using flow-gated capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Gong, Maojun

    2016-06-10

    Flow-gated capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with microdialysis has become an important tool for in vivo bioanalytical measurements because it is capable of performing rapid and efficient separations of complex biological mixtures thus enabling high temporal resolution in chemical monitoring. However, the limit of detection (LOD) is often limited to a micro- or nano-molar range while many important target analytes have picomolar or sub-nanomolar levels in brain and other tissues. To enhance the capability of flow-gated CE for catecholamine detection, a novel and simple on-line sample preconcentration method was developed exclusively for fluorescent derivatives of catecholamines that were fluorogenically derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide. The effective preconcentration coupled with the sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection lowered the LOD down to 20pM for norepinephrine (NE) and 50pM for dopamine (DA) at 3-fold of S/N ratio, and the signal enhancement was estimated to be over 100-fold relative to normal injection when standard analytes were dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). The basic focusing principle is novel since the sample plug contains borate while the background electrolyte (BGE) is void of borate. This strategy took advantage of the complexation between diols and borate, through which one negative charge was added to the complex entity. The sample derivatization mixture was electrokinetically injected into a capillary via the flow-gated injection, and then NE and DA derivatives were selectively focused to a narrow zone by the reversible complexation. Separation of NE and DA derivatives was executed by incoming surfactants of cholate and deoxycholate mixed in the front BGE plug. This on-line preconcentration method was finally applied to the detection of DA in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via microdialysis and on-line derivatization. It is anticipated that the method would

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid approach on neuro-oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement is a major complication of haematological and solid tumors with an incidence that ranges from 10% in solid malignances up to 25% in specific leukaemia or lymphoma subtypes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF patterns are unspecific. Though CSF cytology has a high specificity (up to 95%, its sensitivity is generally less than 50% and no diagnostic gold standard marker is available, yet. New technologies such as flow cytometry, molecular genetics and newer biomarkers may improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, leading to the CNS involvement diagnosis, and consequently, to an effective prophylaxis and successful treatment.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M; Glassey, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breath-work, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted. PMID:19472865

  3. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid pressure after cardiac arrest: correlation with neurologic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, M; Aarseth, H P; Nordby, H K; Skulberg, A; Steen, P A

    1989-04-01

    Fifty-one patients were included in a blind randomized study to evaluate whether the Ca-blocker nimodipine could influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) during the cerebral hypoperfusion period that follows resuscitation from cardiac arrest and to determine whether changes in CBF correlate with neurologic outcome. CBF measured 1 to 4 hours after arrest with the use of 133Xe intravenous was significantly greater with nimodipine than with placebo (27 +/- 3 versus 13 +/- 1 ml.100 g-1.min-1 at 3 hours), but with no significant difference at 24 hours. There was no clinical evidence of seriously increased CSFP in any patient in either group the first 48 hours. Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (86 +/- 4 versus 101 +/- 4 mm Hg at 3 hours), and antiarrhythmic drugs were used significantly less frequently in the nimodipine group than in the placebo group. Twelve patients in each group eventually regained consciousness. There was no significant difference in neurologic status between the two groups at any point, and no positive correlation between CBF in the hypoperfusion period and neurologic outcome. PMID:2929976

  4. Magnetic resonance velocity mapping of 3D cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in hydrocephalus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); Brenneis, Christian [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurology, St. Poelten (Austria); Ungersboeck, Karl [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Poelten (Austria); Riet, Wilma van der [European MRI Consultancy (EMRIC), Strasbourg (France); Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To investigate the detectability of CSF flow alterations in the ventricular system of patients with hydrocephalus using time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping. MR velocity mapping was performed in 21 consecutive hydrocephalus patients and 21 age-matched volunteers using a 3D phase-contrast (PC) sequence. Velocity vectors and particle path lines were calculated for visualisation of flow dynamics. CSF flow was classified as ''hypomotile flow'' if it showed attenuated dynamics and as ''hypermotile flow'' if it showed increased dynamics compared with volunteers. Diagnostic efficacy was compared with routine 2D cine PC-MRI. Seven patients showed hypomotile CSF flow: six had non-communicating hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. One showed oscillating flow between the lateral ventricles after craniotomy for intracranial haemorrhage. Seven patients showed normal flow: six had hydrocephalus ex vacuo due to brain atrophy. One patient who underwent ventriculostomy 10 years ago showed a flow path through the opening. Seven patients showed hypermotile flow: three had normal pressure hydrocephalus, three had dementia, and in one the diagnosis remained unclear. The diagnostic efficacy of velocity mapping was significantly higher except for that of aqueductal stenosis. Our approach may be useful for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up of different kinds of hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  5. Continuous positive airway pressure alters cranial blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia I. Yiallourou

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Application of CPAP via a full-fitted mask at 15 cm H2O was found to have a significant effect on intracranial venous outflow and spinal CSF flow at the C2 vertebral level in healthy adult-age awake volunteers. CPAP can be used to non-invasively provoke changes in intracranial and CSF flow dynamics.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid pulsation amplitude and its quantitative relationship to cerebral blood flow pulsations: a phase-contrast MR flow imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose in this investigation was to explain the heterogeneity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow pulsation amplitudes. To this end, we determined the contributions of the cerebral arterial and jugular venous flow pulsations to the amplitude of the CSF pulsation. We examined 21 healthy subjects by cine phase-contrast MRI at the C2-3 disc level to demonstrate the CSF and vascular flows as waveforms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to calculate the contributions of (a) the arterial and venous waveform amplitudes and (b) the delay between the maximum systolic slopes of the arterial and venous waveforms (AV delay), in order to predict the amplitude of the CSF waveform. The contribution of the arterial waveform amplitude was positive (r = 0.61; p 0.003) to the CSF waveform amplitude and that of the venous waveform amplitude was negative (r = -0.50; p = 0.006). Both in combination accounted for 56 % of the variance in predicting the CSF waveform amplitude (p < 0.0006). The contribution of AV delay was not significant. The results show that the variance in the CSF flow pulsation amplitudes can be explained by concurrent evaluation of the CSF and vascular flows. Improvement in the techniques, and controlled experiments, may allow use of CSF flow pulsation amplitudes for clinical applications in the non-invasive assessment of intracranial dynamics by MRI. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomics of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MScl) is a highly heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system, and its pathology is characterized by a combination of factors such as inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage [1, 2]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively interesting body fluid in whic

  8. The proteomic toolbox for studying cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, A.J. van; Hendrickson, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be considered the most promising biosample for the discovery and analysis of biomarkers in neuroscience, an area of great medical need. CSF is a body fluid that surrounds the brain and provides a rich pool of biochemical markers, both proteomic and metabolomic, that ref

  9. Substance P in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a combined method of reversed-phase, high-pressure liquid chromatography and RIA, the author was able to isolate the neuropephide substance P from human cerebrospinal fluid and to make a quantitative measurement. The rp-HPLC-RIA method was found to be superior to other methods. (MBC)

  10. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; Guan, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospinal fluid was increased on day 14 after exposure. Evans blue concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was increased and the cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio was decreased on days 21 and 28 after exposure. In comparison, the cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio was increased on day 28 after exposure. Our findings show that acrylamide exposure damages the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and impairs secretory and transport functions. These changes may underlie acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25206854

  11. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID STASIS AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Whedon, James M; Glassey, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste pro...

  12. Spectrophotometry for cerebrospinal fluid pigment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Sharpe, L. T.; Keir, G

    2006-01-01

    The use of spectrophotometry for the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is reviewed. The clinically relevant CSF pigments--oxyhemoglobin and bilirubin--are introduced and discussed with regard to clinical differential diagnosis and potentially confounding variables (the four T's: traumatic tap, timing, total protein, and total bilirubin). The practical laboratory aspects of spectrophotometry and automated techniques are presented in the context of analytical and clinical specificity an...

  13. Tick borne encephalitis without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stupica, Daša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Pečavar, Blaž; Bajrović, Fajko F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick borne encephalitis is the most frequent vector-transmitted infectious disease of the central nervous system in Europe and Asia. The disease caused by European subtype of tick borne encephalitis virus has typically a biphasic clinical course with the second phase presenting as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is considered a condition sine qua non for the diagnosis of neurologic involvement in tick borne encephalitis,...

  14. Extracranial repair of cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persky, M.S.; Rothstein, S.G.; Breda, S.D.; Cohen, N.L.; Cooper, P.; Ransohoff, J. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Forty-eight patients with cerebrospinal fluid leaks comprise this retrospective study. There were 39 traumatic and 9 spontaneous leaks. Nine patients were initially managed with bed rest and spinal drainage, but 3 patients in this group ultimately required surgical intervention for repair of their persistent leaks. Thirty-nine patients had surgery as initial therapy, with 33 extracranial repairs, 2 intracranial repairs, and 4 combined approaches. The extracranial approach was used in 36 of 42 patients, with an initial success rate of 86%.

  15. Extracranial repair of cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-eight patients with cerebrospinal fluid leaks comprise this retrospective study. There were 39 traumatic and 9 spontaneous leaks. Nine patients were initially managed with bed rest and spinal drainage, but 3 patients in this group ultimately required surgical intervention for repair of their persistent leaks. Thirty-nine patients had surgery as initial therapy, with 33 extracranial repairs, 2 intracranial repairs, and 4 combined approaches. The extracranial approach was used in 36 of 42 patients, with an initial success rate of 86%

  16. Arachnoid granulations may control heat exchange between intracranial dural sinuses and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective brain cooling is a system in a human that protects the brain from hyperthermia. Cool venous blood from head skin and upper respiratory tract drains into intracranial dural sinuses. In that region, cool blood in the dural sinuses decreases the temperature of the cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid provides brain cooling. All cortical arteries to the brain pass the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. Also cerebrospinal fluid washes cortical nervous tissue. To provide optimal temperature for the brain cortex, heat exchange between cerebrospinal fluid and venous blood in dural sinuses should be well controlled. Head skin is in direct contact with the outside, and significant heat exchanges may occur within dural sinuses. A barrier made of dura mater and arachnoid mater has been proposed to transmit heat from dural sinuses to the cerebrospinal fluid. However, this barrier is a mechanical barrier and can’t optimize the temperature of cerebrospinal fluid. Also it has two laminas (dura mater and arachnoid mater and dura mater has a high vascularization. Therefore, this barrier may obstruct heat exchange. In this hypothetical paper, I offer arachnoid granulations as a functional barrier for heat exchange between blood in dural sinuses and cerebrospinal fluid. Arachnoid granulations are invaginations of arachnoid mater to the dural sinuses. Cerebrospinal fluid passes to the dural sinuses via arachnoid granulations. An arachnoid granulation provides a very thin wall between two compartments and may transmit heat effectively. Also arachnoid granulations may control cerebrospinal fluid flow to the dural sinuses according to temperature differences between two compartments. It is worth researching whether there are any functional or histological differences of the arachnoid granulations between people living in cold and hot places. There may also be an association between pathologies such as migraine and pseudotumor cerebri and this possible

  17. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; GUAN, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospin...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RaduConstantinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

  19. Imhotep and the discovery of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  20. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  1. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Blomstedt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbowski (2013 suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned.

  2. MRI-based noninvasive measurement of intracranial compliance derived from the relationship between transcranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid flows: modeling vs. direct approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Rong-Wen; Alperin, Noam

    2008-03-01

    Intracranial compliance (ICC) determines the ability of the intracranial space to accommodate increase in volume (e.g., brain swelling) without a large increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Therefore, measurement of ICC is potentially important for diagnosis and guiding treatment of related neurological problems. Modeling based approach uses an assumed lumped-parameter model of the craniospinal system (CSS) (e.g., RCL circuit), with either the arterial or the net transcranial blood flow (arterial inflow minus venous outflow) as input and the cranio-spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow as output. The phase difference between the output and input is then often used as a measure of ICC However, it is not clear whether there is a predetermined relationship between ICC and the phase difference between these waveforms. A different approach for estimation of ICC has been recently proposed. This approach estimates ICC from the ratio of the intracranial volume and pressure changes that occur naturally with each heartbeat. The current study evaluates the sensitivity of the phase-based and the direct approach to changes in ICC. An RLC circuit model of the cranio-spinal system is used to simulate the cranio-spinal CSF flow for 3 different ICC states using the transcranial blood flows measured by MRI phase contrast from healthy human subjects. The effect of the increase in the ICC on the magnitude and phase response is calculated from the system's transfer function. We observed that within the heart rate frequency range, changes in ICC predominantly affected the amplitude of CSF pulsation and less so the phases. The compliance is then obtained for the different ICC states using the direct approach. The measures of compliance calculated using the direct approach demonstrated the highest sensitivity for changes in ICC. This work explains why phase shift based measure of ICC is less sensitive than amplitude based measures such as the direct approach method.

  3. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Mechanics and Its Coupling to Cerebrovascular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninger, Andreas A.; Tangen, Kevin; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Frim, David

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not stagnant but displays fascinating oscillatory flow patterns inside the ventricular system and reversing fluid exchange between the cranial vault and spinal compartment. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of pulsatile CSF motion. Observations contradicting classical views about its bulk production and clearance are highlighted. A clinical account of diseases of abnormal CSF flow dynamics, including hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, Chiari malformation type 1, and pseudotumor cerebri, is also given. We survey medical imaging modalities used to observe intracranial dynamics in vivo. Additionally, we assess the state of the art in predictive models of CSF dynamics. The discussion addresses open questions regarding CSF dynamics as they relate to the understanding and management of diseases.

  5. Evaluation of the Production and Absorption of Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The traditional hypothesis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics presumes that CSF is primarily produced in the choroid plexus (CP), then flows from the ventricles into the subarachnoid spaces, and mainly reabsorbed in the arachnoid granulations. This hypothesis is necessary to reconsider in view of recent research and clinical observations. This literature review presents numerous evidence for a new hypothesis of CSF hydrodynamics-(1) A significantly strong relationship exists between the CSF and interstitial fluid (IF), (2) CSF and IF are mainly produced and absorbed in the parenchymal capillaries of the brain and spinal cord. A considerable amount of CSF and IF are also absorbed by the lymphatic system, and (3) CSF movement is not unidirectional flow. It is only local mixing and diffusion. PMID:26226980

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies of the serotonergic system and suicide report that low 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a history of attempted suicide predict suicide risk. Low CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) is reported to be associated with past and future lethality of suicide attempts but not with suicide. The interrelationships between monoamine metabolites, violent method, suicide intent and lethality of suicidal behaviour are complex. We hypothesized that CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels are related to suicide intent, violence and lethality of suicidal behaviour. Fifteen male suicide attempters admitted to a psychiatric ward at the Karolinska University Hospital and eight healthy male volunteers were submitted to lumbar puncture and CSF 5-HIAA and HVA were assayed. Suicide intent with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), lethality and violence of suicidal behaviour were assessed. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Six suicides and one fatal accident were identified with death certificates. Mean CSF 5-HIAA but not CSF HVA differed between suicides and survivors. Violent suicides had higher suicide intent and CSF 5-HIAA than non-violent suicides. In violent suicides, CSF 5-HIAA levels were negatively correlated with SIS. Greater suicide intent may be associated with greater aggressive intent and predicts a violent suicide method. PMID:19034712

  7. Malignancy markers in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M

    1988-10-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of malignancy marker determinations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often insufficient. Even at the subclinical stage of the disease the marker should be present. The effect of therapy should be monitored and relapses noted. Thus high standards of methodology are required. There are many substances that may indicate a malignant process in the central nervous system. However, there are many pitfalls in their determination. Malignant cells may occur in CSF via processes involving leptomeningeal structures such as metastases and leukaemia, but primary brain tumours seldom show cells in CSF. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and alpha-fetoprotein determinations assist in the early detection of cerebral germ cell tumours and of relapses, even in the subclinical stage. Desmosterol may aid in the diagnosis of medulloblastomas and malignant gliomas and in monitoring therapy. Putrescine levels are elevated in CSF of patients with medulloblastoma and correlate with the clinical state, and serial analyses may reveal relapses. Fibronectin, when determined in CSF at the time of diagnosis, appears to be of great significance for the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Ferritin and beta-2-microglobulin may help in some well-defined conditions. Brain-specific proteins and antibodies to them are non-specific markers whereas tumour-specific antigens and growth factors may be more significant. PMID:3058481

  8. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Mu; Chunhua Ma; Rong Jiang; Yuan Lv; Jinduo Li; Bin Wang; Liwei Sun

    2016-01-01

    To assess circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic approach to identify meningeal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by using tumor marker immunostaining–fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH).

  9. Continuous cerebrospinal fluid drainage by spinal puncture for cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea after pituitary adenoma surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengnian Ding; Weixing Hu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea may be a serious complication after neurosurgery. Some of them can be treated conservatively by continuous CSF drainage with a lumbar subarachnoid catheter. On the other hand, spinal puncture may result in headache by CSF leakage. Methods: Present a 17-year-old female who suffered from CSF rhinorrhea after pituitary surgery was treated by making use of spinal puncture after failed catheter drainage. Results: The patient was successfully treated by this way.Conclusion: Spinal puncture by 16-gauge Touhy needle seems to be a possible way to substitute the traditional continuous lumbar subarachnoid catheter to drain the CSF in patients with rhinorrhea.

  10. Presaturation tagging of neuraxis motion and cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes motion of the spinal cord and of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examined with use of spatially selective presaturation pulses to tag portions of tissue or fluid. The plane of presaturation was perpendicular to the imaging plane and less than 1 mm thick. The observation of pulsatile motion of the tags in the cervical cord relative to stationary tissue provides a direct visual demonstration of actual cord deflection that can be applied to the evaluation of diseases restricting cord motion by tethering or compression. Visualization of motion of the tags within the CSF directly shows the direction and magnitude of flow and can be useful for the noninvasive assessment of diseases involving the CSF circulation

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid may mediate CNS ischemic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano Sulpicio G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central nervous system (CNS is extremely vulnerable to ischemic injury. The details underlying this susceptibility are not completely understood. Since the CNS is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that contains a low concentration of plasma protein, we examined the effect of changing the CSF in the evolution of CNS injury during ischemic insult. Methods Lumbar spinal cord ischemia was induced in rabbits by cross-clamping the descending abdominal aorta for 1 h, 2 h or 3 h followed by 7 d of reperfusion. Prior to ischemia, rabbits were subjected to the following procedures; 1 CSF depletion, 2 CSF replenishment at 0 mmHg intracranial pressure (ICP, and 3 replacement of CSF with 8% albumin- or 1% gelatin-modified artificial CSF, respectively. Motor function of the hind limbs and histopathological changes of the spinal cord were scored. Post-ischemic microcirculation of the spinal cord was visualized by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC albumin. Results The severity of histopathological damage paralleled the neurological deficit scores. Paraplegia and associated histopathological changes were accompanied by a clear post-ischemic deficit in blood perfusion. Spinal cord ischemia for 1 h resulted in permanent paraplegia in the control group. Depletion of the CSF significantly prevented paraplegia. CSF replenishment with the ICP reduced to 0 mmHg, did not prevent paraplegia. Replacement of CSF with albumin- or gelatin-modified artificial CSF prevented paraplegia in rabbits even when the ICP was maintained at 10–15 mmHg. Conclusion We conclude that the presence of normal CSF may contribute to the vulnerability of the spinal cord to ischemic injury. Depletion of the CSF or replacement of the CSF with an albumin- or gelatin-modified artificial CSF can be neuroprotective.

  13. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  14. Phantom model of physiologic intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2012-06-01

    We describe herein a novel life-size phantom model of the intracranial cavity and its validation. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) domains including ventricular, cysternal, and subarachnoid spaces were derived via magnetic resonance imaging. Brain mechanical properties and cranio-spinal compliance were set based on published data. Both bulk and pulsatile physiologic CSF flow were modeled. Model validation was carried out by comparisons of flow and pressure measurements in the phantom with published in vivo data of healthy subjects. Physiologic intracranial pressure with 10 mmHg mean and 0.4 mmHg peak pulse amplitude was recorded in the ventricles. Peak CSF flow rates of 0.2 and 2 ml/s were measured in the cerebral aqueduct and subarachnoid space, respectively. The phantom constitutes a first-of-its-kind approach to modeling physiologic intracranial dynamics in vitro. Herein, we describe the phantom design and manufacturing, definition and implementation of its operating parameters, as well as the validation of the modeled dynamics. PMID:22333981

  15. Usability of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in a tertiary memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C.; Bahl, J.C.; Heegaard, N.H.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Assays for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau, phospho-tau protein and beta-amyloid 1-42 have been available for some years. The aim of the study was to assess the usability of these biomarkers in a mixed population of tertiary dementia referral patients in a university-based memory...

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Capparelli, Edmund V; Letendre, Scott L.; ELLIS, Ronald J.; Patel, Parul; Holland, Diane; MCCUTCHAN, J. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of abacavir into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed by use of a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Plasma and CSF abacavir concentrations in 54 subjects were determined. The abacavir CSF/plasma ratio averaged 36% and increased throughout the dose interval. Abacavir penetrates into the CSF in adequate concentrations to inhibit local human immunodeficiency virus replication.

  17. Ongoing HIV replication in cerebrospinal fluid under successful monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bierhoff (Marieke); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); A. Fibriani (Azzania); R.W. ten Kate (Reinier)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe report a case of an HIV-infected patient who was successfully treated with ritonavir/lopinavir (r/LPV) monotherapy for several years. He presented with neurological symptoms and high HIV RNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Sequencing of the HIV from the CSF revealed mutations in

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the significance of immunoglobulin G autoantibody specific for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was administered intrathecally to naïve mice, and the distribution and pathogenic impact was...

  19. Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis diagnosed by trophozoites in cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, L M L; Marrone, J R

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis has not been described in the modern literature, which is distinct from that caused by free-living amoebae. We report the first case of E. histolytica meningoencephalitis without liver or brain abscesses. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed 2 + very motile trophozoites. Our patient was successfully treated with intravenous metronidazole.

  20. Arachnoid cysts do not contain cerebrospinal fluid: A comparative chemical analysis of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaland Øystein A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arachnoid cyst (AC fluid has not previously been compared with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the same patient. ACs are commonly referred to as containing "CSF-like fluid". The objective of this study was to characterize AC fluid by clinical chemistry and to compare AC fluid to CSF drawn from the same patient. Such comparative analysis can shed further light on the mechanisms for filling and sustaining of ACs. Methods Cyst fluid from 15 adult patients with unilateral temporal AC (9 female, 6 male, age 22-77y was compared with CSF from the same patients by clinical chemical analysis. Results AC fluid and CSF had the same osmolarity. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium or glucose. We found significant elevated concentration of phosphate in AC fluid (0.39 versus 0.35 mmol/L in CSF; p = 0.02, and significantly reduced concentrations of total protein (0.30 versus 0.41 g/L; p = 0.004, of ferritin (7.8 versus 25.5 ug/L; p = 0.001 and of lactate dehydrogenase (17.9 versus 35.6 U/L; p = 0.002 in AC fluid relative to CSF. Conclusions AC fluid is not identical to CSF. The differential composition of AC fluid relative to CSF supports secretion or active transport as the mechanism underlying cyst filling. Oncotic pressure gradients or slit-valves as mechanisms for generating fluid in temporal ACs are not supported by these results.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Chiari malformation associated with syringomyelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; WANG Zhen-yu; XIE Jing-cheng; HAN Hong-bin; PEI Xin-long

    2007-01-01

    Background About 50%-70% of patients with Chiari malformation I (CMI) presented with syringomyelia (SM), which is supposed to be related to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow around the foramen magnum. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at levels of the aqueduct and upper cervical spine in patients with CMI associated with SM, and to discuss the possible mechanism of formation of SM.Methods From January to April 2004, we examined 10 adult patients with symptomatic CMI associated with SM and 10 healthy volunteers by phase-contrast MRI. CSF flow patterns were evaluated at seven regions of interest (ROI): the aqueduct and ventral and dorsal subarachnoid spaces of the spine at levels of the cerebellar tonsil, C2-3, and C5-6. The CSF flow waveforms were analyzed by measuring CSF circulation time, durations and maximum velocities of cranial- and caudal-directed flows, and the ratio between the two maximum velocities. Data were analyzed by ttest using SPSS 11.5.Results We found no definite communication between the fourth ventricle and syringomyelia by MRI in the 10 patients.In both the groups, we observed cranial-directed flow of CSF in the early cardiac systolic phase, which changed the direction from cranial to caudal from the middle systolic phase to the early diastolic phase, and then turned back in cranial direction in the late diastolic phase. The CSF flow disappeared at the dorsal ROI at the level of C2-3 in 3 patients and 1 volunteer, and at the level of C5-6 in 6 patients and 3 volunteers. The durations of CSF circulation at all the ROIs were significantly shorter in the patients than those in the healthy volunteers (P=0.014 at the midbrain aqueduct, P=0.019 at the inferior margin of the cerebellar tonsil, P=0.014 at the level of C2-3, and P=0.022 at the level of C5-6). No significant difference existed between the two groups in the initial point and duration of the caudal-directed CSF flow during a cardiac cycle at

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the significance of immunoglobulin G autoantibody specific for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was administered intrathecally to naïve mice, and the distribution and pathogenic impact was evaluated. A distinct distribution pattern of aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G deposition was observed in the subarachnoid and subpial spaces where vessels penetrate the brain parenchyma, via a paravascular route with intraparenchymal perivascular deposition. Perivascular astrocyte-destructive lesions were associated with blood-borne horseradish peroxidase leakage indicating blood-brain barrier breakdown. The cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G therefore distributes widely in brain to initiate astrocytopathy and blood-brain barrier breakdown. PMID:26339679

  3. Gentamicin penetration into cerebrospinal fluid in experimental Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. L.; Daum, R S; Siber, G R; Scheifele, D. W.; Syriopoulou, V P

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effect of meningitis and the method of parenteral gentamicin administration (intramuscular injection, a 30-min intravenous infusion, or intravenous bolus administration) on achievable concentrations of drug in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In normal animals, only intravenous bolus administration of 2 to 8 mg/kg produced a gentamicin concentration of greater than 0.1 microgram/ml in CSF in some animals. All CSF samples contained less than the limit of detection (0.1 microgram/ml) a...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase assay for cerebrospinal fluid using bupivacaine to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Jens; Pietsch Stefan; Bauer Heike I; Kluge Harald H; Kluge Wolfram H; Venbrocks Rudolf A

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Most test systems for acetylcholinesterase activity (E.C.3.1.1.7.) are using toxic inhibitors (BW284c51 and iso-OMPA) to distinguish the enzyme from butyrylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.8.) which occurs simultaneously in the cerebrospinal fluid. Applying Ellman's colorimetric method, we were looking for a non-toxic inhibitor to restrain butyrylcholinesterase activity. Based on results of previous in vitro studies bupivacaine emerged to be a suitable inhibitor. Results Pharmaco...

  5. Experiences with cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Dutch memory clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Spies, P.E.; Slats, D.; Ramakers, I.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to demonstrate Alzheimer's disease has not yet been implemented in diagnostic guidelines. METHODS: We investigated the use of CSF analysis in a survey amongst all known memory clinics in the Netherlands, of which 85 of 113 (75.2%) responded. RESULTS: Sixty per cent of respondents used CSF analysis in 5% (median) of patients. The analysis almost always confirmed the working diagnosis in 68.4% and sometimes changed it in 28.2%. Complica...

  6. Reduced cerebrospinal fluid ethanolamine concentration in major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shintaro Ogawa; Kotaro Hattori; Daimei Sasayama; Yuki Yokota; Ryo Matsumura; Junko Matsuo; Miho Ota; Hiroaki Hori; Toshiya Teraishi; Sumiko Yoshida; Takamasa Noda; Yoshiaki Ohashi; Hajime Sato; Teruhiko Higuchi; Nobutaka Motohashi

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids play key roles in the function of the central nervous system, and their alterations are implicated in psychiatric disorders. In the search for a biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD), we used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure amino acids and related molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 52 patients with MDD (42 depressed and 10 remitted; DSM-IV) and 54 matched controls. Significant differences were found in four amino acid concentrations between the...

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brouillette, Ashley M.; Gülin Öz; Gomez, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), would benefit from the identification of reliable biomarkers that could serve as disease subtype-specific and stage-specific indicators for the development and monitoring of treatments. We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of tau, α-synuclein, DJ-1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), proteins previously associated with neurodegenerative processes, in patients with the autosomal dominant SCA1, SCA2, an...

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the context of CNS demyelinating diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Luiz de Andrade Matas; Felipe von Glehn; Gustavo Bruniera Peres Fernandes; Carlos Augusto Senne Soares

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system demyelinating diseases are a group of disorders with different etiologies, characterized by inflammatory lesions that are associated with loss of myelin and eventually axonal damage. In this group the most studied ones are multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optic (NMO) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). The cerebrospinal fluid is essential to differentiate between these different syndromes and to define multiple sclerosis, helping to assess the pro...

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the context of CNS demyelinating diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luiz de Andrade Matas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system demyelinating diseases are a group of disorders with different etiologies, characterized by inflammatory lesions that are associated with loss of myelin and eventually axonal damage. In this group the most studied ones are multiple sclerosis (MS, neuromyelitis optic (NMO and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. The cerebrospinal fluid is essential to differentiate between these different syndromes and to define multiple sclerosis, helping to assess the probability of Clinical Isolated Syndrome turn into multiple sclerosis.

  10. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Albersen; Marjolein Bosma; Jans, Judith J. M.; Hofstede, Floris C.; van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Gepke Visser; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem m...

  11. A plasma polymerization technique to overcome cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosthetic devices, mainly shunts, are frequently used for temporary or permanent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of shunt infection is a very important problem in modern medicine and generally this is characterized by staphylococcal adhesion to the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces. In this paper, the prevention of the attachment of test microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces by 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) precursor modification in the plasma polymerization system, is reported. Different plasma polymerization conditions (RF discharge power 10-20-30 W, exposure time 5-10-15 min) were employed during the surface modification. The surface chemistry and topology of unmodified and modified shunts was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, static contact angle measurements were performed to state the change of surface hydrophilicity. All samples were tested in vitro with Staphylococcus epidermidis. A plasma-polymerized HEMA film (PP HEMA) was found to be an alternative simple method to decrease the microorganism attachment and create bacterial anti-fouling surfaces. The attachment of the model microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the shunt surface modified by PP HEMA at 20 W and 15 min was reduced 62.3% if compared to the unmodified control surface of the shunt

  12. Development of a Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Reservoir Model in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia M. Lester McCully; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L.; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample...

  13. Acetylcholinesterase assay for cerebrospinal fluid using bupivacaine to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jens

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most test systems for acetylcholinesterase activity (E.C.3.1.1.7. are using toxic inhibitors (BW284c51 and iso-OMPA to distinguish the enzyme from butyrylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.8. which occurs simultaneously in the cerebrospinal fluid. Applying Ellman's colorimetric method, we were looking for a non-toxic inhibitor to restrain butyrylcholinesterase activity. Based on results of previous in vitro studies bupivacaine emerged to be a suitable inhibitor. Results Pharmacokinetic investigations with purified cholinesterases have shown maximum inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity and minimal interference with acetylcholinesterase activity at bupivacaine final concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/l. Based on detailed analysis of pharmacokinetic data we developed three equations representing enzyme inhibition at bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mmol/l. These equations allow us to calculate the acetylcholinesterase activity in solutions containing both cholinesterases utilizing the extinction differences measured spectrophotometrically in samples with and without bupivacaine. The accuracy of the bupivacaine-inhibition test could be confirmed by investigations on solutions of both purified cholinesterases and on samples of human cerebrospinal fluid. If butyrylcholinesterase activity has to be assessed simultaneously an independent test using butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate (final concentration 5 mmol/l has to be conducted. Conclusions The bupivacaine-inhibition test is a reliable method using spectrophotometrical techniques to measure acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebrospinal fluid. It avoids the use of toxic inhibitors for differentiation of acetylcholinesterase from butyrylcholinesterase in fluids containing both enzymes. Our investigations suggest that bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 mmol/l can be applied with the same effect using 1 mmol/l acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate.

  14. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellmann Jere

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production and turnover, seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and in Alzheimer's disease (AD, may be an important cause of amyloid retention in the brain and may relate the two diseases. There is a high incidence of AD pathology in patients being shunted for NPH, the AD-NPH syndrome. We now report elevated CSF pressure (CSFP, consistent with very early hydrocephalus, in a subset of AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial of chronic low-flow CSF drainage. Our objective was to determine the frequency of elevated CSFP in subjects meeting National Institutes of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD, excluding those with signs of concomitant NPH. Methods AD subjects by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (n = 222, were screened by history, neurological examination, and radiographic imaging to exclude those with clinical or radiographic signs of NPH. As part of this exclusion process, opening CSFP was measured supine under general anesthesia during device implantation surgery at a controlled pCO2 of 40 Torr (40 mmHg. Results Of the 222 AD subjects 181 had pressure measurements recorded. Seven subjects (3.9% enrolled in the study had CSFP of 220 mmH20 or greater, mean 249 ± 20 mmH20 which was significantly higher than 103 ± 47 mmH2O for the AD-only group. AD-NPH patients were significantly younger and significantly less demented on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS. Conclusion Of the AD subjects who were carefully screened to exclude those with clinical NPH, 4% had elevated CSFP. These subjects were presumed to have the AD-NPH syndrome and were withdrawn from the remainder of the study.

  15. Recurrent purulent meningitis associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak from the idiopathic oval window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purulent meningitis recurred 6 times in a 7-year-old boy. There was unilateral serous rhinorrhea, for which right cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea was suspected on 111In DTPA cisternogram. Examination of the right tympanum through the mastoid antrum revealed a fistula in the stapes foot plate, causing cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The stapes was removed and was replaced with the muscle and fascia. As a result, cerebrospinal fluid leakage discontinued, followed by a satisfactory course. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak following a pilates class: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, James; Yanny, Irini; Chatu, Sukhdev; Dubois, Patrick; Hayee, Bu; Moran, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak is the most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension which is an uncommon but increasingly recognized cause of headache. This article describes the first reported case of pilates being associated with a spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak whilst also highlighting the key information about spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks that will be useful to the general clinician. Case presentation We present the case of a 42-year-old C...

  17. Confocal Raman microscopy of pathologic cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the spatial localization of leucocytes, bacteria, and erythrocytes in the crystal pattern of a dried droplet of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is established. Characteristic lines are detected and identified in the Raman spectrum of the CSF that point to the presence of pathologic cells therein and can be used in a timely way to diagnose meningitis, the spectroscopic sample preparation procedure being simple enough. A dry CSF sample retains its characteristic spectral features for no less than three days, which is important for its safe keeping and transportation, and also for the computer processing of its spectra. (letter)

  18. CT finding and cerebrospinal fluid proteins in muscular dystrophy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the microcomponents of protein fractions in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. The degenerative pattern is characterized by an increase in the prealbumin and a decrease in the γ-globulin fraction is shown in the Duchenne and congenital muscular dystrophy. The increase in CSF IgG, γ-globulin fraction is shown in the myotonic dystrophy. In addition to the abnormality of IQ, EEG, and brain CT, abnormal CSF proteins obviously suggest the presence of CNS involvement in muscular dystrophy. (author)

  19. Diagnosis of chordoma by cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigil, M A; Pardo-Mindan, F J; Joly, M

    1983-09-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old man with a chordoma of the clivus that caused dysphonia, low back pain, and urinary and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was made by cytologic study of the CSF, which demonstrated vacuolated malignant cells. The patient was treated with intrathecal methotrexate, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. At autopsy extensive dissemination of chordoma was found at the base of the brain, in the ventricles, and in the leptomeninges of the spinal cord. This is the sixth reported case of intrathecal dissemination of a chordoma and the first diagnosed by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6881106

  20. Sleep deprivation increases oleoylethanolamide in human cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Koethe, Dagmar; Schreiber, Daniela; Giuffrida, Andrea; Mauss, Christian; Faulhaber, Johannes; Heydenreich, Bernd; Hellmich, Martin; Graf, Rudolf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Piomelli, Daniele; Leweke, F. Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of two fatty acid ethanolamides, the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and its structural analog oleoylethanolamide in sleep deprivation of human volunteers. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers before and after a night of sleep deprivation with an interval of about 12 months. We found increased levels of oleoylethanolamide in CSF (P = 0.011) but not in serum (P = 0.068) after 24 h of sleep deprivation. Oleoyleth...

  1. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, L E; Shen, J K; Cai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Commercial Allium sativum (garlic) extract was given intravenously to two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and three patients with other types of meningitis. Plasma titers of anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity rose twofold over preinfusion titers. Anti-C. neoformans activity was detected in four of five cerebrospinal fluid samples but not in pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2012-01-01

    Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson’s disease and two other synucleino...

  3. MANAGEMENT OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID LEAKAGE FOLLOWING CERVICAL SPINE SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian; Ke-yi Yu; Yi-peng Wang; Jun Qian; Gui-xing Qiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the management and outcome of cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSFL) after cervical surgery. Methods Medical records of 642 patients who underwent cervical surgery between December 1999 and December 2005 at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients complicated by CSFL after surgery were enrolled, of which 4 cases were complicated after ossified posterior longitudinal ligament or posterior vertebral osteophyte resection directly injuring the dura, and 1 case after posterior cervical double-door laminoplasty with out observed dural injury during surgery. Of the 5 CSFL cases, 4 cases occurred at 1-3 days after operation and 1 case at 9 days after operation. All 5 postoperative CSFL cases were treated through wound drainage removal, wound sutures, prophylactic antibiotics, and continuous subarachnoid drainage in the elevated head position.Results All 5 CSFL cases experienced leakage cessation within 1-3 days and wound healing within 4-8 days, and subarachnoid drainage lasted 11-16 days with an average volume of 320 mL (range, 150-410 mL). Four cases experienced headache, nausea and vomiting, 1 case suffered from somnolence and hyponatremia, and symptoms subsided after symptomatic treatment and intravenous fluid administration. All patients were followed up for an average of 32 months (range, 22-50 months). No occurrence of cerebrospinal fluid cyst or wound infection was observed. CSFL produced no significant negative effects upon neuromuscular function recovery.Conclusion Continuous subarachnoid cavity drainage in combination with elevated head position is a simple and safe non-surgical method in treatment of CSFL following cervical surgery.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid carnitine levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, J C; de Bustos, F; Molina, J A; Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Benito-León, J; Martín, M A; Campos, Y; Ortí-Pareja, M; Cabrera-Valdivia, F; Arenas, J

    1998-03-01

    We assessed free carnitine (FC) and acylcarnitine esters (AC) in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 24 patients with diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 28 healthy matched-controls. We found no significant correlation between FC and AC levels in CSF. FC and AC levels in CSF did not differ significantly between AD patients and controls, but plasma FC levels were significantly lower in AD patients. CSF and plasma FC and AC levels did not correlate with age, age at onset of AD, duration of AD, and scores of the Minimental State Examination of Folstein. Although these results suggest that CSF carnitine levels are apparently unrelated with the risk for AD, the trend of the FC/AC ratio to be higher in AD patients might suggest the possibility of a lower carnitine acetyltransferase activity in AD, as previously reported in some brain areas. PMID:9562266

  5. Massive Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak of the Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannicola Iannella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage of the temporal bone region is defined as abnormal communications between the subarachnoidal space and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone. CSF leak remains one of the most frequent complications after VS surgery. Radiotherapy is considered a predisposing factor for development of temporal bone CSF leak because it may impair dural repair mechanisms, thus causing inadequate dural sealing. The authors describe the case of a 47-year-old man with a massive effusion of CSF which extended from the posterior and lateral skull base to the first cervical vertebrae; this complication appeared after a partial enucleation of a vestibular schwannoma (VS with subsequent radiation treatment and second operation with total VS resection.

  6. Quantitative Proteomics of Vestibular Schwannoma Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemizadeh Gol, Mohammad Abraham; Lund, Troy C; Levine, Samuel C; Adams, Meredith E

    2016-05-01

    This pilot study aimed to identify candidate proteins for future study that are differentially expressed in vestibular schwannoma (VS) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and to compare such proteins with those previously identified in perilymph and specimen secretions. CSF was collected intraoperatively prior to removal of untreated sporadic VS (3 translabyrinthine, 3 middle cranial fossa approaches) and compared with reference CSF samples. After proteolytic digestion and iTRAQ labeling, tandem mass spectrometry with ProteinPilot was used to identify candidate proteins. Of the 237 proteins detected, 13 were dysregulated in ≥3 of the 6 VS patients versus controls, and 13 were dysregulated (12 up, 1 down) in samples from patients with class D versus class B hearing. Four perilymph proteins of interest were dysregulated in ≥1 VS CSF samples. Thus, 26 candidate VS CSF biomarkers were identified that should be considered in future VS biomarker and tumor pathophysiology investigations. PMID:26932958

  7. Early embryonic brain development in rats requires the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Alonso, M I; Santiago, C; Moro, J A; De la Mano, A; Carretero, R; Gato, A

    2009-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid has shown itself to be an essential brain component during development. This is particularly evident at the earliest stages of development where a lot of research, performed mainly in chick embryos, supports the evidence that cerebrospinal fluid is involved in different mechanisms controlling brain growth and morphogenesis, by exerting a trophic effect on neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPC) involved in controlling the behaviour of these cells. Despite it being known that cerebrospinal fluid in mammals is directly involved in corticogenesis at fetal stages, the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the activity of NPC at the earliest stages of brain development has not been demonstrated. Here, using "in vitro" organotypic cultures of rat embryo brain neuroepithelium in order to expose NPC to or deprive them of cerebrospinal fluid, we show that the neuroepithelium needs the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid to undergo normal rates of cell survival, replication and neurogenesis, suggesting that NPC are not self-sufficient to induce their normal activity. This data shows that cerebrospinal fluid is an essential component in chick and rat early brain development, suggesting that its influence could be constant in higher vertebrates. PMID:19540909

  8. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Musatov; Yakovlev, A. A.; S. G. Andreeva; M. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunist...

  9. Equine cerebrospinal fluid: reference values of normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, I G; Whitlock, R H; Tasker, J B

    1977-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from the atlanto-occipital (AO) and lumbosacral (LS) subarachnoid spaces of 24 horses and 21 ponies that had no clinical evidence of neurologic disease. Depth of needle insertion, pressures, refractive index, rapid reagent strip test (protein, glucose, blood, pH) results, cell counts, content of protein, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, and cholesterol, and activities of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were determined. The resulting clinical reference values obtained were discussed in light of the published normal values for CSF from horses, other animals, and man. White cell counts in CSF were found to be from 0 to 6/microliters. Values for protein content were distributed between wider limits than previously reported values. The LS-AO difference is proposed as a criterion for clinical evaluation of CSF protein content. Ponies were found to have more protein in their CSF than did the horses, and CSF from the LS site contained more glucose than that from the AO site. The CSF electrolyte composition was similar to that of previous reports. Enzyme activities in equine CSF are reported for the 1st time. PMID:911095

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid folate and cobalamin levels in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, B O; Lukanmbi, F A; Familusi, J B

    1985-05-01

    Folate and cobalamin parameters were studied in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 40 febrile paediatric patients. Eighteen of these children were in a state of febrile convulsion while the remaining 22 were non-convulsing. The serum folate concentration of all the patients was higher than that of the control group but the highest value was found in the convulsing children. There was no significant difference in the CSF folate levels between the two groups of patients. The serum cobalamin levels of the patients were significantly lower than those of the control children and the lowest mean was observed in the convulsing state. On the other hand, there was no difference in the CSF cobalamin between the convulsing and non-convulsing children. These results confirm that there is an effective blood-brain barrier system for folate even when serum folate levels are higher than normal. There is also a definite decrease in serum cobalamin during pyrexia but this decrease is more apparent in the convulsing state. The role of cobalamin metabolism in convulsion is not clear. PMID:4009203

  11. Molecular biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Brit; Hecker, Michael; Zettl, Uwe Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system, usually occurring in young adults and leading to disability. Despite the progress in technology and intensive research work of the last years, diagnosing MS can still be challenging. A heterogenic and complex pathophysiology with various types of disease courses makes MS unique for each patient. There is an urgent need to identify markers facilitating rapid and accurate diagnosis and prognostic assessments with regard to optimal therapy for each MS patient. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an outstanding source of specific markers related to MS pathology. Molecules reflecting specific pathological processes, such as inflammation, cellular damage, and loss of blood-brain-barrier integrity, are detectable in CSF. Clinically used biomarkers of CSF are oligoclonal bands, IgG-index, measles-rubella-zoster-reaction, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, and antibodies against John Cunningham virus. Many other potential biomarkers have been proposed in recent years. In this review we examine the current scientific knowledge on CSF molecular markers that could guide diagnosis and discrimination of different MS forms, support treatment decisions, or be helpful in monitoring and predicting disease progression, therapy response, and complications such as opportunistic infections. PMID:26071103

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers mirror rate of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad, Sindre; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Bjerke, Maria; Johansson, Boo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wallin, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The ability to predict future decline in cognitive systems using the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers 42 amino acid form of amyloid-β (Aβ42) and total tau (T-tau) is not fully understood. In a clinical sample ranging from cognitively healthy to dementia (n = 326), linear regression models were performed in order to investigate the ability of CSF biomarkers to predict cognitive decline in all cognitive domains from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Gender, age, and years of education were included as covariates. In patients with subjective cognitive impairment, T-tau had a small impact on executive functions (r2 = 0.07). T-tau had a small to moderate influence (r2 = 0.06-0.11) on all cognitive functions with the exception of visuospatial functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In patients with dementia, the impact of T-tau was large (r2 = 0.29) on semantic memory. Aβ42 had a small effect (r2 = 0.07) on speed and executive functions in MCI. In patients with dementia, Aβ42 had a moderate influence (r2 = 0.13-0.24) on semantic and verbal working memory/fluency. Our results speak in favor of the notion that CSF biomarkers reflect the rate of cognitive decline across the continuum of cognitive impairment from healthy to dementia. CSF predicted subsequent decline in more cognitive domains among MCI cases, but the impact was most pronounced in patients with dementia. PMID:23313924

  13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda,Hiroo

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA in 25 normal controls and in 121 patients with various central nervous system disorders. CSF-GABA levels could be measured down to 5 pmoles/ml reliably by this assay. In normal controls, the mean (+/- SEM GABA level in CSF was 127 +/- 5.2 pmoles/ml. There was no correlation between age, sex and the CSF-GABA level in normal controls. The lowest CSF-GABA level, which was 60 +/- 6.0 pmoles/ml, was observed in alcoholic patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia. The CSF-GABA levels were quite low in patients with Alzheimer's disease, late cortical cerebellar atrophy, neuro-Behcet's syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease and cerebral hemorrhage. On the other hand, the CSF-GABA levels of meningitis patients were significantly increased. These findings suggest that measuring the CSF-GABA level is quite beneficial in the diagnosis and pathophysiological determinations of some diseases.

  14. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  15. Cystatin C in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji-Akimoto, Sachiko; Yabe, Ichiro; Niino, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2009-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is diagnosed on the basis of progressive symptoms in both the upper and lower motor neurons. Because there are no specific biomarkers for ALS, it is difficult to diagnose this disease in its early stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from 14 patients in the early stages of ALS, from 13 with polyneuropathy, and from 16 with other neurological disorders. The concentration of cystatin C in the CSF was measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The concentration of cystatin C in the CSF was significantly lower in ALS patients than in the control subjects who were patients with polyneuropathy or other neurological diseases (patients with ALS, polyneuropathy, and other diseases exhibited 5.5 +/- 0.3, 6.7 +/- 0.4, and 6.9 +/- 0.3 mg/L cystatin C, respectively; ALS patients vs. control subjects: p = 0.014 and ALS patients vs. polyneuropathy patients: p = 0.024). Cystatin C may be a useful biomarker of ALS and can be used to distinguish between ALS and polyneuropathy. PMID:19444952

  16. Virtual MRI endoscopy of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Y.; Korogi, Y.; Hirai, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Okuda, T.; Ikushima, I.; Sugahara, T.; Liang, L.; Ge, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1998-10-01

    We used constructive interference in steady state (CISS) 3D Fourier transform (3DFT) MRI data sets to obtain three-dimensional (3D) virtual MRI endoscopic views of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces, processing them with a commercially available perspective endoscopic algorithm. We investigated the potential of the intracranial virtual MRI endoscopy applied to visualisation of the pathology in 13 patients with surgically confirmed trigeminal neuralgia (3), hemifacial spasm (3), acoustic neuroma (3), suprasellar germinoma (1), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (1), lateral ventricle nodules (1) and pituitary dwarfism (1). All images were acquired using a 1.5-T imager employing a circular polarised head coil. The CISS-3DFT data sets were transferred to a workstation for processing with the perspective endoscopic algorithm. Postprocessing for virtual MRI endoscopy was possible for all data sets. The lesions in 12 patients, and their complex anatomical relationships with the surrounding structures, were well seen on the 3D images. A small acoustic neuroma in the internal auditory meatus was not seen using virtual endoscopy. Although virtual MRI endoscopy has limitations, it provides 3D images which cannot be acquired using any other procedure. (orig.) With 6 figs., 16 refs.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Ashley M; Öz, Gülin; Gomez, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), would benefit from the identification of reliable biomarkers that could serve as disease subtype-specific and stage-specific indicators for the development and monitoring of treatments. We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of tau, α-synuclein, DJ-1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), proteins previously associated with neurodegenerative processes, in patients with the autosomal dominant SCA1, SCA2, and SCA6, and the sporadic disease multiple system atrophy, cerebellar type (MSA-C), compared with age-matched controls. We estimated disease severity using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Most proteins measured trended higher in disease versus control group yet did not reach statistical significance. We found the levels of tau in both SCA2 and MSA-C patients were significantly higher than control. We found that α-synuclein levels were lower with higher SARA scores in SCA1 and tau levels were higher with greater SARA in MSA-C, although this final correlation did not reach statistical significance after post hoc correction. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to improve the power of these studies and validate the use of CSF biomarkers in SCA and MSA-C. PMID:26265793

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Dementia Patients with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-feng Li; Fang-fang Ge; Yong Zhang; Hui You; Zhen-xin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Methods Levels of amyloid proteinβ (Aβ42, Aβ40) and phosphorylated Tau-protein (P-tau) in CSF and ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 were tested in 5 cases with CAA dementia and 20 cases with Alzheimer's disease collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2001 to March 2011. Results The levels of Aβ42, Aβ40, and P-tau in CSF and ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 were (660.4±265.2) ng/L, (7111.0±1033.4) ng/L, (71.8±51.5) ng/L, and 0.077±0.033, respectively in CAA dementia and (663.6±365.6) ng/L, (5115.0±2931.1) ng/L, (47.7±38.8) ng/L, and 0.192±0.140, respectively in Alzheimer's disease patients. There were no statistically significant differences between CAA dementia and Alzheimer's disease in terms of these CSF biomarkers (allP>0.05). Conclusion Measurements of CSF biomarkers may not be helpful in differential diagnosis of CAA and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha M Mehemed

    Full Text Available Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

  20. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid in brain development: neural progenitor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Alonso, M Isabel; Martín, Cristina; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, José Antonio; De la Mano, Aníbal; Fernández, José M F; Lamus, Francisco; Desmond, Mary E

    2014-08-28

    Due to the effort of several research teams across the world, today we have a solid base of knowledge on the liquid contained in the brain cavities, its composition, and biological roles. Although the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is among the most relevant parts of the central nervous system from the physiological point of view, it seems that it is not a permanent and stable entity because its composition and biological properties evolve across life. So, we can talk about different CSFs during the vertebrate life span. In this review, we focus on the CSF in an interesting period, early in vertebrate development before the formation of the choroid plexus. This specific entity is called "embryonic CSF." Based on the structure of the compartment, CSF composition, origin and circulation, and its interaction with neuroepithelial precursor cells (the target cells) we can conclude that embryonic CSF is different from the CSF in later developmental stages and from the adult CSF. This article presents arguments that support the singularity of the embryonic CSF, mainly focusing on its influence on neural precursor behavior during development and in adult life. PMID:25165044

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  2. Serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines level in children with meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Taskın

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in children with bacterial or viral meningitis and to document the use of these parameters in differential diagnosis.

  3. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; Aken, H. van; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of neurolo

  4. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of neurolo

  5. Longitudinal Stability of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Levels : Fulfilled Requirement for Pharmacodynamic Markers in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Bastard, Nathalie; Aerts, Laetitia; Sleegers, Kristel; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The current treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is purely symptomatic, but medications interfering with underlying pathophysiological processes are being developed. To evaluate a possible disease-modifying effect, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers with a direct link to the underlying pathophys

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid tau and phosphorylated tau protein are elevated in corticobasal syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.B.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiating corticobasal syndrome (CBS) from progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) can be difficult. To investigate the additional value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnostic differentiation of parkinsonism, we analyzed the CSF concentra

  7. Enterovirus-D68 in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Two Children with Aseptic Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Lunghi, Giovanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Tagliabue, Claudia; Orlandi, Anna; Torresani, Erminio; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    This case report describes two previously healthy children with aseptic meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid was positive for enterovirus-D68, which indicates direct involvement of this infectious agent in the development of this neurologic disease. PMID:26859634

  8. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid in Southeast Asian refugees with reactive serologic tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchwald, D; Collier, A.C.; Lukehart, S A; Kith, P; Goldstein, E; Hooton, T M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in Southeast Asian refugees with reactive serologic tests for syphilis, we evaluated 65 patients, 36 prospectively and 29 retrospectively, in a primary care clinic. Information was collected on history of treponemal infections, neurologic symptoms and signs, and total protein concentration, leukocyte count, and the VDRL test in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurologic symptoms were reported by all patients for whom data were availabl...

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer Markers in Depressed Elderly Subjects with and without Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kramberger, Milica Gregoric; Jelic, Vesna; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Enache, Daniela; Eriksdotter Jönhagen, Maria; Winblad, Bengt; Aarsland, Dag

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease (AD) markers and depression in elderly people. Method We included subjects with AD as well as persons with subjective cognitive impairment and normal cognition. Depression was assessed with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, and a cut-off score of >6 was used to define depression. Cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed using commercially available assays for β-amyloid 1–42, to...

  10. Normal permeability of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier to phosphorus 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) to 32P-inorganic phosphate in sixty five carefully selected individuals free of any organic diseases is studied. The lowest permeability of BCSFB to phosphorus 32 is 0.5 per cent and the highest - 5.0 per cent. Apparently these values are closest to the real fluctuations of normal permeability of BCSFB to the radioactive isotope under study. No sex and age related difference in BCSFB permeability is established, regardless of the fact that the mean permeability of BCSFB to phosphorus 32 after the 50th year of life is 0.6 per cent lower than that in the age 1 to 49 years, the difference is statistically unreliable (p>0.05). A good correlative dependence is established between the concentration of cerebrospinal fluid protein and phosphorus 32 penetration in the cerebrospinal fluid (r = 0.621) which dependence is absent in the organic diseases of the nervous system. No correlative dependence is found between penetration of phosphorus 32 within the cerebrospinal fluid and concentration of cerebrospinal fluid sugar, chlorides and number of cells. In some morbide condition a correlative dependence may occur between permeability of BCSFB to phosphorus 32 and the number of cerebrospinal fluid white cells. (author)

  11. Progressive Differentiation and Instructive Capacities of Amniotic Fluid and Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes following Neural Tube Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kevin F; Springel, Mark W; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Park, Hye-Yeon; Topal, Salih; Lun, Melody P; Mullan, Hillary; Maynard, Thomas; Steen, Hanno; LaMantia, Anthony S; Lehtinen, Maria K

    2015-12-21

    After neural tube closure, amniotic fluid (AF) captured inside the neural tube forms the nascent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuroepithelial stem cells contact CSF-filled ventricles, proliferate, and differentiate to form the mammalian brain, while neurogenic placodes, which generate cranial sensory neurons, remain in contact with the AF. Using in vivo ultrasound imaging, we quantified the expansion of the embryonic ventricular-CSF space from its inception. We developed tools to obtain pure AF and nascent CSF, before and after neural tube closure, and to define how the AF and CSF proteomes diverge during mouse development. Using embryonic neural explants, we demonstrate that age-matched fluids promote Sox2-positive neurogenic identity in developing forebrain and olfactory epithelia. Nascent CSF also stimulates SOX2-positive self-renewal of forebrain progenitor cells, some of which is attributable to LIFR signaling. Our Resource should facilitate the investigation of fluid-tissue interactions during this highly vulnerable stage of early brain development. PMID:26702835

  12. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis with cerebrospinal fluid circulation block after the first methotrexate administration by lumbar puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienfait, H.P. [Gelre Hospital, location Lukas, Apeldoorn, Department of Neurology, Albert Schweitzerlaan 31, PO Box 9014, 7300 DS Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Department of Neuro-Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gijtenbeek, J.M.M. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, St Radboud, Postlaan 4, 6525 GC Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bent, M.J. van [Department of Neuro-Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, H.G. de [Department of Radiology, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Voogt, P.J. [Department of Hematology, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pillay, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-11-01

    We report a patient treated for small lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia with cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) after lumbar puncture with intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX). He also developed a cerebrospinal fluid flow block. This is the first report of an association between lumbar puncture and intrathecally administered MTX and the development of CVST. Intrathecal treatment in this patient was discontinued and he was successfully treated with high-dose low-molecular-weight heparin subcutaneously. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of acid sphingomyelinase activity in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Mühle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM is involved in the regulation of cell fate and signaling via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide. While increased activity of the lysosomal form has been associated with various pathological conditions, there are few studies on secretory ASM limited only to cell models, plasma or serum. METHODS: An optimized assay based on a fluorescent substrate was applied to measure the ASM activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collected from mice and from 42 patients who were classified as controls based on normal routine CSF values. RESULTS: We have detected ASM activity in human CSF, established a sensitive quantitative assay and characterized the enzyme's properties. The enzyme resembles plasmatic ASM including protein stability and Zn(2+-dependence but the assays differ considerably in the optimal detergent concentration. Significantly increased activities in the CSF of ASM transgenic mice and undetectable levels in ASM knock-out mice prove that the measured ASM activity originates from the ASM-encoding gene SMPD1. CSF localized ASM activities were comparable to corresponding serum ASM levels at their respective optimal reaction conditions, but no correlation was observed. The large variance in ASM activity was independent of sex, age or analyzed routine CSF parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Human and mouse CSF contain detectable levels of secretory ASM, which are unrelated to serum ASM activities. Further investigations in humans and in animal models will help to elucidate the role of this enzyme in human disease and to assess its value as a potential biomarker for disease type, severity, progress or therapeutic success.

  14. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ping [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using {sup 131}I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of {sup 131}I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[C{sub IAR}]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[C{sub IA}], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]). Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R = 0.95 {+-} 0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R = 0.92 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.77 {+-} 0.21, p = 0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of {sup 131}I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[C{sub IAR}]) and therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]) by 7.4 fold, (2) When extrapolated to the clinical setting, the model predicted that if {sup 131}I-3F8 could be split into 4 doses of 1.4 mg each and given at {>=}24 hours apart, an antibody affinity of K{sub D} of 4 x 10{sup -9} at 50% immunoreactivity were adequate in order to deliver {>=}100 Gy to tumor cells while keeping normal CSF exposure to <10 Gy. This model predicted that immunoreactivity, affinity and optimal scheduling of antibody injections were crucial in improving therapeutic index. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteome in patients with neurocysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-jun; LI Jing-yi; HUANG Yong; XUE Yan-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is the infection of the nervous system by the larvae of Taenia solium (T. solium). Despite continuous effort, the experimental diagnosis of neurocysticercosis remains unresolved. Since the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contacts with the brain, dynamic information about pathological processes of the brain is likely to be reflected in CSF. Therefore, CSF may serve as a rich source of putative biomarkers related to neurocysticercosis. Comparative proteomic analysis of CSF of neurocysticercosis patients and control subjects may find differentially expressed proteins. Methods Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to investigate differentially expressed proteins in CSF of patients with neurocysticercosis by comparing the protein profile of CSF from neurocysticercosis patients with that from control subjects. The differentially expressed spots/proteins were recognized with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry. Results Forty-four enzyme digested peptides were obtained from 4 neurocysticercotic patients. Twenty-three were identified through search of the NCBI protein database with Mascot software, showing 19 up-expressed and 4 down-expressed. Of these proteins, 26S proteosome related to ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins and lipocalin type prostaglandin D synthase involved in PGD2-synthesis and extracellular transporter activities were up-expressed, while transferrin related to iron metabolism within the brain was down-expressed. Conclusions This study established the proteomic profile of pooled CSF from 4 patients with neurocysticercosis, suggesting the potential value of proteomic analysis for the study of candidate biomarkers involved in the diagnosis or pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis.

  16. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  18. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  19. Increased digitalis-like activity in human cerebrospinal fluid after expansion of the extracellular fluid volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine whether acute expansion of the extracellular fluid volume influenced the digitalis-like activity of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), previously described. Human CSF samples, drawn before and 30 minutes after the intravenous infusion of 1 liter of either saline or glucose solutions, were assayed for digitalis-like activity by inhibition of either the 86Rb+ uptake into human erythrocytes or by the activity of a purified Na+-K+ ATPase. The CSF inhibitory activity on both systems significantly increased after the infusion of sodium solutions but did not change after the infusion of glucose. These results indicate that the digitalis-like factor of human CSF might be involved in the regulation of the extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte content and thereby in some of the physiological responses to sodium loading. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  20. Research of essential elements composition in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with outcomes of traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    ALIEV M.A.; MAMADALIEV A.M.; MAMADALIEVA S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the essential elements composition in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with different outcomes of traumatic brain injury before and after complex treatment with the use of endolumbal and intracystal introduction of ozone and pyracetam in dynamics. Essential elements composition was investigated in the cerebrospinal fluid of 83 patients. Thus, it may be noted positive changes in the metabolism of essential elements in the cerebrospinal fluid of pat...

  1. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Musatov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunistic and HIV-related disease was diagnosed in 29 patients. The most frequent pathology of the nervous system (12 cases is a diffuse HIV-associated brain damage occurring in 7 patients in the form of aseptic non purulent meningitis and in 5 patients in the form of encephalitis. The average value of the absolute and relative count of CD4-lymphocytes in patients amounted 147,0 cells/μl (40,0; 408,75 and 10.0% (4,00; 18,50. Pathological changes in cellular composition and protein concentration of cerebrospinal fluid detected in 19 cases. Replication of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid are detected in 31 of 32 patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy, including 17 patients with normal values of cerebrospinal fluid. The average HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid was 15 133,0 copies/ml (2501,0; 30624,0 or 4,18 (3,35; 4,48 lg HIV RNA, average HIV viral load in serum – 62 784,0 copies/ml (6027,5; 173869,0 or 4,80 4,80 (3,7; 5,2 lg HIV RNA. The concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly lower than in serum (4,18 and 4,80 lg HIV RNA, p=0.027. 4 patients with severe, multietiology damage of the central nervous system viral, microbial and fungal etiology, there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and in serum, the concentrations of HIV was higher in the cerebrospinal fluid.Conclusion: Among the majority of HIV-infected patients with signs of the central

  2. Experimental determination of the Stern layer thickness at the interface of the human arachnoid membrane and the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is part of an investigation of the electrostatic forces contributing to the interaction between colloidal molecules, suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid, with other molecules of the cerebrospinal fluid and with the surrounding environment. The study is based on experimental observations and theoretical considerations. We are reporting about the microscopic observation of particles suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid which was obtained by lumbar puncture of 27 neurosurgery patients. We found that the mean particle diameter and therefore the mean thickness of the Stern layer at the interface of the arachnoid membrane with the cerebrospinal fluid is a few micrometers. Individual variations of this diameter have been observed. (orig.)

  3. Automated quantification technology for cerebrospinal fluid dynamics based on magnetic resonance image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) technology, which is a non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for the visualization of blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, is used for diagnosis of neurological diseases related to CSF including idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), one of the causes of dementia. However, physicians must subjectively evaluate the velocity of CSF dynamics through observation of Time-SLIP images because no quantification technology exists that can express the values numerically. To address this issue, Toshiba, in cooperation with Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation and Toshiba Rinkan Hospital, has developed an automated quantification technology for CSF dynamics utilizing MR image analysis. We have confirmed the effectiveness of this technology through verification tests using a water phantom and quantification experiments using images of healthy volunteers. (author)

  4. Knowledge-base for interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid data patterns. Essentials in neurology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Hansotto

    2016-06-01

    The physiological and biophysical knowledge base for interpretations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data and reference ranges are essential for the clinical pathologist and neurochemist. With the popular description of the CSF flow dependent barrier function, the dynamics and concentration gradients of blood-derived, brain-derived and leptomeningeal proteins in CSF or the specificity-independent functions of B-lymphocytes in brain also the neurologist, psychiatrist, neurosurgeon as well as the neuropharmacologist may find essentials for diagnosis, research or development of therapies. This review may help to replace the outdated ideas like "leakage" models of the barriers, linear immunoglobulin Index Interpretations or CSF electrophoresis. Calculations, Interpretations and analytical pitfalls are described for albumin quotients, quantitation of immunoglobulin synthesis in Reibergrams, oligoclonal IgG, IgM analysis, the polyspecific ( MRZ- ) antibody reaction, the statistical treatment of CSF data and general quality assessment in the CSF laboratory. The diagnostic relevance is documented in an accompaning review. PMID:27332077

  5. Mammalian embryonic cerebrospinal fluid proteome has greater apolipoprotein and enzyme pattern complexity than the avian proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2005-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid, which has an essential role in the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. We identified and analyzed the proteome of Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid from rat embryos (Rattus norvegicus), which includes proteins involved in the regulation of Central Nervous System development. The comparison between mammalian and avian Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteomes reveals great similarity, but also greater complexity in some protein groups. The pattern of apolipoproteins and enzymes in CSF is more complex in the mammals than in birds. This difference may underlie the greater neural complexity and synaptic plasticity found in mammals. Fourteen Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid gene products were previously identified in adult human Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteome, and interestingly they are altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis may contribute to our understanding of Central Nervous System development and evolution, and these human diseases. PMID:16335996

  6. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and prealbumin in cerebrospinal fluid from depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Steen

    1988-01-01

    The size of the soluble form of the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM-sol, was by gel permeation chromatography estimated to 160-250 kDa. Within the CSF the concentration of NCAM-sol was found about 15-25% increased in lumbar fluid and 25% increased in ventricular...

  7. Indication for and value of information obtained by scintigraphy of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    56 scintigraphic examinations of the cerebrospinal fluid space for differential diagnosis of hydrocephalus as well as for the demonstration and localization of liquorrhea and of disturbances of the spinal fluid passage are reported. When using 169Yb-DTPA the procedure has proved to be very reliable and side reactions need not be expected

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in a simplified model of the human ventricular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the flow of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside a simplified model of the human ventricular system. Both computational and experimental results are explored. Due to the complexity of the real geometry, a simplified three-dimensional (3-D) model of the ventricular system was constructed with the same volume as the real geometry. The numerical study was conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT-6. Different CFD cases were solved for different flow rates range between 100-500 ml/day. A scaled up to 4:1 physical model with the same geometry as the computational model, was built. A diluted dye was injected into the physical model and visualized. From the CFD studies it was found that the flow pattern of the CSF is structured and has a 3-D motion. Recirculating motion takes place in the lateral ventricles in the form of small eddies at each plane. Experimentally, the dye reverse motion noticed confirms the CFD findings about the presence of a recirculating motion. (author)

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis detects cerebral amyloid-β accumulation earlier than positron emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Palmqvist, Sebastian; Mattsson, Niklas; Hansson, Oskar; ,

    2016-01-01

    See Rabinovici (doi:10.1093/brain/aww025) for a scientific commentary on this article. Cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β is thought to be the starting mechanism in Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid-β can be detected by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 or amyloid positron emission tomography, but it is unknown if any of the methods can identify an abnormal amyloid accumulation prior to the other. Our aim was to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 change before amyloid PET ...

  10. Investigation of autoantibody profiles for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker discovery in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Natascha Helena; Lueking, Angelika; Kowald, Axel; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    Using the UNIarray® marker technology platform, cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G reactivities of 15 controls and 17 RRMS patients against human recombinant proteins were investigated. Patient cerebrospinal fluids were oligoclonal band positive and reactivities were compared to that of sex- an...

  11. Cytomegalovirus associated transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent host with DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid; a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathne Suneth; Govindapala Dumitha; Udayakumara Yapa; Fernando Harshini

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus associated transverse myelitis among immunocompetent adults has been rarely reported. We report a patient presenting with clinical myelitis followed by previously unreported finding of cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Case report A forty year old immunocompetent male presented with acute onset progressive bilateral lower limb weakness. His spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and clinical pict...

  12. [A Case of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Associated with Cervical Spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Hirohito; Shiomi, Ryoji; Tatsumi, Shotaro; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak and intracranial hypotension associated with cervical spondylosis have rarely been observed, and only a few cases are reported. A 69-year-old woman, previously treated for rectal and thyroid cancer, complained of a non-postural persistent headache. The patient regularly practiced aerobic exercise, but a month earlier she had started experiencing headache and neck pain while exercising. Computed tomography(CT)showed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas, and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed diffuse dural enhancement and tonsillar herniation. We drained the subdural hematomas and replaced the ventricular reservoir to safely access the cerebrospinal fluid space. After surgery, the persistent headache disappeared for several days, but a postural headache emerged. CT myelogram showed extradural accumulation of the contrast medium at the C2-5 level with cervical spondylosis. The patient was treated with conservative therapy of bed rest and intravenous fluid hydration for two weeks, and the headache improved. CT myelogram after treatment showed no extradural accumulation of the contrast medium. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak associated with cervical spondylosis could be induced by the repeated minor mechanical stress caused by physical exercise. Therefore, the possibility that non-postural persistent headache may be caused by spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak should not be underestimated. PMID:27605479

  13. Evaluation of postmortem drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid compared with blood and pericardial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    In forensic toxicology, body fluids are important materials not only as alternatives to blood but also for investigation of postmortem drug redistributions and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis; however, there are limited data on postmortem drug distributions in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The present study reviewed toxicological data of autopsy cases (n=103), in which drugs were detected in CSF using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to investigate drug concentrations in CSF, compared with blood and pericardial fluid (PCF) concentrations. Oral/injected amphetamines (n=23) showed similar CSF and blood/PCF concentrations with partly lower CSF concentrations (about ×0.5-1.1). CSF concentrations of the venous anesthetic midazolam (n=7) were lower with poor correlations. Oral caffeine (n=15), acetaminophen (n=7), chlorpheniramine (n=6), dihydrocodeine (n=6), and phenobarbital (n=21) showed equivalent to lower CSF concentrations (about ×0.2-1.2), compared with blood and PCF concentrations; however, CSF phenobarbital concentrations were high in a fatal intoxication case. CSF concentrations of phenothiazine derivatives (n=29) were markedly lower (about ×0.1) than blood/PCF concentrations. The distribution of the local anesthetic lidocaine used in critical medical care (n=49) markedly varied by case. These findings suggest that CSF is useful in routine forensic toxicology as an alternative to blood as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistributions. PMID:26218406

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion during pegylated asparaginase therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise T; Nersting, Jacob; Raja, Raheel A;

    2014-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine depletion is considered a marker of asparaginase effect in the central nervous system (CNS) and may play a role in CNS-directed anti-leukaemia therapy. The...

  15. A rapid and simple cannulation technique for repeated sampling of cerebrospinal fluid in freely moving rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, H.J.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1979-01-01

    A cannulation technique for frequent sampling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in unanaesthetized freely moving rats is described. A permanent stainless steel cannula, constructed in such a way that no loss of CSF occurs, is placed into the rat's cisterna magna and fixed to the skull by anchoring screws

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid glucose and lactate: age-specific reference values and implications for clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, W.G.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Wevers, R.A.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological disorders, but reference ranges for CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose ratio and CSF lactate based on studies with large numbers of CSF samples are not available. Our aim was to define age-specific re

  17. Therapy failure following selection of enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1 in cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lelyveld, S F L; Nijhuis, M; Baatz, F; Wilting, I; van den Bergh, W M; Kurowski, M; de Jong, D.; Hoepelman, A I M; Wensing, A M J

    2010-01-01

    We report the selection of enfuvirtide-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in subsequent loss of viral suppression in the plasma. This case report emphasizes the potential danger of low-level penetration of entry inhibitors into the central nervous system.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J. W. C.; van Altena, R.; Bokkerink, H. J.; Luijckx, G. J.; van Soolingen, D.; Aarnoutse, R. E.; van der Werf, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Moxifloxacin cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration was evaluated by obtaining full plasma and CSF time concentration curves for 4 patients with tuberculous meningitis. The geometric mean ratio of the areas under the curve for CSF to plasma were 0.82 (range, 0.70-0.94) at 400 mg once per day and 0.71

  19. Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in patients with tuberculous meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Altena, R. van; Bokkerink, H.J.; Luijckx, G.J.R.; Soolingen, D. van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Werf, T.S. van der

    2009-01-01

    Moxifloxacin cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration was evaluated by obtaining full plasma and CSF time concentration curves for 4 patients with tuberculous meningitis. The geometric mean ratio of the areas under the curve for CSF to plasma were 0.82 (range, 0.70-0.94) at 400 mg once per day and 0.71

  20. Preliminary analysis of proton magnetic resonance 1D spectra of cerebrospinal fluid and brain cancer extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In series of cerebrospinal fluid samples from 25 patients proton spectra of magnetic resonance were measured. The spectra were measured also for series of brain tumor tissue extracts received from another 25 patients. This paper presents an attempt to apply statistical methods of image recognition for spectra analysis of the two measured series

  1. Abnormal expression of cerebrospinal fluid cation chloride cotransporters in patients with Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Temudo Duarte

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rett Syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. The relevance of MeCP2 for GABAergic function was previously documented in animal models. In these models, animals show deficits in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Neuronal Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs play a key role in GABAergic neuronal maturation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the regulation of CCCs expression during development. Our aim was to analyse the expression of two relevant CCCs, NKCC1 and KCC2, in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett syndrome patients and compare it with a normal control group. METHODS: The presence of bumetanide sensitive NKCC1 and KCC2 was analysed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from a control pediatric population (1 day to 14 years of life and from Rett syndrome patients (2 to 19 years of life, by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Both proteins were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and their levels are higher in the early postnatal period. However, Rett syndrome patients showed significantly reduced levels of KCC2 and KCC2/NKCC1 ratio when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced KCC2/NKCC1 ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett Syndrome patients suggests a disturbed process of GABAergic neuronal maturation and open up a new therapeutic perspective.

  2. Proteomics comparison of cerebrospinal fluid of relapsing remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Stoop (Marcel); V. Singh (Vaibhav); L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard); M.K. Titulaer (Mark); C. Stingl (Christoph); P.C. Burgers (Peter); P.A.E. Sillevis Smitt (Peter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier); T.M. Luider (Theo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on clinical representation of disease symptoms multiple sclerosis (MScl) patients can be divided into two major subtypes; relapsing remitting (RR) MScl (85-90%) and primary progressive (PP) MScl (10-15%). Proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has detected a n

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta42/phosphorylated tau ratio discriminates between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, D. de; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from vascular dementia (VaD) is hampered by clinical diagnostic criteria with disappointing sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau protein (t-tau), a

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Familial Forms of Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Nina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik;

    2015-01-01

    important when developing new therapies. Today, the core protein biomarkers amyloid-β42, total tau and phosphorylated tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD), because these biomarkers have shown to reflect the underlying amyloid and tau pathology. However, the...

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid P-tau(181P) : biomarker for improved differential dementia diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Goossens, Joery; Fransen, Erik; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the value of tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181p)) in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker panel for differential dementia diagnosis in autopsy confirmed AD and non-AD patients. The study population consisted of 140 aut

  6. The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Andreasson, Ulf; Persson, Staffan;

    2011-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The...

  7. Bace1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid and its relation to markers of ad pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.D.; Flier, W.M. van der; Verheijen, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Scheltens, P.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Hack, C.E.; Veerhuis, R.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that reduced amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ {42}) and increased tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the brain. β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is thought to be the major β-secretase involved in Aβ production in the brain,

  8. Levels of arginine-vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid during passive avoidance behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Laczi, F.; Gaffori, O.; Fekete, M.; Wied, D. de

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of immunoreactive arginine-vasopressin (IR-AVP) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acquisition and retention of passive avoidance behavior. IR-AVP level in CSF of male Wistar rats immediately after the learning trial was increased; the rate of which was related to

  9. Glycemia and Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid and Tau in Patients Attending a Memory Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, Lieza G.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Phillip; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between markers of glycemia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta 1-42 (A beta 42) and tau levels in patients attending a memory clinic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Memory clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred forty-five consecutive patients atte

  10. Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Águeda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics, but only a few have bacterial meningitis. Although some clinical prediction rules, such as bacterial meningitis score, are of well-known value, the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells count can be the initial available information. Our aim was to establish a cutoff point of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count that could distinguish bacterial from viral and aseptic meningitis. A retrospective study of children aged 29 days to 17 years who were admitted between January 1st and December 31th, 2009, with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (white blood cell > 7 µL-1 was conducted. The cases of traumatic lumbar puncture and of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were excluded. There were 295 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, 60.3% females, medium age 5.0 ± 4.3 years distributed as: 12.2% 1-3 months; 10.5% 3-12 months; 29.8% 12 months to 5 years; 47.5% >5 years. Thirty one children (10.5% were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, 156 (52.9% viral meningitis and 108 (36.6% aseptic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was caused by Neisseria meningi tidis (48.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.3%, other Streptococcus species (9.7%, and other agents (9.7%. cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 4839 cells/µL compared to patients with aseptic meningitis (mean, 159 cells/µL, p < 0.001, with those with aseptic meningitis (mean, 577 cells/µL, p < 0.001 and with all non-bacterial meningitis cases together (p < 0.001. A cutoff value of 321 white blood cell/µL showed the best combination of sensitivity (80.6% and specificity (81.4% for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.837. Therefore, the value of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was found to be a useful and rapid diagnostic test to distinguish

  11. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid markers of Alzheimer pathology and positron emission tomography tau imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Brian A; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brier, Matthew; Blazey, Tyler; Su, Yi; Christensen, Jon; Aldea, Patricia; McConathy, Jonathan; Holtzman, David M; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; Fagan, Anne M; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2016-08-01

    The two primary molecular pathologies in Alzheimer's disease are amyloid-β plaques and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles. Investigations into these pathologies have been restricted to cerebrospinal fluid assays, and positron emission tomography tracers that can image amyloid-β plaques. Tau tracers have recently been introduced into the field, although the utility of the tracer and its relationship to other Alzheimer biomarkers are still unknown. Here we examined tau deposition in 41 cognitively normal and 11 cognitively impaired older adults using the radioactive tau ligand (18)F-AV-1451 (previously known as T807) who also underwent a lumbar puncture to assess cerebrospinal fluid levels of total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) and amyloid-β42 Voxel-wise statistical analyses examined spatial patterns of tau deposition associated with cognitive impairment. We then related the amount of tau tracer uptake to levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. All analyses controlled for age and gender and, when appropriate, the time between imaging and lumbar puncture assessments. Symptomatic individuals (Clinical Dementia Rating > 0) demonstrated markedly increased levels of tau tracer uptake. This elevation was most prominent in the temporal lobe and temporoparietal junction, but extended more broadly into parietal and frontal cortices. In the entire cohort, there were significant relationships among all cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and tracer uptake, notably for tau-related cerebrospinal fluid markers. After controlling for levels of amyloid-β42, the correlations with tau uptake were r = 0.490 (P Alzheimer's disease, there is focal tauopathy in the medial temporal lobes and adjacent cortices. PMID:27286736

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients

  13. Detection of an occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid fistula by CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an unusual occult transclival cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula to the sphenoid sinus demonstrated by MRI. CT was performed because of a posterior cerebral infarct caused by cardiac arrhythmia. Axial sections showed fluid in the sphenoid sinus. High-resolution scans revealed a bony defect 3 mm in diameter of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus, and MRI showed a transclival CSF fistula. This occult lesion was confirmed by surgery and duraplasty was successfully performed via an endonasal approach. (orig.)

  14. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates neuroepithelial survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Moro, J A; Alonso, M I; Bueno, D; De La Mano, A; Martín, C

    2005-05-01

    Early in development, the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is controlled by several factors, which act in a developmentally regulated manner. Diffusible factors are secreted locally by the neuroepithelium itself, although other nearby structures may also be involved. Evidence suggests a physiological role for the cerebrospinal fluid in the development of the brain. Here, using organotypic cultures of chick embryo neuroepithelial explants from the mesencephalon, we show that the neuroepithelium in vitro is not able to self-induce cell survival, replication, and neurogenesis. We also show that the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) promotes neuroepithelial stem cell survival and induces proliferation and neurogenesis in mesencephalic explants. These data strongly suggest that E-CSF is involved in the regulation of neuroepithelial cells behavior, supporting the hypothesis that this fluid plays a key role during the early development of the central nervous system. PMID:15803475

  15. Multiplicity of cerebrospinal fluid functions: New challenges in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa Edward G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review integrates eight aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulatory dynamics: formation rate, pressure, flow, volume, turnover rate, composition, recycling and reabsorption. Novel ways to modulate CSF formation emanate from recent analyses of choroid plexus transcription factors (E2F5, ion transporters (NaHCO3 cotransport, transport enzymes (isoforms of carbonic anhydrase, aquaporin 1 regulation, and plasticity of receptors for fluid-regulating neuropeptides. A greater appreciation of CSF pressure (CSFP is being generated by fresh insights on peptidergic regulatory servomechanisms, the role of dysfunctional ependyma and circumventricular organs in causing congenital hydrocephalus, and the clinical use of algorithms to delineate CSFP waveforms for diagnostic and prognostic utility. Increasing attention focuses on CSF flow: how it impacts cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, neural stem cell progression in the subventricular zone, and catabolite/peptide clearance from the CNS. The pathophysiological significance of changes in CSF volume is assessed from the respective viewpoints of hemodynamics (choroid plexus blood flow and pulsatility, hydrodynamics (choroidal hypo- and hypersecretion and neuroendocrine factors (i.e., coordinated regulation by atrial natriuretic peptide, arginine vasopressin and basic fibroblast growth factor. In aging, normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease, the expanding CSF space reduces the CSF turnover rate, thus compromising the CSF sink action to clear harmful metabolites (e.g., amyloid from the CNS. Dwindling CSF dynamics greatly harms the interstitial environment of neurons. Accordingly the altered CSF composition in neurodegenerative diseases and senescence, because of adverse effects on neural processes and cognition, needs more effective clinical management. CSF recycling between subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles promotes interstitial fluid (ISF convection with both trophic

  16. Flows of Reactive Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of reactive flows has progressed mainly with advances in aerospace, which gave birth to a new science called aerothermochemistry, as well as through developments in chemical and process engineering. The methods employed, the phenomena investigated, and the aims of modeling differ for each field; however, in all cases, the results obtained have considerably enriched the working knowledge of reactive flows. This work examines basic concepts and methods necessary to study reactive flows and transfer phenomena in areas such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and chemistry. Specific topics covered include: * Equations of state * Transfer phenomena and chemical kinetics * Balance equations of reactive flows * Dimensionless numbers and similarity * Chemical reactors * Coupled phenomena * Turbulent flow concepts * Boundary layers and fluid layers * Reactive and nonreactive waves * Interface phenomena * Multiphase flow concepts The book presents tools of interest to graduate students, researchers in math...

  17. Assessment of anatomic morphology of the connective structures among brain ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid movement in them by cerebrospinal fluid spin-labeling MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the anatomic morphology of the connective structures among brain ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement in them by CSF spin-labeling MR imaging. Methods: According to the order of registration, 50 healthy volunteers were randomly selected and received cerebrospinal fluid spin-labeling MR scan with time-spatial labeling inversion recovery single-shot fast spin echo sequence (SLIR-SSFSE). The tagged CSF was used as an endogenous tracer. The anatomic morphology of the connective structures of brain ventricles and the flow direction of CSF were observed. The longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter of bilateral foramina of monro, midbrain aqueduct, and the central and bilateral lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle of each subject were measured and calculated based on multiple measurements. The flow rate of CSF was calculated based on the flow distance of CSF in the connective structures between brain ventricles during different TI time. The mean value of each indicator was acquired. Results: Two-way flow state of CSF was observed in all connective structures, including bilateral foramina of monro, midbrain aqueduct, and the central and bilateral lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle. On the coronal planes, foramen of monro appears as a 'Y'-type tubular structure locating among the both sides of the anteriomedial thalamus and fornix, which connect upward with bilateral lateral ventricles and downward with the third ventricle. The longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter of the left side of foramen of monro were 3.50-5.50 mm [mean (4.37±0.47) mm] and 1.00-1.40 mm [mean (1.21± 0.13) mm], respectively. The longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter of the right side of foramen of' monro were 4.20-4.80 mm [mean (4.42±0.20) mm] and 1.00-1.60 mm [mean (1.21± 0.19) mm], respectively. On the sagittal planes, foramen of monro appeared as an oblique fine tubular structure with the angle of 55°-58° between the both sides

  18. Segmentation of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to study the dynamic of perimedullary cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging allows studying quantitatively the perimedullary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. However, the anatomy of the subarachnoid space difficult the segmentation of CSF due to the presence of vascular structures and spinal nerves. The aim of this paper is to describe a semiautomatic segmentation method for the study of the perimedullary CSF dynamics. The process is started with a seed point within the region to analyze. The algorithm creates a correlation map, calculates a threshold value and classifies pixels of CSF combining different temporal characteristics of flow behavior as input attributes to a k-means algorithm. One observer carried out ten times the segmentation of the cervical images in 5 healthy subjects; stroke volume and area were calculated. The variability of the obtained measurements was evaluated as an estimation of the reproducibility of the method. For this the coefficient of variation was calculated. The variability of the measurements was less than 5%. The method facilitates the quantification of perimedullary CSF. Stroke volume and the area at C2C3 space and prepontine cistern were measured in 16 healthy subjects.

  19. Volume transmission of beta-endorphin via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veening Jan G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that non-synaptic communication by volume transmission in the flowing CSF plays an important role in neural mechanisms, especially for extending the duration of behavioral effects. In the present review, we explore the mechanisms involved in the behavioral and physiological effects of β-endorphin (β-END, especially those involving the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, as a message transport system to reach distant brain areas. The major source of β-END are the pro-opio-melano-cortin (POMC neurons, located in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARH, bordering the 3rd ventricle. In addition, numerous varicose β-END-immunoreactive fibers are situated close to the ventricular surfaces. In the present paper we surveyed the evidence that volume transmission via the CSF can be considered as an option for messages to reach remote brain areas. Some of the points discussed in the present review are: release mechanisms of β-END, independence of peripheral versus central levels, central β-END migration over considerable distances, behavioral effects of β-END depend on location of ventricular administration, and abundance of mu and delta opioid receptors in the periventricular regions of the brain.

  20. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  1. Cytokine network analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, M; Gottschalk, G; Peterson, D L; Knox, K K; Schultz, A F; Eddy, M L; Che, X; Lipkin, W I

    2016-02-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome is an unexplained debilitating disorder that is frequently associated with cognitive and motor dysfunction. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid from 32 cases, 40 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 19 normal subjects frequency-matched for age and sex using a 51-plex cytokine assay. Group-specific differences were found for the majority of analytes with an increase in cases of CCL11 (eotaxin), a chemokine involved in eosinophil recruitment. Network analysis revealed an inverse relationship between interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and colony-stimulating factor 1, colony-stimulating factor 2 and interleukin 17F, without effects on interleukin 1α or interleukin 1β, suggesting a disturbance in interleukin 1 signaling. Our results indicate a markedly disturbed immune signature in the cerebrospinal fluid of cases that is consistent with immune activation in the central nervous system, and a shift toward an allergic or T helper type-2 pattern associated with autoimmunity. PMID:25824300

  2. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  3. Olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the cervical lymphatic system in a rabbit experimental model☆

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haisheng; Ni, Zhili; Chen, Yetao; Wang, Dong; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Qiuhang; Wang, Shijie

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the anatomical association between intracranial subarachnoid space and the cervical lymphatic system. X-ray contrast medium and Microfil® (Microfil compounds fill and opacify microvascular and other spaces of non-surviving animals and post-mortem tissue under physiological injection pressure) were injected into the cisterna magna of the rabbit, and perineural routes of cerebrospinal fluid outflow into the lymphatic system were visualized. Under a surgical operating ...

  4. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to...

  5. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid seeding of a clival chordoma; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Ki Seok; Son, Hyun Jin [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Chordomas originate from remnants of the embryonic notochord and account for < 2% of all malignant bone tumors. Chordomas have a high rate of local recurrence. However, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding of a chordoma is extremely rare. Here, we present a very rare case of clival chordoma with spinal seeding. Radiologists should consider spinal CSF seeding of a clival chordoma, particularly when accompanied by signs of dural perforation or caudal extension.

  6. Occurrence of Overlooked Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, N.P.; Singhal, A.; A Jain; P. Kumar; Uppal, S. S.; Srivatsava, M. V. P.; Prasad, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    The paucibacillary nature of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been a major obstacle in the diagnosis of human tuberculous meningitis (TBM). This study shows that with molecular techniques direct precise determination to the species level of mycobacterial pathogens can be made. The present report describes the utility of a nested PCR (N-PCR) assay (A. Mishra, A. Singhal, D. S. Chauhan, V. M. Katoch, K. Srivastava, S. S. Thakral, S. S. Bharadwaj, V. Sreenivas, and H. K. Prasad, J. Clin. Microb...

  7. Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Patients with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatous Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung Jin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Ha, Yoon Suk; Huh, So Young; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multifocal seeding of the leptomeninges by malignant cells, which is usually referred to as leptomeningeal carcinomatous metastasis, produces substantial morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis is usually established by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigation, including cytology, cell counts, protein, glucose, and a tumor marker such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This study examined the diagnostic value of CEA in the CSF. Methods We meas...

  8. Mycophenolic acid inhibits replication of Type 2 Winnipeg, a cerebrospinal fluid-derived reovirus isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Laura L.; Coombs, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of reoviruses in human disease is uncertain. Most identified cases are sporadic and asymptomatic or produce minor upper respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. In November 1997, a reovirus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a severe combined immune deficient infant in Winnipeg, Manitoba. RNA characterization and sequencing studies demonstrated this reovirus isolate to be unique. Thus, the virus was named Type 2 Winnipeg (T2W).OBJECTIVES: Mycophenolic acid (MPA...

  9. P08.04LEPTOMENINGEAL CARCINOMATOSIS VS LEPTOMENINGEAL LYMPHOMATOSIS: COMPARISON OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID INFLAMMATORY CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Subirá, D.; Simó, M.; Illán, J.; Castañón, S.; Gonzalo, R; Martínez-García, M.; Pardo, J.; Gómez, L.; Navarro, M.; Bruna, J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inflammatory-cell infiltrate surrounding solid tumours is progressively gaining importance, in an attempt to reach a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, and also improve future design of immune-based cancer therapies. However, information about the inflammatory cell populations in leptomeningeal disease is scarce. STUDY DESIGN: We have studied the distribution of the main inflammatory cell populations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 83 patients di...

  10. An evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding confirmed by immunofixation on agarose gel.

    OpenAIRE

    George, P M; Lorier, M A; Donaldson, I M

    1983-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 115 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture or myelography was examined to determine the usefulness of immunofixation, following agarose gel electrophoresis, in the detection of oligoclonal IgG. All electrophoretic patterns were evaluated with and without immunofixation, and the interpretation of 9% of specimens was altered by immunofixation. The demonstration of oligoclonal IgG was shown to be more reliable in the diagnosis of multiple sc...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid signs of neuronal damage after antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Deeks Steven G; Hagberg Lars; Rosengren Lars; Gisslén Magnus; Price Richard W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The neurofilament is a major structural component of myelinated axons. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the light chain of the neurofilament protein (NFL) can serve as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS) injury. To assess whether interrupting antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection might have a deleterious effect on the CNS, we measured NFL levels in HIV-infected subjects interrupting therapy. We identified subjects who had CSF HIV ...

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough in two HIV-infected subjects on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Magnus; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Svennerholm, Bo; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic. However, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) monotherapy in the prevention of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the cases of 2 patients on darunavir/r maintenance monotherapy with cerebrospinal fluid v...

  13. Evidence for Fungal Infection in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Tissue from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Ruth; Pisa, Diana; Marina, Ana Isabel; Morato, Esperanza; Rábano, Alberto; Rodal, Izaskun; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Among neurogenerative diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal illness characterized by a progressive motor neuron dysfunction in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease; yet, to date, the exact etiology of ALS remains unknown. In the present work, we have explored the possibility of fungal infection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in brain tissue from ALS patients. Fungal antigens, as well as DNA from several fungi, we...

  14. Levels of arginine-vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid during passive avoidance behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kloet, E.R. de; Laczi, F.; Gaffori, O.; Fekete, M.; Wied, D. de

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of immunoreactive arginine-vasopressin (IR-AVP) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acquisition and retention of passive avoidance behavior. IR-AVP level in CSF of male Wistar rats immediately after the learning trial was increased; the rate of which was related to the intensity of the electric footschock during the learning trial and the avoidance latency as measured 1 day after the learning trial. Immediately after the 24 h retention test IR-AVP levels wer...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Colorimetric Microtiter Plate Systems for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Rys, Paul N.; Rutledge, Barbara J.; Mitchell, P. Shawn; Smith, Thomas F.; Persing, David H.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years, application of the PCR to the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with encephalitis and meningitis has become standard laboratory practice. However, from an operational perspective, the true diagnostic value of PCR in this setting is yet to be realized because most laboratories subject the amplification products to lengthy probe hybridization procedures by Southern blotting. As alternatives to Southern blotting, we ...

  16. Proteomics Comparison of Cerebrospinal Fluid of Relapsing Remitting and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Vaibhav Singh; Dekker, Lennard J; Titulaer, Mark K; Christoph Stingl; Burgers, Peter C.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Luider, Theo M.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on clinical representation of disease symptoms multiple sclerosis (MScl) patients can be divided into two major subtypes; relapsing remitting (RR) MScl (85-90%) and primary progressive (PP) MScl (10-15%). Proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has detected a number of proteins that were elevated in MScl patients. Here we specifically aimed to differentiate between the PP and RR subtypes of MScl by comparing CSF proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings: ...

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus viral load in patients with neurosyphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Sergio Monteiro de; Bhatt, Archana; Riggs, Patricia K.; Durelle, Janis; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; McCutchan, Allen; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis is a frequent coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Whereas systemic syphilis infection increases plasma HIV RNA levels (viral load; VL), effects of syphilis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VL are unknown. We hypothesized that intrathecal immune activation in neurosyphilis would selectively increase CSF VL in coinfected patients. In this study, HIV-infected research subjects (N = 225) were categorized into three groups based on serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR), microhemagl...

  18. S-Adenosylmethionine is decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Linnebank, M.; Popp, J.; Smulders, Y.; Smith, D.; Semmler, A; Farkas, M.; Kulic, L.; Cvetanovska, G; Blom, H; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Kölsch, H; Weller, M.; Jessen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increased plasma homocysteine levels have been described as an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Objective: This single-center, cross-sectional, correlational study analyzed homocysteine metabolism in 60 AD patients and 60 control subjects. Methods: Fasting plasma levels of vitamin B(12), folate and homocysteine as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of folate derivates, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylh...

  19. Identification of microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker for the diagnosis of glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Schlegel, Uwe; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Zöllner, Hannah; Schmiegel, Wolf; Hahn, Stephan; Schroers, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, no reliable biomarkers for the detection and risk stratification of gliomas have been identified. Recently, we demonstrated significant levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) to be present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Because of the involvement of miRNA in carcinogenesis, miRNAs in CSF may serve as unique biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis of glioma. The objec...

  20. Intrathecal radiogold prophylaxis and findings of the cerebrospinal fluid in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrathecal radiogold application represents an alternative to the prophylaxis of meningosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its compatibility is good, there are rarely any clinical side effects. In addition to inconstant phagocytosis, changes of the protein value and its fractions could be identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. The cumulative rates of remission and survival are less marked in these groups of patients than in those who received a prophylactic skull irradiation. (author)

  1. Acute Subdural Hematoma Following Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage in a Patient with Freezing of Gait

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Han-Joon; Cho, Yong-Jin; Cho, Joong-Yang; Lee, Dong-Ha; Hong, Keun-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Background Headache is a common complication of lumbar puncture (LP). Although in most cases post-LP headaches are not severe and have a benign course, they can also be a manifestation of a potentially life-threatening complication such as subdural hematoma (SDH). Case Report We describe a patient in whom a massive SDH developed after LP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, which were performed during the diagnostic evaluation of freezing of gait. Conclusions SDH should not be excluded fro...

  2. Metabolomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Indicates Iron Deficiency Compromises Cerebral Energy Metabolism in the Infant Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Ennis, Kathleen; Oz, Gulin; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia affects many pregnant women and young infants worldwide. The health impact is significant, given iron’s known role in many body functions, including oxidative and lipid metabolism, protein synthesis and brain neurochemistry. The following research determined if 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could detect the adverse influence of early life iron deficiency on the central nervous system. Using a controlled dietary model in 43 i...

  3. Effects of Various Handling and Storage Conditions on Stability of Treponema pallidum DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, A. V.; Podzorski, R. P.; Reyes, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    Treponema pallidum DNA from even small numbers of organisms was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stored at room temperature or at 4°C for several hours and in CSF subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles. These results suggest that negative PCR results for T. pallidum from patients diagnosed with T. pallidum invasion of the central nervous system are probably not due to the loss of target DNA prior to testing.

  4. Detection of posture-induced constriction of the cervical cerebrospinal fluid space by scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiscanning of the cervical cerebrospinal fluid space at maximum ante- and retroflexion in 24 patients revealed the method to be recommended for use in the case of cervical myelopathy when the polymorphous early symptoms appear and before myelography as well as for follow-up examination. The detection of posture-induced constriction of the lumen provides additional information and increases the sensitivity considerably because, particularly during retroflexion, minor inflammatory reactions lead to scintigraphically detectable reduction in the liquor space. (author)

  5. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lestaevel; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; B. Dhieux; Martin, J.C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth’s crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drin...

  6. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y H; Wu, S S

    1988-01-01

    The CSF fluoride level of individuals drinking water with normal fluoride content and of patients with endemic fluorosis were studied. For the purpose of studying the relationship between the dynamic equilibrium of the CSF fluoride and other body fluids, urine and blood fluoride were examined simultaneously. Fluoride was revealed in every CSF sample of the control group and its mean value was lower than that of the blood. The CSF fluoride concentration of patients with fluorosis was slightly ...

  7. Instability of cerebrospinal fluid after delayed storage and repeated freezing: a holistic study by drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klener, J.; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Bartoš, A.; Říčný, J.; Řípová, D.; Kopecký, V. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2014), s. 657-664. ISSN 1434-6621 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * cerebrospinal fluid * cold denaturation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2014

  8. Neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with acute ischemic brain disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaković Vesna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the dynamics of change of neuron-specific enolase concentration in patients with acute ischemic brain disease in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. The study included 103 patients, their mean age 58-66 years. The control group consisted of 16 patients, of matching age and sex, with radicular lesions of discal origin, subjected to diagnostic radiculography. Concentration of neuron-specific enolase was measured by a flouroimmunometric method. The results showed that the concentration of neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with brain ischemic disease within first seven days significantly increased compared to the control. The highest increase of concentration was established in brain infarction, somewhat lower in reversible ischemic attack, and the lowest in transient ischemic attack. Maximal concentration was established on the 3rd-4th day upon the brain infarction. Neuron-specific enolase concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma may be an indicator of pathophysiological processes in the acute phase of brain ischemia and is significant in early diagnostics and therapy of the disease.

  9. A porous silicon immunoassay platform for fluorometric determination of α-synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of total and/or oligomeric α-synuclein may be used as a biomarker tool to aid in the diagnosis and development of new disease-modifying therapies. We report here on a porous silicon antibody microarray for the fluorimetric determination of cerebrospinal fluid levels of total α-synuclein, a protein involved the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, and this offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. Porous silicon also warrants efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. The platform requires 10 μL of cerebrospinal fluid, and each test requires 4 h for assay only (including immobilization of capturing antibody). The limit of detection is 35 pg mL−1 of α-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid, and the dynamic analytical range extends from 0.01 to 100 ng·mL−1. (author)

  10. Strain-dependent disruption of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier by Streptoccocus suis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Tobias; Adam, Rüdiger; Eggelnpöhler, Ingo; Matalon, David; Seibt, Annette; K Novotny, Gerd E; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Schroten, Horst

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 is an important agent of diseases including meningitis among pigs worldwide, and is also a zoonotic agent. The barrier function of the choroid plexus epithelium that constitutes the structural basis for the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier has not been elucidated yet in bacterial meningitis. We investigated the influence of various S. suis isolates on the barrier function of cultured porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells with respect to the transepithelial resistance and paracellular [(3)H]-mannitol flux. Preferentially apical application of S. suis isolates significantly decreased transepithelial resistance and significantly increased paracellular [(3)H]-mannitol flux in a time-, dose- and strain-dependent manner. Viable S. suis isolates caused cytotoxicity determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay and electron microscopy, whereas S. suis sonicates and UV-inactivated S. suis did not cause cytotoxicity. The observed effects on porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells barrier function could not exclusively be ascribed to known virulence factors of S. suis such as suilysin. In conclusion, S. suis isolates induce loss of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in an in vitro model. Thus, S. suis may facilitate trafficking of bacteria and leucocytes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The underlying mechanisms for the barrier breakdown have yet to be determined. PMID:15780575

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins as predictors of Alzheimer’s disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Goran; Boban, Marina; Patrick R Hof

    2008-01-01

    Major efforts are under way to define reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. Highly significant increases of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid have been recently reported in Alzheimer’s disease patients compared to controls by several independent groups, including ours. These findings support the notion that cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins may be very useful biomarkers in the early identification of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognit...

  12. Effect of tryptophan administration on tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoleacetic acid in human lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, S N; Gauthier, S.

    1981-01-01

    Tryptophan 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid taken during pneumoencephalography from patients, some of whom took a 3 g or 6 g tryptophan load at various times before. Measurements were made on both lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid and the results showed similarities between indoleamine metabolism in human brain and spinal cord. Our data suggested that (1) the blood-brain barrier active transport system for tryptophan is not far from ...

  13. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. PMID:26247808

  14. Coupling poroelasticity and CFD for cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Brett; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2009-06-01

    This research uses a novel coupling of poroelastic theory and computational fluid dynamics to investigate acute hydrocephalus resulting from stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct. By coupling poroelastic theory with a multidimensional simulation of the cerebral aqueduct we are able to investigate, for the first time, the impact of physically relevant stenosis patterns on ventricular enlargement, accounting for the nonintuitive long time history responses of the ventricular system. Preliminary findings demonstrate clearly the importance that the fluidic-poroelastic coupling plays: ventricular enlargement is significantly smaller with local stenosis patterns and almost all of the observable pressure drop occurs across the stenosis. Short timescale effects [O(heartbeat)] are explored and their contribution to the long timescales interrogated. PMID:19304478

  15. Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, Søren; Wei, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for...... clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results: Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion: Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and...

  16. Iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak and intracranial hypotension after gynecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Albert; Creedon, Kerry; Sahjpaul, Ramesh

    2014-09-01

    Perineural cysts are common lesions of the sacral spine. They have rarely been reported in a presacral location, leading to their misdiagnosis as a gynecological lesion. The authors report the second such case, in a patient undergoing fenestration of what was presumed to be a benign pelvic cyst, and the resultant high-flow CSF leak that occurred. They describe the clinical presentation and manifestations of intracranial hypotension, as well as the pertinent investigations. They also review the literature for the best management options for this condition. Although they are uncommon, large perineural cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis when examining patients with a pelvic lesion. Appropriate imaging investigations should be performed to rule out a perineural cyst. The CSF leak that occurs from iatrogenic cyst fenestration may not respond to traditional first-line treatments for intracranial hypotension and may require early surgical intervention. The authors would recommend neurosurgical involvement prior to definitive treatment. PMID:24905389

  17. EDA-containing fibronectin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Małgorzata; Jasonek, Jolanta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin containing an alternatively spliced extra domain A (EDA-FN) participates in diverse biological cell functions, being also directly or indirectly engaged during an inflammatory response to brain injury and/or neuron regeneration. We analyzed FN and EDA-FN isoform levels by ELISA in 85 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 67 plasma samples obtained from children suffering from bacterial or viral meningitis and non-meningitis peripheral inflammation. We have found that the cerebrospinal level of EDA-FN was significantly lower in the bacterial meningitis group than in the viral- and non-meningitis groups. In the patients' plasma, EDA-FN was almost undetectable. The determination of fibronectin containing the EDA segment might be considered as an additional diagnostic marker of bacterial meningitis in children. PMID:23884219

  18. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht's solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Beta-2-transferrin to detect cerebrospinal fluid pleural effusion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jennifer C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pleural effusion secondary to ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion is a rare and potentially life-threatening occurrence. Case presentation We describe a 14-month-old Caucasian boy who had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt inserted for progressive hydrocephalus of unknown etiology. Two and a half months post-shunt insertion, the patient presented with mild respiratory distress. A chest radiograph revealed a large right pleural effusion and a shunt series demonstrated an appropriately placed distal catheter tip. A subsequent abdominal ultrasound revealed marked ascites. Fluid drained via tube thoracostomy was sent for beta-2-transferrin electrophoresis. A positive test was highly suggestive of cerebral spinal fluid hydrothorax. Post-externalization of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the ascites and pleural effusion resolved. Conclusion Testing for beta-2-transferrin protein in pleural fluid may serve as a useful technique for diagnosing cerebrospinal fluid hydrothorax in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

  1. Impact of cerebrospinal fluid shunting for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on the amyloid cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Moriya

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the improvement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow dynamics by CSF shunting, can suppress the oligomerization of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ, by measuring the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related proteins in the CSF before and after lumboperitoneal shunting. Lumbar CSF from 32 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH (samples were obtained before and 1 year after shunting, 15 patients with AD, and 12 normal controls was analyzed for AD-related proteins and APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides (APL1β (a surrogate marker for Aβ. We found that before shunting, individuals with iNPH had significantly lower levels of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP and Aβ38 compared to patients with AD and normal controls. We divided the patients with iNPH into patients with favorable (improvement ≥ 1 on the modified Rankin Scale and unfavorable (no improvement on the modified Rankin Scale outcomes. Compared to the unfavorable outcome group, the favorable outcome group showed significant increases in Aβ38, 40, 42, and phosphorylated-tau levels after shunting. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the levels of APL1β25, 27, and 28 after shunting. After shunting, we observed positive correlations between sAPPα and sAPPβ, Aβ38 and 42, and APL1β25 and 28, with shifts from sAPPβ to sAPPα, from APL1β28 to 25, and from Aβ42 to 38 in all patients with iNPH. Our results suggest that Aβ production remained unchanged by the shunt procedure because the levels of sAPP and APL1β were unchanged. Moreover, the shift of Aβ from oligomer to monomer due to the shift of Aβ42 (easy to aggregate to Aβ38 (difficult to aggregate, and the improvement of interstitial-fluid flow, could lead to increased Aβ levels in the CSF. Our findings suggest that the shunting procedure can delay intracerebral deposition of Aβ in patients with iNPH.

  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Sean D; Lang, Susan M; Simmonds, Sarah S; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2015-12-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or polysynaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to cerebrospinal fluid hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15 mol/L, 0.6 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L NaCl (5 µL/10 minutes) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure, despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally projecting RVLM neurons revealed 3 distinct populations based on discharge responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl: type I excited (46%; 11/24), type II inhibited (37%; 9/24), and type III no change (17%; 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26416846

  3. Multiple sclerosis test or the 4 humors: cerebrospinal fluid serum, tears and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4 were studied biological fluids easily accessible to the immune exploration (cerebrospinal fluid, serum, tears and saliva) in 25 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a push clinical disease. The level of interleukin-2 receptor soluble (RsIL-2) was significantly increased by at least 3 of these 4 fluids, compared with normal controls. The sensitivity and specificity of its determination for the diagnosis of the condition was higher than other immunochemical parameters, oligoclonal distribution (OD) of immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain imbalance-and-evoked electrophysiological studies. This method is used to establish a more accurate diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis as well as to monitor its biological activity with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (Author)

  4. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and [14C]methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption

  5. The Cerebrospinal Fluid in Severe Pain Conditions : Clinical, Pharmacological and Proteomic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of both cancer pain and non-cancer chronic pain is still suboptimal. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to conduct translational pain research at the interface between clinical pain medicine and the field of human proteomics, using the practice of intrathecal analgesia at our institution as a starting point. Hence, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is at the centre of the present dissertation, both as a target for infusing analgesics (Papers I and II – clinical and pharmacologic...

  6. OP27ETOPOSIDE PHARMACOKINETICS FOLLOWING INTRA-CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ADMINISTRATION IN PATIENTS WITH LEPTOMENINGEAL METASTASES

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Lisethe; Veal, Gareth; Walker, David; Grundy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Daily intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) etoposide administration regimens are in use, by-passing the blood-brain-barrier and offering higher CSF drug concentrations at 1/30th to 1/340th the dose in conventional systemically administered standard and high dose etoposide regimens, respectively. METHOD: 42 pharmacokinetic samples were obtained from a paediatric (36) and adult patient (6). Etoposide 0.75 mg was administered over 1-2 minutes via the intra-ventricular (IVT) or lumbar ro...

  7. Transfer of liraglutide from blood to cerebrospinal fluid is minimal in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Sparre-Ulrich, A H; Hartmann, B;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with liraglutide leads to weight loss. We investigated whether blood-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transfer of liraglutide occurs, and if so, whether it associates with clinical weight loss following liraglutide treatment in humans. We performed lumbar puncture and blood sampling in eight...... patients with type 2 diabetes (mean (range)): age 63 (54-79) years; actual body weight: 90 (75-118) kg treated with 1.8 mg liraglutide for 14 (5-22) months and with a treatment-induced weight loss of 8.4 (7-11) kg. We measured liraglutide in plasma and CSF with a radioimmunoassay specific for the N...

  8. Concentrations of doxycycline and penicillin G in sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated for neuroborreliosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, M.; Hammers, S; Nilsson-Ehle, I; Malmborg, A S; Wretlind, B

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of doxycycline and penicillin G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed in 46 patients during treatment for neuroborreliosis. Twenty patients were treated intravenously with penicillin G at 3 g every 6 h (q6h), and 26 patients were treated orally with doxycycline at 200 mg q24h. All samples were collected on day 13 of treatment. The median concentrations of penicillin G in serum were 0.5, 37, and 5.6 micrograms/ml before and 1 and 3 h after drug administration, and...

  9. Rosai Dorfman disease: case with extensive dural involvement and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Jitender, Saini; Anantaram, Gudipati; Santosh, Vani

    2012-03-15

    We report a young adult man who presented with chronic raised intracranial tension features and unusually progressive bilateral visual and hearing impairment of 18 months duration. MR imaging showed extensive dural involvement and contiguous orbital and spinal disease. Cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated persistent high lymphocytic pleocytosis. Dural biopsy obtained from posterior cervical approach with C1 arch excision and meningeal biopsy revealed features of classical of Rosai-Dorfman disease. Histiocytes were strongly positive for CD-68 and S-100 proteins. The illness relentlessly progressed with patient developing total deafness and near total blindness at last follow-up. PMID:22029938

  10. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of anakinra after intravenous administration to non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Elizabeth; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Pham, Tuyet-Hang; Rowley, Ayana; McCully, Cynthia L; Pucino, Frank; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Anakinra improves the central nervous system manifestations of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, which is mediated by IL-1β oversecretion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra was studied in rhesus monkeys after intravenous doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg. Drug exposure (area under concentration-time curve) in CSF was 0.28% of that in serum. The average CSF concentration at 3 mg/kg was 1.8 ng/mL, which is 30-fold higher than endogenous CSF ...

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis Should Be Considered in Patients with Cognitive Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Zetterberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatologists assay liver enzymes and cardiologists structural heart proteins in serum to diagnose and monitor their patients. This way of thinking has not quite made it into the memory clinics yet, in spite of the availability of validated cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for key pathological events in the brain in neurodegeneration. Here, we argue that a spinal tap should be considered in all patients who seek medical advice for memory problems and list the highly relevant clinical questions CSF analyses can address.

  12. Cell-free DNA in the Cerebrospinal Fluid under Emotional Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mariia Zharova; Pavel Umriukhin; Natalia Veiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in blood is known to be a tumor marker however there is no information about its concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in control and in emotional stress (ES). The aim of the study was to determine level of cfDNA in CSF of rats with different resistance to stress before and after ES. Methods: A total of 19 male Wistar rats weighing 200-220 g were included in this study. All rats were divided into 2 groups depending on the motor activity: acti...

  13. Non Invasive Microwave Sensor for the Detection of Lactic Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research involves the use of a low power microwave sensor for analysis of lactic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery which could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes and better quality of care with more efficient use of resources. This paper presents initial work using standard lactate curves in water followed by lactate in synthetic CSF. A multi-modal spectral signature has been defined for lactate, forming the basis for subsequent development of microwave sensor platform that is able to detect concentrations of lactic acid in CSF of volumes less than 1ml.

  14. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y were investigated by use of radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. The somatostatin level was significantly decreased in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis compared to the control group. The magnitude of this change was more pronounced in patients with severe clinical symptoms of the illness. The CSF neuropeptide Y concentration did not differ from the control values. These findings suggest a selective involvement of somatostatin neurotransmission in multiple sclerosis

  15. Swiftly Decreasing Cerebrospinal Fluid Cathelicidin Concentration Predicts Improved Outcome in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, Okko; Helve, Otto; Roine, Irmeli; Andersson, Sture; Fernández, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula

    2016-06-01

    We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis on admission and during antimicrobial treatment. CSF cathelicidin concentrations on admission correlated with CSF white cell counts and protein levels but not with bacterial etiology. A greater decrease in the concentration in response to treatment was associated with a better outcome. Since the CSF cathelicidin concentration reflects the degree of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, it may be used as a novel biomarker in childhood bacterial meningitis. An early decrease during treatment likely signals more rapid mitigation of the disease process and thus a better outcome. PMID:27008883

  16. (alpha)B-crystallin in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Birgitte; Vang, Ole; Christiansen, Michael

    Background: aB-crystallin is a chaperone protein and a potential myelin antigen to human T cells in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In this study we investigate the existence of aB-crystallin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with clinical symptoms of MS and control individuals without these......: Western blot analysis revealed the presence of high molecular weight aB-crystallin in CSF. Possibly posttranslationally modified aggregates of aB-crystallin were found in human astroglioma U373 cells. CSF aB-crystallin was seen in the CSF in 100% of MS patients and 88% of neurological controls without MS...

  17. Persistent dural cerebrospinal fluid leak shown by retrograde radionuclide myelography: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following inadvertent spinal anesthesia for delivery, a patient developed incapacitating post-lumbar puncture headache that persisted for 9 weeks. Scintigrams of the lumbar region, obtained after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-human serum albumin into the cisterna magna, showed the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Blood patch repair was carried out, with immediate relief of all symptoms. Because of subsequent atypical headaches, a second cisternogram was done by the same technique. This study confirmed that there was no further dural leak, and other evidence indicated that the recurrent headache was related to functional problems

  18. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  19. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin FARIVAR*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: : Farivar S, Mohamadzade Z, Shiari R, Fahimzad AR. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical CordMesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid. . Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter; 9(1:87-93.  Abstract Objective Wharton’s jelly (WJ is the gelatinous connective tissue from the umbilical cord. It is composed of mesenchymal stem cells, collagen fibers, and proteoglycans. The stem cells in WJ have properties that are interesting for research. For example, they are simple to harvest by noninvasive methods, provide large numbers of cells without risk to the donor, the stem cell population may be expanded in vitro, cryogenically stored, thawed, genetically manipulated, and differentiated in vitro. In our study, we investigated the effect of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF on neural differentiation of human WJ stem cells.Material & Methods The cells in passage 2 were induced into neural differentiation with different concentrations of human cerebrospinal fluid. Differentiation along with neural lineage was documented by expression of three neural markers: Nestin, Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 (MAP2, and Glial Fibrillary Astrocytic Protein (GFAP for 21 days. The expression of the identified genes was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR.Results Treatment with 100 and 200μg/ml CSF resulted in the expression of GFAP and glial cells marker on days 14 and 21. The expression of neural-specific genes following CSF treatment was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Treatment of the cells with a twofold concentration of CSF, led to the expression of MAP2 on day 14 of induction. No expression of GFAP was detected before day 14 or MAP2 before day 21, which shows the importance of the treatment period. In the present study, expression analysis for the known neural markers: Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2 using RT-PCR were performed. The data demonstrated that CSF could play a role as a strong inducer.Conclusion RT-PCR showed that

  20. Olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the cervical lymphatic system in a rabbit experimental model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Liu; Zhili Ni; Yetao Chen; Dong Wang; Yan Qi; Qiuhang Zhang; Shijie Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the anatomical association between intracranial subarachnoid space and the cervical lymphatic system. X-ray contrast medium and Microfil(R) (Microfil compounds fill and opacify microvascular and other spaces of non-surviving animals and post-mortem tissue under physiological injection pressure) were injected into the cisterna magna of the rabbit, and perineural routes of cerebrospinal fluid outflow into the lymphatic system were visualized. Under a surgical operating microscope, Microfil was found within the subarachnoid space and along the olfactory nerves. At the nasal mucosa, a lymphatic network was identified near the olfactory nerves, which crossed the nasopharyngeal region and finally emptied into the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes. Under a light microscope, Microfil was visible around the olfactory nerves and within lymphatic vessels. These results suggested that cerebrospinal fluid drained from the subarachnoid space along the olfactory nerves to nasal lymphatic vessels, which in turn, emptied into the cervical lymph nodes. This anatomical route, therefore, allowed connection between the central nervous system and the lymphatic system.

  1. A Rare Case of Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Associated with Nontraumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spontaneous nontraumatic pneumocephalus (PNC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks are both very uncommon conditions. We report a rare case of spontaneous pneumocephalus associated with CSF leak secondary to right sphenoid sinus bony defect without history of trauma. Case Description. 51-year-old Hispanic female with past medical history of hypertension and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri presented to the emergency room complaining of headache and clear discharge from the right nostril. Physical examination was significant for right frontal sinus tenderness and clear discharge from right nostril. Computed Tomography (CT scan of the brain showed moderate amount of extra-axial air within the right cerebral hemisphere indicative of pneumocephalus. CT scan of facial bones showed bony defect along the right sphenoid sinus with abnormal CSF collection. The patient was started on intravenous antibiotics for meningitis prophylaxis and subsequently underwent transsphenoidal repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak with abdominal fat graft. CSF rhinorrhea stopped completely after the surgery with near complete resolution of pneumocephalus before discharge. Conclusions. Early identification of pneumocephalus and surgical intervention can help decrease the morbidity and avoid possible complications. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, although rare, can lead to CSF leak and pneumocepahlus.

  2. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid collaborates with the isthmic organizer to regulate mesencephalic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Martín, Cristina; Alonso, María I; Moro, José A; Bueno, David; Gato, Angel

    2005-11-01

    Early in development, the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is controlled by several factors acting in a developmentally regulated manner. Recently it has been shown that diffusible factors contained within embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) promote neuroepithelial cell survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in mesencephalic explants lacking any known organizing center. In this paper, we show that mesencephalic and mesencephalic+isthmic organizer explants cultured only with basal medium do not express the typically expressed mesencephalic or isthmic organizer genes analyzed (otx2 and fgf8, respectively) and that mesencephalic explants cultured with embryonic CSF-supplemented medium do effect such expression, although they exhibit an altered pattern of gene expression, including ectopic shh expression domains. Other trophic sources that are able to maintain normal neuroepithelial cell behavior, i.e., fibroblast growth factor-2, fail to activate this ectopic shh expression. Conversely, the expression pattern of the analyzed genes in mesencephalic+isthmic organizer explants cultured with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid-supplemented medium mimics the pattern for control embryos developed in ovo. We demonstrate that embryonic CSF collaborates with the isthmic organizer in regulation of the expression pattern of some characteristic neuroectodermal genes during early stages of central nervous system (CNS) development, and we suggest that this collaboration is not restricted to the maintenance of neuroepithelial cell survival. Data reported in this paper corroborate the hypothesis that factors contained within embryonic CSF contribute to the patterning of the CNS during early embryonic development. PMID:16180222

  3. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spitzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD, 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD, 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable, and 16 nondemented subjects (ND were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau, phosphorylated Tau (pTau, and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42. CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42.

  4. Multi-element analysis on cerebrospinal fluid of non-nervous system diseases patients and sequela of infantile paralysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebrospinal fluid examination is significant for the diagnosis and differentiation of many nervous system diseases and nervous system complications after some internal diseases, and it also has some referential value for judging curative effect and prognosis. This paper is a description of a multielement anaysis on cerebrospinal fluid of non-nervous system diseases patients and sequela of infantile paralysis patients by PIXE. The analysis shows that the detectable elements in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with sequela of infantile paralysis are more than those in patients affected with non-nervous system diseases, the Zn content of the former is lower, and the Pb content of the former is higher than 1 ppm. This may be related to early stage diseases

  5. [Advances in Biomarkers of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Li, Shang-xun; Li, Xue-jian; Xu, Hong-yun

    2015-12-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is defined as a mild brain trauma resulting in a short loss of consciousness and alteration of mental status. It may also occasionally develop persistent and progressive symptoms. It has been confirmed that MTBI causes changes of anatomic structures in central nervous system and biomarkers in the body fluid. However, there is no sufficient research on relevance among threshold for the brain injury, individual vulnerability and duration of disturbance of consciousness. Furthermore, there are no reliable diagnostic methods to establish whether a blow to the head is sufficient to cause the brain injury. This review provides references for biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and blood associated with TBI. It also provides application status and potential prospects for further assessment and diagnosis of MTBI. PMID:27141807

  6. Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Desflurane, Propofol and Fentanyl in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Estimation BBB Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherebillo, Vyacheslav Yu; Elizarov, Andrei Yu; Polegaev, Andrei V

    2015-09-01

    A possibility to use the Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) with membrane separator interface has evolved into a powerful method for measurement of anaesthetic agents absolute concentration in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for the study of blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Recent advanced a new membrane material was used for drug concentration measurement in biologic fluids. A hydrophobic membrane was used in the interface to separate anaesthetic agents from biological fluids: inhalational anaesthetic desflurane,hypnotic propofol, analgesic fentanyl. The selective detection of volatile anesthetic agents in blood does not require long-term sample processing before injecting the sample into mass-spectrometer interface, in contrast to chromatographic methods. Mass-spectrometric interface for the measurement of anaesthetic agent concentration in biological fluids (blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid) is described. Sampling of biological fluids was performed during balanced inhalational (desflurane, fentanyl) anaesthesia and total intravenous (propofol, fentanyl) anaesthesia. PMID:26412969

  7. Studies on homocarnosine in cerebrospinal fluid in infancy and childhood. Part II. Homocarnosine levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with epilepsy, febrile convulsion or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological role of homocarnosine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children, homocarnosine levels in CSF were determined in patients with epilepsy (32 cases), febrile convulsion (5 cases) and meningitis (42 cases) with a high speed amino acid autoanalyzer (Hitachi Co.). Mean homocarnosine levels in CSF of controlled epileptic children, uncontrolled epileptic children and febrile convulsion cases were 0.61 +/- 0.25 mumol/dl, 1.03 +/- 0.37 mumol/dl and 1.09 +/- 0.04 mumol/dl, respectively. High homocarnosine levels in CSF of children with uncontrolled epilepsy or febrile convulsion may indicate the reduced turnover rate from homocarnosine to GABA. In patients with meningitis, the unconscious states were accompanied by significantly lower homocarnosine levels in CSF (0.39 +/- 0.20 mumol/dl) than those in the patients with clear conscious states (0.9 +/- 0.31 mumol/dl, however, in patients with clear conscious states homocarnosine in CSF were almost the same as those of normal children (0.89 +/- 0.23 mumol/dl). These data suggest that homocarnosine in CSF might be related to the convulsive tendency and consciousness. PMID:7283086

  8. Poor Memory Performance in Aged Cynomolgus Monkeys with Hippocampal Atrophy, Depletion of Amyloid Beta 1-42 and Accumulation of Tau Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda S; Pandelaki, Jacub; Mulyadi, Rahmad;

    2014-01-01

    performance had evidence of atrophy in the hippocampus and cortical areas, significantly lower cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid beta amino acid 1-42 (p<0.001) and higher cerebrospinal fluid total tau levels (p<0.05) compared to the group performing well on the DRT tests. CONCLUSION: Old, memory...

  9. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  10. Intracranial pressure, its components and cerebrospinal fluid pressure-volume compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Lalou, D A; Czosnyka, M; Garnett, M; Czosnyka, Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is often performed to aid diagnosis of hydrocephalus. This review discusses analysis of ICP and its components' for the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. The role of pulse, slow and respiratory waveforms of ICP in diagnosis, prognostication and management of hydrocephalus is presented. Two methods related to ICP measurement are listed: an overnight monitoring of ICP and a constant-rate infusion study. Due to the dynamic nature of ICP, a 'snapshot' manometric measurement of ICP is of limited use as it might lead to unreliable results. Therefore, monitoring of ICP over longer time combined with analysis of its waveforms provides more detailed information on the state of pressure-volume compensation. The infusion study implements ICP signal processing and CSF circulation model analysis in order to assess the cerebrospinal dynamics variables, such as CSF outflow resistance, compliance of CSF space, pressure amplitude, reference pressure, and CSF formation. These parameters act as an aid tool in diagnosis and prognostication of hydrocephalus and can be helpful in the assessment of a shunt malfunction. PMID:26666840

  11. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  12. Kinetics of HIV-1 in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Benetucci

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine HIV-1 kinetics in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM, we undertook a prospective collection of paired CSF/plasma samples from antiretroviral therapy- free HIV-infected patients with CM. Samples were obtained at baseline (S1 and at the second (S2 and third (S3 weeks of antifungal therapy. HIV-1 CSF concentrations were significantly lower in both S2 and S3 with respect to S1. Plasma concentrations remained stable. HIV-1 concentrations were higher in plasma than CSF in all cases. Patients who survived the episode of CM (but not those who died showed a decrease in CSF viral load, what suggests different viral kinetics of HIV-1 in the CSF according to the clinical course of this opportunistic disease.

  13. Lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta (Abeta) in non-demented Indian controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sarada; Sandhyarani, Boya; Shree, A N Divya; Murthy, K Krishna; Kalyani, K; Kumar, S Praveen; Pradeep; Noone, Mohin Jeslie; Taly, A B

    2006-10-23

    Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Indian population is lower than in developed countries. To determine whether limitation of amyloid beta (Abeta) concentration may be responsible for lower rate of incidence, we measured the levels of Abeta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 72 non-demented individuals ranging in the age from 20 years to 65 years. These samples were segregated into three groups ranging from 20-35 years, 36-50 years and 51-65 years of age. Levels of Abeta could be detected in all the age groups and they were much lower than the values reported in literature from the developed countries. No significant difference in the average level of Ass was observed with increase in age. PMID:16978775

  14. Altered cerebrospinal fluid proteins in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologna, Stephanie M; Shieh, Christine; Toth, Cynthia L; Cougnoux, Antony; Burkert, Kathryn R; Bianconi, Simona E; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D

    2016-08-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple malformation syndrome with neurocognitive impairment. SLOS arises from mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene which results in impaired enzymatic conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. In the current work, we sought to measure proteins that were altered in the cerebrospinal fluid from SLOS patients compared to pediatric controls. Using a multi-analyte antibody-based assay, we found that 12 proteins are altered in SLOS patients. Validation studies were carried out and the findings from this study suggest alterations in extracellular matrix remodeling and further evidence of oxidative stress within the disease pathophysiology. The results of this study will be used to explore biological pathways altered in SLOS and identifies a set of CSF proteins that can be evaluated as biomarkers in future therapeutic trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27148958

  15. Failure of droperidol and ketamine to influence cerebrospinal fluid production in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda,Shigemasa

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the ventriculo-cisternal perfusion method, the effects of droperidol and ketamine hydrochloride on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production were studied in dogs. Neither droperidol (0.25 mg/kg, IV nor ketamine (3 mg/kg, IV caused a statistically significant change in CSF production rate. Positive correlation between CSF production and corresponding cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was observed in the ketamine study, whose unfavorable effect on neurosurgical anaesthesia would be obvious. On the other hand droperidol (0.25 mg/kg, IV tended to decrease CSF production. Droperidol alone or in combination with other analgesics such as fentanyl as currently used in neurosurgical anaesthesia appears to be an appropriate choice in patients with increased intracranial pressure.

  16. Clinical value of HIV-1 matched detection in patients’ blood and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Stepanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation has been applied to 100 HIV infected patients with CD4 lymphocytes rate <350 cells/microliter, demanding HAART prescription, divided into two groups: 1 – without clinical features of CNS damage (54 people and 2 – with features of CNS damage of various etiology (46 people. HIV viral load (VL indices in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF have been examined. 45,7% of damages are caused with mixed infections. CSF HIV VL level with the 2 group patients is 7,6 times as high as that of 1 group patients. HIV VL in plasma is considerably higher than in CSF. Eight patients showed increased CSF HIV VL. Brain damages of various etiology with clinical implications violate hematoencephalic barrier integrity, contribute to HIV accumulation in CSF and intensify virus replication in brain tissue. It has been concluded that CSF examination for HIV is expedient.

  17. The influence of preanalytical conditions on the DJ-1 concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Tanassi, Julia T; Bech, Sara; Pålhagen, Sven; Svenningsson, Per; Heegaard, Niels Hh; Winge, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of centrifugation and protease activity on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin were determined in 12 (DJ-1) and six (hemoglobin) pairs of CSF...... samples, with one sample being stored without centrifugation and the other being centrifuged at 2000 × g before storage. The DJ-1 concentration was also determined in centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF containing protease inhibitors and compared with values determined in centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF...... samples without protease inhibitors. Furthermore, specific protein concentrations were determined in CSF from two groups, each comprising 23 patients with Parkinson's disease. In one group the CSF was centrifuged at 1300-1800 × g, 4°C, 10 min, and in the other at 2000 × g, 4°C, 10 min. RESULTS...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid examination may be useful in diagnosing neurosyphilis in asymptomatic HIV+ patients with syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Salamano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lumbar puncture in neurologically asymptomatic HIV+ patients is still under debate. There are different criteria for detecting neurosyphilis through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, especially in cases that are negative through the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL, regarding cellularity and protein content. However, a diagnosis of neurosyphilis can still exist despite negative VDRL. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA titers and application of the TPHA index in albumin and IgG improve the sensitivity, with a high degree of specificity. Thirty-two patients were selected for this study. VDRL was positive in five of them. The number of diagnoses reached 14 when the other techniques were added. It was not determined whether cellularity and increased protein levels were auxiliary tools in the diagnosis. According to our investigation, CSF analysis using the abovementioned techniques may be useful in diagnosing neurosyphilis in these patients.

  19. Cognitive impairment and major depressive disorder in HIV infection and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and major depressive disorder (MDD are common HIV-1 central nervous system (CNS complications. Their frequencies in AIDS patients are 36% and 45%, respectively. The diagnoses of HIV cognitive impairment are made by clinical criteria, no single laboratory test or biomarker establishes the diagnosis. Factors of indirect neuronal injury related with the pathophysiology of the HIV infection in the CNS, are the factors studied as biomarkers. In the present no biomarker is established to the diagnosis of HIV cognitive impairment, much still needs to be done. We review in this paper some biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid that could be valuable to the diagnosis of HIV cognitive impairment. Diagnosing depression in the context of HIV can be challenging, to identify a biomarker that could help in the diagnosis would be very important, although MDD risks and neurobiology are still poorly understood.

  20. Association of Brucella Meningoencephalitis with Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt in A Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak ABDINIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in Iran. It is a systemic infection that can involve any organs or systems of the body and have variable presentations. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt infections due to brucellosis have been rarely reported in the literatures.This is the history of a four years old boy who developed Brucella meningoencephalitis at the age of 42 months, whilst he had a VP shunt in situ for hydrocephalus treatment. Also, he presented brucellosis as acute abdomen. This patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and rifampicin. The shunt was extracted and all clinical and laboratory test abnormalities subsided through this management.We propose that in a patient with Brucella meningoencephalitis, the cerebrospinal fluid shunt system can be extracted and treatment with appropriate combination of antibiotics could be successful. Moreover, it shows that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute abdomen and ascites in endemic regions.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Christian; Benfield, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    .01). Among patients with purulent meningitis, CSF MIF levels were significantly higher in patients infected with pneumococci as compared to infection due to meningococci (11569 ng/L (8615-21935) vs. 5006 ng/L (1717-10905) respectively, P=0.02), in patients requiring assisted ventilation (10493 ng/L (5961......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) plays an essential pathophysiological role in septic shock; however, its role in central nervous system infection (CNS) remains to be defined. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF...... suspected of but had no evidence of CNS infection. RESULTS: CSF MIF levels were significantly higher in patients with purulent meningitis of known aetiology (8639 ng/L (3344-20600)) as compared to patients with purulent meningitis of unknown aetiology (2209 ng/L (1516-6550), Mann Whitney test, P=0.003), to...

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid chitinase-3-like 2 and chitotriosidase are potential prognostic biomarkers in early multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, M; Vinter, Matilda Degn; Sellebjerg, F;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown; however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) predict prognosis in early MS. Whether this applies to other chitinases and chitinase-like proteins is......) and cognitive impairment by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (P = 0.0357, linear regression) at follow-up. In a multivariate analysis of MS risk, CHI3L2 performed better than CHI3L1. CONCLUSIONS: CHI3L2 and chitotriosidase are promising biomarkers in patients with a first demyelinating episode......, immunoglobulin G index and leukocyte count were investigated. Long-term MS risk and disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite components) were examined in a retrospective cohort of 78 patients with ON as the first demyelinating episode (mean follow-up 14 years). The...

  3. Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Monaco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. Although many advances have been made in the comprehension of its pathogenesis, the etiology is still unknown. The complexity of MS reflects in the extreme variability of the clinical manifestations and clinical course both between and within patients, in addition to immunopathological mechanisms and response to treatment. Several prognostic factors have been suggested in large scale studies, but predictions in individual cases are difficult to make. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers, such as 14-3-3, tau, and cystatin C are promising sources of prognostic information with a good potential of quantitative measure, sensitivity, and reliability. However, none has shown sufficient reproducibility to be applied in clinical practice. Here we review the current literature addressing the above mentioned biomarkers as MS severity predictors at an early stage.

  4. MR imaging of multiple sclerosis in patients with negative cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study was performed to assess the value of MR imaging for detecting demyelinating disease of the brain in 50 patients with clinically suspected multiple sclerosis but negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The MR imaging examinations were performed with a superconducting magnet (Philips Gyroscan S15) operating at 0.5T. A multisection, double spin-echo technique was used in all cases (TR = 2,100 msec, TE = 50 and 100 msec). No abnormality was demonstrated in eight patients. In the others, lesions were usually located in the periventricular white matter (rounded masses and/or high signal intensity bands along the lateral ventricles), the brain stem and thalami (12 patients), and the cerebellum (6 patients). In conclusion, MR imaging appears to be an exquisite imaging modality for confirmation of clinically suspected multiple sclerosis in patients with negative CSF. However, it must include examination of the spinal cord when the brain examination is negative

  5. Erythropoietin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage originates from the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Sonne, Bjarne; Frederiksen, Hans Jørgen;

    2003-01-01

    Recent years' research has revealed a specific, neuroprotective erythropoietin (EPO) system in the central nervous system (CNS) that is upregulated by hypoxia. The presence and dynamics of EPO in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has not been investigated....... We collected a total of 83 corresponding serum and CSF samples from 18 patients with aneurysmal SAH and compared the concentrations of EPO with those of blood-derived markers of blood-brain barrier function (albumin, transferrin, alpha(2)-macroglobulin) and with those of proteins with well-known CNS...... synthesis (prealbumin, apolipoprotein E). The EPO concentration in CSF was 0.93 (0.82) mU/ml (median and inter-quartile range). Nine patients presented CSF-EPO values above 1 mU/ml. CSF levels did not correlate with serum concentrations and were independent of blood-brain barrier integrity suggesting a...

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid examination may be useful in diagnosing neurosyphilis in asymptomatic HIV+ patients with syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamano, Ronald; Ballesté, Raquel; Perna, Abayubá; Rodriguez, Natalia; Lombardo, Diego; García, Natalia; López, Pablo; Cappuccio, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar puncture in neurologically asymptomatic HIV+ patients is still under debate. There are different criteria for detecting neurosyphilis through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), especially in cases that are negative through the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), regarding cellularity and protein content. However, a diagnosis of neurosyphilis can still exist despite negative VDRL. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) titers and application of the TPHA index in albumin and IgG improve the sensitivity, with a high degree of specificity. Thirty-two patients were selected for this study. VDRL was positive in five of them. The number of diagnoses reached 14 when the other techniques were added. It was not determined whether cellularity and increased protein levels were auxiliary tools in the diagnosis. According to our investigation, CSF analysis using the abovementioned techniques may be useful in diagnosing neurosyphilis in these patients. PMID:26982990

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid can be used for HIV genotyping when it fails in blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Rotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood plasma specimens are the clinical standard for HIV-1 pol gene genotyping from viral populations; however, it is not always successful, often from low viral loads or the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors. Objective To describe the successful of HIV-1 genotyping in two samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, after genotype procedures failed from blood. Method Two HIV-infected patients enrolled in a neurocognitive research study were evaluated when standard HIV-1 genotyping failed from blood plasma samples. Genotyping was performed using the commercial system TRUGENE® HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA. Results CSF genotyping was performed via the same commercial platform and was successful in both cases. Conclusion This report demonstrates that CSF could be used as an alternate clinical specimen for HIV-1 genotyping when it fails from blood.

  8. Detecting polysaccharide antigen of Neisseria meningitidis group C in cerebrospinal fluid by dot-ELISA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Barbosa, S F; Alkmin, M G; Landgraf, I M

    2000-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 210 patients (200 with clinical evidence of bacterial meningitis, 10 with other clinical neurologic disease) were tested by a Dot-ELISA assay for detection of polysaccharide antigen of N. meningitidis group C. CSF samples were treated with EDTA 0.1 M, at pH 7.5 and heated to 90>C for 10 min. Polyclonal antiserum was purified by use of ethanol fractionation. The results were compared to those using bacterial culture (BC), latex agglutination (LA), counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), and direct microscopy (DM) methods. Test results showed a correlation of 93.3%, 94.3%, 91.0% and 69.5% respectively, and sensitivity of 0.947 and specificity of 0.930. This study suggests that the dot-ELISA assay of CSF is a useful alternative technique for the diagnosis of group C meningitis. PMID:10934498

  9. Comparative penetration of azlocillin and mezlocillin into cerebrospinal fluid of normal rabbits and rabbits with experimentally induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, G R; Worley, S E

    1982-01-01

    The impacts of meningeal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and route of drug administration on the penetration of azlocillin and mezlocillin into the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits were evaluated. The penetration of both agents was increased to a similar degree in rabbits with meningitis compared with normal rabbits. The increase in penetration was greater after intravenous administration than after intramuscular administration.

  10. Genetic Relationship between Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Nasopharyngeal and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Two Infants with Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Ana Lucia Sampaio Sgambatti; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C.; Laval, Cristina Aparecida; Guerra, Maria Luiza; de Andrade, João Guimarães; Di Fabio, Jose Luis

    2003-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from carriage and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concurrently recovered from the same individual has not yet been reported. By using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we demonstrated the genetic linkage among strains from CSF and nasopharynges of two children with pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:12904432

  11. SPARC/osteonectin, an endogenous mechanism for targeting albumin to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid interface during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, S A; Dziegielewska, K M; Møllgård, K;

    2011-01-01

    Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain. The mech...

  12. Amyloid beta protein and tau in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma as biomarkers for dementia: a review of recent literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankfort, S.V.; Tulner, L.R.; Campen, J.P. van; Verbeek, M.M.; Jansen, R.W.; Beijnen, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses recent developments in amyloid beta (Abeta), total tau (t-tau), and phosporylated tau (p-tau) protein analysis, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma as biomarkers for dementia. Recent research focused on the protection of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into de

  13. Blocking of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid augments bacteremia and increases lethality in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Christensen, Thomas; Benfield, Thomas; Espersen, Frank; Hougaard, David M; Ostergaard, Christian

    The role of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the evolution of the pathophysiological changes that occur in bacterial meningitis is unclear. Here, we investigate how leukocyte recruitment to the CSF, modulated by the leukocyte blocker fucoidin, affects the extent of brain...

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of nitric oxide metabolites predict response to methylprednisolone treatment in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Giovannoni, G; Hand, A; Madsen, H.O.; Jensen, C.V.; Garred, P

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not clear. We found increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the NO degradation products nitrate (NO(x)) in clinically definite MS but not in clinically isolated syndromes. High CSF concentrations of NO(x) correlated with long att...

  15. Senescent Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulatory Physiology and Their Role in the Pathogenesis of Normal-tension Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wostyn, Peter; De Groot, Veva; Van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the evidence supporting a role for senescent changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory physiology in the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). DESIGN: Literature review and personal perspective of the authors. METHODS: Analysis of selected articles in the peer-re

  16. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  17. Quantitative evaluation of changes in gait after extended cerebrospinal fluid drainage for normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Felix; Hickman, Thu-Trang; Tinl, Megan; Iracheta, Christine; Chen, Grace; Flynn, Patricia; Shuman, Matthew E; Johnson, Tatyana A; Rice, Rebecca R; Rice, Isaac M; Wiemann, Robert; Johnson, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by gait instability, urinary incontinence and cognitive dysfunction. These symptoms can be relieved by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, but the time course and nature of the improvements are poorly characterized. Attempts to prospectively identify iNPH patients responsive to CSF drainage by evaluating presenting gait quality or via extended lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage (eLCD) trials are common, but the reliability of such approaches is unclear. Here we combine eLCD trials with computerized quantitative gait measurements to predict shunt responsiveness in patients undergoing evaluation for possible iNPH. In this prospective cohort study, 50 patients presenting with enlarged cerebral ventricles and gait, urinary, and/or cognitive difficulties were evaluated for iNPH using a computerized gait analysis system during a 3day trial of eLCD. Gait speed, stride length, cadence, and the Timed Up and Go test were quantified before and during eLCD. Qualitative assessments of incontinence and cognition were obtained throughout the eLCD trial. Patients who improved after eLCD underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and symptoms were reassessed serially over the next 3 to 15months. There was no significant difference in presenting gait characteristics between patients who improved after drainage and those who did not. Gait improvement was not observed until 2 or more days of continuous drainage in most cases. Symptoms improved after eLCD in 60% of patients, and all patients who improved after eLCD also improved after shunt placement. The degree of improvement after eLCD correlated closely with that observed after shunt placement. PMID:26775149

  18. Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzy, Antoine; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rinne, Juha O; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Otto, Markus; Lleó, Alberto; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Santana, Isabel; Johansson, Jarkko; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; von Arnim, Christine A F; Beer, Ambros; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Portelius, Erik; Pannee, Josef; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40 Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer's disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference

  19. Sphingolipid metabolism correlates with cerebrospinal fluid Beta amyloid levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer's disease (AD is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but

  20. The impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Heidari Pahlavian

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM, and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL, have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼ 6 mm. Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS.

  1. Ethanol contamination of cerebrospinal fluid during standardized sampling and its effect on (1)H-NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sar, Sonia A; Zielman, Ronald; Terwindt, Gisela M; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Deelder, André M; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Meissner, Axel; Ferrari, Michel D

    2015-06-01

    Standardization of body fluid sampling, processing and storage procedures is pivotal to ensure data quality in metabolomics studies. Yet, despite strict adherence to standard sampling guidelines, we detected variable levels of ethanol in the (1)H-NMR spectra of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (range 9.2 × 10(-3)-10.0 mM). The presence of ethanol in all samples and the wide range of concentrations clearly indicated contamination of the samples of some sort, which affected the (1)H-NMR spectra quality and the interpretation. To determine where in the sampling protocol the ethanol contamination occurs, we performed a CSF sampling protocol simulation with 0.9 % NaCl (saline) instead of CSF and detected ethanol in all simulation samples. Ethanol diffusion through air during sampling and preparation stages appeared the only logical explanation. With a bench study, we showed that ethanol easily diffuses into ex vivo CSF samples via air transmission. Ethanol originated from routinely used skin disinfectants containing ethanol and from laboratory procedures. Ethanol affected the CSF sample matrix at concentrations above ~9.4 mM and obscured a significant part of the (1)H-NMR spectrum. CSF sample preparation for (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics analyses should therefore be carried out in a well-ventilated atmosphere with laminar flow, and use of ethanol should be avoided. PMID:25935669

  2. Blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in normal and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki; Chiba, Yoichi; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Fujihara, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    Blood-borne substances can invade into the extracellular spaces of the brain via endothelial cells in sites without the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can travel through the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain parenchyma adjacent to non-BBB sites. It has been shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains directly into the blood via the arachnoid villi and also into lymph nodes via the subarachnoid spaces of the brain, while ISF drains into the cervical lymph nodes through perivascular drainage pathways. In addition, the glymphatic pathway of fluids, characterized by para-arterial pathways, aquaporin4-dependent passage through astroglial cytoplasm, interstitial spaces, and paravenous routes, has been established. Meningeal lymphatic vessels along the superior sagittal sinus were very recently discovered. It is known that, in mice, blood-borne substances can be transferred to areas with intact BBB function, such as the medial regions of the hippocampus, presumably through leaky vessels in non-BBB sites. In the present paper, we review the clearance mechanisms of interstitial substances, such as amyloid-β peptides, as well as summarize models of BBB deterioration in response to different types of insults, including acute ischemia followed by reperfusion, hypertension, and chronic hypoperfusion. Lastly, we discuss the relationship between perivascular clearance and brain disorders. PMID:26920424

  3. Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Desflurane, Propofol and Fentanyl in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Estimation BBB Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cherebillo, Vyacheslav Yu.; Elizarov, Andrei Yu.; Polegaev, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    A possibility to use the Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) with membrane separator interface has evolved into a powerful method for measurement of anaesthetic agents absolute concentration in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for the study of blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Recent advanced a new membrane material was used for drug concentration measurement in biologic fluids. A hydrophobic membrane was used in the interface to separate anaesthetic agents from biological ...

  4. Relaminarization of fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed

  5. Relaminarization of fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.

  6. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  7. The effect of chronic osmotic disturbance on the concentrations of cations in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, M W; Kleeman, C R

    1969-09-01

    1. Adult cats were rendered hypo- and hypernatraemic by peritoneal dialysis. These states were maintained for periods of 2-5 days.2. The concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) of the cations, potassium, calcium and magnesium all decreased in the hyponatraemic animals and increased in the hypernatraemic animals. These shifts in c.s.f. cation concentrations did not relate to plasma changes in the same cations, which were often in the opposite direction.3. The relations of the cation concentrations to c.s.f. sodium were not linear and, in the cases of calcium and magnesium, the relevant cation concentration related better to the square rather than the first power of the c.s.f. sodium concentration.4. Brain water changed much less in the hypo- and hypernatraemic animals than might be anticipated from the shifts in blood osmolarity, plasma sodium concentration and muscle water.5. Isotonicity of the fluids in brain with blood plasma and c.s.f. appeared to be largely maintained by loss or gain of sodium and chloride ions by this tissue.6. The c.s.f. results may be partly due to a constant influx of the cation in question being diluted with more formed c.s.f. in hyponatraemia and less c.s.f. in hypernatraemia, but the deviations from linearity in the plots of c.s.f. cation against c.s.f. sodium suggest the influence of other factors. PMID:5352043

  8. Dense Fluid Flow Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Corpetti, Thomas; Memin, Etienne; Pérez, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of estimating and analyzing the motion in image sequences showing fluid phenomenon. Due to the great deal of spatial and temporal distortions that luminance patterns exhibit in images of fluid, standard techniques from Computer Vision, originally designed for quasi-rigid motions with stable salient features, are not well adapted in this context. In that prospect, we investigate a dedicated energy-based motion estimator. The considered functional includes a...

  9. Changes of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅱ and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in cerebrospinal fluid of children with tuberculous meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have stronger neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. But whether their levels in cerebrospinal fluid could be used as an auxiliary indicator in differentially diagnosing tuberculous meningitis and viral encephalitis is not yet clear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅱ (IGF-Ⅱ ) and IGFBP-3 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with tuberculous meningitis and the significance of the changes.DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent controlled study.SETTING: Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Thirty children with tuberculous meningitis (14 males and 16 females) were selected from the Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College from January 2005 to December 2006. Tuberculous meningitis was diagnosed according to their clinical manifestations, the history of close contact with tuberculosis, typical cerebrospinal fluid changes of tuberculous meningitis, positive tuberculosis antibody and effective antituberculosis treatment. There were 30 children (13 males and 17 females) with viral encephalitis, and viral encephalitis was diagnosed according to epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, conventional and biochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid, and negative bacteriology judgment. Meanwhile, 30 children (13 males and 17 females) without infectious and central nervous system disease were selected as the control group. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The lumbar puncture operation was implemented immediately to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (3 mL). The contents of IGF-Ⅱ and IGFBP-3 were detected with immunoradiometric assay. The concentrations of glucose and protein in cerebrospinal fluid were determined

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers of Neurodegeneration and Rates of Brain Atrophy in Early Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Head, Denise; Allison, Samantha; Buckles, Virginia; Fagan, Anne M.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Measures of neuronal loss are likely good surrogates for clinical and radiological disease progression in Alzheimer disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal injury or neurodegeneration may offer usefulness in predicting disease progression and guiding outcome assessments and prognostic decisions in clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. Visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) has demonstrated potential usefulness as a marker of neuronal injury in AD. OBJECTIVE To investigate the usefulness of CSF VILIP-1, tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42 levels in predicting rates of whole-brain and regional atrophy in early AD and cognitively normal control subjects over time. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy in participants with early AD and cognitively normal controls. Study participants had baseline CSF biomarker measurements and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging assessments for a mean follow-up period of 2 to 3 years. Mixed linear models assessed the ability of standardized baseline CSF biomarker measures to predict rates of whole-brain and regional atrophy over the follow-up period. The setting was The Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Participants (mean age, 72.6 years) were individuals with a clinical diagnosis of very mild AD (n = 23) and cognitively normal controls (n = 64) who were enrolled in longitudinal studies of healthy aging and dementia. The study dates were 2000 to 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Correlations between baseline CSF biomarker measures and rates of whole-brain or regional atrophy in the AD and control cohorts over the follow-up period. RESULTS Baseline CSF VILIP-1, tau, and p-tau181 levels (but not Aβ42 levels) predicted rates of whole-brain and regional atrophy in AD over the follow-up period. Baseline CSF VILIP-1 levels predicted whole-brain (P = .006), hippocampal (P = .01), and

  11. Nerve growth factor expression in astrocytoma and cerebrospinal fluid: a new biomarker for prognosis of astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-yu; FENG Yun; XU Wen-lin; YANG Yong; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Zhi-jian; GONG Ai-hua; YUAN Zhi-cheng; LU Pei-song; ZHAN Li-ping; WANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have discovered that nuclear translocation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor fragments function differently from the traditional model. This study aimed to uncover the nuclear expression of NGF in astrocytoma and its biological significance.Methods Ninety-four paraffin-embedded astrocytoma specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) and hemotoxylin & eosin (HE) staining. Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and intraoperative snap-frozen astrocytoma tissues were assayed for NGF expression by ELISA and Western blotting. The outcome of patients who contributed samples was tracked. Each ten tissue samples from patients with traumatic brain injury who had received decompression surgery and CSF samples from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia but with no history of nervous system disease were taken as control.Results NGF-positive immunoreactive products were distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of astrocytoma, but were only located in the cytoplasm of traumatic brain injury (TBI) tissue. NGF nuclear-positive rate (NPR) of grades Ⅲ-Ⅳ astrocytomas (70.0%) was higher than that of grades Ⅰ-Ⅱ astrocytoma (28.6%, P<0.05). NGF-NP expression positively correlated with the NGF concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (r=0.755, P<0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the median survival time was 25 months for NGF-NP astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients and 42 months in NGF nuclear negative (NGF-NN) astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (P<0.05). In astrocytoma Ⅲ-Ⅳ patients, the median survival was 7 months for NGF-NP patients and 24 months for NGF-NN patients (P<0.01). Two types of NGF with molecular weights of 13 and 36 kDa were present in astrocytoma, but only the 36 kDa NGF was found in the CSF. NGF expression elevated as the malignancy increased.Conclusions NGF-NP expression and NGF level in CSF were significant prognostic factors in astrocytoma patients.Because of the easy

  12. A meta-analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Roger C; Thiaghu, C; Ong, Huiyi; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Cyrus S; Tam, Wilson W; Zhang, Melvyn W

    2016-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is one of the most devastating presentations of SLE and comprises of psychiatric, central and peripheral neurological signs and symptoms. Previous studies suggest the possible associations between various autoantibodies (Abs) and NPSLE. The magnitudes of such association varied between studies. We performed a meta-analysis to pool data on serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels and positivity of Abs in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with NPSLE and SLE. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that fulfilled inclusion criteria. A random-effects model was used to calculate overall combined odd ratio (OR) and mean levels with its corresponding 95% confidence interval to evaluate the relationship between individual Abs and NPSLE patients relative to SLE patients. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in this analysis. There was a significantly greater proportion of NPSLE patients who demonstrated positivity for serum anti-cardiolipin (aCL) Abs (OR=1.63, p=0.016), lupus anticoagulants (LA) Abs (OR=1.91 p=0.01), anti-phospholipid (APL) Abs (OR=2.08, p=0.001), anti-ribosomal P Abs (OR=2.29, pAbs (OR=9.50, pAbs (OR=36.84, p=0.001) as compared to SLE patients. Among the 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes, the positivity of these serum autoantibodies were found specifically significantly associated with the manifestations of mood disorder, psychosis, cerebrovascular disease, seizure disorders, acute confusional state, cognitive dysfunction, headache, movement disorder, demyelinating syndrome and polyneuropathy, with ORs ranging from 1.84 to 4.73. Meta-regression identified proportion of women as significant moderator for the heterogeneity of aCL (p=0.004) and anti-neuronal Abs (p=0.0007); mean age for the heterogeneity of aCL (p=0.042) and LA (p=0.020) Abs, mean duration of illness for the heterogeneity of aCL Abs (p=0.035), and mean SLEDAI scores for the heterogeneity

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Indications, technique and results of treatment with a blood patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cases cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are iatrogenic and caused by medical interventions, such as lumbar puncture, peridural anesthesia and surgical interventions on the spine, However, spontaneous cerebral hypotension is currently detected more frequently due to improvements in diagnostic possibilities but often the cause cannot be clarified with certainty. There are various diagnostic tools for confirming the diagnosis and searching for the site of CSF leakage, such as postmyelography computed tomography (postmyelo-CT), indium111 radioisotope cisternography and (myelo) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which show different sensitivities. In accordance with own experience native MRI with fat-saturated T2-weighted sequences is often sufficient for diagnosing CSF leakage and the site. For the remaining cases an additional postmyelo-CT or alternatively myelo-MRI is recommended. In some patients with spontaneous cranial hypotension multiple CSF leaks are found at different spinal levels. The main symptom in most cases is an orthostatic headache. While post-puncture syndrome is self-limiting in many cases, spontaneous CSF leakage usually requires blood patch therapy. A lumbar blood patch can be safely carried out under guidance by fluoroscopy. In the case of a cervical or dorsal blood patch, CT guidance is recommended, which ensures epidural application of the blood patch and minimizes the risk of damaging the spinal cord. Despite a high success rate at the first attempt with a blood patch of up to 85 %, some cases require repeating the blood patch. A targeted blood patch of a CSF leak should generally be favoured over a blindly placed blood patch; nevertheless, if a CSF leak cannot be localized by CT or MRI a therapeutic attempt with a lumbar blood patch can be carried out. After a successful blood patch intracranial hygromas and pachymeningeal enhancement in the head show fast regression; however, epidural hygromas of the spine can persist for a period of

  14. External re-programmation by a new radionuclidic technique of electronic cerebrospinal fluid valve in case of hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Birbilis, Theodossios; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Savas; Karathanos, Evangelos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Prassopoulos, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is defined as an abnormal enlargement of the ventricles of the brain due to an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) because of a disturbance of its flow, absorption and/or secretion. The usual method of CSF diversion is a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Complications of implanted shunt systems include mechanical failure, shunt pathway obstruction, infection, foreign body (allergic) reaction to implants and CSF leakage along the implanted shunt pathway. These problems are solved with the use of programmable ventricular-peritoneal CSF valves. In this case, we describe a radionuclidic method for the control of successful reprogramming of the CSF valve. Furthermore, we analyze some technical data of such a valve-type are essential for the application of the above technique by nuclear medicine physicians. Scintigraphic evaluation of the electronic V-P drainage valve regulation is a noninvasive, not expensive, rapid and safe method with no complications for the patient and provides a reliable proof of the patency of the V-P shunt. PMID:19936336

  15. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumae, Mitsunori; Sato, Osamu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Hayashi, Naokazu; Takizawa, Ken; Atsumi, Hideki; Sorimachi, Takatoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  16. Genome-wide copy number analysis of cerebrospinal fluid tumor cells and their corresponding archival primary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jesus M. Magbanua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A debilitating complication of breast cancer is the metastatic spread of tumor cells to the leptomeninges or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Patients diagnosed with this aggressive clinical syndrome, known as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, have very poor prognosis. Despite improvements in detecting cerebrospinal fluid tumor cells (CSFTCs, information regarding their molecular biology is extremely limited. In our recent work, we utilized a protocol previously used for circulating tumor cell isolation to purify tumor cells from the CSF. We then performed genomic characterization of CSFTCs as well as archival tumors from the same patient. Here, we describe the microarray data and quality controls associated with our study published in the Cancer Research journal in 2013 [1]. We also provide an R script containing code for quality control of microarray data and assessment of copy number calls. The microarray data has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under accession # GSE46068.

  17. High resolution protein electrophoresis of 100 paired canine cerebrospinal fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Sébastien; Trumel, Cathy; Cauzinille, Laurent; Palenché, Florence; Braun, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the diagnostic relevance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) high resolution electrophoresis. The laboratory technique was applied to 100 paired samples of canine CSF and serum, with paired samples tested during the same analytical run, as recommended in human medicine. Ninety four of the dogs had a neurological disease and 6 healthy dogs served as a control group. A strong linear correlation between CSF total protein concentration and the albumin quota (AQ) was found in the control group and in the inflammatory (infectious or noninfectious), neoplastic, and miscellaneous groups: AQ = 0.015 CSF total protein--0.102, r = 0.990. This correlation suggests that an increased CSF total protein concentration can be an indicator of blood brain barrier dysfunction. The highest median AQ value was found in the aseptic suppurative meningitis group, but no statistical differences were found between this and the other groups. The AQ, calculated with this technique, did not provide any additional information. Moreover, although unexpected, the electrophoretic profiles were not characteristic of any particular disease. In conclusion, this study did not confirm high resolution electrophoresis of paired CSF and serum samples to be a valuable ancillary diagnostic tool for canine neurological diseases. PMID:16734104

  18. Possible role of the cavernous sinus veins in cerebrospinal fluid absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Lena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption pathways. To achieve this, Microfil (a coloured silastic material was infused into the subarachnoid space (cisterna magna of sheep post mortem, and the relevant tissues examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Microfil was taken up by an extensive network of extracranial lymphatic vessels in the olfactory turbinates. In addition however, Microfil also passed consistently through the dura at the base of the brain. Microfil was noted in the spaces surrounding the venous network that comprises the cavernous sinus, in the adventitia of the internal carotid arteries and adjacent to the pituitary gland. Additionally, Microfil was observed within the endoneurial spaces of the trigeminal nerve and in lymphatic vessels emerging from the epineurium of the nerve. These results suggest several unconventional pathways by which CSF may be removed from the subarachnoid space. The movement of CSF to locations external to the cranium via these routes may lead to its absorption into veins and lymphatics outside of the skull. The physiological importance of these pathways requires further investigation.

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis : CSF Biomarkers of SIV Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissel, Stephanie J; Kofler, Julia; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Wiley, Clayton A

    2016-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis, and at necropsy. YKL40 CSF concentrations above 1122 ng/ml were found to be a specific and sensitive biomarker for the presence of encephalitis and were highly correlated with CSF viral load. Macaques that developed encephalitis had evidence of chronic CNS immune activation during early, asymptomatic, and end stages of infection. At the onset of encephalitis, CSF demonstrated a rise of neuroimmune markers associated with macrophage recruitment, activation and interferon response. CSF YKL40 concentration and viral load are valuable biomarkers to define the onset of encephalitis. Chronic CNS immune activation precedes the development of encephalitis while some responses suggest protection from CNS lentiviral disease. PMID:27059917

  20. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531

  1. Data for a comprehensive map and functional annotation of the human cerebrospinal fluid proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome serves as a baseline reference for CSF biomarker discovery and provides insight into CSF physiology. In this study, high-pH reverse-phase liquid chromatography (hp-RPLC was first integrated with a TripleTOF 5600 mass spectrometer to comprehensively profile the normal CSF proteome. A total of 49,836 unique peptides and 3256 non-redundant proteins were identified. To obtain high-confidence results, 2513 proteins with at least 2 unique peptides were further selected as bona fide CSF proteins. Nearly 30% of the identified CSF proteins have not been previously reported in the normal CSF proteome. More than 25% of the CSF proteins were components of CNS cell microenvironments, and network analyses indicated their roles in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The top canonical pathway in which the CSF proteins participated was axon guidance signaling. More than one-third of the CSF proteins (788 proteins were related to neurological diseases, and these proteins constitute potential CSF biomarker candidates. The mapping results can be freely downloaded at http://122.70.220.102:8088/csf/, which can be used to navigate the CSF proteome. For more information about the data, please refer to the related original article [1], which has been recently accepted by Journal of Proteomics.

  2. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  3. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF. PMID:8521602

  4. Does Caffeine Consumption Modify Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travassos, Maria; Santana, Isabel; Baldeiras, Inês;

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD) by modulating amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolic pathways. The present work aimed to study a possible association of caffeine consumption with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, particularly Aβ. The study included 88 patients with AD or mild...... cognitive impairment. The consumption of caffeine and theobromine was evaluated using a validated food questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine and main active metabolites was performed with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of A(1-42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau...... in the CSF were determined using sandwich ELISA methods and other Aβ species, Aβ(X-38), Aβ(X-40), and Aβ(X-42), with the MSD Aβ Triplex assay. The concentration of caffeine was 0.79±1.15 μg/mL in the CSF and 1.20±1.88 μg/mL in the plasma. No correlation was found between caffeine consumption and Aβ42...

  5. Myelin basic protein determination in cerebro-spinal fluid of children with tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelin basic protein (MBP), an indicator of neural tissue damage in cerebro-spinal fluid, was studied in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). MBP levels were elevated in 62% of the cases of TBM, the levels being 13.3+-18.8 ng/mL, compared with control levels of 1.34+-0.55 ng/mL(p<0.001). MBP level was related to certain clinical features of the disease, such as level of consciousness, neurological characteristics associated with signs of raised intracranial tension and the presence of arteritis associated with hydrocephalus. However, its greatest significance was its correlation with the progress of disease. Persistence of high levels of MBP over a period of a few weeks was associated with little or no improvement in the clinical state of the patient or a higher mortality rate. Return to normal levels of MBP indicated a more favourable outcome of disease. Hence MBP estimation gave not only an indicator of the degree of neurological damage but also an important marker to evaluate patients' progress and response to treatment. (author)

  6. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestaevel, P.; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; Dhieux, B.; Martin, J. C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  7. PBPK model of methotrexate in cerebrospinal fluid ventricles using a combined microdialysis and MRI acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhonneur, Nolwenn; Noury, Fanny; Bruyère, Arnaud; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Le Corre, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the distribution of methotrexate (MTX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lateral ventricles and in cisterna magna after 3rd intraventricular CSF administration in a rabbit model. MTX or gadolinium chelate (Gd-DOTA) was administered in the 3rd ventricle with a local microdialysis to study the pharmacokinetics at the site of administration and with a simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition in the 3rd ventricle, the lateral ventricles and in the cisterna magna. A specific CSF Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was then extrapolated for MTX from Gd-DOTA data. The relative contribution of elimination and distribution processes to the overall disposition of MTX and Gd-DOTA in the 3rd ventricle was similar (i.e., around 60% for CLE and 40% for CLI) suggesting that Gd-DOTA was a suitable surrogate marker for MTX disposition in ventricular CSF. The PBPK predictions for MTX both in CSF of the 3rd ventricle and in plasma were in accordance with the in vivo results. The present study showed that the combination of local CSF microdialysis with MRI acquisition of the brain ventricles and a PBPK model could be a useful methodology to estimate the drug diffusion within CSF ventricles after direct brain CSF administration. Such a methodology would be of interest to clinicians for a rationale determination and optimization of drug dosing parameters in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases. PMID:27142258

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid proteomics and protein biomarkers in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeckl, Patrick; Steinacker, Petra; Feneberg, Emily; Otto, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) comprises a spectrum of rare neurodegenerative diseases with an estimated prevalence of 15-22 cases per 100,000 persons including the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). The pathogenesis of the diseases is still unclear and clinical diagnosis of FTLD is hampered by overlapping symptoms within the FTLD subtypes and with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Intracellular protein aggregates in the brain are a major hallmark of FTLD and implicate alterations in protein metabolism or function in the disease's pathogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which surrounds the brain can be used to study changes in neurodegenerative diseases and to identify disease-related mechanisms or neurochemical biomarkers for diagnosis. In the present review, we will give an overview of the current literature on proteomic studies in CSF of FTLD patients. Reports of targeted and unbiased proteomic approaches are included and the results are discussed in regard of their informative value about disease pathology and the suitability to be used as diagnostic biomarkers. Finally, we will give some future perspectives on CSF proteomics and a list of candidate biomarkers which might be interesting for validation in further studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in neuroscience and neurology. PMID:25526887

  9. Sandwich wound closure reduces the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in posterior fossa surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Heymanns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8% in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark, Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy. The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature.

  10. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  11. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable. PMID:22362332

  12. Chronic infusion of opiate peptides to rat cerebrospinal fluid with osmotic minipumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saland, L C; Ortiz, E; Samora, A

    1984-09-01

    Beta-endorphin-related opiate peptides or the opiate antagonist naloxone were chronically infused for periods of 24 to 48 hours to the lateral cerebral ventricle of adult male rats using Alza osmotic minipumps. Previous studies have suggested a "chemotactic"-like effect of opiate peptides for supraependymal macrophages in the region of the third ventricle of the brain. The present study demonstrates a stimulatory effect of beta-endorphin infusion on the appearance of lymphocyte and neutrophil-like cells, in addition to macrophages, in the region of the third ventricle, suggestive of an intracerebral inflammatory response. None of the other molecules, including alpha-endorphin, methionine-enkephalin, naloxone, or sterile saline produced similar cellular responses after infusion, although some of the latter substances may have induced the appearance of supraependymal neuron-like cells in the area. Observations suggest that the chronic presence of beta-endorphin, a biologically active opiate peptide, will interact with cells of the immune system, which have the ability to gain access to the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6091499

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (VCSF) and the T2 of CSF (T2,CSF) was calculated. The correlation between VCSF / T2,CSF and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2 of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of fluorescent probes concentration ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbater, Osnat; Gannot, Israel

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenic process of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, begins years before the clinical diagnosis. Here, we suggest a novel method which may detect AD up to nine years earlier than current exams, minimally invasive, with minimal risk, pain and side effects. The method is based on previous reports which relate the concentrations of biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) (Aβ and Tau proteins) to the future development of AD in mild cognitive impairment patients. Our method, which uses fluorescence measurements of the relative concentrations of the CSF biomarkers, replaces the lumbar puncture process required for CSF drawing. The process uses a miniature needle coupled trough an optical fiber to a laser source and a detector. The laser radiation excites fluorescent probes which were prior injected and bond to the CSF biomarkers. Using the ratio between the fluorescence intensities emitted from the two biomarkers, which is correlated to their concentration ratio, the patient's risk of developing AD is estimated. A theoretical model was developed and validated using Monte Carlo simulations, demonstrating the relation between fluorescence emission and biomarker concentration. The method was tested using multi-layered tissue phantoms simulating the epidural fat, the CSF in the sub-arachnoid space and the bone. These phantoms were prepared with different scattering and absorption coefficients, thicknesses and fluorescence concentrations in order to simulate variations in human anatomy and in the needle location. The theoretical and in-vitro results are compared and the method's accuracy is discussed.

  15. Subarachnuid cerebral hemorrhage treated with unequal volume of cerebrospinal fluid replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Min; Zhejiang; Tongxiang; Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong; Xu Yusi; Cai Aiying; Qiu Jiannin

    2000-01-01

    Objective To asscss the effcct and safely of treatment with unequal volume replacement of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in cases of subarachnosd hemorrhage(SAH). Background 48 cases of SAH were seleeted which comply to the diagnostic standard set bh the 2nd National meeting of cerebro-vascular diseases and confirmed by CT and CSF examination. Randomly 24 cases were treated as above called treated cases and the other 24 cases as control. Method Treated Treated cases, after successful spinal puncture, 5to 10 ml of CSF were withdrawn. Normal saline were replaced but the volume were 2ml less than the amount withdraw. This is repeated until 6-10ml were withdrawn. The last injeetion of normal saline was aeeompanied with 5mg of dexamethasonum. Cases treated replacement were between 1 to 4times. Result After replacement intracranial pressure (ICP) were generally lowered and headache immediately lcssened or relieved. No further bleeding or herniation of brain occurred. Discussion At present the replaccment of CSF are generally of equal volame. This may cause recurrent bleeding or herniation of brain. After unequal volume replacement, great fluctuation of ICP bu comparison may be lowered. In treated cases duration of headache cerebral vasospasm(CVS), ocurance of hydrocephlus were generally less than the control cases(p<0.05). No intracranial infection in treated casea. Conelusion Unequal volume replacement of CSF in treatment of SAH is effeetive. It is safer than equal volume replacement

  16. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Krasota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1% patients compared with 75 (47.2%, 53 (33.3% and 31 (19.5% achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14, E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71 in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid markers before and after shunting in patients with secondary and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisell Magnus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore biochemical changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF induced by shunt surgery and the relationship between these changes and clinical improvement. Methods We measured clinical symptoms and analysed lumbar CSF for protein content, neurodegeneration and neurotransmission markers in patients with secondary (SNPH, n = 17 and idiopathic NPH (INPH, n = 18 before and 3 months after shunt surgery. Patients were divided into groups according to whether or not there was improvement in clinical symptoms after surgery. Results Preoperatively, the only pathological findings were elevated neurofilament protein (NFL, significantly more so in the SNPH patients than in the INPH patients, and elevated albumin content. Higher levels of NFL correlated with worse gait, balance, wakefulness and neuropsychological performance. Preoperatively, no differences were seen in any of the CSF biomarkers between patients that improved after surgery and those that did not improve. Postoperatively, a greater improvement in gait and balance performance correlated with a more pronounced reduction in NFL. Levels of albumin, albumin ratio, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide and ganglioside GD3 increased significantly after shunting in both groups. In addition, Gamma amino butyric acid increased significantly in SNPH and tau in INPH. Conclusion We conclude that a number of biochemical changes occur after shunt surgery, but there are no marked differences between the SNPH and INPH patients. The results indicate that NFL may be a marker that can predict a surgically reversible state in NPH.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid cytomorphologic findings in 41 intracranial tumors: a retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Sá

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this retrospective review of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF data from 41 patients with intracranial tumors diagnosed between 1975 and 1989, is to report the role that the finding of neoplastic cells in CSF plays, specially when cerebral CT-scanning and MRI were not currently done. Another objective is to study the CSF proteic abnormalities in cerebral tumors. CSF cell count, cytomorphologic pictures obtained after sedimentation and protein findings are described. Tumor cells were seen in 12 cases (29%: medulloblastomas - 6, meningeal carcinomatosis - 3, multiforme glioblastoma - 1, ependymoma -1, cerebral metastasis -1; in two cases it was an unexpected finding. We noticed that tumoral localization next to the ventricles favoured cell exfoliation. Although pleocytosis was rare and uncorrelated with the presence of neoplastic cells, pathological cytomorphologic pictures appeared in most of the cases including all "positive" ones. Our results stress that the appearance of neoplastic cells in CSF remains helpful specially when it is an unexpected finding.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  20. European cerebrospinal fluid consensus group--a TeamRoom (Lotus Notes)-based communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P; Reiber, H; Brennan, C

    2000-08-01

    A group of clinical neurochemists from all over Europe used TeamRoom to share information and to trace their discussions in a computer network. TeamRoom is a Lotus Notes based groupware tool enabling collaboration amongst geographically dispersed teams. As a result of this work a picture is emerging in the virtual TeamRoom space that represents a new kind of consensus in the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for diagnosis of neurological diseases. This kind of consensus differs from the conventional written report in giving a more complex and potentially richer representation of the field, in which both common views and minority perspectives are revealed. If direct access to this work is made available to other clinical neurochemists for consultation via a website, they may see their own practice in a wider context. This approach to improving different evolving traditions is more suitable for a global multicultural environment than a singular view of best practice produced by a more traditional process of group discussion. We refer to the benefits of a mixture of face to face meetings, collaboration in TeamRoom and teleconferencing for work in a non-hierarchical, multicultural and multilingual group. We suggest that the TeamRoom concept is a valuable model for enhancing self-organized harmonization across the developing European Union. PMID:11071068

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Induces Mitochondrial and Lysosomal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aparna; Varghese, Anu Mary; Vijaylakshmi, Kalyan; Sumitha, Rajendrarao; Prasanna, V K; Shruthi, S; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B K; Datta, Keshava K; Gowda, Harsha; Nalini, Atchayaram; Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Christopher, Rita; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Raju, Trichur R; Srinivas Bharath, M M

    2016-05-01

    In our laboratory, we have developed (1) an in vitro model of sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (sALS) involving exposure of motor neurons to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from sALS patients and (2) an in vivo model involving intrathecal injection of sALS-CSF into rat pups. In the current study, we observed that spinal cord extract from the in vivo sALS model displayed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Quantitative proteomic analysis of sub-cellular fractions from spinal cord of the in vivo sALS model revealed down-regulation of 35 mitochondrial proteins and 4 lysosomal proteins. Many of the down-regulated mitochondrial proteins contribute to alterations in respiratory chain complexes and organellar morphology. Down-regulated lysosomal proteins Hexosaminidase, Sialidase and Aryl sulfatase also displayed lowered enzyme activity, thus validating the mass spectrometry data. Proteomic analysis and validation by western blot indicated that sALS-CSF induced the over-expression of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BNIP3L. In the in vitro model, sALS-CSF induced neurotoxicity and elevated ROS, while it lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential in rat spinal cord mitochondria in the in vivo model. Ultra structural alterations were evident in mitochondria of cultured motor neurons exposed to ALS-CSF. These observations indicate the first line evidence that sALS-CSF mediated mitochondrial and lysosomal defects collectively contribute to the pathogenesis underlying sALS. PMID:26646005

  2. Gelatinase activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of various patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M A; Cartier, L; Collados, L; Kettlun, A M; Araya, F; Concha, C; Flores, L; Wolf, M E; Mosnaim, A D

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the enzymatic gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of samples obtained from 67 individuals, twenty-one nonneurological patients (considered controls) and 46 subjects with various neurological disorders e.g., vascular lesions, demyelination, inflammatory, degenerative and prion diseases. Biochemical characterization of MMPs, a family of neutral proteolytic enzymes involved in extracellular matrix modeling, included determination of substrate specificity and Ca+2 dependency, as well as the effects of protease inactivators, carboxylic and His (histidine) residue modifiers, and antibiotics. Whereas all CSF samples expressed MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activity, it corresponded in most cases (normal and pathological samples) to its latent form (proenzyme; pMMP-2). In general, inflammatory neurological diseases (especially meningitis and neurocisticercosis) were associated with the presence of a second enzyme, MMP-9 (or gelatinase B). Whereas MMP-9 was found in the CSF of every tropical spastic paraparesis patient studied, its presence in samples from individuals with vascular lesions was uncommon. Patients blood-brain barrier damage was ascertained by determining total CSF protein content using both, the conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis procedure under denaturing conditions and capillary zone electrophoresis. PMID:10604277

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid control of neurogenesis induced by retinoic acid during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Carnicero, E; Bueno, D; Gato, A

    2011-07-01

    Embryonic-cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) plays crucial roles in early brain development including the control of neurogenesis. Although FGF2 and lipoproteins present in the E-CSF have previously been shown to be involved in neurogenesis, the main factor triggering this process remains unknown. E-CSF contains all-trans-retinol and retinol-binding protein involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), a neurogenesis inducer. In early chick embryo brain, only the mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus (IsO) is able to synthesize RA. Here we show that in chick embryo brain development: (1) E-CSF helps to control RA synthesis in the IsO by means of the RBP and all-trans-retinol it contains; (2) E-CSF has retinoic acid activity, which suggests it may act as a diffusion pathway for RA; and (3) the influence of E-CSF on embryonic brain neurogenesis is to a large extent due to its involvement in RA synthesis. These data help to understand neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells. PMID:21594951

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in type 1 narcolepsy patients very close to onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Pizza, Fabio; Knudsen, Stine; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Jennum, Poul; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is caused by a loss of hypocretin (orexin) signaling in the brain. Genetic data suggests the disorder is caused by an autoimmune attack on hypocretin producing neurons in hypothalamus. This hypothesis has however not yet been confirmed by consistent findings of autoreactive antibodies or T-cells in patient samples. One explanation for these negative results may be that the autoimmune process is no longer active when patients present to the clinic. With increasing awareness in recent years, more and more patients have been diagnosed closer and closer to disease onset. In this study, we tested whether an active immune process in the brain could be detected in these patients, as reflected by increased cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Using multiplex analysis, we measured the levels of 51 cytokines and chemokines in the CSF of 40 type 1 narcolepsy patients having varying disease duration. For comparison, we used samples from 9 healthy controls and 9 patients with other central hypersomnia. Cytokine levels did not differ significantly between controls and patients, even in 5 patients with disease onset less than a month prior to CSF sampling. PMID:25771509

  5. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS and Chronic Fatigue (CFS are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS, coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01. CFS (n = 43 had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25 contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations as intermediate phenotypes between glutamate-related genes and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Söderman, Erik; Axelsson, Tomas; Sedvall, Göran C; Terenius, Lars; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G

    2015-09-30

    Glutamate-related genes have been associated with schizophrenia, but the results have been ambiguous and difficult to replicate. Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major degradation products of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, respectively, and their concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mainly HVA, have been associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. To test this hypothesis, we searched for association between 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten genes shown to be directly or indirectly implicated in glutamate transmission and CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disease. Thirty-eight nominally significant associations were found. Further analyses in 111 healthy controls showed that 87% of the nominal associations were restricted to the patients with psychosis. Some of the psychosis-only-associated SNPs found in the d-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) and the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) genes have previously been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. PMID:26142836

  7. Passage of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlokovic, B.V.; Segal, M.B.; Davson, H.; Jankov, R.M.

    1988-05-01

    Unidirectional flux of /sup 125/I-labeled DSIP at the blood-tissue interface of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier was studied in the perfused in situ choroid plexuses of the lateral ventricles of the sheep. Arterio-venous loss of /sup 125/I-radioactivity suggested a low-to-moderate permeability of the choroid epithelium to the intact peptide from the blood side. A saturable mechanism with Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with high affinity and very low capacity (approximate values: Kt = 5.0 +/- 0.4 nM; Vmax = 272 +/- 10 fmol.min-1) was demonstrated at the blood-tissue interface of the choroid plexus. The clearance of DSIP from the ventricles during ventriculo-cisternal perfusion in the rabbit indicated no significant flux of the intact peptide out of the CSF. The results suggest that DSIP crosses the blood-CSF barrier, while the system lacks the specific mechanisms for removal from the CSF found with most, if not all, amino acids and several peptides.

  8. Detection of heat stable mycobacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid by Dot-Immunobinding assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathai A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimen in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM is infrequent and carries low sensitivity. Thus development of an alternative laboratory diagnostic test is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of TBM. Objective: A simple, rapid Dot immunobinding assay (Dot-Iba, for the laboratory diagnosis of TBM is devised. This method minimizes the risk of handling infectious material in the laboratory. Method: The Dot-Iba was standardized with heat-inactivated M tuberculosis antigen (PPD. The heat-inactivated CSF from TBM and non-TBM patients was similarly assayed and it can detect antigen upto 1ng/ml in CSF. Result: A positive result was obtained in all the five culture positive patients with TBM and in 20/25 probable TBM. A negative result was obtained in 38/40 CSF from disease control group. The overall sensitivity and specificity of Dot-Iba was 83.3% and 95% respectively. Conclusion: Dot-Iba can be used as an adjunct for the laboratory diagnosis of TBM, particularly in culture negative TBM patients and also in those clinical situations where no laboratory tests are available to distinguish between TBM and partially treated pyogenic meningitis.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. PMID:25611005

  10. Selenium speciation in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Ganter, Martin; Michalke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to characterise selenium (Se) and Se species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sheep and its relation to the respective Se concentrations in serum. Paired samples from 10 adult sheep were used for the study. Five sheep were fed a diet with a marginal Se concentration of SePP), selenomethionine, glutathione peroxidase-bound Se (Se-GPx), selenocystine, thioredoxin reductase-bound Se, ovine serum albumin-bound Se (Se-OSA), SeIV and SeVI in ovine serum and CSF. Quantitatively, SePP is the main selenoprotein in ovine serum followed by Se-GPx. The CSF/blood ratio of albumin (QAlbumin) reflected a physiological function of the blood-CSF barrier in all sheep. QSe-species were higher than QAlbumin both feeding groups, supporting the hypothesis of local production of Se species in the brain. Significant positive regression lines for CSF vs. serum were found for albumin and Se-OSA only, suggesting a role of albumin to convey Se across the blood-CSF barrier. The ovine model, together with the IEC-ICP-DRC-MS technique to characterise the Se species, might be a worthwhile model for further studies as repeated sample collection as well as modification of the nutritional status is feasible and effective. PMID:26653738

  11. Low Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-Beta Concentration Is Associated with Poorer Delayed Memory Recall in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Haapalinna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the association of memory performance with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD are inconsistent. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB is a commonly used validated cognitive tool; however, only few studies have examined its relationship with CSF biomarkers for AD. We studied the correlation of pathological changes in CSF biomarkers with various CERAD-NB subtests and total scores. Methods: Out of 79 subjects (36 men, mean age 70.5 years, 63 had undergone an assessment of cognitive status with CERAD-NB and a CSF biomarker analysis due to a suspected memory disorder, and 16 were controls with no memory complaint.Results: In women we found a significant correlation between CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42 and several subtests measuring delayed recall. Word List Recall correlated with all markers: Aβ1-42 (r = 0.323, p = 0.035, tau (r = -0.304, p = 0.050 and hyperphosphorylated tau (r = -0.331, p = 0.046. No such correlations were found in men. Conclusions: CSF biomarkers correlate with delayed memory scores in CERAD-NB in women, and women may have more actual AD pathology at the time of the investigations than men.

  12. Partial characterization of a novel endogenous opioid in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many uncharacterized endogenous opioids, in addition to the known enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. These opioids may be separated by gel filtration chromatography and identified by radioreceptor assay for opioid activity. One region of the chromatographic elution profile, designated Peak B has previously been shown to be related to the pain status of chronic pain patients. The authors now report that human Peak B isolated from the CSF of pain-free elective surgery patients is present at a typical concentration equivalent in activity to 1.4 pmol of morphine sulfate per ml of CSF measured by radioreceptor assay. At a dose of 0.06 and 0.12 pmol morphine sulfate equivalents of CSF (MSE), injected into the cerebroventricular system of the mouse, Peak B produced an antinociceptive effect, the intensity and duration of which was dose-dependent and which was antagonized by naloxone. The mouse vas deferens (MVD) preparation was inhibited by Peak B in a manner that was sensitive to antagonism by naloxone only at low (6.0 μM) concentrations of the antagonist. Peak B activity in the MVD assay was unaffected by treatment with trypsin or α-chymotrypsin. 32 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  13. Partial characterization of a novel endogenous opioid in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.E.; Lipman, J.J.; Byrne, W.L.

    1987-12-07

    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many uncharacterized endogenous opioids, in addition to the known enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. These opioids may be separated by gel filtration chromatography and identified by radioreceptor assay for opioid activity. One region of the chromatographic elution profile, designated Peak B has previously been shown to be related to the pain status of chronic pain patients. The authors now report that human Peak B isolated from the CSF of pain-free elective surgery patients is present at a typical concentration equivalent in activity to 1.4 pmol of morphine sulfate per ml of CSF measured by radioreceptor assay. At a dose of 0.06 and 0.12 pmol morphine sulfate equivalents of CSF (MSE), injected into the cerebroventricular system of the mouse, Peak B produced an antinociceptive effect, the intensity and duration of which was dose-dependent and which was antagonized by naloxone. The mouse vas deferens (MVD) preparation was inhibited by Peak B in a manner that was sensitive to antagonism by naloxone only at low (< 1.0 ..mu..M) but not at higher (>6.0 ..mu..M) concentrations of the antagonist. Peak B activity in the MVD assay was unaffected by treatment with trypsin or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. 32 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. ID3 contributes to cerebrospinal fluid seeding and poor prognosis in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) genes have been implicated as promoters of tumor progression and metastasis in many human cancers. The current study investigated the expression and functional roles of ID genes in seeding and prognosis of medulloblastoma. ID gene expression was screened in human medulloblastoma tissues. Knockdown of ID3 gene was performed in medulloblastoma cells in vitro. The expression of metastasis-related genes after ID3 knockdown was assessed. The effect of ID3 knockdown on tumor seeding was observed in an animal model in vivo. The survival of medulloblastoma patients was plotted according to the ID3 expression levels. Significantly higher ID3 expression was observed in medulloblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid seeding than tumors without seeding. Knockdown of ID3 decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and suppressed the migration of D283 medulloblastoma cells in vitro. In a seeding model of medulloblastoma, ID3 knockdown in vivo with shRNA inhibited the growth of primary tumors, prevented the development of leptomeningeal seeding, and prolonged animal survival. High ID3 expression was associated with shorter survival of medulloblastoma patients, especially in Group 4 medulloblastomas. High ID3 expression is associated with medullolbastoma seeding and is a poor prognostic factor, especially in patients with Group 4 tumors. ID3 may represent the metastatic/ aggressive phenotype of a subgroup of medulloblastoma

  15. Segmentation of brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid in multispectral magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, A; Storvik, G

    1995-01-01

    Presents a new method to segment brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid spaces automatically in routine axial spin echo multispectral MR images. The algorithm simultaneously incorporates information about anatomical boundaries (shape) and tissue signature (grey scale) using a priori knowledge. The head and brain are divided into four regions and seven different tissue types. Each tissue type c is modeled by a multivariate Gaussian distribution N(mu(c),Sigma(c)). Each region is associated with a finite mixture density corresponding to its constituent tissue types. Initial estimates of tissue parameters {mu(c),Sigma(c )}(c=1,...,7) are obtained from k-means clustering of a single slice used for training. The first algorithmic step uses the EM-algorithm for adjusting the initial tissue parameter estimates to the MR data of new patients. The second step uses a recently developed model of dynamic contours to detect three simply closed nonintersecting curves in the plane, constituting the arachnoid/dura mater boundary of the brain, the border between the subarachnoid space and brain parenchyma, and the inner border of the parenchyma toward the lateral ventricles. The model, which is formulated by energy functions in a Bayesian framework, incorporates a priori knowledge, smoothness constraints, and updated tissue type parameters. Satisfactory maximum a posteriori probability estimates of the closed contour curves defined by the model were found using simulated annealing. PMID:18215837

  16. Approach to Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Biomarker Discovery and Evaluation in HIV Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Richard W.; Peterson, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Angel, Thomas E.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hagberg, Lars; Spudich, Serena S.; Smith, Richard D.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Gisslen, Magnus

    2013-12-13

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal facet of systemic HIV infection that varies in character and neurological consequences. While clinical staging and neuropsychological test performance have been helpful in evaluating patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers present a valuable and objective approach to more accurate diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects and understanding of evolving pathobiology. We review some lessons from our recent experience with CSF biomarker studies. We have used two approaches to biomarker analysis: targeted, hypothesis-driven and non-targeted exploratory discovery methods. We illustrate the first with data from a cross-sectional study of defined subject groups across the spectrum of systemic and CNS disease progression and the second with a longitudinal study of the CSF proteome in subjects initiating antiretroviral treatment. Both approaches can be useful and, indeed, complementary. The first is helpful in assessing known or hypothesized biomarkers while the second can identify novel biomarkers and point to broad interactions in pathogenesis. Common to both is the need for well-defined samples and subjects that span a spectrum of biological activity and biomarker concentrations. Previouslydefined guide biomarkers of CNS infection, inflammation and neural injury are useful in categorizing samples for analysis and providing critical biological context for biomarker discovery studies. CSF biomarkers represent an underutilized but valuable approach to understanding the interactions of HIV and the CNS and to more objective diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Both hypothesis-based and discovery methods can be useful in advancing the definition and use of these biomarkers.

  17. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Mamishi; Laura Kamrani; Masoud Mohammadpour; Jila Yavarian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 ...

  18. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is ...

  19. Serial lumbar and ventricle cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Twijnstra, A; van Zanten, A. P.; Hart, A A; Ongerboer De Visser, B W

    1987-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured in cerebrospinal fluid in 350 patients with various neurological diseases to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the CSF LDH as a marker for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases. Slight elevations of CSF LDH were observed in nonmalignant diseases, while marked elevations were observed in a considerable number of patients with bacterial meningitis. A sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 83% were calculated. In the 34 patien...

  20. Microscopic Particles in Two Fractions of Fresh Cerebrospinal Fluid in Twins with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and in Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Viktoria; Nybom, Rolf; Wetterberg, Lennart; Hultman, Christina M.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Johansson, Anette G. M.; Ekman, Carl Johan; Landén, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Background Using scanning electron microscopy, microscopic structures have been identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but only rarely in control subjects. However, it has not been determined whether these microscopic particles represent state or trait markers, i.e. if their presence is related to clinical manifestations of the disease or if they also can be found in as yet asymptomatic individuals with a genetic liability. This ques...

  1. Determination of bacterial meningitis: a retrospective study of 80 cerebrospinal fluid specimens evaluated by four in vitro methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilauskas, B L; Hampton, K D

    1982-01-01

    A total of 80 cerebrospinal fluid specimens were analyzed for bacterial meningitis by four procedures readily available to most laboratories. These tests included routine culturing. Gram staining, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, staphylococcal coagglutination (CoA) with laboratory-prepared reagents, and CoA with Pharmacia Diagnostics reagents. A total of 56 specimens were positive for bacterial agents by routine culturing: Gram stain results were positive for 64% of all specimens positi...

  2. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis mimicking dengue encephalitis in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajit Suresh; Priyanka Deb; Chandra Babu D.; Jeevan H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) has been infrequently reported in children. This condition can mimic many serious conditions of the central nervous system, while actually being benign in nature. The authors present the report of an 8 year old developmentally normal female with family and personal history of migraine, which was initially suspected to have Dengue encephalitis. She had an episode of seizures, meningism a...

  3. Cognitive Performance and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration: A Study of Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sindre Rolstad; Joel Jakobsson; Carl Sellgren; Carl-Johan Ekman; Kaj Blennow; Henrik Zetterberg; Erik Pålsson; Mikael Landén

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are associated with cognition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, respectively. CSF concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β, and neurofilament light chain protein were analyzed in relation to neuropsychological performance in 82 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 hea...

  4. Increased levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate in cerebrospinal fluid of patients diagnosed with tick-borne encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kułakowska, Alina; Byfield, Fitzroy J; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Zajkowska, Joanna M; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Mroczko, Barbara; Janmey, Paul A.; Bucki, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a serious acute central nervous system infection that can result in death or long-term neurological dysfunctions. We hypothesize that changes in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) concentration occur during TBE development. Methods S1P and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured using HPLC and ELISA, respectively. The effects of S1P on cytoskeletal structure and IL-6 production were assessed using r...

  5. Phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 ratio in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid reflects outcome in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Sunil; Lee Edward B; Xie Sharon X; Law Anica; Jackson Eric M; Arnold Steven E; Clark Christopher M; Shaw Leslie M; Grady M Sean; Trojanowski John Q; Hamilton Roy H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible cause of dementia and gait disturbance that is typically treated by operative placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The outcome from shunting is variable, and some evidence suggests that the presence of comorbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact shunt outcome. Evidence also suggests that AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may predict the presence of AD. The aim of this study was to i...

  6. High-abundant protein depletion strategies applied on dog cerebrospinal fluid and evaluated by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Mårten; Bergquist, Jonas; Ramström, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    As the number of fully sequenced animal genomes and the performance of advanced mass spectrometry-based proteomics techniques are continuously improving, there is now a great opportunity to increase the knowledge of various animal proteomes. This research area is further stimulated by a growing interest from veterinary medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a good source for better understanding of diseases related to the central nervous system, both in humans ...

  7. Meningeal Inflammation Increases Artemether Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Papua New Guinean Children Treated with Intramuscular Artemether ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Salman, Sam; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Morep, Namar; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the artemisinin-associated neurotoxicity identified in vitro and in animal studies has not been confirmed clinically, only one adult study has measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations after administration of conventional doses. Potential artemisinin neurotoxicity could be serious in children, especially those with meningitis and, consequently, a compromised blood-brain barrier. We measured CSF/plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) concentrations in 32 Papua New Guin...

  8. Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and Clinical and Electrophysiological Features of Hospitalized Patients with Gullain-Barre´ Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nazmul Huda; Mohammed Momenuzzaman Khan; Bakhtiar Azam; Md Jalal Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the elimination of poliomyelitis from most part of the world Gullain-Barre' Syndrome (GBS) has been the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Though GBS has received a lot of attention in developed countries, there is a paucity of reports on the GBS from the developing world including Bangladesh. Objective: The objective of the study was to correlate clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and electrophysiological findin...

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Concentration is Associated with Pain but not Fatigue Symptoms in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Samuel A.; Williams, David A.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Harris, Richard E.; Lyden, Angela K; Whalen, Gail; Park, Karen M; Liberzon, Israel; Sen, Ananda; Gracely, Richard H.; Baraniuk, James N.; Clauw, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have identified stress system dysregulation in fibromyalgia (FM) patients; such dysregulation may be involved in the generation and/or maintenance of pain and other symptoms. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the principal known central nervous system mediator of the stress response; however, to date no studies have examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF levels in patients with FM. The relationship between CSF CRF level, heart rate variability (HRV), and pain, fatigue, ...

  10. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Sedvall, Göran C; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Jönsson, Erik G

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine...

  11. Analgesic and thermic effects, and cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics, of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine in normal and sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between asthma and opioids has barely been investigated. This study examines whether active sensitization of rats changes the analgesic and thermic effects of intracerebroventricular morphine or the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Morphine (5, 10 and 20 microg) was given intracerebroventricularly to sensitized (active immunization to ovalbumin and Al(OH)3 then airway challenge with ovalbumin after 12 days) and normal (i.e. non-sensitized) male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail-flick latencies and changes in colon temperature were determined before morphine injection and at 30 min intervals for a period of 300 min afterwards. Results were expressed as the area under the time-response curve. The analgesic and hyperthermic response to morphine for sensitized rats was less than that obtained for normal rats. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected periodically for a period of 240 min and morphine levels were determined by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters half-life, terminal elimination rate constant and the mean residence time were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by non-compartmental analysis. The area under the cerebrospinal fluid concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was higher for sensitized rats than for normal rats for all three doses of morphine but these differences did not correspond with similar changes in pharmacological responses. In conclusion, the attenuated analgesic and thermic responses to intracerebroventricular morphine in the sensitized rats might be a result of pharmacodynamic alterations rather than to pharmacokinetic changes. PMID:9530988

  12. Prion-seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of deer with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Haley

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, or prion diseases, are a uniformly fatal family of neurodegenerative diseases in mammals that includes chronic wasting disease (CWD of cervids. The early and ante-mortem identification of TSE-infected individuals using conventional western blotting or immunohistochemistry (IHC has proven difficult, as the levels of infectious prions in readily obtainable samples, including blood and bodily fluids, are typically beyond the limits of detection. The development of amplification-based seeding assays has been instrumental in the detection of low levels of infectious prions in clinical samples. In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of CWD-exposed (n=44 and naïve (n=4 deer (n=48 total for CWD prions (PrP(d using two amplification assays: serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification with polytetrafluoroethylene beads (sPMCAb and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC employing a truncated Syrian hamster recombinant protein substrate. Samples were evaluated blindly in parallel with appropriate positive and negative controls. Results from amplification assays were compared to one another and to obex immunohistochemistry, and were correlated to available clinical histories including CWD inoculum source (e.g. saliva, blood, genotype, survival period, and duration of clinical signs. We found that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC were capable of amplifying CWD prions from cervid CSF, and results correlated well with one another. Prion seeding activity in either assay was observed in approximately 50% of deer with PrP(d detected by IHC in the obex region of the brain. Important predictors of amplification included duration of clinical signs and time of first tonsil biopsy positive results, and ultimately the levels of PrP(d identified in the obex by IHC. Based on our findings, we expect that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC may prove to be useful detection assays for the detection of prions in

  13. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  14. Cross-sectional imaging of thoracic and abdominal complications of cerebrospinal fluid shunt catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Ferdia; Fardanesh, Reza; Morgan, Tara; Katz, Douglas S; Daly, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to review the imaging findings of distal (thoracic and abdominal) complications related to ventriculo-peritoneal (VP), ventriculo-pleural (VPL), and ventriculo-atrial (VA) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt catheter placement. Institution review board-approved single-center study of patients with thoracic and abdominal CSF catheter-related complications on cross-sectional imaging examinations over a 14-year period was performed. Clinical presentation, patient demographics, prior medical history, and subsequent surgical treatment were recorded. The presence or absence of CSF catheter-related infection and/or acute hydrocephalus on cross-sectional imaging was also recorded. There were 81 distal CSF catheter-related complications identified on 47 thoracic or abdominal imaging examinations in 30 patients (age 5-80 years, mean 39.3 years), most often on CT (CT = 42, MRI = 1, US = 4). Complications included 38 intraperitoneal and 11 extraperitoneal fluid collections. Extraperitoneal collections included nine abdominal wall subcutaneous (SC) pseudocysts associated with shunt migration and obesity, an intrapleural pseudocyst, and a breast pseudocyst. There were also two large VPL-related pleural effusions, a fractured catheter in the SC tissues, and a large VA shunt thrombus within the right atrium. Ten patients (33.3 %) had culture-positive infection from CSF or shunt catheter samples. Ten patients (33.3 %) had features of temporally related acute or worsening hydrocephalus on neuroimaging. In four of these patients, the detection of thoracic and abdominal complications on CT preceded and predicted the findings of acute hydrocephalus on cranial imaging. Thoracic and abdominal complications of CSF shunts, as can be identified on CT,  include shunt infection and/or obstruction, may be both multiple and recurrent, and may be predictive of concurrent acute intracranial problems. PMID:26610766

  15. Effect of Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid on Proliferation and Differentiation of Neuroprogenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Keramatipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (e-CSF has an important role in development of embryonic and adult brain. Proteomic analysis suggests that this fluid has many morphogenes and cytokines that alter in time and space throughout embryonic life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental effect of embryonic CSF on proliferation and differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells in different gestational age.Materials and Methods: In this In this experimental study, we examined the role of e-CSF on proliferation and differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells using neurosphere culture method. Neurospheres size analysis and MTT assay were used to assess cell proliferation after four days in vitro. Glial differentiation study was carried out by immunocytochemistry. Neurospheres size and percentage of glial fibrialy acidic protein (GFAP positive cells were measured by image analyzer (image J. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey’s post hoc test. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM, and differences were considered significant when p<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001.Results: Viability and proliferation of neuro progenitor cells in cultures conditioned with E16 CSF and E18 CSF were significantly increased compare to control group. A dramatic decrease in percentage of GFAP-positive cells was found following the application of CSF from E16 and E18 embryos, but not E20 CSF.Conclusion: Our data suggest that, e-CSF altered proliferation and differentiation of neuro progenitor cells in age dependent manner. E16 and E18 CSF enhanced proliferation and viability of neuro progenitor cells, and inhibited differentiation to glial fate in comparison with control group.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids in urine and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Azumaya, H; Karmen, A

    1984-10-19

    Two different methods for analyzing amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both of which can separate D- and L- stereoisomers, have been used for studying the amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. One method, by which Dns derivatives of amino acids are separated as mixed chelate complexes with Cu(II) and a single stereoisomer of a second amino acid, was used to analyze CSF. CSF contains ca. 10 mumole/l per amino acid, compared to 100 mumole/l in serum. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection enabled complete analysis, starting with 50 microliter of fluid. The second method, which uses lower concentrations of both the copper and the second amino acid and detects amino acids by the change in absorbance of the copper complex, was used to measure the urine concentration of the lysine metabolite, pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a secondary amino acid that is difficult to detect by the more usual detection methods. Our procedure involves passing urine through a cation-exchange column, collecting the fraction containing pipecolic acid, and chromatographing it on a reversed-phase HPLC column with a mobile phase containing L-aspartame and Cu(II). To assess the utility of the method, urine samples from a patient given loading doses of D- or L-isomers were analyzed. When either isomer was administered, both D- and L-isomers were detected, but in different proportions. Varying proportions and concentrations of both isomers were also detected in the urines of patients with hyperpipecolatemia from different metabolic abnormalities. PMID:6501504

  17. Insights into pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma through proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, Amanda M; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Magge, Suresh; Rood, Brian R; Perez, Jennifer; Hill, D Ashley; Hwang, Eugene; Kilburn, Lindsay; Packer, Roger J; Nazarian, Javad

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a leading cause of brain tumor-related death in children. DIPG is not surgically resectable, resulting in a paucity of tissue available for molecular studies. As such, tumor biology is poorly understood, and, currently, there are no effective treatments. In the absence of frozen tumor specimens, body fluids--such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine--can serve as more readily accessible vehicles for detecting tumor-secreted proteins. We analyzed a total of 76 specimens, including CSF, serum, urine, and normal and tumor brainstem tissue. Protein profiling of CSF from patients with DIPG was generated by mass spectrometry using an LTQ-Orbitrap-XL and database search using the Sequest algorithm. Quantitative and statistical analyses were performed with ProteoIQ and Partek Genomics Suite. A total of 528 unique proteins were identified, 71% of which are known secreted proteins. CSF proteomic analysis revealed selective upregulation of Cyclophillin A (CypA) and dimethylarginase 1 (DDAH1) in DIPG (n = 10), compared with controls (n = 4). Protein expression was further validated with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical assays using CSF, brain tissue, serum, and urine from DIPG and control specimens. Immunohistochemical staining showed selective upregulation of secreted but not cytosolic CypA and DDAH1 in patients with DIPG. In this study, we present the first comprehensive protein profile of CSF specimens from patients with DIPG to demonstrate selective expression of tumor proteins potentially involved in brainstem gliomagenesis. Detection of secreted CypA and DDAH1 in serum and urine has potential clinical application, with implications for assessing treatment response and detecting tumor recurrence in patients with DIPG. PMID:22492959

  18. Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts on low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Potential pitfall in diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbole, Godwin I.; Soneye, Mayowa A.; Okorie, Chinonye N.; Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation artifact can pose a diagnostic problem in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) appearing as intraventricular hyperintensity. The extent of this challenge among radiologists in Africa using low-field MRI systems is relatively sparsely documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of ventricular CSF pulsation artifact (VCSFA) on FLAIR axial brain images with a low-field MR system. Materials and Methods: FLAIR axial images were obtained on a low-field 0.3T unit (6000 ms/108 ms/2 [repetition time/echo time/excitations], inversion time = 1700 ms, field of view = 28 cm, matrix = 195 × 256, and 6 mm contiguous sections). Two experienced radiologists independently rated VCSFA in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles in 202 consecutive patients (age range 1–100 years) referred for brain MR for various indications. We reviewed the pattern of artifacts, to determine its relationship to age, gender, and third ventricular size. Results: The low-field FLAIR MR brain images of 33 patients (16.3%) showed VCSFA in at least one ventricular cavity. The fourth ventricle was the most common site of VCSFA (n = 10), followed by the third ventricle (n = 8) and the lateral ventricles (n = 7). Eight patients had VCSFA in multiple locations, one of them in all ventricles. A smaller third ventricular size and, to a lesser extent, younger age was significantly associated with VCSFA. CSF Pulsation of VCSFA did not occur across the brain parenchyma in the phase encoding direction. Conclusion: VCSFA may mimic pathology on low-field axial FLAIR brain images and are more common in young patients with smaller ventricular size. Although these artifacts are less frequently observed at lower magnetic field strengths, their recognition on low-field MRI systems is important in avoiding a misdiagnosis. PMID:27185981

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in HIV-negative patients with secondary and early latent syphilis and serum VDRL ≥ 1:32

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Pastuszczak; Jacek Zeman; Jaworek, Andrzej K; Anna Wojas-Pelc

    2013-01-01

    Background : Syphilis is caused by a spirochete Treponema pallidum. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by T. pallidum may appear early during the course of disease. The diagnosis of confirmed neurosyphilis is based on the reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies indicated that serum RPR ≥ 1:32 are associated with higher risk of reactivity of CSF VDRL. Aims : The main aim of the current study was to assess cerebrospinal fluid s...

  20. 3.0T MRI对中脑导水管脑脊液动力学研究%Research of 3.0 T MRI on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Midbrain Aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀玲; 刘天立; 赵进学

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the midbrain aqueduct by application of 3.0 T mag-netic resonance. Methods From September 2014 and September 2015, selected 23 patients accepted magnetic resonance cerebrospinal fluid examination in our hospital, all patients carried out magnetic resonance cerebrospinal fluid examination on the basis of routine MRI scans, sequence design includes: 3 D TSE DRIVE, cine PC sequences, Q - Flow sequence, which were used to observe the midbrain aqueduct detail anatomical structure, cerebrospinal fluid flow state, and drawing the time-signal intensity curve. Results Among 23 patients, including 2 cases were normal, 3 cases were obstructive hydro-cephalus, 16 cases were traffic hydrocephalus, 2 cases had not abnormalities by reexamining cerebrospinal fluid flow state postoperative water on the brain ventricle - peritoneal shunt. Conclusion Combination of 3 D TSE DRIVE, cine PC se-quences and Q - Flow sequence could have a comprehensive study on the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the midbrain aqueduct area.%目的:应用3.0T磁共振对中脑导水管脑脊液动力学进行初步研究。方法选择2014年9月-2015年9月在该院进行磁共振脑脊液检查的患者共23例,所有患者在常规MRI扫描的基础上进行磁共振脑脊液检查,序列设计包括:3D TSE DRIVE序列、cine PC序列、Q-Flow序列,分别用于观察中脑导水管细节解剖结构、脑脊液流动状态,并绘制时间-信号强度曲线。结果23例患者进行检查,其中2例正常,3例梗阻性脑积水,16例交通性脑积水,2例脑积水脑室-腹腔分流术后复查脑脊液流动状态未见异常。结论3D TSE DRIVE序列、cine PC序列和Q-Flow序列相结合能够对中脑导水管区的脑脊液动力学进行全面的观察研究。

  1. Ethanol contamination of cerebrospinal fluid during standardized sampling and its effect on 1H-NMR metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sar, Sonia A.; Zielman, Ronald; Terwindt, Gisela M; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Deelder, André M; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Meissner, Axel; Ferrari, Michel D.

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of body fluid sampling, processing and storage procedures is pivotal to ensure data quality in metabolomics studies. Yet, despite strict adherence to standard sampling guidelines, we detected variable levels of ethanol in the 1H-NMR spectra of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (range 9.2 × 10−3–10.0 mM). The presence of ethanol in all samples and the wide range of concentrations clearly indicated contamination of the samples of some sort, which affected the 1H-NMR spectr...

  2. Lack of KIs virus DNA in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macera, Lisa; Focosi, Daniele; Manzin, Aldo; Ceccherini Nelli, Luca; Pistello, Mauro; Maggi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    Dear Sirs, Satoh et al. recently screened 516 Japanese blood donors with PCR using primers constructed from the consensus domain of the helicase of positive-stranded RNA viruses. They reported a novel enveloped virus with a circular double-stranded DNA genome (tentatively named KIs virus, KIs-V) (Satoh et al., 2011) occurring in 36 out of the 100 hepatitis E (HEV) antibody-positive donors with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>60 IU/L). More recently, Biagini et al. failed to find KIs-V in plasma from 576 French blood donors with unknown HEV serostatus and unknown ALT values (Biagini et al., 2012). Based on an HEV seroprevalence of 3-52% in France, the authors suggested an uncommon frequency of KIs-V infection in healthy persons in France. To date, no information has been available on the prevalence of KIs-V DNA in Italy. In the present paper, we analyzed KIs-V in 242 plasma samples of blood donors, transplant recipients, and patients with chronic viral infections, and in 52 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with different neurological disorders. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments. Viral DNA extraction was carried out on 200 μl of plasma or 200 μl of CSF by using QIAamp DNA blood kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Extracted nucleic acids were amplified for KIs-V DNA with the nested PCR protocol developed by Satoh et al. (2011) and used for screening Japanese blood donors. The first and second PCR rounds were designed on 458 and 304 nt-length fragments, respectively. To validate the amplification process, positive controls obtained from plasma dilutions of a synthetic template corresponding to the target sequence were run in each PCR. PCR sensitivity was less than 5 copies of target sequence. Fourteen liver and 16 kidney and/or pancreas transplant

  3. Transient leakage across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after intrathecal metrizamide administration to dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 dogs given 84 mg of metrizamide/kg of body weight intrathecally were collected at intervals from 3 hours to 30 days after treatment and were compared with CSF samples collected before metrizamide treatment (base line) and with samples taken at similar intervals from 2 non treated control dogs. Increased CSF albumin (mean 19.2 mg/dl) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G (mean 5.91 mg/dl) concentrations occurred 1 day after myelography, compared with base-line concentrations (6.15 and 1.24 mg/dl, respectively) and with concentrations from controls. Immunoglobulin M and IgA concentrations also were increased in some of these samples. However, immediately after myelography (3 hours after treatment) CSF albumin and IgG concentrations were comparable with those of controls, and these values returned to base line within 5 days of myelography and remained so for 30 days. A high correlation between albumin and IgG concentrations of individual CSF samples indicated the likelihood that leakage across the blood-CSF barrier was the origin of the increased values. A transient increase in CSF leukocytes, consisting of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, was also noticed 1 day after treatment but not at other times and not in controls. Nonsuppurative, predominately histiocytic meningitis of decreasing intensity was noticed in dogs euthanatized at 1 or 5 days, but not in dogs euthanatized at 10, 20, or 30 days after treatment. The meningeal cells stained intensely with periodic acid-Schiff stain and intracellular contrast medium was ultrastructurally apparent in phagolysosomes. Control dogs killed after 30 days did not have these changes. The intrathecal administration of metrizamide resulted in transient leakage of serum components into CSF and an accompanying transient meningitis

  4. Delivery of ziconotide to cerebrospinal fluid via intranasal pathway for the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Prashanth; Kushwaha, Avadhesh Singh; Kundu, Santanu; Shivakumar, H N; Jo, Seong Bong; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2016-02-28

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the plausibility of delivery of ziconotide to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via intranasal administration. Ziconotide was administered either in the form of solution or Kolliphor P 407 gels (KP 407) intranasally in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of incorporation of chitosan in the formulation was also investigated. Time course of drug in the CSF was investigated by collecting CSF from cisterna magna. Pharmacokinetics of ziconotide in CSF following intrathecal and intravenous (i.v.) administration of ziconotide was investigated. Upon intrathecal administration the elimination rate constant of ziconotide in CSF was found to be 1.01±0.34h(-1). The Cmax and Tmax of ziconotide in CSF following intravenous administration were found to be 37.78±6.8ng/mL and ~2h respectively. The time required to attain maximum concentration (Tmax) in CSF was less upon intranasal administration (15min) compared to i.v. administration (120min). Presence of chitosan enhanced the overall bioavailability of ziconotide from intranasal solution and gel formulations. The elimination rate constant of ziconotide in CSF following intranasal and intravenous administration of ziconotide solution was found to be 0.54±0.08h(-1) and 0.42±0.10h(-1) respectively. Whereas, intranasal administration of ziconotide in the form of in situ forming gel lowered the elimination rate significantly. These results suggest that intranasal administration could be a potential noninvasive and patient compliant method of delivering ziconotide to CSF to treat chronic pain. PMID:26732557

  5. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, predictors of bacterial meningitis: a study in 312 patients with suspected meningial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohammad Alavi; Naser Moshiri

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis are routinely admitted to the hospital and treated with parenteral antibiotics, although few have bacterial meningitis (BM). The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors to dif-ferentiate BM from aseptic meningitis (ASM). Methods:The study was conducted in Razi hospital, a training center affiliated to Ahvaz Joundishapoor University of Medical Sciences in Iran. And all patients were 18 years old or above and were treated in the hospital between 2003 and 2007. Data of those who had meningitis, tested as CSF pleocytosis but had not received antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among 312 patients with CSF pleocytosis, two hundred fifteen (68.9%) had BM and ninety seven (31.1%) had ASM. The mean age for patients with BM was (34.7±17.7) years (P=0.22, NS). Sixty percent of the BM cases and 61.2% of the ASM cases occurred in men (P=0.70, NS). We identified the following predictors of BM:CSF-WBC count > 100 per micro liter, CSF-glucose level 80 mg/dL. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of these predictors, and LR for BM are 86.5% ,52.6% ,80.2%, 63.7% and 104. 1 for CSF-WBC count and 72.1%, 83.5%, 90.6% ,57.4% and 164.2% for CSF glucose, and 49.7%, 91.8%, 93.4% ,45. 2% and 104.5% for CSF protein. Conclusion:The CSF WBC count should not be used alone to rule out bacterial meningitis. When it is combined with other factors such as CSF glucose and protein improved decision making in patients with suspected BM may occur.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity: A complimentary tool in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taori Girdhar M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the commonest form of neurotuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB. The diagnosis of TBM is often difficult. A reliable, cost-effective and rapid diagnostic test, which can be performed in any standard pathology laboratory, could be of help in the diagnosis of TBM. In the present study we measured the adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM and non-TBM patients. Method ADA activity in CSF was determined according to a method based on the Berthlot reaction, which is the formation of a colored indophenol complex from ammonia liberated from adenosine, and quantified spectrophotometrically. Results The CSF ADA activity from TBM patients was compared with CSF ADA from non-TBM infectious meningitis patients, and from patients with non-infectious neurological disorders. The mean CSF ADA activity was found to be significantly higher in CSF of TBM patients, 14.31 ± 3.87 (2.99–26.94, mean ± SD with range, than in the CSF from non-TBM infectious meningitis, 9.25 ± 2.14 (4.99–13.96 and from the non-infectious neurological disorders group, 2.71 ± 1.96 (0.00–7.68, P Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADA activity in the CSF of TBM patients, using a cut-off value 11.39 U/L/min, can be useful for the early differential diagnosis of TBM. This test can be performed in any pathology laboratory where more sophisticated methods are not available.

  8. In vitro study of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in a shaken basal cistern after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kertzscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space.

  9. The transport of L-6-fluorodopa and its metabolites from blood to cerebrospinal fluid and brain.

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    Hammerstad, J P; Pate, B D; Hewitt, K A; Chan, G L; Ruth, T J; Calne, D B

    1993-10-01

    The transport of L-6-fluorodopa and its major metabolites from the blood to the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and muscle was studied in carbidopa-pretreated cynomolgus monkeys. A bolus intravenous injection of 18F-L-6-fluorodopa was followed by serial positron emission tomography scans and sampling of cisternal CSF and arterial blood. The relative concentrations of L-6-fluorodopa and its metabolites were determined in blood plasma and CSF by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raising the blood concentration of phenylalanine by intraperitoneal injection markedly reduced the accumulation of tracer in the brain. This indicates that L-6-fluorodopa and 3-O-methylfluorodopa, like native L-dopa and its O-methylated derivative, are transported at the brain capillary by the large neutral amino acid carrier-mediated system, which is subject to saturation and competition by other large neutral amino acids (such as phenylalanine) at physiological plasma concentrations. In contrast, administration of phenylalanine had no effect on the accumulation of tracer either in muscle, or as L-6-fluorodopa and 3-O-methylfluorodopa, in CSF. This suggests that the transport of L-dopa and its derivatives at the blood-CSF barrier differs from the transport at the blood-brain barrier and also that measurement of CSF L-dopa is not a good index of the transport and pharmacokinetics of L-dopa in the brain. However, the effect of phenylalanine administration in reducing the concentration of fluorohomovanillic acid in the CSF suggests that the concentration of homovanillic acid in the CSF is an accurate reflection of dopamine turnover in the brain. PMID:8215248

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Surgeries on the Thoracic Spine: A Review of 362 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Panpan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Zhongjun; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Chen, Zhongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective clinical review. Purpose To describe the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSFL) after thoracic decompression and examine the CSFL predisposing clinical factors. Overview of Literature CSFL is a common complication following thoracic decompression but has not been sufficiently addressed in former studies. Methods A cohort of 362 cases of thoracic decompression from February of 2005 to June of 2013 was examined. The case medical records were reviewed and the occurrence of CSFL and the related clinical parameters were noted. The incidence of CSFL for the entire cohort and each surgical approach were described. Besides, the relationship between CSFL and other clinical parameters were assessed, of which odds ratio values of all CSFL-associated parameters were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The incidence of CSFL for the entire cohort was 32.3%. Different surgical approaches had different incidences of CSFL, and circumferential decompression had the highest incidence. Though many different clinical parameters were related to the occurrences of CSFL, being older than 52 years, having ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament or having longer operative segments than 3 vertebrae were significant risk factors for CSFL (p<0.05). Besides, surgeries on the mid-thoracic spine had an increased risk of CSFL (p<0.05). Conclusions From our analysis, CSFL was a common complication after thoracic decompression with the incidence of up to 32.3%. This study identified the predisposing clinical factors, and spinal surgeons should be aware of these risk factors to reduce its incidence. PMID:27340526

  11. A tomographic study of the skull base in primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks

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    Giannetti, Alexandre Varella [Hospital das Clinicas, Service of Neurosurgery, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Guimaraes, Roberto Eustaquio S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Services Otorhinolaryngology, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Santiago, Ana Paula M.S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Services Radiology, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Perpetuo, Francisco Otaviano L.; Machado, Marco Antonio O. [Computed Tomography Center of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    This study aims to evaluate the existence of anatomic abnormalities in the skull base that could contribute to the origin of primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks (PSL). Twenty PSL patients were compared with 20 healthy individuals. The following features were measured through an analysis of computed tomography scans: the angles of the petrosal bones and skull base in both the sagittal and coronal planes; the anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the anterior skull base, sella, and sphenoid sinus; the depth of the olfactory fossa; the pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus; the position of the crista galli; and the state of the dorsum sellae. Body mass index (BMI) was compared. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to the angles and diameters of the anterior cranial fossa and the sphenoid sinus or the depth of the olfactory fossa. Pneumatization of the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus was more frequent in the PSL group (55%) than in the control group (25%, p = 0.053). The dorsum sellae were eroded in 30% of the PSL patients but intact in all healthy subjects. PSL subjects showed higher sellae (1.0 versus 0.8 cm, p = 0.002). The average BMI of PSL patients was higher than that of the control group. Global alterations in the skull base of PSL patients were not found. The increase in the height of sellae and the erosion of its dorsum suggest intracranial hypertension. The higher BMI in the case group confirms the relation between obesity and PSL. (orig.)

  12. Role of the RVM in Descending Pain Regulation Originating from the Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Nucleus.

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    Fei, Yan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Songsong; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ying; Sun, Lihong; Zhang, Licai

    2016-07-01

    Evidence has suggested that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) is correlated with the development and recurrence of pain. A recent research showed that the CSF-contacting nucleus acts as a component of the descending 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and plays a role in descending pain inhibition. However, limited studies are conducted to investigate the relationship between the CSF-contacting nucleus and pain. In present study, we explored the effect of CSF-contacting nucleus on nociceptive behaviors in both normal and neuropathic rats via targeted ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus in the brainstem, using cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to cholera toxin subunit B. The CB-SAP-treated rats showed aggravated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Also, results from immunohistochemical experiments showed that rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) received fiber projection from the CSF-contacting nucleus, which disappeared after ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus, and the CB-SAP treated rats showed downregulation of c-Fos expression in the RVM as compared with the rats receiving i.c.v. injection of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). A significant downregulation of 5-HT-labeled neurons and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) as the marker of 5-HT cells in the RVM, and 5-HT expression in spinal dorsal horn in both normal and chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats after i.c.v. injection of CB-SAP was observed. These results suggested that RVM may be involved in descending pain modulation originating from the CSF-contacting nucleus. PMID:26961890

  13. A Decade of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease in Belgium.

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    Somers, Charisse; Struyfs, Hanne; Goossens, Joery; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Luyckx, Jill; De Roeck, Naomi; De Roeck, Ellen; De Vil, Bart; Cras, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Deyn, Peter-Paul; Bjerke, Maria; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2016-08-10

    During the past ten years, over 5,000 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed at the Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), UAntwerp, for core Alzheimer's disease (AD) CSF biomarkers: amyloid-β peptide of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181P). CSF biomarker analyses were performed using single-analyte ELISA kits. In-house validated cutoff values were applied: Aβ1-42 tau >296.5 pg/mL, P-tau181P >56.5 pg/mL. A CSF biomarker profile was considered to be suggestive for AD if the CSF Aβ1-42 concentration was below the cutoff, in combination with T-tau and/or P-tau181P values above the cutoff (IWG2 criteria for AD). Biomarker analyses were requested for following clinical indications: 1) neurochemical confirmation of AD in case of clinical AD, 2) neurochemical confirmation of AD in case of doubt between AD and a non-AD dementia, 3) neurochemical diagnosis of prodromal AD in case of mild cognitive impairment, 4) neurochemical confirmation of AD in case of psychiatric symptoms (like depression, psychosis), or 5) other clinical indications. During these ten years, the number of yearly referred samples increased by 238% and clinical indications for referral showed a shift from neurochemical confirmation of AD in case of clinical AD to differential dementia diagnosis in case of doubt between AD and a non-AD dementia. Four percent of the patients also had a postmortem neuropathological examination. Together, these biomarker data were the basis for several research papers, and significantly contributed to the validation of these biomarkers in autopsy-confirmed subjects. PMID:27567807

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Culture Positivity and Clinical Outcomes After Amphotericin-Based Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfes, Melissa A; Rhein, Joshua; Schutz, Charlotte; Taseera, Kabanda; Nabeta, Henry W; Huppler Hullsiek, Kathy; Akampuira, Andrew; Rajasingham, Radha; Musubire, Abdu; Williams, Darlisha A; Thienemann, Friedrich; Bohjanen, Paul R; Muzoora, Conrad; Meintjes, Graeme; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Amphotericin-based combination antifungal therapy reduces mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis. However, 40%-50% of individuals have positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal cultures at completion of 2 weeks of amphotericin induction therapy. Residual CSF culture positivity has historically been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We investigated whether persistent CSF fungemia was associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in a contemporary African cohort. Methods.  Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda and South Africa received amphotericin (0.7-1.0 mg/kg per day) plus fluconazole (800 mg/day) for 2 weeks, followed by "enhanced consolidation" therapy with fluconazole 800 mg/day for at least 3 weeks or until cultures were sterile, and then 400 mg/day for 8 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) either 1-2 or 5 weeks after diagnosis and observed for 6 months. Survivors were classified as having sterile or nonsterile CSF based on 2-week CSF cultures. Mortality, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and culture-positive relapse were compared in those with sterile or nonsterile CSF using Cox regression. Results.  Of 132 participants surviving 2 weeks, 57% had sterile CSF at 2 weeks, 23 died within 5 weeks, and 40 died within 6 months. Culture positivity was not significantly associated with mortality (adjusted 6-month hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.3; P = .28). Incidence of IRIS or relapse was also not significantly related to culture positivity. Conclusions.  Among patients, all treated with enhanced consolidation antifungal therapy and ART, residual cryptococcal culture positivity was not found to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26716103

  15. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin (IL-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females, who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively. The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively. Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, primary progressive (PPMS, and secondary progressive (SPMS forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations.

  16. Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active and stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

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    M.A. Moreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. Although its etiology is unknown, the accumulation and activation of mononuclear cells in the central nervous system are crucial to its pathogenesis. Chemokines have been proposed to play a major role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes in inflammatory sites. They are divided into subfamilies on the basis of the location of conserved cysteine residues. We determined the levels of some CC and CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 23 relapsing-remitting MS patients under interferon-ß-1a therapy and 16 control subjects using ELISA. MS patients were categorized as having active or stable disease. CXCL10 was significantly increased in the CSF of active MS patients (mean ± SEM, 369.5 ± 69.3 pg/mL when compared with controls (178.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05. CSF levels of CCL2 were significantly lower in active MS (144.7 ± 14.4 pg/mL than in controls (237.1 ± 16.4 pg/mL, P < 0.01. There was no difference in the concentration of CCL2 and CXCL10 between patients with stable MS and controls. CCL5 was not detectable in the CSF of most patients or controls. The qualitative and quantitative differences of chemokines in CSF during relapses of MS suggest that they may be useful as a marker of disease activity and of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

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    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells. PMID:15039986

  18. Methodological aspects of ELISA analysis of thioredoxin 1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Mathias; Curbo, Sophie; Reiser, Kathrin; Masterman, Thomas; Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Areström, Irene; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a protein antioxidant involved in major cellular processes. Increased plasma levels of Trx1 have been associated with human diseases suggesting that Trx1 is a marker for oxidative stress with putative clinical use. However, the reported mean levels of Trx1 in the control cohorts vary a hundred-fold between studies (0.8-87 ng/ml), possibly due to methodological differences between the capture ELISA used in the different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate methodological aspects related to the ELISA measurement of Trx1. ELISAs utilizing different capture and detection combinations of antibodies to Trx1 and as well as recombinant human (rh) Trx1 standards from two sources were characterized. The different ELISAs were subsequently used to measure Trx1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from healthy donors and from patients with various neurological diagnoses. The Trx1 standards differed in their content of monomeric and oligomeric Trx1, which affected the ELISAs composed of different antibody combinations. Thus, the levels of Trx1 determined in human plasma and CSF samples varied depending on the antibody used in the ELISAs and on the rhTrx1 standard. Furthermore, the relevance of preventing interference by heterophilic antibodies (HA) in human plasma and CSF was investigated. The addition of a HA blocking buffer to human samples drastically reduced the ELISA signals in many samples showing that HA are likely to cause false positive results unless they are blocked. In conclusion, the study shows that the design of a Trx1 ELISA in regards to antibodies and standards used has an impact on the measured Trx1 levels. Importantly, analyses of human plasma and CSF without preventing HA interference may obscure the obtained data. Overall, the results of this study are crucial for the improvement of future studies on the association of Trx1 levels with various diseases. PMID:25075746

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia in childhood and adolescence. Clinical features and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia has increasingly been recognized, but few investigations have examined younger patients. This study investigated 50 cases of CSF hypovolemia onset in childhood and adolescence. We analyzed causes, outcomes, and clinical features of these child and adolescent CSF hypovolemia cases. The 50 patients (25 boys, 25 girls) had shown the onset earlier than age 15. Diagnosis of probable CSF hypovolemia was made basically on clinical symptoms and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Radioisotope (RI) cisternography. For treatment, we defined epidural blood patch (EBP) indication as the early bladder filling (early BF) and all of the 50 cases received EBP. All patients suffered from one or more symptoms such as intractable headache, neck pain, vertigo, fatigue, tinnitus and visual disturbance. These symptoms did not recover with any conventional treatments. Twenty eight cases (56.0%) showed normal results on MRI. In RI cisternography, 16 cases (32.0%) showed CSF leaks (CL), 34 cases (68.0%) showed early BF. About 90% of the patients were improved by EBP. In particular, 96.0% of cases showed good or moderate recovery when onset of CSF hypovolemia and the first treatment was less than 1 year. CSF hypovolemia is not yet well recognized particularly in child and adolescent cases. Some children were misdiagnosed as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, Barre-Lieou syndrome or depression. This study indicated that EBP is also effective for younger patients. If patients suffer from various intractable symptoms including orthostatic headache, CSF hypovolemia should be considered for the differential diagnosis. (author)

  20. Proteomics comparison of cerebrospinal fluid of relapsing remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

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    Marcel P Stoop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on clinical representation of disease symptoms multiple sclerosis (MScl patients can be divided into two major subtypes; relapsing remitting (RR MScl (85-90% and primary progressive (PP MScl (10-15%. Proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has detected a number of proteins that were elevated in MScl patients. Here we specifically aimed to differentiate between the PP and RR subtypes of MScl by comparing CSF proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CSF samples (n = 31 were handled according to the same protocol for quantitative mass spectrometry measurements we reported previously. In the comparison of PP MScl versus RR MScl we observed a number of differentially abundant proteins, such as protein jagged-1 and vitamin D-binding protein. Protein jagged-1 was over three times less abundant in PP MScl compared to RR MScl. Vitamin D-binding protein was only detected in the RR MScl samples. These two proteins were validated by independent techniques (western blot and ELISA as differentially abundant in the comparison between both MScl types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The main finding of this comparative study is the observation that the proteome profiles of CSF in PP and RR MScl patients overlap to a large extent. Still, a number of differences could be observed. Protein jagged-1 is a ligand for multiple Notch receptors and involved in the mediation of Notch signaling. It is suggested in literature that the Notch pathway is involved in the remyelination of MScl lesions. Aberration of normal homeostasis of Vitamin D, of which approximately 90% is bound to vitamin D-binding protein, has been widely implicated in MScl for some years now. Vitamin D directly and indirectly regulates the differentiation, activation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and can prevent the development of autoimmune processes, and so it may be involved in neuroprotective elements in MScl.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

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    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  2. High Resolution Discovery Proteomics Reveals Candidate Disease Progression Markers of Alzheimer's Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.

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    Ronald C Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Disease modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD constitute a major goal in medicine. Current trends suggest that biomarkers reflective of AD neuropathology and modifiable by treatment would provide supportive evidence for disease modification. Nevertheless, a lack of quantitative tools to assess disease modifying treatment effects remains a major hurdle. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers such as total tau, p-tau and Ab42 are well established markers of AD; however, global quantitative biochemical changes in CSF in AD disease progression remain largely uncharacterized. Here we applied a high resolution open discovery platform, dMS, to profile a cross-sectional cohort of lumbar CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients versus those from non-AD/non-demented (control patients. Multiple markers were identified to be statistically significant in the cohort tested. We selected two markers SME-1 (p<0.0001 and SME-2 (p = 0.0004 for evaluation in a second independent longitudinal cohort of human CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients and age-matched and case-matched control patients. In cohort-2, SME-1, identified as neuronal secretory protein VGF, and SME-2, identified as neuronal pentraxin receptor-1 (NPTXR, in AD were 21% (p = 0.039 and 17% (p = 0.026 lower, at baseline, respectively, than in controls. Linear mixed model analysis in the longitudinal cohort estimate a decrease in the levels of VGF and NPTXR at the rate of 10.9% and 6.9% per year in the AD patients, whereas both markers increased in controls. Because these markers are detected by mass spectrometry without the need for antibody reagents, targeted MS based assays provide a clear translation path for evaluating selected AD disease-progression markers with high analytical precision in the clinic.

  3. Effects of hyperthermia on enzymes and electrolytes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in dogs

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    Deswal, K.; Chohan, I. S.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of exposure to various degrees of heat stress on serum glutamate—oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P-ase), calcium and chlorides have been studied on 75 dogs. Rectal temperature (Tre) was recorded before and after exposure to heat stress. These dogs were divided into 5 groups, according to the Tre level attained after exposure to heat stress. Rectal temperature was raised from normal to 39.45±0.47‡C in the first group, to 40.93±0.17‡C in the second group, to 41.87±0.22‡C in the third group, to 42.90 ± 0.21‡C in the fourth group and to 43.93±0.19‡C in the fifth group. The concentration of enzymes SGOT, SGPT and ALK-P-ase in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased significantly with hyperthermia. Calcium and chlorides concentrations in blood and in CSF tended to increase in hyperthermia. The integrity of the blood brain barrier for these enzymes and calcium is maintained under mild hyperthermia but it breaks down partially under influence of more severe hyperthermia. Core temperature above 41‡C results in damage to tissues and consequential rise of plasma enzymes. This degree of hyperthermia also seems to mark the beginning of injury to blood brain barrier. Critical core temperature tolerated by 50% of animals was 44‡C.

  4. Analysis of clinical features, serologic and cerebrospinal fluid tests in patients with neurosyphilis at different stages

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    Bao-jie WANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical features, serologic, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF tests in patients with neurosyphilis at different stages.  Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical features, imaging, serologic and CSF tests, treatment and prognosis of 12 cases diagnosed as neurosyphilis. In those cases, 5 cases were early-stage neurosyphilis, including 4 syphilitic meningitis (meningomyelitis and one meningovascular syphilis; 7 cases were late-stage neurosyphilis, all of whom were general paresis.  Results The serum Treponema pallidum antibody (TP-Ab and rapid plasma regain (RPR tests were positive in all 12 cases. The CSF TP-Ab tests of 12 cases were all positive and CSF RPR tests were positive in 9 cases. In 5 cases of early-stage neurosyphilis, one case had elevated intracranial pressure (ICP, 3 cases presented with elevated white blood cell (WBC, 4 cases had elevated protein concentration. In 7 cases of late-stage neurosyphilis, one case had elevated ICP, 7 cases presented with elevated WBC and protein concentration. CSF cytology showed lymphocyte reaction, mainly small lymphocytes. All cases were treated with different doses of intravenous penicillin or ceftriaxone sodium by intramuscular injection, among whom 8 cases presented improved neuropsychiatric symptoms, while 4 cases had no significant improvement.  Conclusions Neurosyphilis is easy to be misdiagnosed because of various styles of onset and nontypical clinical manifestations. A definite diagnosis depends on clinical manifestations and serologic and CSF examinations. Early diagnosis and standard treatment is essential for improving prognosis and reducing complications. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.005

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A) Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length.

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    Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404

  6. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of E-selectin in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    T. Tanriverdi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to determine concentrations of E-selectin in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and to evaluate the correlation between the clinical parameters and E-selectin levels. Both CSF and serum samples obtained from 12 patients with aneurysmal SAH and 8 patients with hydrocephalus (control group without any other known central nervous system disease were assayed for E-selectin by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the results were compared between the two groups. Mean levels of soluble forms of E-selectin within the first 3 days and on the 5th and 7th days of SAH were 4.0 ± 7.9, 2.8 ± 5.2, and 3.1 ± 4.9 ng/ml in the patient's CSF, and 33.7 ± 9.2, 35.1 ± 7.0, and 35.2 ± 8.7 ng/ml in serum, respectively. In contrast, mean E-selectin levels were 0.1 ± 0.2 ng/ml in CSF and 8.7 ± 5.0 ng/ml in serum of control patients. The difference between groups was statistically significant regarding both CSF and serum E-selectin levels (P < 0.05. Thus, we have demonstrated a marked increase of E-selectin concentration in both CSF and serum of patients with aneurysmal SAH compared with control and suggest that blocking the interaction between E-selectin and vascular endothelium may have a beneficial effect on vasospasms.

  7. Osteopontin in cerebrospinal fluid as diagnostic biomarker for central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlow, Felicitas; Bauer, Sandra; Martus, Peter; Weller, Michael; Roth, Patrick; Schlegel, Uwe; Seidel, Sabine; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Korfel, Agnieszka; Kreher, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) is diagnostically challenging. The identification of reliable and easy to measure biomarkers is desirable to facilitate diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osteopontin (OPN) as a diagnostic biomarker for CNSL. OPN concentrations in CSF from 37 patients with CNSL (29 with primary CNSL and 8 with secondary CNS involvement of systemic lymphoma) and 36 controls [6 patients with inflammatory CNS disease other than multiple sclerosis (MS), 8 with MS, 9 with glioblastoma (GBM) and 13 healthy controls] were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-parametric tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed for determination of diagnostic accuracy. Median CSF OPN level in all CNSL patients was 620 ng/mL and higher than in patients with inflammatory CNS disease (356 ng/mL); P curve was 0.865 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.745-0.985] for differentiating CNSL and patients with inflammatory CNS disease; 0.956 (95 % CI 0.898-1.000) for CNSL and MS patients; 0.988 (95 % CI 0.964-1.000) for CNSL and GBM patients, and 0.915 (95 % CI 0.834-0.996) for CNSL patients and healthy controls. In multivariate analysis, high CSF OPN level was associated with shorter progression-free (HR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.13-2.31; P = .009) and overall survival (HR 1.52, 95 % CI 1.04-2.21; P = .029). CSF OPN is a potential biomarker in CNSL. PMID:27294357

  8. The late and dual origin of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Yanina L; Sartoretti, Maria Micaela; Di Bella, Daniela J; Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Carcagno, Abel L; Schinder, Alejandro F; Lanuza, Guillermo M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that control the production of specialized neuronal types. However, how the timing of differentiation contributes to neuronal diversity in the developing spinal cord is still a pending question. In this study, we show that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs), an anatomically discrete cell type of the ependymal area, originate from surprisingly late neurogenic events in the ventral spinal cord. CSF-cNs are identified by the expression of the transcription factors Gata2 and Gata3, and the ionic channels Pkd2l1 and Pkd1l2. Contrasting with Gata2/3(+) V2b interneurons, differentiation of CSF-cNs is independent of Foxn4 and takes place during advanced developmental stages previously assumed to be exclusively gliogenic. CSF-cNs are produced from two distinct dorsoventral regions of the mouse spinal cord. Most CSF-cNs derive from progenitors circumscribed to the late-p2 and the oligodendrogenic (pOL) domains, whereas a second subset of CSF-cNs arises from cells bordering the floor plate. The development of these two subgroups of CSF-cNs is differentially controlled by Pax6, they adopt separate locations around the postnatal central canal and they display electrophysiological differences. Our results highlight that spatiotemporal mechanisms are instrumental in creating neural cell diversity in the ventral spinal cord to produce distinct classes of interneurons, motoneurons, CSF-cNs, glial cells and ependymal cells. PMID:26839365

  9. Biochemical, histological and functional correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB by intra-cerebrospinal fluid gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Albert; Haurigot, Virginia; Garcia, Miguel; Marcó, Sara; Motas, Sandra; Villacampa, Pilar; Maggioni, Luca; León, Xavier; Molas, Maria; Sánchez, Víctor; Muñoz, Sergio; Leborgne, Christian; Moll, Xavier; Pumarola, Martí; Mingozzi, Federico; Ruberte, Jesús; Añor, Sònia; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive tool for the treatment of monogenic disorders, in particular for lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) caused by deficiencies in secretable lysosomal enzymes in which neither full restoration of normal enzymatic activity nor transduction of all affected cells are necessary. However, some LSD such as Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPSIIIB) are challenging because the disease's main target organ is the brain and enzymes do not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier even if present at very high concentration in circulation. To overcome these limitations, we delivered AAV9 vectors encoding for α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) to the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of MPSIIIB mice with the disease already detectable at biochemical, histological and functional level. Restoration of enzymatic activity in Central Nervous System (CNS) resulted in normalization of glycosaminoglycan content and lysosomal physiology, resolved neuroinflammation and restored the pattern of gene expression in brain similar to that of healthy animals. Additionally, transduction of the liver due to passage of vectors to the circulation led to whole-body disease correction. Treated animals also showed reversal of behavioural deficits and extended lifespan. Importantly, when the levels of enzymatic activity were monitored in the CSF of dogs following administration of canine NAGLU-coding vectors to animals that were either naïve or had pre-existing immunity against AAV9, similar levels of activity were achieved, suggesting that CNS efficacy would not be compromised in patients seropositive for AAV9. Our studies provide a strong rationale for the clinical development of this novel therapeutic approach as the treatment for MPSIIIB. PMID:25524704

  10. Role of adrenomedullin in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the modulation of immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Song, Si-Yuan; Liu, He; Xing, Dan; Wang, Xin; Fei, Yan; Li, Guang-Ling; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li-Cai

    2015-06-01

    The contribution of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) and adrenomedullin (ADM) to the developmental modulation of stressful events remains controversial. This study explored the effects of endogenous ADM in the CSF-contacting nucleus on immobilization of stress-induced physiological parameter disorders and glucocorticoid hormone releasing hormone (CRH), rat plasma corticosterone expression, and verification of such effects by artificially lowering ADM expression in the CSF-contacting nucleus by targeted ablation of the nucleus. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that ADM-like immunoreactivity and the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) marker were localized in the CSF-contacting nucleus. After 7 continuous days of chronic immobilization stress (CIS), animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior. Also, an increase in serum corticosterone, and enhanced expression of ADM in the CSF-contacting nucleus were observed, following activation by CIS. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the ADM receptor antagonist AM22-52 significantly reduced ADM in the CSF-contacting nucleus, additionally, blocked the effects of ADM, meaning the expression of CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (Pa) and serum corticosterone level were increased, and the physiological parameters of the rats became correspondingly deteriorated. Additionally, the i.c.v. administration of cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to a cholera toxin subunit, completely eliminated the CSF-contacting nucleus, worsening the reaction of the body to CIS. The collective results demonstrated that ADM acted as a stress-related peptide in the CSF-contacting nucleus, and its lower expression and blocked effects in the nucleus contributed to the deterioration of stress-induced physiologic parameter disorders as well as the excessive expressions of stress-related hormones which were part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  11. Monochloroacetic acid lethality in the rat in relation to lactic acid accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential antidotes for human exposure to monochloroacetic acid (MCA) were evaluated using a rodent model. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and phenobarbital (PB) but not ethanol or phenytoin, were found to be effective antidotes to monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in rats. DCA (110 mg/kg, ip), administered to rats 15 minutes after a LD-80 of MCA (80 mg/kg, iv), consistently reduced mortality to 0%, while PB reduced mortality to less than 20%. Both DCA and PB were found to be similarly effective in mice. The hypothesis that PB reduces mortality in MCA treated rats by altering the metabolic disposition of MCA was evaluated and rejected. Administration of PB to rats treated with a lethal dose of [14C]MCA did not alter the concentrations of MCA or its metabolites in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or the extent of covalent binding between radioactivity equivalent to [14C]MCA and brain proteins. The relationship between altered blood-brain barrier permeability and death in MCA treated rats was investigated. Treatment with MCA (80 mg/kg, iv) was associated with a significant (50%) increase in the permeability of the rat blood-brain barrier to [125I]BSA. The effect was not altered by treatment with PB, however, suggesting that altered blood-brain barrier permeability does not have an important role in the lethal effect of MCA in rats. The effect of MCA on brain carbohydrate metabolism in vivo was investigated. CSF and blood lactic acid concentrations increased in MCA treated rats, and the increase in CSF levels was dose related. In individual MCA treated rats, CSF lactate concentrations paralleled the time course of ataxia and a discrete threshold for death (18 mmol/L) was observed. The relationship between excess brain lactate levels and death in MCA treated rats was investigated further

  12. Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients: Identification of Urokinase plasminogen activator using antibody microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Zheng, Dao-Cheng; Fang, Chang; Huang, Jin-Mei; Ke, Wu-Jian; Wang, Liu-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Ying; Zheng, He-Ping; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-15

    Little is known regarding protein responses to syphilis infection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with neurosyphilis. Protein and antibody arrays offer a new opportunity to gain insights into global protein expression profiles in these patients. Here we obtained CSF samples from 46 syphilis patients, 25 of which diagnosed as having central nervous system involvement based on clinical and laboratory findings. The CSF samples were then analyzed using a RayBioH L-Series 507 Antibody Array system designed to simultaneously analyze 507 specific cytokines. The results indicated that 41 molecules showed higher levels in patients with neurosyphilis in comparison with patients without neural involvement. For validation by single target ELISA, we selected five of them (MIP-1a, I-TAC/CXCL11, Urokinase plasminogen activator [uPA], and Oncostatin M) because they have previously been found to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The ELISA tests confirmed that uPA levels were significantly higher in the CSF of neurosyphilis patients (109.1±7.88pg/ml) versus patients without CNS involvement (63.86±4.53pg/ml, p<0.0001). There was also a clear correlation between CSF uPA levels and CSF protein levels (p=0.0128) as well as CSF-VDRL titers (p=0.0074) used to diagnose neurosyphilis. No significant difference between the two groups of patients, however, was found in uPA levels in the serum, suggesting specific activation of the inflammatory system in the CNS but not the periphery in neurosyphilis patients. We conclude that measurements of uPA levels in CSF may be an additional parameter for diagnosing neurosyphilis. PMID:27049560

  13. Season of sampling and season of birth influence serotonin metabolite levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen J Luykx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.

  14. BAFF is decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis at clinical onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenparampil, M; Miante, S; Federle, L; Zanetta, C; Toffanin, E; Ruggero, S; Rinaldi, F; Gallo, P

    2016-08-15

    B-cells are thought to play a relevant role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. BAFF (B cell activating factor of the TNF family) is a B-cell survival factor constitutively produced inside the CNS by astrocytes. We studied the intrathecal synthesis of BAFF in MS at clinical onset. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 40 clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS or early relapse-onset MS (eRRMS) and from 18 healthy controls (HC) were analysed. Patients were classified based on the detection of oligoclonal IgG bands in the CSF (IgGOB+ and IgGOB-). BAFF was detected by highly sensitive ELISA and its ratio (CSF-BAFF/serum-BAFF, QBAFF) and Index (QBAFF/QAlb, BAFF-Index) were calculated. IgGOB+ presented lower CSF concentrations of BAFF compared to both HC and IgGOB- (p<0.05). BAFF Index was significantly lower in IgGOB+ compared to both HC and IgGOB- (p<0.01). A significant inverse correlation between QIgG and QBAFF (r: -0.4, p<0.05) and between BAFF index and IgGIF (r: -0.4, p<0.05) or IgG Index (r: -0.4, p=0.05) was found in IgGOB+. The decreased CSF levels of BAFF in IgGOB+ at clinical onset suggest the absorption of this factor by intrathecally recruited B cells since the early disease phases. PMID:27397077

  15. Cellular immune surveillance of central nervous system bypasses blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier: revealed with the New Marburg cerebrospinal-fluid model in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Tilmann O

    2015-03-01

    In healthy human brain/spinal cord, blood capillaries and venules are locked differently with junctions and basement membrane (blood-brain barrier, blood-venule barrier). In choroid plexus, epithelial tight junctions and basement membrane lock blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier. Lymphocytic cell data, quantified with multicolour flow-cytometry or immuno-cytochemical methods in sample pairs of lumbar CSF, ventrictricular CSF and peripheral venous blood, are taken from references; similarly, data of thoracic duct chyle and blood sample pairs. Through three circumventricular organs (median eminence, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, area postrema), 15-30 μl blood are pressed by blood pressure through fenestrated capillaries, matrix/basement membrane spaces and ependyma cell lacks into ventricular/suboccipital CSF to generate CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD3(+) HLA-DR(+) , CD16(+) 56(+) 3(-) NK, CD19(+) 3(-) B subsets; some B, few NK cells adhere in circumventricular organs. Into lumbar CSF, 10-15 μl thoracic chyle with five lymphocyte subsets (without CD3(+) HLA-DR(+) cells) reflux, when CSF drains out with to-and-fro movements of chyle/CSF along nerve roots. Lymphocytes in lumbar CSF represent a mixture of blood and lymph lymphocytic cells with similar HLA-DR(+) CD3(+) cell counts in ventricular and lumbar CSF, higher CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) subsets in lumbar CSF, and few NK and B cells due to absorption in circumventricular organs. The Marburg CSF Model reflects origin and turnover of lymphatic cells in CSF realistically; the model differs from ligand-multistep processes of activated lymphocytes through blood-brain-, blood-venule-, and blood-CSF-barriers; because transfer of inactivated native lymphocytes through the barriers is not found with healthy humans, although described so in literature. PMID:25641944

  16. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly...

  17. The morphology and biochemistry of nanostructures provide evidence for synthesis and signaling functions in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Jesus N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contacts many brain regions and may mediate humoral signaling distinct from synaptic neurotransmission. However, synthesis and transport mechanisms for such signaling are not defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether human CSF contains discrete structures that may enable the regulation of humoral transmission. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected prospectively from 17 participants: with no neurological or psychiatric disease, with Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, or migraine; and ventricular CSF from two cognitively healthy participants with long-standing shunts for congenital hydrocephalus. Cell-free CSF was subjected to ultracentrifugation to yield supernatants and pellets that were examined by transmission electron microscopy, shotgun protein sequencing, electrophoresis, western blotting, lipid analysis, enzymatic activity assay, and immuno-electron microscopy. Results Over 3,600 CSF proteins were identified from repeated shotgun sequencing of cell-free CSF from two individuals with Alzheimer's disease: 25% of these proteins are normally present in membranes. Abundant nanometer-scaled structures were observed in ultracentrifuged pellets of CSF from all 16 participants examined. The most common structures included synaptic vesicle and exosome components in 30-200 nm spheres and irregular blobs. Much less abundant nanostructures were present that derived from cellular debris. Nanostructure fractions had a unique composition compared to CSF supernatant, richer in omega-3 and phosphoinositide lipids, active prostanoid enzymes, and fibronectin. Conclusion Unique morphology and biochemistry features of abundant and discrete membrane-bound CSF nanostructures are described. Prostaglandin H synthase activity, essential for prostanoid production and previously unknown in CSF, is localized to nanospheres. Considering CSF bulk flow and its circulatory dynamics, we propose that these

  18. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

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    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  19. Genetic and infectious profiles influence cerebrospinal fluid IgG abnormality in Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in Japanese MS patients. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA, and varicella zoster virus (VZV in 94 patients with MS and 367 unrelated healthy controls (HCs. We defined CSF IgG abnormality as the presence of CSF OBs and/or increased IgG index (>0.658. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CSF IgG abnormality was found in 59 of 94 (62.8% MS patients. CSF IgG abnormality-positive patients had a significantly higher frequency of brain MRI lesions meeting the Barkhof criteria compared with abnormality-negative patients. Compared with HCs, CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients showed a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 1501, whereas CSF IgG abnormality-negative patients had a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 0405. CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients had a significantly higher frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies compared with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients, although there was no difference in the frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies between HCs and total MS patients. Compared with HCs, anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected significantly less frequently in the total MS patients, especially in CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients. The frequencies of antibodies against EBNA and VZV did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: CSF IgG abnormality is associated with Western MS-like brain MRI features. DRB1 1501 and C. pneumoniae infection confer CSF IgG abnormality, while DRB1 0405 and H. pylori infection are positively and negatively

  20. Distribution in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and lymph of epidurally injected morphine and inulin in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, P.A.; Yaksh, T.L.

    1986-06-01

    We describe procedures for catheterizing the epidural space, the azygos vein, and the thoracic lymph duct of dogs without using fluoroscopy. The success rates of the procedures were 100, 80, and 50%, respectively (n = 10). To assess the validity of the model, /sup 3/H-morphine and unlabeled morphine (2 mg) were injected epidurally in ten dogs. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), azygos venous blood, arterial blood, and lymph were sampled before and 5, 20, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after injection. During the first 20 min, morphine levels in the azygos vein were about three and ten times greater than arterial and lymphatic levels, respectively (n = 3; P less than 0.01). Morphine levels were significantly greater in the azygos vein (n = 8) and the femoral artery (n = 10) during the first 20 and 60 min than they were later, respectively (P less than 0.05). In the lymph (n = 5), the levels of morphine at 60 min were statistically greater (P less than 0.05) than levels at 4, 5, and 6 hr. At no time were the concurrent arterial and lymph levels different from each other. In the lumbar CSF, the morphine peak concentration was reached 5-60 min after epidural injection and ranged between 5 and 93 micrograms/ml. In the CSF, the levels of morphine were significantly greater during the first 20 min than later (n = 7; P less than 0.05). The washout of the lumbar CSF curve for morphine appeared to be fitted by a two-compartment open model. The t1/2-alpha and t1/2-beta values were 14.7 +/- 7.2 min and 106 +/- 45 min, respectively (mean +/- SD). Cumulative percentages of the epidural dose of morphine passed into the azygos system within the first 5, 20, 60, and 120 min after injection were calculated to be 4.0 +/- 2.1, 23.5 +/- 14.6, 49.2 +/- 34.2, and 55.9 +/- 35.3, respectively (mean +/- SD; n = 8).

  1. Distribution in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and lymph of epidurally injected morphine and inulin in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe procedures for catheterizing the epidural space, the azygos vein, and the thoracic lymph duct of dogs without using fluoroscopy. The success rates of the procedures were 100, 80, and 50%, respectively (n = 10). To assess the validity of the model, 3H-morphine and unlabeled morphine (2 mg) were injected epidurally in ten dogs. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), azygos venous blood, arterial blood, and lymph were sampled before and 5, 20, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after injection. During the first 20 min, morphine levels in the azygos vein were about three and ten times greater than arterial and lymphatic levels, respectively (n = 3; P less than 0.01). Morphine levels were significantly greater in the azygos vein (n = 8) and the femoral artery (n = 10) during the first 20 and 60 min than they were later, respectively (P less than 0.05). In the lymph (n = 5), the levels of morphine at 60 min were statistically greater (P less than 0.05) than levels at 4, 5, and 6 hr. At no time were the concurrent arterial and lymph levels different from each other. In the lumbar CSF, the morphine peak concentration was reached 5-60 min after epidural injection and ranged between 5 and 93 micrograms/ml. In the CSF, the levels of morphine were significantly greater during the first 20 min than later (n = 7; P less than 0.05). The washout of the lumbar CSF curve for morphine appeared to be fitted by a two-compartment open model. The t1/2-alpha and t1/2-beta values were 14.7 +/- 7.2 min and 106 +/- 45 min, respectively (mean +/- SD). Cumulative percentages of the epidural dose of morphine passed into the azygos system within the first 5, 20, 60, and 120 min after injection were calculated to be 4.0 +/- 2.1, 23.5 +/- 14.6, 49.2 +/- 34.2, and 55.9 +/- 35.3, respectively (mean +/- SD; n = 8)

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum biomarkers of cerebral malaria mortality in Ghanaian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiredu Edwin K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum can cause a diffuse encephalopathy known as cerebral malaria (CM, a major contributor to malaria associated mortality. Despite treatment, mortality due to CM can be as high as 30% while 10% of survivors of the disease may experience short- and long-term neurological complications. The pathogenesis of CM and other forms of severe malaria is multi-factorial and appear to involve cytokine and chemokine homeostasis, inflammation and vascular injury/repair. Identification of prognostic markers that can predict CM severity will enable development of better intervention. Methods Postmortem serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were obtained within 2–4 hours of death in Ghanaian children dying of CM, severe malarial anemia (SMA, and non-malarial (NM causes. Serum and CSF levels of 36 different biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF basic protein, CRP, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IP-10, MCP-1 (MCAF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, SDF-1α, CXCL11 (I-TAC, Fas-ligand [Fas-L], soluble Fas [sFas], sTNF-R1 (p55, sTNF-R2 (p75, MMP-9, TGF-β1, PDGF bb and VEGF were measured and the results compared between the 3 groups. Results After Bonferroni adjustment for other biomarkers, IP-10 was the only serum biomarker independently associated with CM mortality when compared to SMA and NM deaths. Eight CSF biomarkers (IL-1ra, IL-8, IP-10, PDGFbb, MIP-1β, Fas-L, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 were significantly elevated in CM mortality group when compared to SMA and NM deaths. Additionally, CSF IP-10/PDGFbb median ratio was statistically significantly higher in the CM group compared to SMA and NM groups. Conclusion The parasite-induced local cerebral dysregulation in the production of IP-10, 1L-8, MIP-1β, PDGFbb, IL-1ra, Fas-L, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 may be involved in CM neuropathology, and their immunoassay may have potential utility in predicting

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid soluble TREM2 is higher in Alzheimer disease and associated with mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccio, Laura; Deming, Yuetiva; Del-Águila, Jorge L; Ghezzi, Laura; Holtzman, David M; Fagan, Anne M; Fenoglio, Chiara; Galimberti, Daniela; Borroni, Barbara; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Low frequency coding variants in TREM2 are associated with increased Alzheimer disease (AD) risk, while loss of functions mutations in the gene lead to an autosomal recessive early-onset dementia, named Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD). TREM2 can be detected as a soluble protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, and its CSF levels are elevated in inflammatory CNS diseases. We measured soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in the CSF of a large AD case-control dataset (n = 180) and 40 TREM2 risk variant carriers to determine whether CSF sTREM2 levels are associated with AD status or mutation status. We also performed genetic studies to identify genetic variants associated with CSF sTREM2 levels. CSF, but not plasma, sTREM2 was highly correlated with CSF total tau and phosphorylated-tau levels (r = 0.35, P < 1×10(-4); r = 0.40, P < 1×10(-4), respectively), but not with CSF Aβ42. AD cases presented higher CSF sTREM2 levels than controls (P = 0.01). Carriers of NHD-associated TREM2 variants presented significantly lower CSF sTREM2 levels, supporting the hypothesis that these mutations lead to reduced protein production/function (R136Q, D87N, Q33X or T66M; P = 1×10(-3)). In contrast, CSF sTREM2 levels were significantly higher in R47H carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 6×10(-3)), suggesting that this variant does not impact protein expression and increases AD risk through a different pathogenic mechanism than NHD variants. In GWAS analyses for CSF sTREM2 levels the most significant signal was located on the MS4A gene locus (P = 5.45 × 10(-07)) corresponding to one of the SNPs reported to be associated with AD risk in this locus. Furthermore, SNPs involved in pathways related to virus cellular entry and vesicular trafficking were overrepresented, suggesting that CSF sTREM2 levels could be an informative phenotype for AD. PMID:26754641

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker and brain biopsy findings in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

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    Okko T Pyykkö

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The significance of amyloid precursor protein (APP and neuroinflammation in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH and Alzheimer's disease (AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP and amyloid beta (Aβ isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in relation to brain biopsy Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau (HPτ findings. METHODS: The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders, 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD, and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against Aβ and HPτ. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (Aβ42, p-tau, total tau, non-AD-related Aβ isoforms (Aβ38, Aβ40, sAPP isoforms (sAPPα, sAPPβ, proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE. RESULTS: Lumbar CSF levels of sAPPα were lower (p<0.05 in patients with shunt-responsive iNPH compared to non-iNPH patients. sAPPβ showed a similar trend (p = 0.06. CSF sAPP isoform levels showed no association to Aβ or HPτ in the brain biopsy. Quantified Aβ load in the brain biopsy showed a negative correlation with CSF levels of Aβ42 in ventricular (r = -0.295, p = 0.003 and lumbar (r = -0.356, p = 0.01 samples, while the levels of Aβ38 and Aβ40 showed no correlation. CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of neuronal damage did not associate to the brain biopsy findings, diagnosis, or shunt response. Higher lumbar/ventricular CSF IL-8 ratios (p<0.001 were seen in lumbar samples collected after ventriculostomy compared to the samples collected before the procedure

  5. Early change of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid arginine vasopressin in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; ZHU Jian-yong; HUANG Wei-dong; JIANG Jiu-kun; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Miao; SU Wei; JIANG Ting-ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes and effects of arginine vasopressin(AVP)in patients with acute traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage(tSAH).Methods:The plasma and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)level of AVP,and intracraniai pressure(ICP)were measured in a total of 21 patients within 24 hours after tSAH.The neurological status of the patients was evaluated by Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS).Correlation between AVP and ICP,CrCS was analyzed respectively.Meanwhile,18 healthy volunteers were recruited as control group.Results:Compared with control group,the levels(pg/ml)of AVP in plasma and CSF((x)±s)in tSAH group were significantly increased within 24 hours(38.72±24.71 vs 4.54±1.38and 34.61±21.43 vs 4.13±1.26,P<0.01),and was remarkably higher in GCS≤8 group than GCS>8 group(50.96±36.81 vs 25.26±12.87 and 44.68±31.72 vs 23.53±10.94,P<0.05).The CSF AVP level was correlated with ICP(r= 0.46,P<0.05),but no statistically significant correlation was found between plasma AVP,CSF AVP and initial GCS(r=-0.29,P>0.05 and r=-0.32,P>0.05,respectively).The ICP(mm Hg)in tSAH patients was elevated and higher in GCS≤8 group than in GCS>8 group(25.9±9.7 vs 17.6±5.2,P<0.05=.Conclusion:Our research suggests that AVP is correlated with the severity of tSAH,and may be involved in the pathophysiological process of brain damage in the early stage after tSAH.It seems that compared with the plasma AVP concentration,CSF AVP is more related to the severity of tSAH.

  6. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity

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    Angel Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. Results After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral therapy and correlated abundances of identified proteins a within and between subjects, b with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and c with "external" CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA, immune activation (neopterin and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL. We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's ≤ -0.3 and ≥0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis and asymptomatic HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremell Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF CXCL13 is a diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB, as its levels have been shown to be significantly higher in LNB than in several other CNS infections. Levels have also been shown to decline after treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone, but levels after treatment with oral doxycycline have previously not been studied. Like Borrelia burgdorferi, HIV also has neurotropic properties. Elevated serum CXCL13 concentrations have been reported in HIV patients, but data on CSF levels are limited. Methods We longitudinally analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 25 LNB patients before and after oral doxycycline treatment. Furthermore, we analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 16 untreated LNB patients, 27 asymptomatic untreated HIV-1 infected patients and 39 controls with no signs of infectious or inflammatory disease. Results In the longitudinal LNB study, initially high CSF CXCL13 levels declined significantly after doxycycline treatment, which correlated to a decreased CSF mononuclear cell count. In the cross-sectional study, all the LNB patients had CSF CXCL13 levels elevated above the lowest standard point of the assay (7.8 pg/mL, with a median concentration of 500 pg/mL (range 34–11,678. Of the HIV patients, 52% had elevated CSF CXCL13 levels (median 10 pg/mL, range 0–498. There was a clear overlap in CSF CXCL13 concentrations between LNB patients and asymptomatic HIV patients. All but one of the 39 controls had CSF CXCL13 levels below 7.8 pg/mL. Conclusions We confirm previous reports of highly elevated CSF CXCL13 levels in LNB patients and that these levels decline after oral doxycycline treatment. The same pattern is seen for CSF mononuclear cells. CSF CXCL13 levels are elevated in neurologically asymptomatic HIV patients and the levels overlap those of LNB patients. The diagnostic value of CSF CXCL13 in LNB remains to be established.

  8. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liegler, Teri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Camp, David G.; Price, Richard W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with

  9. Peptide fingerprinting of Alzheimer's disease in cerebrospinal fluid: identification and prospective evaluation of new synaptic biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Jahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, dementias are diagnosed late in the course of disease. Future treatments have to start earlier in the disease process to avoid disability requiring new diagnostic tools. The objective of this study is to develop a new method for the differential diagnosis and identification of new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD using capillary-electrophoresis coupled to mass-spectrometry (CE-MS and to assess the potential of early diagnosis of AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 159 out-patients of a memory-clinic at a University Hospital suffering from neurodegenerative disorders and 17 cognitively-healthy controls was used to create differential peptide pattern for dementias and prospective blinded-comparison of sensitivity and specificity for AD diagnosis against the Criterion standard in a naturalistic prospective sample of patients. Sensitivity and specificity of the new method compared to standard diagnostic procedures and identification of new putative biomarkers for AD was the main outcome measure. CE-MS was used to reliably detect 1104 low-molecular-weight peptides in CSF. Training-sets of patients with clinically secured sporadic Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and cognitively healthy controls allowed establishing discriminative biomarker pattern for diagnosis of AD. This pattern was already detectable in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The AD-pattern was tested in a prospective sample of patients (n = 100 and AD was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 83%. Using CSF measurements of beta-amyloid1-42, total-tau, and phospho(181-tau, AD-diagnosis had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 67% in the same sample. Sequence analysis of the discriminating biomarkers identified fragments of synaptic proteins like proSAAS, apolipoprotein J, neurosecretory protein VGF, phospholemman, and chromogranin A. CONCLUSIONS: The method may allow early differential

  10. Adhesion molecule levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in children with bacterial meningitis and sepsis

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    Soad M Jaber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adhesion molecules play a role in leukocyte recruitment during central nervous system (CNS inflammation. Aim: This study was designed to compare serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of adhesion molecules in children with meningitis and sepsis, and to evaluate their sources. Setting : This study was carried out at Pediatric Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2008. Design: Serum and CSF samples were collected on admission from meningitis (n = 40, sepsis (n = 20 patients, and sera from controls (n = 20. Materials and Methods : Endothelial (E, leukocyte (L, platelet (P selectins intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1 were measured using ELISA. Statistics : ANOVA and Spearman′s correlations were used. Adhesion molecules with albumin concentration were estimated in CSF/serum to calculate concentration quotients. Results : In meningitis, serum sE-, sL-, sP-selectins sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 levels were higher than controls. Compared to sepsis, serum sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sVCAM-1, CSF-sL-selectin, CSF-sVCAM-1, VCAM-1 ratio and index were higher, while serum sP-selectin was lower than meningitis. sE-selectin ratio, CSF sICAM-1 were higher in meningitis with positive than negative culture. The sE-selectin index was higher in meningitis with neurological complication than those without it. In meningitis, correlation was found between CSF protein and CSF white blood cell counts (WBCs, CSF sICAM-1, CSF sVCAM-1 and between CSF sE-selectin and CSF sICAM-1. Conclusions : This study supports the role of adhesion molecules especially sL-selectin, sVCAM-1 in meningitis and suggests further research to determine their use as biomarkers for meningitis and use of their antagonists as therapeutic for CNS inflammation. The presence of discrepancy of CSF/serum ratios for molecules of same molecular weight suggest intrathecal shedding in addition to

  11. Effects of cerebrovascular disease on amyloid precursor protein metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid

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    Rosengren Lars

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD including chronic small vessel disease of the brain (SVD are the most frequent causes of dementia. AD is associated with metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP and low levels of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ X-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CVD and SVD are established risk factors for AD, brain white matter lesions (WML are established surrogate markers for SVD and are also associated with reduced CSF AβX-42. A cohort survey was performed to examine whether SVD or acute CVD affects APP metabolism and to explore a potential association between WML and APP metabolism in two groups; cognitively impaired patients, subjective and mild (SCI and MCI and stroke patients. Through measurements of CSF APP metabolite levels in patients with a wide range of WML volumes, this study aimed to determine how SVD influences APP metabolism. Methods Sixty-three patients were included: 37 with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI or mild cognitive impairment (MCI without stroke, and 26 after acute stroke. Chronic and acute WML volume and infarct volume were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI post-scan processing, and CSF levels of α- and β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPP-α and sAPP-β, AβX-38, AβX-40 and AβX-42 were determined. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the patient groups. Chronic and acute WML volumes, infarct volume, age, and sex were used as predictors for CSF biomarker levels in linear regression analysis. Results CSF levels of sAPP-α and sAPP-β were strongly correlated (r = 0.95, p p p p ≤ 0.005; p ≤ 0.01; p ≤ 0.01; p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.05 respectively, but not with acute WML or infarct volumes. Conclusions Lower CSF levels of sAPP-α and sAPP-β in the stroke group than in the SCI/MCI group and an inverse correlation with chronic WML indicate that ischemia lowers the levels of CSF sAPP metabolites and suggests that APP axonal transport or

  12. MGMT promoter methylation in serum and cerebrospinal fluid as a tumor-specific biomarker of glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHENG; JIANG, WEI; WANG, YAHONG; GUO, YANG; CONG, ZHENG; DU, FANGFANG; SONG, BIN

    2015-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is a conventional technique to predict the prognosis or individualized treatment of glioma in tumor tissue following surgery or biopsy. However, the technique cannot be applied in those glioma patients with concomitant neurological dysfunctions or advanced age. The present study aimed to find a new minimally invasive and efficient alternative method for the detection of MGMT promoter methylation. The expression of MGMT promoter methylation was assessed in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and compared to the corresponding tumor tissue from glioma patients. The 89 patients in the study [32 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, 19 WHO grade III and 38 WHO grade IV) were pathologically-diagnosed glioma and received radiation therapy following sample collection. The resected glioma tumor tissue (89), corresponding serum (89) and CSF (78) samples were collected for the detection of MGMT promoter methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting MGMT promoter methylation in CSF and serum were compared. Among the tumor tissue samples, 51/89 (57.3%) showed MGMT promoter methylation. The specificity of the detection in the CSF and serum samples reached 100%. The sensitivity of MGMT promoter methylation detection in CSF and serum were 26/40 (65.0%) and 19/51 (37.3%), respectively (P<0.05). In the WHO II, III and IV subgroups, the sensitivities of MGMT promoter methylation detection using CSF were 8/12 (66.7%), 11/18 (61.1%) and 7/10 (70.0%), respectively, which were significantly higher than the sensitivities using serum (7/21, 33.3%; 7/19, 36.8%; and 5/11, 45.5%, respectively P<0.05). Among patients with residual postoperative tumors, the sensitivities of detecting MGMT promoter methylation using CSF and serum were 18/25 (72.0%) and 10/24 (41.7%), respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the corresponding values

  13. Effect of feed restriction on metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, T; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2012-03-01

    Endocrines and metabolites in the circulation act as long-term hunger or satiety signals in the brain during negative energy balance and play an important role in the control of feed intake. These signals also occur in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the hypothalamus and brainstem: 2 major centers of feed intake regulation. Thus CSF functions as a transport medium for fuel signals between blood and brain. The CSF metabolite concentrations are mainly under control of the blood-brain barriers, which provide specific carrier molecules facilitating the entry of substances required by the brain and protect the brain from factors that could impair neuronal function. The transport of small molecules such as amino acids (AA) across the blood-brain barriers may be limited by competing AA that share a common transporter for the uptake into brain. Consequently, CSF metabolite concentrations differ from those in blood. Thus it appears likely that central (CSF) rather than peripheral (blood) metabolites act as pivotal signals for the control of feed intake. However, the contribution of putative orexigenic and anorexigenic signals in CSF of cows has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate associations existing between both plasma and CSF metabolites, each in response to feed restriction-induced negative energy balance. Seven German Holstein dairy cows, between 87 and 96 DIM of the second lactation (milk yield, 27.9 L/d) were fed ad libitum (AL) for 4 d and CSF from the spinal cord and blood from the jugular vein was withdrawn before morning feeding at the fifth day. Subsequently, animals were feed restricted (R) to 50% of the previous AL intake for 4 d and CSF and plasma were collected at the ninth day. Body weight, feed intake, water intake, and milk production were determined. Thirty-one AA, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea, and osmolality were measured in both CSF and

  14. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  15. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the A beta 1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional A beta peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of A beta. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF A beta isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing ...

  16. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galasko Douglas; Hanse Eric; Gustavsson Mikael K; Harmsen Andreas; Hansson Oskar; Buchhave Peder; Daborg Jonny; Buerger Katharina; Ringman John M; Andreasson Ulf; Portelius Erik; Hampel Harald; Blennow Kaj; Zetterberg Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing sporadic AD (SAD...

  17. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in serial cerebrospinal fluid in man - Subject to acute regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Michael; Wortmann, Viola; Salzwedel, Cornelie; Kober, Daniel; Petzoldt, Martin; Urbanowicz, Tatiana; Pulic, Mersija; Boelmans, Kai; Yassouridis, Alexander; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2016-05-30

    Acute regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system has not been investigated in man. In a pilot study in healthy male volunteers we measured ACTH every twenty minutes in serial CSF for three hours after an intravenous placebo, hydrocortisone (100mg) or insulin (2mg/kg) injection. No acute inhibitory or stimulatory effects of these interventions were discovered. Our results corroborate previous findings in rhesus monkeys. The regulation of CSF ACTH and its potential relevance for behavioral alterations in health and disease (e.g. major depression or anorexia nervosa) in humans need further study. PMID:27031591

  18. The effect of head orientation on subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid distribution and its implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitational forces may lead to local changes in subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness, which has important implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques. This study examines the effect of gravitational pull associated with different head positions on the distribution of subarachnoid CSF using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images of seven subjects in three different positions (supine, left lateral and prone) were statistically compared. Results suggest that subarachnoid CSF volume decreases on the side of the head closest to the ground, due to downward brain movement with gravity. These findings warrant future research into currently unexplored gravitation-induced changes in regional subarachnoid CSF thickness. (note)

  19. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, belinostat (PXD101), in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, K.E.; McCully, C.; Dvinge, H.; Tjornelund, J.; Sehested, M.; Lichenstein, H.S.; Balis, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Aberrant HDAC activity has been associated with tumorigenesis, and, therefore, HDACs are potential targets for the treatment of cancers, including tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Belinostat is a...... novel, potent, pan-HDAC inhibitor with antiproliferative activity on a wide variety of tumor cell lines. We studied the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of intravenous (IV) belinostat in a non-human primate model as a surrogate for blood:brain barrier penetration. DESIGN: Five adult rhesus monkeys...

  20. EBNA1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Hebun; Scholz, Veronika; Streitz, Mathias; Hammer, Markus; Meisel, Christian; Schönemann, Constanze; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Rosche, Berit

    2016-05-15

    Epidemiological data suggests that Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We aimed to determine the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for one EBNA1-derived epitope (HPVGEADYFEY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with MS and other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). The frequency of specific CD8+ T cells was assessed by HLA-class-I-binding pentamers restricted to HLA-B35. The frequency of HPVGEADYFEY-specific CD8+ T cells did neither differ significantly in blood nor CSF in MS compared to OIND, but was consistently higher in CSF compared to blood regardless of diagnosis. PMID:27138093

  1. Neuron-specific Enclose and Myelin Basic Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuying; WU Hanrong; GUO Huirong; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to study whether patients with schizophrenia have cerebral injury, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP)in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 9 from the control group were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. The results showed that there was significant difference in the NSE contents between the experimental group and control group (P<0.01). The NSE contents in CSF in the experimental group were positively correlated with MBP in schizophrenia patients (P<0.05). These findings suggested that patients with schizophrenia had cerebral injury.

  2. Early transient accumulation of methotrexate in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits after treatment with methotrexate and roentgen rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concomitant application of intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) and cranial irradiation has been described as being able to cause brain abnormalities in patients with leukemia. In the investigation presented, rabbits were treated once weekly for 6 weeks with intraventricular MTX and irradiation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled at various time points after each treatment contained for the samples obtained 4 hours after treatment increasing amounts of MTX. This indicated a retardation in MTX clearance from the CSF. Such a retardation might contribute to the generation of brain abnormalities, although no data have as yet been obtained to prove this suggestion. (Auth.)

  3. Relationship between platelet MAO activity and concentrations of 5-HIAA and HVA in cerebrospinal fluid in chronic pain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and concentrations of 5-HIAA and HVA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were estimated in a series of 54 chronic pain patients. Platelet MAO activity was found to correlate, positively to CSF concentrations of 5-HIAA and HVA, which had been adjusted in order to eliminate the influence of age and body height. However, only the correlation with 5-HIAA reached a significant level. When partial correlations were sought, only the positive correlation between platelet MAO activity and CSF 5-HIAA remained. The results support the notion that platelet MAO is a biological marker for some trait dependent property of the central serotonergic system. (Author)

  4. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulati...

  5. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis mimicking dengue encephalitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Suresh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL has been infrequently reported in children. This condition can mimic many serious conditions of the central nervous system, while actually being benign in nature. The authors present the report of an 8 year old developmentally normal female with family and personal history of migraine, which was initially suspected to have Dengue encephalitis. She had an episode of seizures, meningism and altered sensorium. Normal mental status and physical findings were observed intermittently. Detailed evaluation including analysis of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and neuroimaging were done. Neuro-infections, vascular pathology and autoimmune disorders were ruled out prior to reaching a diagnosis of HaNDL. She responded well to symptomatic treatment and made a full recovery. She was discharged on migraine prophylaxis considering her history. Dengue as causation and the occurrence of seizures in HaNDL has not been reported previously. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2481-2484

  6. Strength and weaknesses of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease and possible detection of overlaps with frailty process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Alessandro; Olivola, Enrica; Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Pisani, Valerio; Imbriani, Paola; Pisani, Antonio; Pierantozzi, Mariangela

    2013-06-01

    With the increase of human lifespan and refinement of diagnostic techniques dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular, have become a multi-decade process with a complex pathogenesis. The prognosis of AD patients, especially in late stages, may be strongly influenced by factors that go far beyond the well-recognized cascades (tau deposition, amyloid plaques). In this context, AD and Frailty, a multidimensional process of the elderly, inevitably overlap. Not surprisingly, the routine biomarkers collectable in the cerebrospinal fluid, while highly relevant in allowing specific diagnoses, becoming limiting when used to define severity and rate of progression of cognitive impairment. In reviewing merits and pitfalls of routine cerebrospinal fluid profile for AD, this manuscript will examine the state-of-the-art related to a parallel field, the extrapyramidal disorders. For synucleinopathies, we will discuss the possibility to detect factors directly involved in earliest disease pathology (alpha-synuclein, tau-proteins) together with indexes of disease progression (i.e. dopamine-metabolite ratio and loss of blood-brain barrier integrity). This approach might guarantee the capability of monitoring putative disease-modifying strategies. However, we will show the likelihood that nonconventional approaches already proposed for Frail subjects (such as exercise-mediated neuro-protection) might prove to be a useful aid for an ageing brain already impaired by AD alterations. A crucial test for these hypotheses would be to apply this sort of interventional, and not merely pharmacological, therapy to homogeneous patient cohorts. PMID:23574170

  7. [A Case of Leptospirosis in which the Causative Pathogen was Detected Using Cerebrospinal Fluid PCR Eight Days after Onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuki; Tono, Toshihiro; Hosoda, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Osone, Yasuo; Nozaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient with leptospirosis caused by infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Rachmati. A 30-year-old Japanese man took part in a survival camp on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, from July 9 to July 15, 2014. During the camp, he swam in the river and kayaked. He developed a high fever and fatigue 7 days after completing his trip and was admitted to our hospital on July 22. On admission, he complained of a posterior cervical pain and a loss of appetite. Laboratory findings revealed granulocytosis, mildly elevated AST and ALT levels, elevated BUN and Cr levels, and a significantly elevated CRP level. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid cultures. We included leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis because of the patient's history of participating in a survival camp on Iriomote Island. Minocycline 200 mg, p.o. showed an excellent efficacy. The Leptospira flagellar gene FlaB was detected using a cerebrospinal fluid PCR. A microscopic agglutination test (MAT) during the convalescent stage demonstrated significant increases in antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Rachmati, confirming the diagnosis of leptospirosis. A medical history including occupation and recent travel history, and an adequate specimen sampling are crucial for the accurate and early diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:27529969

  8. Functional analysis of Pro-inflammatory properties within the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Ulf C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To functionally characterize pro-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive properties of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in vivo and in vitro. Methods The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 10 patients suffering from SAH was applied to the transparent skinfold chamber model in male NMRI mice which allows for in vivo analysis of the microcirculatory response to a superfusat. Microvascular diameter changes were quantified and the numbers of rolling and sticking leukocytes were documented using intravital multifluorescence imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory properties of CSF were assessed in vitro using a monocyte transendothelial migration assay. Results CSF superfusion started to induce significant vasoconstriction on days 4 and 6 after SAH. In parallel, CSF superfusion induced a microvascular leukocyte recruitment, with a significant number of leukocytes rolling (day 6 and sticking (days 2-4 to the endothelium. CSF of patients presenting with cerebral edema induced breakdown of blood vessel integrity in our assay as evidenced by fluorescent marker extravasation. In accordance with leukocyte activation in vivo, significantly higher in vitro monocyte migration rates were found after SAH. Conclusion We functionally characterized inflammatory and vasoactive properties of patients' CSF after SAH in vivo and in vitro. This pro-inflammatory milieu in the subarachnoid space might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of early and delayed brain injury as well as vasospasm development following SAH.

  9. Identification of brain-enriched proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid proteome by LC-MS/MS profiling and mining of the Human Protein Atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Begcevic, Ilijana; Brinc, Davor; Drabovich, Andrei P.; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a proximal fluid which communicates closely with brain tissue, contains numerous brain-derived proteins and thus represents a promising fluid for discovery of biomarkers of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The main purpose of this study was to generate an extensive CSF proteome and define brain-related proteins identified in CSF, suitable for development of diagnostic assays. Methods Six non-pathological CSF samples from three female and three mal...

  10. Abrupt contraction flow of magnetorheological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhir, Pavel; Lopez-Lopez, Modesto; Bossis, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Contraction and expansion flows of magnetorheological fluids occur in a variety of smart devices. It is important therefore to learn how these flows can be controlled by means of applied magnetic fields. This paper presents a first investigation into the axisymmetric flow of a magnetorheological fluid through an orifice so-called abrupt contraction flow. The effect of an external magnetic field, longitudinal or transverse to the flow, is examined. In experiments, the pressure-flow rate curves...

  11. Transient flows of a Burgers' fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is performed to develop the analytical solutions for some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a Burgers' fluid between two plates. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the fluid motion. The exact solutions are given for three problems. Results for the velocity fields are discussed and compared with the flows of Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids. (author)

  12. Interaction between SCO-spondin and low density lipoproteins from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid modulates their roles in early neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América eVera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During early stages of development, encephalic vesicles are composed by a layer of neuroepithelial cells surrounding a central cavity filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF. This fluid contains several morphogens that regulate proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial cells. One of these neurogenic factors is SCO-spondin, a giant protein secreted to the eCSF from early stages of development. Inhibition of this protein in vivo or in vitro drastically decreases the neurodifferentiation process. Other important neurogenic factors of the eCSF are low density lipoproteins (LDL, the depletion of which generates a 60% decrease in mesencephalic explant neurodifferentiation. The presence of several LDL receptor class A (LDLrA domains (responsible for LDL binding in other proteins in the SCO-spondin sequence suggests a possible interaction between both molecules. This possibility was analyzed using three different experimental approaches: 1 Bioinformatics analyses of the SCO-spondin region, that contains eight LDLrA domains in tandem, and of comparisons with the LDL receptor consensus sequence; 2 Analysis of the physical interactions of both molecules through immunohistochemical colocalization in embryonic chick brains and through the immunoprecipitation of LDL with anti-SCO-spondin antibodies; and 3 Analysis of functional interactions during the neurodifferentiation process when these molecules were added to a culture medium of mesencephalic explants. The results revealed that LDL and SCO-spondin interact to form a complex that diminishes the neurogenic capacities that both molecules have separately. Our work suggests that the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid is an active signaling center with a complex regulation system that allows for correct brain development.

  13. Effect of exercise intensity on cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 concentration during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, M; Ulusoy, Ö; Cırrık, S; Hindistan, I E; Ozkaya, Y Gül

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of moderate and strenuous swimming training on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 (interleukin-6) levels during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), moderately trained (MT) and strenuously trained (ST). MT rats underwent swimming exercise for one hour/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Animals in the ST group began swimming with 1 h/day and swimming duration was progressively increased by 30 min/wk, reaching 2.5 h/day by week 4 and stayed constant for an additional 4 weeks. After all animals underwent an acute exhaustive swimming exercise, animals were divided into 3 groups, and decapitated immediately, 24 and 48 hours after exhaustion to obtain tissue samples. Muscle citrate synthase activity, plasma and CSF IL-6 levels were determined. The citrate synthase activity was found to be higher in MT and ST groups compared to the C group. Although plasma IL-6 levels were found unaltered among all groups, the CSF IL-6 concentration was found to be increased 24 hours after exhaustive exercise of the ST group. We conclude that exercise training intensity is an important factor determining cerebrospinal IL-6 concentration after exhaustive exercise. PMID:24311225

  14. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  15. EXACT SOLUTIONS OF A DIPOLAR FLUID FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. HAYAT

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for three canonical flow problems of a dipolar fluid are obtained: (i)The flow of a dipolar fluid due to a suddenly accelerated plate, (ii) The flow generated by periodic oscillation of a plate, (iii) The flow due to plate oscillation in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The solutions of some interesting flows caused by an arbitrary velocity of the plate and of certain special oscillations are also obtained.

  16. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified......Considering a coordinate-free formulation of helical symmetry rather than more traditional definitions based on coordinates, we discuss basic properties of helical vector fields and compare results from the literature obtained with other approaches. In particular, we discuss the role of the stream...

  17. Successful treatment of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak headache with fluoroscopically guided epidural blood patch: a report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Salim M; Fattouh, Maher; Dews, Teresa; Kapural, Leonardo; Malak, Osama; Mekhail, Nagy

    2003-12-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare clinical entity that may result in disabling headaches. It occurs as a result of dural defects, and the initial symptoms resemble those of postdural puncture headache. However, the positional headache can later evolve into a persistent chronic daily headache. The diagnosis of spontaneous CSF leak can be very challenging, but increasing awareness and improved diagnostic techniques are yielding ever more cases. When conservative management fails, the pain management clinician is called upon to administer an epidural blood patch. The success of this technique is dependent upon accurate diagnosis of the site of leakage and targeted epidural administration of the blood patch to this area. In this report, we describe four consecutive cases that were referred to our pain management department over an 18-month period and were successfully treated with site-directed epidural blood patches. PMID:14750917

  18. Validation of a quantitative cerebrospinal fluid alpha-synuclein assay in a European-wide interlaboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, N.; Persson, S.; Alcolea, D.;

    2015-01-01

    Decreased levels of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies have been reported, however, not consistently in all cross-sectional studies. To test the performance of one recently released human-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent...... assay (ELISA) for the quantification of aSyn in CSF, we carried out a round robin trial with 18 participating laboratories trained in CSF ELISA analyses within the BIOMARKAPD project in the EU Joint Program -Neurodegenerative Disease Research. CSF samples (homogeneous aliquots from pools) and ELISA kits...... (one lot) were provided centrally and data reported back to one laboratory for data analysis. Our study showed that although factors such as preanalytical sample handling and lot-to-lot variability were minimized by our study design, we identified high variation in absolute values of CSF aSyn even when...

  19. Bacterial Meningitis in the Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Hase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cell count is a key sign in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, there have been reports of bacterial meningitis with no abnormalities in initial CSF testing. This type of presentation is extremely rare in adult patients. Here, a case involving an 83-year-old woman who was later diagnosed with bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is described, in whom CSF at initial and second lumbar puncture did not show elevation of cell counts. Twenty-six non-neutropenic adult cases of bacterial meningitis in the absence of CSF pleocytosis were reviewed. The frequent causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae and N meningitidis. Nineteen cases had bacteremia and seven died. The authors conclude that normal CSF at lumbar puncture at an early stage cannot rule out bacterial meningitis. Therefore, repeat CSF analysis should be considered, and antimicrobial therapy must be started immediately if there are any signs of sepsis or meningitis.

  20. Toxoplasma-SPECIFIC IgG SUBCLASS ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SAMPLES FROM PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. NASCIMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cerebral toxoplasmosis can be highly debilitating and occasionally fatal in persons with immune system deficiencies. In this study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG subclass antibody response in 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis who had a positive IgG anti-T. gondii ELISA standardized with a cyst antigen preparation. There were no significant differences between the rates of positivity and the antibody concentrations (arithmetic means of the ELISA absorbances, MEA for IgG1 and IgG2, but the rates of positivity and MEA values for these two IgG subclasses were significantly higher than those for IgG3 and IgG4. The marked IgG2 response in CSF from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis merits further investigation.

  1. Patterns of transfer of tritiated progesterone into blood and cerebrospinal fluid of rhesus monkeys following diverse methods of administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated progesterone (3H-P) was administered to adult ovariectomized rhesus monkeys by different routes and methods. About 200 Ci of 3H-P was administered to each monkey by intravenous injection, as eye drops, intranasal spray of a solution containing 3H-P or intranasal spray of powdered dextrose containing adsorbed 3H-P. Radioactivity was estimated in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after administering the steroid, and the data expressed as ratios radioactivity (dpm/ml) in csf and serum. There was no difference in csf: serum ratios following intravenous or ocular routes of administration. The intransal routes of administration differed from the intravenous and the ocular routes in that the ratios showed a slow but gradual increase and also higher values. (author)

  2. Levels of alpha- and beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Fastbom, J; Blomberg, M;

    2000-01-01

    Alternative cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in generation and secretion of both soluble APP (sAPP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta). Abeta is the main component of the amyloid depositions in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using Western blotting, we compared the...... levels of alpha-secretase cleaved sAPP, beta-secretase cleaved sAPP and total sAPP, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 13 sporadic AD patients and 13 healthy controls. Our findings show significant amounts of beta-secretase cleaved sAPP in CSF. There was no statistically significant difference in the...... levels of beta-secretase cleaved sAPP between AD patients and controls. The levels of alpha-secretase cleaved sAPP and total sAPP were, however, found to be significantly lower in the AD patients than in the controls....

  3. Arsenic in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient receiving arsenic trioxide for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with CNS involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Sabine; Gattermann, Norbert; Schapira, Marc; Käferstein, Herbert; Germing, Ulrich

    2007-11-01

    We report on a 42-year-old patient whose relapse of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) included meningeal infiltration. Since he had previously experienced ATRA syndrome, he received arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus intrathecal therapy with cytarabine, prednisone, and methotrexate. We measured the concentration of arsenic in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Arsenic showed a peak CSF concentration of 0.008 mg/l (0.11 micromol/l) and a nadir of 0.002 mg/l (0.027 micromol/l), both representing about 14% of blood levels. ATO thus crosses the blood-CSF-barrier when administered intravenously, but the concentration in CSF is probably not sufficient for treatment of meningeal leukemia. PMID:17416415

  4. Detection of Nesopora caninum-specific DNA from cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction in a dog with confirmed neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Kyohei; Noya, Masahiko; Kagawa, Yumiko; Ike, Kazunori; Orima, Hiromitsu; Imai, Soichi

    2012-08-01

    A one-month male Greyhound dog presented with a swinging gait of the hindlimbs, and later developed muscular atrophy of the femoral region and hyperextension of hindlimbs. The dog had positive serum IFAT titers to Neospora caninum, but a negative titer in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the CSF using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Clusters of protozoa in biopsied muscle fibers were subsequently confirmed as N. caninum tachyzoites by immunohistochemical examination. Early recognition and treatment are necessary for effective recovery of clinical canine neosporosis, but antemortem diagnosis is difficult. We suggest that the detection of parasite deoxyribonucleic acid in the CSF is a useful antemortem diagnostic method in facilitating treatment of this disease. PMID:22446406

  5. Dimethyl sulfone in human cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma confirmed by one-dimensional (1)H and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C NMR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.F.H.; Tangerman, A.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Moskau, D.; Loss, S.; Mudd, S.H.; Wevers, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    (1)H-NMR spectroscopy at 500 MHz was used to confirm that a previously unidentified singlet resonance at 3.14 ppm in the spectra of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples corresponds to dimethyl sulfone (DMSO(2)). A triple resonance inverse cryogenic NMR probe, with pre-amplifier and the RF-coils co

  6. miRNA expression profiles in cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia - an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Nygaard Hillig, Ann-Britt; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Measurements of miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood have just started gaining attention as a novel diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions. T...

  7. 探讨脊柱外科中脑脊液漏的治疗和预防%Prevention and Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage in Spinal Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军胜; 张陆; 刘志昂; 姚帅辉; 高松明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脊柱外科中脑脊液漏的治疗和预防。方法选择我院收治的40例脊柱外科中并发脑脊液漏患者作为研究对象,观察40例患者临床治疗效果,总结脊柱外科中脑脊液漏的预防措施。结果40例脊柱外科中脑脊液漏患者经过治疗,痊愈40例,治疗总有效率为100%。结论通过治疗和预防措施,有效缩短了患者愈合时间,取得理想的治疗效果。%Objective To study the treatment and prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage in spinal surgery.MethodsForty cases of our hospital and cerebrospinal fluid leakage in spinal surgery patients as the research object,the clinical curative effect observation of 40 patients,summarizes the cerebrospinal fluid leakage prevention measures in spine surgery.Results Forty cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage in spinal surgery patients after treatment,40 cases were cured,treatment the total effective rate was 100%.ConclusionThrough the treatment and prevention measures,effectively shorten the healing time, obtain ideal treatment effect.

  8. No detection of BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological complications after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J; Giraud, G; Priftakis, P; Wide, K; Gustafsson, B; Ramqvist, T; Dalianis, T

    2011-10-01

    Neurological complications, often due to viral reactivation, after allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with increased mortality. Here, cerebrospinal fluid from 20 HSCT patients with neurological symptoms were analyzed and found to be negative by PCR for BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA. PMID:21965766

  9. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303. ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  10. Detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum from Skin Lesions, Serum, and Cerebrospinal Fluid in an Infant with Congenital Syphilis after Clindamycin Treatment of the Mother during Pregnancy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Woznicová, Vladana; Šmajs, David; Wechsler, Dan; Matějková, Petra; Flasarová, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    We report here a case of congenital syphilis in a newborn after clindamycin treatment in pregnancy. Using PCR detection of tmpC (TP0319) and DNA sequencing of the genes TP0136 and TP0548, DNA sequences identical to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain SS14 were detected in the infant's skin lesions, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to...

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma cytokines after subarachnoid haemorrhage: CSF interleukin-6 may be an early marker of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Stephen J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines and cytokine receptor concentrations increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH. The relationship between plasma and CSF cytokines, and factors affecting this, are not clear. Methods To help define the relationship, paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were collected from patients subject to ventriculostomy. Concentrations of key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, IL-1 receptor 2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, and TNF receptors (TNF-R 1 and 2 were determined by immunoassay of CSF and plasma from 21 patients, where samples were available at three or more time points. Results Plasma concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-10, TNF-α and TNF-R1 were similar to those in CSF. Plasma TNF-R2 and IL-1R2 concentrations were higher than in CSF. Concentrations of IL-8 and IL-6 in CSF were approximately10 to 1,000-fold higher than in plasma. There was a weak correlation between CSF and plasma IL-8 concentrations (r = 0.26, but no correlation for IL-6. Differences between the central and peripheral pattern of IL-6 were associated with episodes of ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI. A VRI was associated with CSF IL-6 >10,000 pg/mL (P = 0.0002, although peripheral infection was not significantly associated with plasma IL-6. Conclusions These data suggest that plasma cytokine concentrations cannot be used to identify relative changes in the CSF, but that measurement of CSF IL-6 could provide a useful marker of VRI.

  13. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of

  14. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  15. The Influence of Body Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradient and Movement in Cats with Normal and Impaired Craniospinal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension. PMID:24748150

  16. Hydromagnetic rotating flow of third grade fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. HAYAT; R. NAZ; A. ALSAEDI; M. M. RASHIDI

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the flow of a third grade fluid in a rotating frame of reference. The fluid is incompressible and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). The flow is bounded between two porous plates, the lower of which is shrinking linearly. Mathematical modelling of the considered flow leads to a nonlinear problem. The solution of this nonlinear problem is computed by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Graphs are presented to demonstrate the effect of several emerging parameters, which clearly describe the flow characteristics.

  17. Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Von Mises, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow covers the conceptual and mathematical aspects of theory of compressible fluid flow. This five-chapter book specifically tackles the role of thermodynamics in the mechanics of compressible fluids. This text begins with a discussion on the general theory of characteristics of compressible fluid with its application. This topic is followed by a presentation of equations delineating the role of thermodynamics in compressible fluid mechanics. The discussion then shifts to the theory of shocks as asymptotic phenomena, which is set within the context of

  18. Microcantilever mechanics in flowing viscous fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, A; Raman, A.; Dhayal, B.; Tripp, S L; Reifenberger, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    Microcantilevers are often deployed in flowing fluids to measure local flow velocities or to detect rapidly the nanomechanical binding of trace quantities of target analytes. The authors investigate the flow-induced mechanics of microcantilevers by deriving a semianalytical theoretical model for the nanoscale deflections of an elastic microcantilever due to a laminar viscous flow incident upon it. Conversely, the ...

  19. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  20. Glutaminase enzyme biosensor for determination of glutamine in cerebrospinal fluid, human serum and l-glutamine capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium-selective glutamine biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glutaminase on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid prepared by using nonactine. The response of glutamine biosensor was linear over the concentration range of 1.0x10-11.0x10-4M and slope was Nernstian. We determined optimum working conditions of the biosensor such as buffer concentration, buffer pH, lifetime, response time, linear working range and other response characteristics. The optimum buffer concentration and pH of proposed glutamine biosensor were determined as 20mM and pH 7.5, respectively. The interference effects of some ions and amino acids that may be present in body fluids were also investigated. The Km and Vmax values of glutaminase were determined. Additionally, glutamine assay in several biological samples such as healthy human serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and commercial glutamine capsule were also successfully carried out by using the standard addition method. The results were good agreement with previously reported values. (author)

  1. Communication between cochlear perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid through the cochlear modiolus visualized after intratympanic administration of Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intratympanic injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) has been reported as a procedure to visualize endolymphatic hydrops of Meniere's disease. We frequently noted that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the internal auditory canal (IAC) was also enhanced after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how frequently this occurs and to investigate the specific features of patients who lack this communication. A total of 25 patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops underwent the procedure. After 24 h, three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) and 3D constructive interference in steady state (3D-CISS) were performed. The presence of contrast enhancement in the CSF space of the fundus of the IAC was evaluated. The contrast ratio between CSF of the IAC fundus and cerebellar white matter on the injected side was 1.49±0.65, and that of the noninjected side was 0.32±0.16 (P<0.01). Enhancement of the CSF space in the IAC fundus was seen in all but two subjects: one had enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (EEDS), and the other had cochlear nerve agenesis. In these two patients, the cochlear modiolus seemed to be normal. Intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration can reveal permeability of the modiolus and might facilitate evaluation of functional abnormalities of the modiolus not detected by conventional imaging tests. (author)

  2. Comparison of methods for miRNA extraction from plasma and quantitative recovery of RNA from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A McAlexander

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in extracellular RNA has intensified as evidence accumulates that these molecules may be useful as indicators of a wide variety of biological conditions. To establish specific extracellular RNA molecules as clinically relevant biomarkers, reproducible recovery from biological samples and reliable measurements of the isolated RNA are paramount. Towards these ends, careful and rigorous comparisons of technical procedures are needed at all steps from sample handling to RNA isolation to RNA measurement protocols. In the investigations described in this methods paper, RT-qPCR was used to examine the apparent recovery of specific endogenous miRNAs and a spiked-in synthetic RNA from blood plasma samples. RNA was isolated using several widely used RNA isolation kits, with or without the addition of glycogen as a carrier. Kits examined included total RNA isolation systems that have been commercially available for several years and commonly adapted for extraction of biofluid RNA, as well as more recently introduced biofluids-specific RNA methods. Our conclusions include the following: some RNA isolation methods appear to be superior to others for the recovery of RNA from biological fluids; addition of a carrier molecule seems to be beneficial for some but not all isolation methods; and partially or fully quantitative recovery of RNA is observed from increasing volumes of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

  3. Occult orbito-cranial penetrating injury by pencil: Role of beta tracer protein as a marker for cerebrospinal fluid leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash D Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbito-cranial foreign bodies present a treacherous situation that can escape detection. The only evidence of these foreign bodies may be the entry wound in the form of a small lid laceration. A two-year-old boy presented with right upper lid laceration following a fall two hours back. Analysis of the fluid around the wound revealed a beta-tracer protein (beta-TP value of 33.5 mg/l suggestive of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT scan revealed a foreign body measuring 4.2 cm x 0.8 cm passing from the orbital roof to the frontal lobe. The foreign body tract was explored through the eyelid laceration and a broken pencil was removed followed by dural patch graft. The patient developed no ocular or intracranial complications. Beta-TP, a highly specific marker of CSF is routinely used in screening patients of neurosurgery and otolaryngology with CSF leaks, however, its use has never been reported in ophthalmic literature based on an online PubMed search.

  4. Frictional flow characteristics of microconvective flow for variable fluid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajan; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2015-12-01

    The present work investigates the frictional flow characteristics of water flowing through a circular microchannel with variable fluid properties. The computational analysis reveals the importance of physical mechanisms due to variations in thermophysical fluid properties such as viscosity μ(T), thermal conductivity k(T) and density ρ(T) and also their contribution in the characteristics of frictional flow. Various combinations of thermophysical fluid properties have been used to find their effects on fluid friction. It is observed that the fluid friction attains the maximum value in the vicinity of the inlet and diminishes along the flow. The main reasons are attributed to this, (1) near the inlet, there is a flow undevelopment (the reverse process of flow development) due to μ(T) variation. (2) The viscosity of the water decreases with increasing temperature, which reduces fluid friction along the flow. It is noted that the skin friction coefficient (cf) reduces with increasing fluid mean velocity for a same value of constant wall heat flux ({q}{{w}}\\prime\\prime ). In the vicinity of the inlet, the deviation of Poiseuille number (Po) from 64 (constant properties solution) is also investigated in this paper. Additionally, the relationship between Reynolds number (Re) and cf, Po and Re have been proposed for different combinations of thermophysical fluid properties. This investigation also shows that the effect of fluid property variations on pressure drop is highly significant for microconvective water flow.

  5. Measurement of Diffusion in Flowing Complex Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Edward F.; Aucoin, Christian P.; Nanne, Edgar E.

    2006-01-01

    A microfluidic device for the measurement of solute diffusion as well as particle diffusion and migration in flowing complex fluids is described. The device is particularly suited to obtaining diffusivities in such fluids, which require a desired flow state to be maintained during measurement. A method based on the Loschmidt diffusion theory and short times of exposure is presented to allow calculation of diffusivities from concentration differences in the flow streams leaving the cell.

  6. Detection of miRNAs contents in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with epilepsy and their regulating effect on related cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the contents of miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with epilepsy and their regulating effect on related cytokines. Methods:Serum and cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group and non-epilepsy group were collected to detect the contents of miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222, miR-21 and miR-34a as well as inflammatory factors and apoptosis molecules. Results:miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were significantly lower than those of non-epilepsy group, and miR-34a content was higher than that of non-epilepsy group;miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents in serum were significantly higher than those of non-epilepsy group, and miR-34a content was lower than that of non-epilepsy group;TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and ICAM-1 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were higher than those of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-146a, miR-221 and miR-222 contents;Bax, Bim, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were higher than those of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-21, and Bcl-2 content was lower than that of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-34a. Conclusion:miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents decrease while miR-34a content increases in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with epilepsy, and miRNAs can regulate the expression of inflammatory factors and apoptosis molecules and be involved in the changes of neuron function.

  7. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  8. Evaluation of electrophoretic profile and albumin quota in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with distemper showing or not neurvous signs Avaliação do perfil eletroforético e da cota de albumina do líquido cerebrospinal de cães acometidos pela cinomose apresentando ou não sinais neurológicos

    OpenAIRE

    F.G.V. Gama; C.T. Nishimori; M.R. Sobreira; Santana, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The electrophoretic profile of cerebrospinal fluid proteins and albumin quota was studied in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper in either nervous or non-nervous phases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 30 dogs were collected by puncture of the cisterna magna. The total protein content, the albumin quota, and the electrophoretic fraction of CSF proteins in agarose gel plates were evaluated. Results were similar in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper and no nervous signs, but were sign...

  9. Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with Specific Language Impairment and/or Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G

    2014-04-01

    We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right

  10. Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether low-intensity radiofrequency radiation damages the blood-brain barrier has long been debated, but little or no consideration has been given to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether long-term and/or short-term use of wireless telephones was associated with changes in the serum transthyretin level, indicating altered transthyretin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, possibly reflecting an effect of radiation. Methods One thousand subjects, 500 of each sex aged 18–65 years, were randomly recruited using the population registry. Data on wireless telephone use were assessed by a postal questionnaire and blood samples were analyzed for serum transthyretin concentrations determined by standard immunonephelometric techniques on a BN Prospec® instrument. Results The response rate was 31.4%. Logistic regression of dichotomized TTR serum levels with a cut-point of 0.31 g/l on wireless telephone use yielded increased odds ratios that were statistically not significant. Linear regression of time since first use overall and on the day that blood was withdrawn gave different results for males and females: for men significantly higher serum concentrations of TTR were seen the longer an analogue telephone or a mobile and cordless desktop telephone combined had been used, and in contrast, significantly lower serum levels were seen the longer an UMTS telephone had been used. Adjustment for fractions of use of the different telephone types did not modify the effect for cumulative use or years since first use for mobile telephone and DECT, combined. For women, linear regression gave a significant association for short-term use of mobile and cordless telephones combined, indicating that the sooner blood was withdrawn after the most recent telephone call, the higher the expected transthyretin concentration. Conclusion In this hypothesis-generating descriptive study time since first

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid production and dynamics in normal aging: a MRI phase-mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F;

    1994-01-01

    these parameters. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) and five elderly healthy volunteers (mean age 69.0 years) were examined, all were normal on conventional MRI. Slightly higher aqueductal CSF peak flow velocities and peak volume flow in both the caudal and rostral directions were found...

  12. A case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid: value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports a case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid in which extensive bacteriologic investigations were negative making the etiologic diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Initiation of empiric antituberculous therapy was rapidly followed by clinical and biological improvement, without complications, and by resolution of abnormal findings on computed tomography of the brain. On these grounds, meningitis secondary to a tuberculoma in the temporal lobe was diagnosed. The author points out that tuberculous meningitis is still a severe, potentially fatal condition; this, together with the fact that tubercle bacilli are often very scarce or absent, requires that tuberculous meningitis be routinely considered in every patient with clear cerebrospinal fluid meningitis whose condition deteriorates. Computed tomography of the brain is essential to ensure rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy. Lastly, the author points out that nowadays herpes simplex virus encephalopathy should also be considered

  13. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (pC4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in serum, but not in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV associated CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, B; Koedel, U; Paul, R; Eberle, J; Arendt, G; Pfister, H-W

    2004-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic and mitogenic peptide, which also induces several mediators that may play a role in HIV induced CNS damage. VEGF levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 19) directly HIV associated CNS disorders and HIV negative control patients (n = 18). VEGF serum but not CSF levels were significantly increased in HIV infected patients with (381.1 (78.9) pg/ml) HIV associated CNS diseases compared with those without (120.8 (13.1) pg/ml) and HIV negative control patients (133.1(14.8) pg/ml). Serum samples from patients with untreated HIV associated encephalopathy (HIVE, n = 3) contained the highest VEGF levels (583.9 (71.5) pg/ml). In two patients VEGF serum levels were reduced during antiretroviral therapy. However, regardless of effective viral suppression, patients with HIVE still had higher levels compared with HIV infected patients without HIVE. A relevant increase of serum VEGF was not observed in patients without HIVE though high HI viral load. We conclude that HIVE is associated with increased serum VEGF levels. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of VEGF in HIVE. PMID:14742610

  15. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  16. Lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid diffusivity as a potential neuroimaging marker of brain temperature in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia M; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study we tested the hypothesis that the net effect of impaired electrical conduction and therefore increased heat dissipation in multiple sclerosis (MS) results in elevated lateral ventricular (LV) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffusivity as a measure of brain temperature estimated in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used validated DTI-based segmentation methods to obtain normalized LV-CSF volume and its corresponding CSF diffusivity in 108 MS patients and 103 healthy controls in the age range of 21-63 years. The LV CSF diffusivity was ~2% higher in MS compared to controls that correspond to a temperature rise of ~1°C that could not be explained by changes in the CSF viscosity due to altered CSF protein content in MS. The LV diffusivity decreased with age in healthy controls (r=-0.29; p=0.003), but not in MS (r=0.15; p=0.11), possibly related to MS pathology. Age-adjusted LV diffusivity increased with lesion load (r=0.518; p=1×10(-8)). Our data suggest that the total brain lesion load is the primary contributor to the increase in LV CSF diffusivity in MS. These findings suggest that LV diffusivity is a potential in vivo biomarker of the mismatch between heat generation and dissipation in MS. We also discuss limitations and possible confounders. PMID:25485790

  17. MicroRNA-29a Is a Candidate Biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease in Cell-Free Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mareike; Jäkel, Lieke; Bruinsma, Ilona B; Claassen, Jurgen A; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2016-07-01

    The identification of reliable biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains challenging. Recently, abnormal levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-27a, miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-125b in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients were reported. We aimed to confirm the biomarker potential of these miRNAs for AD diagnosis. Additionally, we examined the influence of blood contamination on CSF miRNA levels as potential confounding factor. We studied expression levels of the four miRNAs by quantitative PCR in CSF samples of AD patients and non-demented controls, and in blood-spiked CSF. Levels of miR-29a, but not of the other three miRNAs, were increased by a factor of 2.2 in CSF of AD patients. Spiking of small amounts of blood into CSF revealed that miR-27a and miR-29a, but not miR-125b levels were strongly influenced by the number of blood cells in the sample. In conclusion, miR-29a may be a candidate biomarker for AD, but only when used in cell-free CSF. PMID:25895659

  18. Quantification of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 μL) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of free and total GABA requires two individual sample preparations and mass spectrometry analyses. Free GABA in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (GABA-D2) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Determination of total GABA in CSF requires additional sample preparation in order to hydrolyze all the bound GABA in the sample to the free form. This requires hydrolyzing the sample by boiling in acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) for 4 h. The sample is then further diluted 1:10 with a 90 % acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid solution and injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve and is linear from 6 nM to 1000 nM and 0.63 μM to 80 μM for free and total GABA, respectively. PMID:26602123

  19. Cognitive performance and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration: a study of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindre Rolstad

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of neurodegeneration are associated with cognition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, respectively. CSF concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta (Aβ1-42, ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β, and neurofilament light chain protein were analyzed in relation to neuropsychological performance in 82 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 healthy controls. Linear regression models were applied to account for performance in five cognitive domains using the CSF biomarkers. In patients, the CSF biomarkers explained a significant proportion of the variance (15-36%, p=.002 - <.0005 in all cognitive domains independently of age, medication, disease status, and bipolar subtype I or II. However, the CSF biomarkers specifically mirroring Alzheimer-type brain changes, i.e., P-tau and Aβ1-42, did not contribute significantly. In healthy controls, CSF biomarkers did not explain the variance in cognitive performance. Selected CSF biomarkers of neurodegenerative processes accounted for cognitive performance in persons with bipolar disorder, but not for healthy controls. Specifically, the ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38 were consistently associated with altered cognitive performance.

  20. 3D mapping of cerebrospinal fluid local volume changes in patients with hydrocephalus treated by surgery: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Neuroradiologie, Lille (France); Besson, Pierre; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Rahmouni, Alain; Grandjacques, Benedicte; Luciani, Alain [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Petit, Eric; Lebret, Alain [Signals Images and Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Creteil (France); Outteryck, Olivier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, CESP, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health U1018, Villejuif (France); Maraval, Anne [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Decq, Philippe [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France)

    2014-01-15

    To develop automated deformation modelling for the assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) local volume changes in patients with hydrocephalus treated by surgery. Ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volume changes were mapped by calculating the Jacobian determinant of the deformation fields obtained after non-linear registration of pre- and postoperative images. A total of 31 consecutive patients, 15 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH) and 16 with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), were investigated before and after surgery using a 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimised contrast using different flip-angle evolution) sequence. Two readers assessed CSF volume changes using 3D colour-encoded maps. The Evans index and postoperative volume changes of the lateral ventricles and sylvian fissures were quantified and statistically compared. Before surgery, sylvian fissure and brain ventricle volume differed significantly between CH and NCH (P = 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively). After surgery, 3D colour-encoded maps allowed for the visual recognition of the CSF volume changes in all patients. The amounts of ventricle volume loss of CH and NCH patients were not significantly different (P = 0.30), whereas readjustment of the sylvian fissure volume was conflicting in CH and NCH patients (P < 0.001). The Evans index correlated with ventricle volume in NCH patients. 3D mapping of CSF volume changes is feasible providing a quantitative follow-up of patients with hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  1. Antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Some Alzheimer Disease Patients Recognize Cholinergic Neurons in the Rat Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Degueurce, Amanda; Booj, Serney; Haglid, Kenneth; Rosengren, Lars; Karlsson, Jan Erik; Karlsson, Ingvar; Wallin, Anders; Svennerholm, Lars; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Dahlstrom, Annica

    1987-12-01

    The etiology of Alzheimer disease is unclear. However, immunological aberrations have been suggested to be critical factors in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease. This study was carried out to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Alzheimer disease patients contains antibodies that recognize specific neuronal populations in the rat central nervous system. The results indicate that in a subgroup of patients this is indeed the case. The antibodies reported in this study have the following properties: (i) they recognize neuronal populations and components in the medial septum and spinal motor neurons in rats perfused with a mixture that fixes small neurotransmitter molecules; (ii) adsorption of the patient CSF with staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose and using a polyclonal antiserum against human IgG3 indicates that the immunocytochemical reaction in these brain regions is mainly due to the subclass IgG3; and (iii) the CSF immunocytochemical reaction is blocked by preincubation of the sections with a rabbit anti-acetylcholine antiserum. These results provide evidence that antibodies in the CSF of some, but not all, Alzheimer disease patients recognize acetylcholine-like epitopes in cholinergic neurons in the rat central nervous system.

  2. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolic profiles in multiple sclerosis and degenerative dementias obtained by high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 19 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 12 patients with degenerative dementia and 17 control patients using in vitro high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 400 MHz. The CSF metabolic profile is slightly modified in MS patients (increased lactate and fructose concentrations, decreased creatinine and phenylalanine concentrations) and is not correlated with the intensity of the intrathecal inflammation. Proton MRS of CSF does not differentiate relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS. We have not detected any specific abnormal resonance in native or lyophilized CSF. The CSF metabolic profile of demented patients is much more altered (increased concentration of lactate, pyruvate, alanine, lysine, valine, leucine-isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamine) and is in agreement with a brain oxidative metabolism impairment as already described in Alzheimer's disease. Unassigned abnormal but non specific or constant resonances have been detected on MR spectra of demented patients. CSF inositol concentration is also increased in the CSF of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In vitro high resolution proton MRS of the CSF constitutes a new and original way to explore CSF for the differential and/or early diagnosis of dementias, as a complement to in vivo proton cerebral MRS. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K

    1999-04-02

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  5. Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for patients in whom a blind beside approach is difficult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Choong Guen; Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eu Gene; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the rates of technical success, clinical success, and complications of fluoroscopy-guided lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital, and informed consent was waived. Ninety-six procedures on 60 consecutive patients performed July 2008 to December 2013 were evaluated. The patients were referred for the fluoroscopy-guided procedure due to failed attempts at a bedside approach, a history of lumbar surgery, difficulty cooperating, or obesity. Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar drainage procedures were performed in the lateral decubitus position with a midline puncture of L3/4 in the interspinous space. The catheter tip was positioned at the T12/L1 level, and the catheter was visualized on contrast agent-aided fluoroscopy. A standard angiography system with a rotatable C-arm was used. The definitions of technical success, clinical success, and complications were defined prior to the study. The technical and clinical success rates were 99.0% (95/96) and 89.6% (86/96), respectively. The mean hospital stay for an external lumbar drain was 4.84 days. Nine cases of minor complications and eight major complications were observed, including seven cases of meningitis, and one retained catheter requiring surgical removal. Fluoroscopy-guided external lumbar drainage is a technically reliable procedure in difficult patients with failed attempts at a bedside procedure, history of lumbar surgery, difficulties in cooperation, or obesity.

  6. The γ-Secretase Modulator, BMS-932481, Modulates Aβ Peptides in the Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Holly D; Gasior, Maciej; Toyn, Jeremy H; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Hong, Quan; Berisha, Flora; Furlong, Michael T; Raybon, Joseph; Lentz, Kimberley A; Sweeney, Francis; Zheng, Naiyu; Akinsanya, Billy; Berman, Robert M; Thompson, Lorin A; Olson, Richard E; Morrison, John; Drexler, Dieter M; Macor, John E; Albright, Charlie F; Ahlijanian, Michael K; AbuTarif, Malaz

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of BMS-932481, a γ-secretase modulator (GSM), were tested in healthy young and elderly volunteers after single and multiple doses. BMS-932481 was orally absorbed, showed dose proportionality after a single dose administration, and had approximately 3-fold accumulation after multiple dosing. High-fat/caloric meals doubled the Cmax and area under the curve and prolonged Tmax by 1.5 hours. Consistent with the preclinical pharmacology of GSMs, BMS-932481 decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ39, Aβ40, and Aβ42 while increasing Aβ37 and Aβ38, thereby providing evidence of γ-secretase enzyme modulation rather than inhibition. In plasma, reductions in Aβ40 and Aβ42 were observed with no change in total Aβ; in CSF, modest decreases in total Aβ were observed at higher dose levels. Increases in liver enzymes were observed at exposures associated with greater than 70% CSF Aβ42 lowering after multiple dosing. Although further development was halted due to an insufficient safety margin to test the hypothesis for efficacy of Aβ lowering in Alzheimer's disease, this study demonstrates that γ-secretase modulation is achievable in healthy human volunteers and supports further efforts to discover well tolerated GSMs for testing in Alzheimer's disease and other indications. PMID:27189973

  7. Cognitive performance and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration: a study of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad, Sindre; Jakobsson, Joel; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are associated with cognition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, respectively. CSF concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β, and neurofilament light chain protein were analyzed in relation to neuropsychological performance in 82 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 healthy controls. Linear regression models were applied to account for performance in five cognitive domains using the CSF biomarkers. In patients, the CSF biomarkers explained a significant proportion of the variance (15-36%, p=.002 - bipolar subtype I or II. However, the CSF biomarkers specifically mirroring Alzheimer-type brain changes, i.e., P-tau and Aβ1-42, did not contribute significantly. In healthy controls, CSF biomarkers did not explain the variance in cognitive performance. Selected CSF biomarkers of neurodegenerative processes accounted for cognitive performance in persons with bipolar disorder, but not for healthy controls. Specifically, the ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38 were consistently associated with altered cognitive performance. PMID:25954806

  8. Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for patients in whom a blind beside approach is difficult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the rates of technical success, clinical success, and complications of fluoroscopy-guided lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital, and informed consent was waived. Ninety-six procedures on 60 consecutive patients performed July 2008 to December 2013 were evaluated. The patients were referred for the fluoroscopy-guided procedure due to failed attempts at a bedside approach, a history of lumbar surgery, difficulty cooperating, or obesity. Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar drainage procedures were performed in the lateral decubitus position with a midline puncture of L3/4 in the interspinous space. The catheter tip was positioned at the T12/L1 level, and the catheter was visualized on contrast agent-aided fluoroscopy. A standard angiography system with a rotatable C-arm was used. The definitions of technical success, clinical success, and complications were defined prior to the study. The technical and clinical success rates were 99.0% (95/96) and 89.6% (86/96), respectively. The mean hospital stay for an external lumbar drain was 4.84 days. Nine cases of minor complications and eight major complications were observed, including seven cases of meningitis, and one retained catheter requiring surgical removal. Fluoroscopy-guided external lumbar drainage is a technically reliable procedure in difficult patients with failed attempts at a bedside procedure, history of lumbar surgery, difficulties in cooperation, or obesity

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for prognosis of long-term cognitive treatment outcomes in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Madoka; Miyajima, Masakazu; Ogino, Ikuko; Akiba, Chihiro; Sugano, Hidenori; Hara, Takeshi; Fusegi, Keiko; Karagiozov, Kostadin; Arai, Hajime

    2015-10-15

    The prognosis of cognitive improvement after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remains uncertain, with no reports on CSF biomarkers related to long-term cognitive prognosis. We performed a preliminary study of CSF biomarker protein levels for cognitive outcome prognostication of two-year outcomes after shunt treated iNPH in 36 patients (13 women) with a median age of 75years (IQR 69-78). CSF biomarkers included soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP, sAPPα, sAPPβ), amyloid β (Aβ)1-38, Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)/β-trace, and cystatin C. The results clearly showed that p-tau levels (sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 77.8%, cut-off value of 22.0pg/mL), Aβ1-38/Aβ1-42 ratio (77.8%, 81%, 3.58), and the Aβ1-42/p-tau ratio (76%, 72.7%, 14.6) in preoperative CSF have the potential to determine postoperative prognosis. Improved cognition may be associated with the improvement in CSF circulation after LPS, which likely induces cystatin C and L-PGDS and switches synthesis from Aβ1-42 to Aβ1-38. PMID:26169158

  10. From radioimmunoassay to mass spectrometry: a new method to quantify orexin-A (hypocretin-1) in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtz, Christophe; Vialaret, Jérôme; Gabelle, Audrey; Nowak, Nora; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    I(125) radioimmunoassay (RIA) is currently the standard technique for quantifying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin-A/hypocretin-1, a biomarker used to diagnose narcolepsy type 1. However, orexin-A RIA is liable to undergo cross-reactions with matrix constituents generating interference, high variability between batches, low precision and accuracy, and requires special radioactivity precautions. Here we developed the first quantitative mass spectrometry assay of orexin-A based on a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. This method was tested in keeping with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and its clinical relevance was confirmed by comparing patients with narcolepsy type 1 versus patients with other neurological conditions. The results obtained using MRM and RIA methods were highly correlated, and Bland-Altman analysis established their interchangeability. However, the MRM values had a wider distribution and were 2.5 time lower than the RIA findings. In conclusion, this method of assay provides a useful alternative to RIA to quantify orexin-A, and may well replace it not only in narcolepsy type 1, but also in the increasing number of pathologies in which the quantification of this analyte is relevant. PMID:27165941

  11. Increased acidic fibroblast growth factor concentrations in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Hadavi, Mahvash; Vaziri, Hamid Reza; Naji, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), also called FGF-1, which influences the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types in vitro, was originally isolated from neural tissue. It is released from the ependymal cells of the cerebral third ventricle into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). FGF-1 promotes the survival of neurons. Reactive astrocytes express FGF-1 in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). By comparing the CSF proteome of patients with AD and normal controls it might be possible to identify proteins that have a role in AD. Because CSF is in contact with the extracellular space of the brain, modifications in the brain biochemistry could be reflected in the CSF. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of serum and CSF FGF-1 in patients with AD. This study consisted of 64 CSF samples, from patients with AD (n=32) and those without (normal controls) (n=32). The level of CSF and serum FGF-1 in patients with AD was higher than in patients without AD. We conclude that FGF-1 is a constant component of human serum and CSF and that FGF-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:20079650

  12. Bypassing hazard of housekeeping genes: Their evaluation in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of Multiple Sclerosis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali eMathur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies employing real-time PCR has become an intrinsic part of biomedical research. Appropriate normalization of target gene transcript(s based on stably expressed housekeeping genes is crucial in individual experimental conditions to obtain accurate results. In multiple sclerosis (MS, several gene expression studies have been undertaken, however, the suitability of housekeeping genes to express stably in this disease is not yet explored. Recent research suggests that their expression level may vary under different experimental conditions. Hence it is indispensible to evaluate their expression stability to accurately normalize target gene transcripts. The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The selected reference genes were quantified by real time PCR and their expression stability was assessed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Both methods reported transferrin receptor (Tfrc and microglobulin beta-2 (B2m the most stable genes whereas beta-actin (ActB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh the most fluctuated ones. Altogether our data demonstrate the significance of pre-validation of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization and indicates Tfrc and B2m as best endogenous controls in MS. ActB and Gapdh are not recommended in gene expression studies related to the current one.

  13. Increased prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and haptoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Huang

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The need for biomarkers of onset and progression in HD is imperative, since currently reliable outcome measures are lacking. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 6 pairs of HD patients and controls. Prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV and haptoglobin were elevated in CSF of the HD patients in comparison with the controls. We used western blot as a semi-quantified measurement for prothrombin and Apo A-IV, as well as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measurement of haptoglobin, in 9 HD patients and 9 controls. The albumin quotient (Qalb, a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB function, was not different between the HD patients and the controls. The ratios of CSF prothrombin/albumin (prothrombin/Alb and Apo A-IV/albumin (Apo A-IV/Alb, and haptoglobin level were significantly elevated in HD. The ratio of CSF prothrombin/Alb significantly correlated with the disease severity assessed by Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The results implicate that increased CSF prothrombin, Apo A-IV, and haptoglobin may be involved in pathogenesis of HD and may serve as potential biomarkers for HD.

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Japanese Encephalitis [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5uq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabonita Sengupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES is a group of central nervous system (CNS disorders caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, fungi, chemicals and toxins. It is important to distinguish between various forms of infectious encephalitis with similar clinical manifestations in order to ensure specific and accurate diagnosis and development of subsequent therapeutic strategies. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is in direct contact with the CNS and hence it is considered to be an excellent source for identifying biomarkers for various neurological disorders. With the recent advancement in proteomic methodologies, the field of biomarker research has received a remarkable boost.  The present study identifies potential biomarkers for JE using a proteomics based approach. The CSF proteomes from ten patients each with JE and Non-JE acute encephalitis were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP, fibrinogen gamma chain, fibrinogen beta chain, complement C4-B, complement C3 and cytoplasmic actin were found to be significantly elevated in case of JE indicating severe disruption of the blood brain barrier and DBP can be suggested to be an important diagnostic marker.

  15. Evaluation of a microsphere-based immunofluorescence assay for the determination of Immunoglobulin A concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, A; Carlson, R; Tipold, A

    2013-02-01

    The simultaneous increase of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a characteristic finding in dogs suffering from canine steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA). The study aimed at developing and evaluating a microsphere-based immunofluorescence assay (MIA) for the measurement of IgA, trying to fulfill the need of a quicker method using only small volumes of CSF. Microsphere beads were coated with goat-anti-dog IgA antibodies and bound IgA was detected by a mouse-anti-dog IgA antibody in combination with a PE-labeled goat-anti-mouse IgG. CSF from 44 dogs were tested for IgA and compared with an in-house utilized ELISA. Using clinical relevant reference ranges, the new method showed a good agreement (84.17%) with the ELISA. A method comparison revealed a moderate agreement only. These findings indicate that the MIA will not replace the ELISA, but it opens the possibility for further research with microsphere-based assays. PMID:22858001

  16. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Kähler, Anna K;

    2011-01-01

    The dystrobrevin binding protein-1 (DTNBP1) gene encodes dysbindin-1, a protein involved in neurodevelopmental and neurochemical processes related mainly to the monoamine dopamine. We investigated possible associations between eleven DTNBP1 polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations...... of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy human subjects (n=132). Two polymorphisms, rs2619538 and rs760666, were nominally...

  17. Clinical characteristics and cerebrospinal fluid parameters in patients with peripheral facial palsy caused by Lyme neuroborreliosis compared with facial palsy of unknown origin (Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagberg Lars

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bell's palsy and Lyme neuroborreliosis are the two most common diagnoses in patients with peripheral facial palsy in areas endemic for Borrelia burgdorferi. Bell's palsy is treated with corticosteroids, while Lyme neuroborreliosis is treated with antibiotics. The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis relies on the detection of Borrelia antibodies in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid, which is time consuming. In this study, we retrospectively analysed clinical and cerebrospinal fluid parameters in well-characterised patient material with peripheral facial palsy caused by Lyme neuroborreliosis or Bell's palsy, in order to obtain a working diagnosis and basis for treatment decisions in the acute stage. Methods Hospital records from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, for patients with peripheral facial palsy that had undergone lumbar puncture, were reviewed. Patients were classified as Bell's palsy, definite Lyme neuroborreliosis, or possible Lyme neuroborreliosis, on the basis of the presence of Borrelia antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid and preceding erythema migrans. Results One hundred and two patients were analysed; 51 were classified as Bell's palsy, 34 as definite Lyme neuroborreliosis and 17 as possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. Patients with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis fell ill during the second half of the year, with a peak in August, whereas patients with Bell's palsy fell ill in a more evenly distributed manner over the year. Patients with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis had significantly more neurological symptoms outside the paretic area of the face and significantly higher levels of mononuclear cells and albumin in their cerebrospinal fluid. A reported history of tick bite was uncommon in both groups. Conclusions We found that the time of the year, associated neurological symptoms and mononuclear pleocytosis were strong predictive factors for Lyme neuroborreliosis as a

  18. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Khosroshahi; Laleh Ghadirian; Kamyar Kamrani

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion c...

  19. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurological patients with special reference to multiple sclerosis and dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijst, T Q; Wevers, R A; Schoonderwaldt, H C; Hommes, O R; de Haan, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 293 neurological patients. Serum and CSF vitamin B12 concentrations showed a positive correlation. In individual patients CSF B12 concentrations varied considerably for a given serum concentration. The median serum vitamin B12 concentration of the Alzheimer's type dementia group was significantly lower compared with that of a control group. Lower median CSF vitamin B12 concentrations were found in gr...

  20. Detection of Canine Distemper Virus Nucleoprotein RNA by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Serum, Whole Blood, and Cerebrospinal Fluid from Dogs with Distemper

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, A. L.; König, M.; Moritz, A; Baumgärtner, W.

    1999-01-01

    Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) nucleoprotein (NP) RNA in serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 38 dogs with clinically suspected distemper. Results were correlated to clinical findings, anti-CDV neutralizing antibody titers, postmortem findings, and demonstration of CDV NP antigen by immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the RT-PCR was ensured by amplification of RNA from various laboratory CDV strains, restrictio...

  1. High variability in viral load in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infections of the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Piskunova, N.; Žampachová, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2007), s. 1217-1219. ISSN 1198-743X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cerebrospinal fluid, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus * herpes simplex virus * varicella-zoster virus * central nervous system infections * quantitative real-time PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2007

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin (orexin) levels are elevated by play but are not raised by exercise and its associated heart rate, blood pressure, respiration or body temperature changes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.-F.; Nienhuis, R.; Maidment, N.; Lam, H.A.; Siegel, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) has been implicated in the control of motor activity and in respiration and cardiovascular changes. Loss of Hcrt in narcolepsy is linked to sleepiness and to cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone which is triggered by sudden strong emotions. In the current study, we have compared the effects of treadmill running to yard play on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Hcrt level in normal dogs. We find that treadmill locomotion, at a wide range of speeds, does not increase Hcrt level bey...

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashima, Hideki; Morio, Yasuo; Yamane, Koji; Nanjo, Yoshiro; Teshima, Ryota

    2009-01-01

    There have been few reports describing cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal degenerative disorders. This study investigated whether interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could be detected in CSF of patients with cervical myelopathy or lumbar radiculopathy and whether the concentrations of those cytokines correlated with the severity of disease conditions. CSF samples were obtained from 21 patients with cervical myelopat...

  4. Human cerebrospinal fluid central memory CD4+ T cells: Evidence for trafficking through choroid plexus and meninges via P-selectin

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisäkk, Pia; Mahad, Don J.; Callahan, Melissa K.; Trebst, Corinna; Tucky, Barbara; Wei, Tao; Wu, Lijun; Baekkevold, Espen S; Lassmann, Hans; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Campbell, James J.; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy individuals contains between 1,000 and 3,000 leukocytes per ml. Little is known about trafficking patterns of leukocytes between the systemic circulation and the noninflamed CNS. In the current study, we characterized the surface phenotype of CSF cells and defined the expression of selected adhesion molecules on vasculature in the choroid plexus, the subarachnoid space surrounding the cerebral cortex, and the cerebral parenchyma. ...

  5. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from neurological complications associated with chicken pox or herpes zoster.

    OpenAIRE

    Puchhammer-Stöckl, E; Popow-Kraupp, T; Heinz, F X; Mandl, C W; Kunz, C.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with VZV infection associated with neurological symptoms. Positive results were obtained in three of five children with post-chicken pox cerebellitis and in seven of seven herpes zoster patients with neurological symptoms. The PCR thus provides a useful tool for the early diagnosis of VZV-associated neurological disease.

  6. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Edo; Ben A. Schmand; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. Design Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. Participants Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=181) ...

  7. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Richard; Schmand, B.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Gool, van, A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=1...

  8. Evaluation of new monoclonal antibody-based latex agglutination test for detection of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Orkiszewski, D R; Howell, D; Gilligan, P H

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of CRYPTO-LEX (Trinity Laboratories, Inc., Raleigh, N. C.), a new mouse immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody latex agglutination reagent which reacts with the capsular polysaccharide of the four serogroups of Cryptococcus neoformans. This test was compared with CALAS (Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio) for the ability to detect cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 580 clinical specimens (327 serum and 253 CSF samples), prima...

  9. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics for natural circulation flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of current methods employed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A description of the Navier-Stokes equations, and their extension to turbulent and multi-phase fluid flows, is presented; aspects of grid generation and numerical methods are also discussed. Lastly, to further elucidate some of the concepts presented, some sample applications are provided. (author)

  11. Preparation and application of a novel molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith for selective enrichment of cholecystokinin neuropeptides in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Li, Dan; Li, Hua

    2015-08-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith for highly selective extraction of cholecystokinin (CCK) neuropeptides was prepared in a micropipette tip. The MIPs were synthesized by epitope imprinting technique and the polymerization conditions were investigated and optimized. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyzer and scanning electron microscope. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MI-μ-SPE) method was developed for the extraction of CCK neuropeptides in aqueous solutions. The parameters affecting MI-μ-SPE were optimized. The results indicated that this MIP monolith exhibited specific recognition capability and high enrichment efficiency for CCK neuropeptides. In addition, it showed excellent reusability. This MIP monolith was used for desalting and enrichment of CCK4, CCK5 and CCK8 from human cerebrospinal fluid prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, and the results show that this MIP monolith can be a useful tool for effective purification and highly selective enrichment of multiple homologous CCK neuropeptides in cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously. By employing MI-μ-SPE combined with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, endogenous CCK4 in human cerebrospinal fluid was quantified. PMID:25616243

  12. The use of polarity switching for the sensitive determination of nitrate in human cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůma, Petr

    2016-05-20

    A new electrophoretic stacking method has been developed for the sensitive determination of nitrates in cerebrospinal fluid. 2M acetic acid was used as the BGE; inorganic anions were detected using a contactless conductivity detector and separation was carried out in an INST-coated capillary with inner diameter of 25μm. The sample of cerebrospinal fluid was injected in a large volume into the short end of the separation capillary (15cm) and separation first occurred in the isotachophoretic mode, where a long zone of the majority chloride migrates in the capillary and is followed by a concentrated zone of the unseparated nitrates. The sample zone passes to the end of the capillary where more than 99% of the chlorides are let out. Then the polarity of the voltage is switched and separation occurs in the zone electrophoresis mode, in which the nitrates are separated from the zone of chlorides. The time of switching the polarity is determined by the decrease in the electrophoretic current. Up to 99.95% of the original amount of chlorides present in the cerebrospinal fluid could be let out of the capillary by this technique, thus increasing the signal/noise ratio by up to 60-fold compared to classical electrophoretic separation. PMID:27108047

  13. Highly efficient SERS-based detection of cerebrospinal fluid neopterin as a diagnostic marker of bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Evelin; Kowalska, Aneta; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gawryszewska, Iwona; Guziewicz, Elżbieta; Snigurenko, Dymitr; Waluk, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    A highly efficient recognition unit based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed as a promising, fast, and sensitive tool for detection of meningococcal meningitis, which is an extremely serious and often fatal disease of the nervous system (an inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). The results of this study confirmed that there were specific differences in SERS spectra between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples infected by Neisseria meningitidis and the normal CSF, suggesting a potential role for neopterin in meningococcal meningitis detection and screening applications. To estimate the best performance of neopterin as a marker of bacterial infection, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in a selected region (640-720 cm(-1)) where the most prominent SERS peak at 695 cm(-1) arising from neopterin was observed. The calculated specificity of 95 % and sensitivity of 98 % clearly indicate the effective diagnostic efficiency for differentiation between infected and control samples. Additionally, the limit of detection (LOD) of neopterin in CSF clinical samples was estimated. The level of neopterin was significantly higher in CSF samples infected by N. meningitidis (48 nmol/L), compared to the normal (control) group (4.3 nmol/L). Additionally, this work presents a new type of SERS-active nanostructure, based on polymer mats, that allows simultaneous filtration, immobilization, and enhancement of the Raman signal, enabling detection of spectra from single bacterial cells of N. meningitidis present in CSF samples. This provides a new possibility for fast and easy detection of bacteria in CSF and other clinical body fluids on a time scale of seconds. This method of detection produces consistent results faster and cheaper than traditional laboratory techniques, demonstrates the powerful potential of SERS for detection of disease, and shows the viability of future development in healthcare applications. PMID

  14. Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino

    2013-05-01

    Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.

  15. On the Flow of a Dusty Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Singh

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the flow of a fluid with uniform distribution of dust particles in two parts. In part A, the motion induced in the dusty fluid is considered in the case when the plane moves parallel to itself impulsively from rest with uniform velocity; for this case, the velocity profiles of fluid as well as dust particles are obtained. In part B, the flow is produced by the motion of cylinders. Two cases are taken : (i cylinders moving exponentially with time and, (ii cylinders moving in simple harmonic motion.

  16. Disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation - neuro psychiatric symptoms and neuroradiological contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims at relating dementia, pseudo-neurasthenic and affective organic brain syndromes to underlying types of CSF flow disorder and to the subsequent alteration of anatomy. T 2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the mid sagittal plane permitted an analysis of aqueductal CSF flow phenomena and hydrocephalus-induced elevation, thinning and dorsal impingement of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, the width of the third ventricle was measured on the transverse scout images. 72 patients with communicating hydrocephalus (increased aqueductal CSF pulsations) and 26 patients with aqueductal stenosis (absence of aqueductal flow phenomena) were compared with 22 controls. Dementia and affective disorders were distributed equally among both CSF flow subgroups whereas pseudo-neurasthenic syndromes were observed more frequently in non-communicating hydrocephalus (p < 0.03). Alzheimer-type and multi infarct dementia syndromes were found more frequently in communicating hydrocephalus whereas non-classifiable dementia showed some predilection for non-communicating hydrocephalus. Callosal height, area and third ventricular width did not predict affective or pseudo neurasthenic disorder whereas third ventricular width (p < 0.01) and callosal area (p < 0.05) discriminated between demented and non-demented patients. Dorsal impingement of the corpus callosum by the falx was a non-specific finding. (author)

  17. Topological fluid dynamics of interfacial flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1994-01-01

    The topological description of flows in the vicinity of a solid boundary, that is familiar from the aerodynamics literature, has recently been extended to the case of flow at a liquid–gas interface or a free surface by Lugt [Phys. Fluids 30, 3647 (1987)]. Lugt's work is revisited in a more genera...

  18. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave

    2012-01-01

    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  19. A consensus protocol for the standardization of cerebrospinal fluid collection and biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, C E; Petzold, A; Bennett, J L;

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because...... the numbers of CSF samples is not compromised by preanalytical factors. Here, a consensus report on recommendations for CSF collection and biobanking is presented, formed by the BioMS-eu network for CSF biomarker research in multiple sclerosis. We focus on CSF collection procedures, preanalytical factors......, and high-quality clinical and paraclinical information. The biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurologic disease....

  20. Topological fluid mechanics of Axisymmetric Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field v is...... authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created and...