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Sample records for cerebrosides

  1. Cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol from Clinacanthus nutans.

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    Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya; Pootaeng-On, Yupa; Phansa, Photchana; Taylor, Walter Charles

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of nine cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol were separated from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-beta-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised a common long-chain base, (2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol with nine 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C(16), C(18), C(20-26)) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglyceride was characterized as (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical reactions.

  2. Synthesis of a New Cerebroside Isolated from Typhonium giganteum Engl

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    陈雪松; 吴毓林; 陈迪华

    2003-01-01

    The stereoselecfive synthesis of typhoniside, a new cerebroside isolated from Typhonium giganteum Engl. was accomplished.Cerebrosides are a kind of glycolipids highly enriched on the surface of myelin-producing cells and are composed by C18-4,8-sphingadienine, a-hydroxy acid and a saccharide head. It was the first time that cerebrosides were isolated from this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by us. In this paper, C18-4,8-sphingadienine was synthesized from D-xylose via a SN2 type reaction, α-Hydroxy acid was prepared from (R)-4-hydroxyte-trahydrofuran-2-one, which in turn could be obtained from Lascorbic acid.

  3. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

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    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  4. Anti-inflammatory Cerebrosides from Cultivated Cordyceps militaris.

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    Chiu, Ching-Peng; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chan, You; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lee, Chia-Lin; Du, Ying-Chi; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-02-24

    Cordyceps militaris (bei-chong-chaw, northern worm grass) is a precious and edible entomopathogenic fungus, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a general booster for the nervous system, metabolism, and immunity. Saccharides, nucleosides, mannitol, and sterols were isolated from this fungus. The biological activity of C. militaris was attributed to the saccharide and nucleoside contents. In this study, the aqueous methanolic fraction of C. militaris fruiting bodies exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the active fraction led to the isolation of eight compounds, including one new and two known cerebrosides (ceramide derivatives), two nucleosides, and three sterols. Cordycerebroside A (1), the new cerebroside, along with soyacerebroside I (2) and glucocerebroside (3) inhibited the accumulation of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein and reduced the expression of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This is the first study on the isolation of cerebrosides with anti-inflammatory activity from this TCM.

  5. Cerebroside Sulfatase Activity in Cultivated Human Skin Fibroblasts and Amniotic Fluid Cells

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    Booth, Carol W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Prenatal monitoring for metachromatic leukodystrophy (a fatal inherited metabolic disorder) suggested that the determination of levels of cerebroside sulfatase in the amniotic fluid helped in the prenatal detection of this disorder. (DB)

  6. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

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    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  7. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

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    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-09-15

    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  8. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

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    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  9. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models.

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    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-02-22

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA.

  10. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

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    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  11. Structural Analysis of the Minor Cerebrosides from a Glass Sponge Aulosaccus sp.

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    Santalova, Elena A; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S

    2015-12-01

    The minor cerebrosides from a Far-Eastern glass sponge Aulosaccus sp. were analyzed as constituents of some multi-component RP-HPLC fractions. The structures of eighteen new and one known cerebrosides were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, optical rotation data and chemical transformations. These β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-ceramides contain sphingoid bases N-acylated with straight-chain (2R)-2-hydroxy fatty acids, namely, (2S,3S,4R,11Z)-2-aminoeicos-11-ene-1,3,4-triol, acylated with 15E-22:1, 16Z-21:1, 15Z-21:1, 15Z-20:1, 15E-20:1, 19:0, 18:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-13-methyltetradecane-1,3,4-triol--with 19Z-26:1, 16Z-23:1, 23:0, 22:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-14-methylpentadecane-1,3,4-triol--with 16Z-23:1, 16E-23:1, 15Z-22:1, 22:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-14-methylhexadecane-1,3,4-triol, linked to 16Z-23:1, 15Z-22:1 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-9-methylhexadecane-1,3,4-triol--to 16Z-23:1 acid, and (2S,3S,4R)-2-aminohexadecane-1,3,4-triol, attached to 15Z-22:1 acid. The 13-methyl and 9-methyl-branched trihydroxy sphingoid base backbones (C15 and C17, respectively) have not been found previously in sphingolipids. The ceramide parts, containing other backbones, present new variants of N-acylation of the marine sphingoid bases with the 2-hydroxy fatty acids. The combination of the instrumental and chemical methods used in this study improved the efficiency of the structural analysis of such complex cerebroside mixtures that gave more detailed information on glycosphingolipid metabolism of the organism.

  12. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

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    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  13. A capillary electrophoresis method with dynamic pH junction stacking for the monitoring of cerebroside sulfotransferase.

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    Li, Wenjin; Zech, Isabell; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Müller, Christa E

    2015-08-14

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare and severe genetic disease. Inhibition of cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST) has been proposed as a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MLD. CST catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group from the coenzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to cerebroside yielding cerebroside sulfate and adenosine-3',5'-diphosphate (PAP). So far only a few weak CST inhibitors have been described. The goal of the present study was to establish a suitable assay for identifying and characterizing novel CST inhibitors. To this end, we developed and optimized a capillary electrophoresis (CE) based assay for monitoring the catalytic activity of CST by measuring the formation of PAP. A sample matrix consisting of 5mM phosphate buffer with about 0.0001% polybrene at pH 7.4 and a background electrolyte (BGE) containing 75 mM phosphate buffer with 0.002% polybrene at pH 5.6 were utilized to achieve a stacking effect for PAP by dynamic pH junction. This led to a limit of detection for the enzymatic product PAP of 66.6 nM. The CE method was sensitive, robust, and suitable for CST inhibitor screening, Ki value determination, and enzyme kinetic studies. Selected reference compounds were tested in order to validate the assay, including the substrates cerebroside and psychosine, and the inhibitor Congo Red. The newly developed CE method will be useful for the identification and development of novel CST inhibitors which are urgently needed for the treatment of MLD.

  14. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

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    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  15. A Variation in the Cerebroside Sulfotransferase Gene Is Linked to Exercise-Modified Insulin Resistance and to Type 2 Diabetes

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    A. Roeske-Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The glycosphingolipid β-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate (sulfatide is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing β-cells and may act as a molecular chaperone of insulin. The final step in sulfatide synthesis is performed by cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST (EC 2.8.2.11. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291 gender matched controls were examined. Results. A higher proportion of T2D patients were heterozygous at SNP rs2267161 with both T (methionine and C (valine alleles present (49.8% versus 41.3%, P=.04. The calculated odd risk for T2D was 1.47 (1.01–2.15, P=.047. Among female controls, the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P=.05 than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P=.03. Conclusion. Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females with the CC allele showed lower insulin resistance.

  16. A variation in the cerebroside sulfotransferase gene is linked to exercise-modified insulin resistance and to type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeske-Nielsen, A.; Buschard, K.; Manson, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    .11). The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291......, the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P = .05) than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P = .03). CONCLUSION: Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females......AIMS: The glycosphingolipid beta-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate (sulfatide) is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing beta-cells and may act as a molecular chaperone of insulin. The final step in sulfatide synthesis is performed by cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST) (EC 2.8.2...

  17. Combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry of sphingolipids. I. Glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and cerebrosides of the spleen in Gaucher's disease.

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    Oshima, M; Ariga, T; Murata, T

    1977-08-01

    Trimethylsilylated glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and glucocerebrosides were analysed by combined gas chromatography (GC)-chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry. Isobutane, methane and ammonia were used as reactant gasses for chemical ionization. Essentially the same fragment ions were detected in the spectra with the different reactant gases. Purified glucocerebrosides isolated from the spleen of a patient with Gaucher's disease were clearly separated into their 8 molecular species by gas chromatography. Three other minor components were detected by spectrometry, and these 11 molecular species of glucocerbrosides from the spleen of the patient with Gaucher's disease have been analysed. The ceramides obtained by periodate oxidation and then alkaline reduction of the glucocerebrosides were also separated into 11 molecular species by GC-CI mass spectrometry. Molecular weight could be determined using the major fragment ion of m/e (M+-90) in the spectra of ceramides and cerebrosides. The chemical ionization method is useful for structural analysis and determination of the molecular species of sphingoglycolipids.

  18. Formation of lysosulfatide, 3',6'-anhydropsychosine, ceramide, and sphingosine by saponification of cerebroside sulfate. Effect of the sulfate group on the hydrolysis.

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    Nonaka, G; Kishimoto, Y; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1979-02-01

    Saponification of cerebroside sulfate (sulfatide) by refluxing with 1 N KOH in 90% n-butanol for 1 h yielded ceramide, sphingosine, lysosulfatide (psychosine-3'-sulfate ester) and a hitherto unknown compound. The latter compound was identified as 3,6-anhydrogalactosyl sphingosine (3',6'-anhydropsychosine) from its mass spectrum. The structure of lysosulfatide was confirmed by reacylating it to sulfatide by condensing it with lignoceroyl chloride. The resulting sulfatide, which was chromatographically identical to control sulfatides, was not oxidized by periodate. The sulfatide was also permethylated and methanolyzed. The sugar moiety obtained was identified as methyl 2,4,6-tri-O-methylgalactoside by gas-liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The presence of the sulfate group in lysosulfatide was further confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the presence of radioactivity when it was prepared from [35S]sulfatide. The effect of the sulfate group on cleavage of the galactoside linkage and on the formation of the 3,6-anhydro derivative is discussed.

  19. Sea cucumber cerebrosides and long-chain bases from Acaudina molpadioides protect against high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice.

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    Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Gao, Zhuang; Li, Zhaojie; Leng, Kailiang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for strategies to prevent this emerging global epidemic. Recently, growing interest in discovering food functional nutrients for the prevention and treatment of MS has generated. In the present study, sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) and the main structural units, long-chain bases (LCB), were prepared from Acaudina molpadioides and then administered to high fat (HF) diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice at a diet supplement dosage of 0.025% for 5 weeks to evaluate their effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders. SCC and LCB significantly decreased epididymal adipose tissue weights, lowered hepatic triacylglycerol levels, and reduced serum glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR index in mice. The activities of hepatic lipogenetic enzymes including FAS, ME and the mRNA levels of SREBP-1c and FAS were reduced by SCC and LCB treatment. However, SCC and LCB showed no effect on the hepatic lipolysis pathway. Besides, SCC and LCB also efficiently up-regulated the gene expression of SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC, ATGL and HSL, and down-regulated the gene expression of LPL and VLDL-r in the adipose tissue. These results demonstrated that SCC and LCB were efficacious in suppressing hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis, inhibiting lipid uptake and increasing TG catabolism in the adipose tissue. The ameliorative degree and regulatory mechanisms of these two compounds were basically the same, suggesting that LCB are the key active structural units. Such findings would offer new insight into the application of SCC or LCB in the development of functional foods for preventing MS in humans.

  20. 产脑苷脂鸡枞菌Termitomyces clypeatus CTM 1的分子生物学鉴定及生长特性研究%Identification and growth characterization of a cerebroside producing Termitomyces clypeatus CTM-1

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    花卫俊; 缪冶炼; 陈介余; 尤业兵; 孙唱; 袁丽红; 许琳

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrosides A and B have significant effects of analgesia and brain protection. Fruiting bodies of Termitomyces contains cerebrosides A and B, but wild Termitomyces resources are scarce. In author′s previous work, a strain CTM⁃1 was developed by means of tissue isolation, strain purification and screening,using the fresh fruiting bodies of wild Termitomyces as raw material. In the present study, the sequence homology of CTM⁃1 and Termitomyces was identified with a molecular⁃biological method. The mycelium growth rate in plate and liquid culture,and the cerebroside content in mycelia were investigated for the strain CTM⁃1. It was shown that the stain CTM⁃1 and its parental fruiting bodies had a sequence homology up to 99% with Termitomyces clypeatus. In PDAY plate culture,the colony⁃diameter increasing rate was constant at 1�5 mm/d in the period between and 27 d. The specific colony⁃diameter increasing rate was 0�21 d-1 at 1 d,and decreased gradually after then.In DPt liquid culture,the growth of mycelia entered the stable phase at 9 d,and the biomass was 3�57 g/L. The specific mycelium growth rate was 2�00 d-1 at 1 d,and decreased gradually after then. The content of cerebrosides A and B in mycelia was 0�152% and 0�066%, respectively. Consequently, the large⁃scale culture of T. clypeatus CTM⁃1 can be considered as an effective way for the production of raw material containing cerebrosides A and B.%脑苷脂A和B具有显著的镇痛作用和脑神经保护作用。鸡枞菌( Termitomyces clypeatus)子实体含有脑苷脂A和B,但是野生鸡枞菌子实体资源稀少。笔者在前期研究中以野生鸡枞菌子实体为原料,通过组织分离、菌种纯化及筛选,培育出菌株CTM 1。本研究中,采用分子生物学方法鉴定了菌株CTM 1与鸡枞菌的菌种同源性,测定了该菌株平板培养、液体培养中菌丝体的生长速率和脑苷脂含量。实验结果表明:菌株CTM 1及

  1. 海参脑苷脂对H2O2致PC12细胞氧化损伤的保护作用%Protective effects of cerebroside from sea cucumber on the oxidative damage of PC12 cells induced by H2O2

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    武风娟; 杜磊; 徐杰; 唐庆娟; 薛长湖; 王玉明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of cerebroside from sea cucumber (SCC) on the oxidative damage of PC12 cells induced by H2O2. Methods An oxidative damage model of PC12 cells was induced by H2O2. The survival rate of the cells was determined by MTT method. The leakage of LDH into cell cultures was determined to evaluate the degree of cell damage. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by using DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. The activity of total anti-oxidation capacity ( T-AOC) was determined by chemical colorimetric method and the SOD activity was measured by xanthine oxide method. Results The injury of PC12 cells induced by H2O2 could be reduced obviously by SCC Compared with the model group, SCC could improve the survival rate of injured cells, reduce the leakage of LDH into cell culture and reduce intracellular ROS ( P < 0. 01 ) , increase the intracellular T-AOC and SOD activity ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion SCC has significantly protective effect on the injured PC 12 cells induced by H2O2. The results would provide preliminary data on supporting the development of sea cucumber as a functional food, which might give benefits to our brain.%目的 研究海参脑苷脂(SCC)对H2O2诱导PC12细胞氧化损伤的保护作用.方法 建立H2O2致PC12细胞氧化损伤模型,MTT法检测细胞存活率;测定细胞培养液中乳酸脱氢酶( LDH)漏出量,评价细胞的损伤程度;利用荧光探针DCFH-DA对细胞内活性氧(ROS)进行荧光染色,检测荧光强度;化学比色法测定细胞内总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),黄嘌呤氧化酶法测定超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性.结果 海参脑苷脂能明显改善H2O2诱导的PC12细胞的氧化损伤,与模型组相比,SCC处理组可使细胞存活率升高,细胞培养液中LDH的漏出量明显减少(P<0.01),细胞内ROS的积累量明显降低(P<0.01),同时细胞内T-AOC和SOD活性明显增加(P<0.01).结论 SCC对H2O2诱导的PC12细胞的氧化损伤具有一定的保护作用.

  2. 黄苞南星中的葡萄糖脑苷脂%Cerebrosides isolated from Arisaema flavum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁天宇; 丁克毅; 王晓玲; 何达海

    2016-01-01

    采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和反相(C-18)柱色谱等方法研究黄苞南星块茎的化学成分.根据理化性质和波谱学数据与已知化合物对照鉴定了17个葡萄糖脑苷脂类化合物,分别是1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-2-[(2 '(R)-ace-toxyoctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol(1),2'-O-acetylsoyacerebroside I(2),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,13Z)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-l,3-dihydroxy-4,13-docosadiene(3),(2S,3R,4E,8E)1-(β-D-glucopyrano-syl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4,8-heptadecadiene(4),(2S,3R,4E,8E) 1-(β-D-glucopyrano-syl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4,8-octadecadiene(5),(2S,3R,4E,8E)1-(β-D-glucopyrano-syl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl] amino-9-methyl-4,8-octadecadiene(6),(2S,3R,4E,8E)1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4,8-octadecadiene(7),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol(8),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxypentadecanoylamino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol(9),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxy-hexadecanoylamino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol(10),l-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexade-canoylamino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol(11),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-amino]-1,3-hydroxy-4,8-octadecadiene(12),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoylamino]-1,3-hydroxy-4-hexadecane(13),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4R,8Z)-2N-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl]-8-(Z)-octade-cene-1,3,4-triol (14),1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3S,4E,8E)-2N-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]4-(E),8-(Z)-octa-decadiene-1,3-diol(15),typhoniside A(16),1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxypalmitoylamino]-8-octa-decene-1,3-diol (17).其中化合物1和2为首次从该植物中分离,其余化合物则均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Gaucher disease Gaucher disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... cerebroside lipidosis syndrome Gaucher splenomegaly Gaucher syndrome Gaucher's ... deficiency glucocerebrosidosis glucosyl cerebroside lipidosis ...

  4. Environ: E00107 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Catalpol [CPD:C09773], Cerebroside [CPD:C02686], Stachyose [CPD:C01613], Mannitol [CPD:C00392], Arginine [C...E00107 Rehmannia root (JP16) Rehmanniae radix Rehmanniae radix pulverata Crude drug

  5. A microwave-mediated saponification of galactosylceramide and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate and identification of their lyso-compounds by delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, T; Hara, A; Uemura, K; Kurahashi, H; Sugiyama, E

    1996-07-16

    Small amounts of galactosylceramide (cerebroside) and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate (sulfatide) obtained from porcine spinal cord and equine kidney were deacylated by a rapid method of microwave-mediated saponification to prepare their lyso-compounds. Mass spectra of their protonated or deprotonated molecular ion peaks were detected by recently developed new technology of a delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer with reflector detector in positive or negative ion mode. Long chain bases of lysocerebroside and lysosulfatide were different between porcine spinal cord and equine kidney, but similar to each other in the same organ, suggesting their common synthetic pathway. It is noted that the new rapid method can be similarly applied to the deacylation of both cerebroside and sulfatide in contrast to our classical method which was able to be applied to cerebroside, but not to sulfatide.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13945-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne for cerebroside sulfate act... 39 0.91 AF196309_1( AF196309 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore B ... 38 1.2 AF196308_1( AF196308 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore A ... 38 1.2 (Q8C1C1) RecName: Full=

  7. Antibodies to diverse lipids in the serum of patients with clinically cured leprosy and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Arenas, R; Arce-Parades, P; Miranda-Contreras, G

    2003-01-01

    In this study we looked for the presence of antibodies to cardiolipin, cerebrosides, and whole lipids extracted from M. leprae, M. tuberculosis and M. habana, in the serum of patients with clinically cured lepromatous leprosy (sixteen) or tuberculosis (sixteen), 8 to 12 months after arresting the corresponding multi-drug therapy (MDT). Compared to healthy controls (sixteen), both leprosy and tuberculosis ex-patients had still significant levels of antibodies to the three mycobacterial lipids but no detectable levels of antibodies to cardiolipin or cerebroside lipids. Although leprosy and tuberculosis sera recognized the homologous mycobacterial lipids in a preferential fashion, all of them, on the average, reacted more strongly with the lipids of M. habana. This observation backs up, in a certain way, the proposition of using M. habana as a prospective vaccine for leprosy and tuberculosis.

  8. Self-assembled microstructures from 1,2-ethanediol suspensions of pure and binary mixtures of neutral and acidic biological galactosylceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D D; Mann, S

    1994-01-01

    Optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterize microstructures formed by thermal mechanical treatment of glycol suspensions of various pure and binary mixtures of the brain-derived galactosphingolipids hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (HFA-Cer), non-hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (NFA-Cer) and sulfatide (S-Cer). Negative staining indicated some new features of the neutral cerebroside suspensions in glycol. HFA-Cer formed a small fraction of both unilamellar cylinders (ULCs) (lumina ca. 27 nm) and giant multilamellar cochleates in addition to the typical nonhelical multilamellar cylinders (MLCs) (lumina ca. 10-30 nm). NFA-Cer formed a gel composed of a significant fraction of very long ULCs (lumina ca. 17 nm) without helical substructure, in addition to multilamellar helical structures such as ribbons and cylinders (lumina ca. 70 nm). Anisotropic lamellar micelle-shards of NFA-Cer were also detected by negative staining. S-Cer formed short ULCs (lumina ca. 44 nm) with no obvious helical substructure. Complex mixture data are thought to result from thermodynamic and kinetic factors. HFA-Cer is highly insoluble and promotes a network of rigid intralamellar hydrogen bonding that tends to exclude other lipids. NFA-Cer stabilizes helical defects in the lamellae, and S-Cer enhances disorder or micellization. The processes of microstructure nucleation and lipid phase separation were affected by mixtures such that metastable microstructures were trapped or the length of lamellar cylinders was altered.

  9. Chemical Components from the Fungus Engleromyces goetzei%竹菌化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占扎君; 孙汉董; 吴厚铭; 岳建民

    2003-01-01

    从肉座菌科真菌竹菌(Engleromyces goetzei P. Henn.)的乙酸乙酯部分分离到一个新化合物(2S, 3S, 4R, 10E)-2-[(2′R)-2′-hydroxytetracosanoyl amino]-10-octadecene-1,3,4-triol (1)和12个已知化合物,分别为cerebroside A、cerebroside B、cerebroside D、cytochalasin D、expoxycytochalasin D、cytochalasin C、loganin、cerevisterol、ergosta-7,22-dien-3β, 5α, 6α-triol、ergosta-4,6,8 (14), 22-tetraen-3-one、ergosterol peroxide和ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol.利用现代波谱方法(1H-NMR、13C-NMR、2D-NMR和ESI-MS等)及化学方法将化合物1鉴定为一新的神经酰胺.除化合物cytochalasin D 外, 其余的化合物均系首次从该真菌中发现.首次从真菌界分离鉴定了一个环烯醚萜甙类化合物 loganin.%A new ceramide, (2S,3S,4R,10E)-2-[(2′R)-2′-hydroxytetracosanoyl amino]-10-octadecene-1,3,4-triol (1), together with twelve known compounds, cerebroside A, cerebroside B, cerebroside D, cytochalasin D, epoxycytochalasin D, cytochalasin C, loganin, cerevisterol, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β, 5α, 6α-triol, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol peroxide and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol, was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Engleromyces goetzei P. Henn. The structure of new ceramide (1) was elucidated by spectral data and chemical method, especially by 2D-NMR techniques. All of the compounds except cytochalasin D were first obtained from this fungus.

  10. Lipid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L. and maize (Zea mays L. root plasma membrane and membrane-bound peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane was isolated from roots of pea and maize plants and used to analyze POD and SOD isoforms, as well as lipid composition. Among lipids, phospholipids were the main lipid class, with phosphatidylcho­line being the most abundant individual component in both pea and maize plasma membranes. Significant differences between the two plant species were found in the contents of cerebrosides, free sterols, and steryl glycosides. Most maize POD isoforms were with neutral and anionic pI values, but the opposite was observed in pea. While both anionic and cationic SOD isoforms were isolated from maize, only two anionic SOD isoforms were detected in pea.

  11. Glycolipids and other constituents from Desmodium gangeticum with antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pushpesh Kumar; Singh, Nasib; Ahmad, Ghufran; Dube, Anuradha; Maurya, Rakesh

    2005-10-15

    Nineteen compounds of various classes, such as flavonoid glycosides, pterocarpanoids, lipids, glycolipids, and alkaloids, were isolated and identified from the Desmodium gangeticum whole plant. Aminoglucosyl glycerolipid (8) is reported here for the first time. Its structure has been elucidated by spectroscopic and degradation studies. This novel compound exhibited in vitro antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities, as it enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production and provided resistance against infection established in peritoneal macrophages by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Another known compound, glycosphingolipid (cerebroside) (7) was found to possess significant in vitro antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities against the same parasite. Other compounds were found to be inactive.

  12. Krabbe Disease: Report of a Rare Lipid Storage and Neurodegenerative Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Pratyusha; Vadakedath, Sabitha; Gundu, Rajkumar; Uppulety, Sushmitha

    2017-01-01

    Krabbe disease is a rare (one in 100,000 births) autosomal recessive condition, usually noticed among children. It causes sphingolipidosis (dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids) and leads to fatal degenerative changes affecting the myelin sheath of the nervous system. We report a case of a six-year-old male child who presented with symptoms of muscle spasticity and irritability. Diagnosis of this disease can only be made with clinical suspicion. Laboratory diagnosis includes brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and genetic analysis for detecting mutation in genes coding for galactosyl cerebroside (GALC). We report a case of late infantile Krabbe disease.

  13. Isolation and Identification of the Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22 from Ginkgo biloba%银杏内生菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22次生代谢产物分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建春; 白莉; 李晓明; 张雅梅; 高锦明; Hartmut laatsch

    2009-01-01

    Six metabolites cerebroside B (1),cerebroside C (2),allantoin (3),9(11)-dehyoergosterol peroxide (4) and ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5),chaetoglobosin A (6) were isolated by column chromatography from the extract of cultural mycelium of fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22,an endophyte in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.Structures of them were established by spectroscopic methods.Among of them,cerebroside B,cerebroside C,allantoin were firstly obtained from endophytic fungus;The result of brine shrimp bioassay showed the mortality rates of them to Artemia salina are 1.6%,4.2%,7.4%,16.9%,12.8% and 83.6% respectively at the concentration of 10 μg/mL,chaetoglobosin A showed significant toxic effect on brine shrimp.%采用柱层析方法从银杏叶内生真菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22的培养菌丝体提取物中分离得到脑苷脂B(1)、脑苷脂C(2)、尿囊素(3)、9(11)-去氢麦角甾醇过氧化物(4)以及4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷(5)和球毛壳甲素(6)共6个次生代谢物;经波谱分析确定了6个化合物的结构,其中脑苷脂B、脑苷脂C和尿囊素是首次从内生真菌中得到;海虾致死试验结果显示,化合物1~6在10 μg/mL浓度下对丰年虾的致死率分别为1.6%、4.2%、7.4%、16.9%、12.8%、83.6%、表明球毛壳甲素对海虾表现出很强的毒性作用.

  14. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  15. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Rockwell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandhoff disease (SD is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex, resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients.

  16. 苦瓜的化学成分研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Momordica charantia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志艳; 陈迪华; 斯建勇

    2000-01-01

    为寻找降糖活性成分,利用多种层析技术,从苦瓜Momordica charantia果实的醇提物中分得5个化合物.根据包括2D-NMR在内的各种光谱数据,分别鉴定为:苦瓜脑苷(momor-cerebroside,Ⅰ)、大豆脑苷Ⅰ(soya-cerebrosideⅠ,Ⅱ)、苦瓜亭(charantin,Ⅲ)、尿嘧啶(uracil,Ⅳ)及β-谷甾醇.其中化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ为本属中首次分得;化合物Ⅲ为文献报道的降糖有效成分.

  17. [Age-dependent changes in phospholipid content and neutral lipid contents in aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepian, L M; Kazarian, G S; Akopdzhanian, A A; L'vov, M V

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative processes and lipid metabolism in young (3-4 months) and old (25-28 months) were studied. The increase of the rate of reactions of free radical oxidation of lipids (hydroperoxides, and malondialdehyde) and the accumulation of products of oxidative modification of proteins was recorded in mitochondrial fraction of rat brain. The accumulation of nitric oxide in the mitochondria and the oxidation products leads to the development of oxidative stress. Investigation of the lipid spectrum in old rat brains showed that aging was accompanied by a change in the qualitative and quantitative content of phospholipids. A change in the metabolism of neutral glycolipids leads to a decrease in the content of cerebrosides and sulfoserobrosides. At the same time an increase in sphingosine (a product of hidrolytic decomposition of neutral glycolipids) was observed. The key role of lipid metabolism in age pathologies was noticed.

  18. Metabolite profiling of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods by 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Noor Haslinda Noor; Latip, Jalifah; Khatib, Alfi

    2016-11-01

    The metabolites of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts and their dependence on drying process were systematically characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to distinguish the leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods. The identified metabolites were carbohydrates, amino acid, flavonoids and sulfur glucoside compounds. The major metabolites responsible for the separation in PLS-DA loading plots were lupeol, cycloclinacosides, betulin, cerebrosides and choline. The results showed that the combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses could act as an efficient technique to understand the C. nutans composition and its variation.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  20. Glycrides and Ceramides from the Stems of Piper betle L.%蒌叶茎中甘油酯和神经酰胺类化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相中; 尹燕; 程春梅; 高利斌; 刘天成; 戴云

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究蒌叶茎的化学成分.方法:应用各种色谱技术进行分离纯化,用理化及波谱分析方法鉴定化合物结构.结果:从蒌叶茎70%丙酮提取物中分离得到3个化合物,分别鉴定为:1-O-十六碳酰基甘油酯(1),1-O-β-D-半乳糖-(6→1)-α-D-半乳糖-2,3-O-十六烷酸甘油二酯(2),poke-weed cerebroside(3).结论:3个化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  1. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  2. Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ao Duan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

  3. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    -acetylation of the 2-hydroxy-fatty acid. The immuno-reactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to these acetylated glycolipids was examined in central nervous system (CNS) infectious disease, noninflammatory disorders, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening for lipid binding in MS and other neurological disease...... groups revealed that the greatest anti-hydrophobic FMC reactivity was observed in the inflammatory CNS diseases (meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Some MS patients had increased reactivity with the hydrophobic FMCs and with glycoglycerophospholipid MfGL-II from...... Mycoplasma fermentans. The cross-reactivity of highly acetylated GalCer with microbial acyl-glycolipid raises the possibility that myelin-O-acetyl-cerebrosides, bacterial infection, and neurological disease are linked....

  4. Transport and uptake effects of marine complex lipid liposomes in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Yu-Hong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xue, Chang-Hu; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koretaro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, marine complex lipids, including starfish phospholipids (SFP) and cerebrosides (SFC) separated from Asterias amurensis as well as sea cucumber phospholipids (SCP) and cerebrosides (SCC) isolated from Cucumaria frondosa, have received much attention because of their potent biological activities. However, little information is known on the transport and uptake of these lipids in liposome forms in small intestinal cells. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these complex lipid liposomes on transport and uptake in Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. The results revealed that SFP and SCP contained 42% and 47.9% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), respectively. The average particle sizes of liposomes prepared in this study were from 169 to 189 nm. We found that the transport of the liposomes across the M cell monolayer model was much higher than the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The liposomes consisting of SFP or SCP showed significantly higher transport and uptake than soy phospholipid (soy-PL) liposomes in both Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. Our results also exhibited that treatment with 1 mM liposomes composed of SFP or SCP for 3 h tended to increase the EPA content in phospholipid fractions of both differentiated Caco-2 and M cells. Moreover, it was also found that the hybrid liposomes consisting of SFP/SFC/cholesterol (Chol) revealed higher transport and uptake across the M cell monolayer in comparison with other liposomes. Furthermore, treatment with SFP/SFC/Chol liposomes could notably decrease the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of Caco-2 and M cell monolayers. The present data also showed that the cell viability of differentiated Caco-2 and M cells was not affected after the treatment with marine complex lipids or soy-PL liposomes. Based on the data in this study, it was suggested that marine complex lipid liposomes exhibit prominent transport and uptake in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

  5. Chemical constituents from the root of Croton lachynocarpus%毛果巴豆根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the root of Croton lachynocarpus .They were identified as 3-acetoxy-erythrodiol(1 ),3-acetoxy-oleanoic acid (2 ),ilexgenin A (3 ),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol (4 ),dibutyl phthalate(5),diisobutyl phthalate(6),phthalic acid butyl isobutyl ester(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),ursolic acid(9),β-sitosterol(10)and daucosterol(11)on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses.All the compounds were firstly isolated from this plant.%对大戟科巴豆属植物毛果巴豆的根进行化学成分研究,并利用多种色谱方法分离得到11个化合物,根据理化性质和波谱学手段鉴定了结构。它们分别是3-乙酰高根二醇(1),3-乙酰齐墩果酸(2),ilexgenin A (3),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol(4),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(5),邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(6),邻苯二甲酸正丁异丁酯(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),熊果酸(9),β-谷甾醇(10),胡萝卜苷(11)。所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。

  6. MRI characterization of paranodal junction failure and related spinal cord changes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morito Takano

    Full Text Available The paranodal junction is a specialized axon-glia contact zone that is important for normal neuronal activity and behavioral locomotor function in the central nervous system (CNS. Histological examination has been the only method for detecting pathological paranodal junction conditions. Recently, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI has been used to detect microstructural changes in various CNS diseases. This study was conducted to determine whether MRI and DTI could detect structural changes in the paranodal junctions of the spinal cord in cerebroside sulfotransferase knock-out (CST-KO mice. Here, we showed that high-resolution MRI and DTI characteristics can reflect paranodal junction failure in CST-KO mice. We found significantly lower T1 times and significantly higher T2 times in the spinal cord MRIs of CST-KO mice as compared to wild-type (WT mice. Spinal cord DTI showed significantly lower axial diffusivity and significantly higher radial diffusivity in CST-KO mice as compared to WT mice. In contrast, the histological differences in the paranodal junctions of WT and CST-KO mice were so subtle that electron microscopy or immunohistological analyses were necessary to detect them. We also measured gait disturbance in the CST-KO mice, and determined the conduction latency by electrophysiology. These findings demonstrate the potential of using MRI and DTI to evaluate white matter disorders that involve paranodal junction failure.

  7. 南瓜化学成分的研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Cucurbita Moschata Duch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱杰; 杜琪珍; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 张立金; 段文娟; 傅茂润; 葛长军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究南瓜的化学成分.方法 采用乙醇、氯仿提取,硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱分离,通过理化常数和光谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从南瓜的氯仿提取物中分离并鉴定了6个化合物:β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,Ⅰ)、顺-15-十八烯酸(cis-15-vaccenic acid,Ⅱ)、硬脂酸(stearic acid,Ⅲ)、顺-15-十八烯酸甲酯(cis-15-vacxenic acid methyl ester,Ⅳ)、大豆脑苷Ⅰ(soya-cerebroside Ⅰ,Ⅴ)和蔗糖(sucrose,Ⅵ).结论 6个化合物均系首次从南瓜中分离得到.

  8. 三花莸的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 陈革林; 陈崇宏; 彭丽彰; 汪汉卿

    2005-01-01

    三花莸Caryopteris terniflora Maxim.为马鞭草科莸属植物,又名野荆芥、大风寒草等。主要分布于河北、山西、陕西、甘肃等地。全草药用,具有解表散寒、宣肺之效。治疗外感头痛、咳嗽、外障目翳、烫伤等症。其化学成分未见报道。为探讨其有效成分,对其化学成分进行了系统研究,从其正丁醇部分分离并鉴定了4个化合物,这些化合物分别为两个脑苷脂类化合物:大豆脑苷Ⅱ(soya-cerebroside Ⅱ,

  9. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Clinacanthus nutans: A review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ariful; Ferdosh, Sahena; Ghafoor, Kashif; Hakim, Abdul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Khatib, Alfi; Sarker, Zaidul I

    2016-04-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.

  11. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463 that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  12. The effects of GM1 and Bfgf synergistically inducing adult rat bone marrow stromal cells to form neural progenitor cells and their differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉; 王纪佐; 孙红宇; 张建宁; 杨树源

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of GM1 on inducing adult rat bone marrow stromal cells(MSCs) to form neural progenitor cells and their differentiation. Methods: Purified MSCs were induced by different components of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) alone, GM1 alone or combination of bFGF with GM1. After 3 days' incubation, fibronectin and collagen I were detected with immunocytochemistry, and nestin was detected with immunofluorescence. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactose cerebroside (GalC) were detected with immunocytochemistry after 7 days' incubation. Results: After induction with bFGF alone or combination of bFGF and GM1, some MSCs exhibited the phenotypes of neural progenitor cells, and then neurons and astrocytes. In these two groups, the positive cells for fibronectin and collagen I decreased markedly after 3 days' induction. At the same time, the positive cells for nestin increased markedly. After 7 days' induction, NSE and GFAP-positive cells increased significantly. Furthermore, the addition of bFGF and GM1 caused the maximal variation. However, addition of GM1 alone had no inductive effects.Conclusions: Combination of bFGF with GM1 may synergistically promote the transformation of MSCs and differentiation into neurons and astrocyte-like cells. The results suggest a promising route for the application of MSCs.

  13. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects.

  14. Identification of Disease Markers in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Lipidomic and Proteomic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N. Fonteh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprise the bulk of the dry mass of the brain. In addition to providing structural integrity to membranes, insulation to cells and acting as a source of energy, lipids can be rapidly converted to mediators of inflammation or to signaling molecules that control molecular and cellular events in the brain. The advent of soft ionization procedures such as electrospray ionization (ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI have made it possible for compositional studies of the diverse lipid structures that are present in brain. These include phospholipids, ceramides, sphingomyelin, cerebrosides, cholesterol and their oxidized derivatives. Lipid analyses have delineated metabolic defects in disease conditions including mental retardation, Parkinson's Disease (PD, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's Disease (AD, depression, brain development, and ischemic stroke. In this review, we examine the structure of the major lipid classes in the brain, describe methods used for their characterization, and evaluate their role in neurological diseases. The potential utility of characterizing lipid markers in the brain, with specific emphasis on disease mechanisms, will be discussed. Additionally, we describe several proteomic strategies for characterizing lipid-metabolizing proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. These proteins may be potential therapeutic targets since they transport lipids required for neuronal growth or convert lipids into molecules that control brain physiology. Combining lipidomics and proteomics will enhance existing knowledge of disease pathology and increase the likelihood of discovering specific markers and biochemical mechanisms of brain diseases.

  15. Recent Advances in Researches on Physiologically Active Substances in Holothurians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirata Takashi; Zaima Nobuhiro; Yamashita Kyoko; Noguchi Ryoko; XUE Changhu; Sugawara Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide.SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  16. Ceramide synthesis from free fatty acids in rat brain: function of NADPH and substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.

    1983-06-01

    At the subcellular level, the synthesis of ceramide from free lignoceric acid and sphingosine in brain required reconstituted enzyme system (particulate fraction, heat-stable and heat-labile factors) and pyridine nucleotide (NADPH). The mitochondrial electron transfer inhibitors (KCN and antimycin A), energy uncouplers (oligomycin and 2,4-dinitrophenol), and carboxyatractyloside, which prevents the transport of ATP and ADP through the mitochondrial wall, inhibit the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of NADPH but have very little effect in the presence of ATP. Similar to the synthesis of ceramide, the synthesis of ATP from NADPH and NADH by the particulate fraction also required cytoplasmic factors (heat-stable and heat-labile factors). Moreover, ATP, but not its analog (AMP-CH2-P-O-P), can replace NADPH, thus suggesting that the function of the pyridine nucleotide is to provide ATP for the synthesis of ceramide. The cytoplasmic factors were not required for the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of ATP. The maximum velocity for synthesis of ceramide from free fatty acids of different chain lengths (C16-C26) was bimodal, with maxima around stearic acid (C18) and behenic acid (C22). The relative rate of synthesis of ceramide parallels the relative distribution of these fatty acids in brain cerebrosides and sulfatides.

  17. [Synthetic study of biologically important nitrogen containing natural products: development of new methodology and design of leading compounds for new pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masako

    2003-04-01

    Synthetic study of biologically important nitrogen-containing natural products and development of new methodologies and design of leading compounds for new pharmaceuticals are described. The first total synthesis of eudistomines, manzamine C, martefragin A, cerebroside B1b, and symbioramide was accomplished and the absolute configurations of the stereogenic centers were determined. A novel methodology useful for the synthesis of alkaloids that have perhydroisoquinoline ring system such as manzamine A and B, and related alkaloids, nakadomarin A and dynemicin A, is presented. Sphingolipids, 4-stereoisomers of 1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol, were synthesized and antimalaria activity was investigated. Inhibition of DNA primase by sphingosine and its analogues is described. A new synthetic methodology for alkylation and reduction of imines has been developed, and the first example of a reagent-controlled enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reaction is described. Also novel and convenient methods using transition metal and rare earth metals including alkene metathesis, asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction, imino ene reaction, selective allylic halogenation, enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reaction, and enantioselective physostigmine synthesis are described.

  18. [Neuropathic Gaucher disease treated with long enzyme replacement therapy. Two clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common of all inherited lipid storage diseases. It is an autosomal recessive disorder portraying catabolism and cerebroside deposit in the lysosomes, which is due to a lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme. Though GD shows a panethnic pattern of presentation, it particularly affects the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Several mutations have been defined among GD patients, and some genotypes related to neurologic affection have been described (L444P--most common mutation for neuropathic GD--188S, V394L and G377S). Lipid material storage or deposit exerts multiorganic affection. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrable efficacy in reversing organic damage related to GD, though its capability to stop neurologic affection is currently under controversy and particular research. This paper portrays two GD cases of Mexican children treated with ERT at general zone hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in recent years, both of them depicting characteristic type 3 GD mutations, and comparing their clinical evolution with and without neurological features.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and systemic lupus arythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Marchiorji

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Immuneglobulins isotypes (IgG and IgM for myelin basic protein (MBP, cerebrosides (CER, gangliosides (GANG and cardiolipin (CARD were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from 33 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, 18 with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and 30 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In MS patients occurred positive and significant levels of IgG-MBP in 51,5% (p<0.05 and IgM-MBP in only 18.2%, IgG-CARD in 46.2%, as long as CER and GANG were detected in almost 20%. From serum samples of MS patients 20.6% presented IgG-MBP, while 53% showed positive levels foi IgM-MBP. The CSF analysis of patients with GBS showed that 56.3% revealed IgG-MBP (p<0.05, 53% for IgM-MBP. 3&.5% for IgG-CER and 23% for IgM-CER, while 50% of patients had IgG-CARD, as long -as 31% also had IgG-GANG. The serum evaluation from 14 patients showed that 18.8% had positive concentrations of IgG-MBP and 56.3% presented IgM-MBP (p<0.05 Except for 50% of patients with SLE who presented positive CSF levels of IgG-CARD. only 24.1% had positive levels of IgG-MBP. We believe that the presence of antiphosphohoid antibodies in CSF of the above mentioned diseases occurred as immune epiphenomena, but their appearance would permit the maintenance of and perpetuate the immune event.

  20. Isolation of Phytochemicals from Cordia rothii (Boraginaceae and Evaluation of their Immunomodulatory Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqa Firdous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available n -Hexane, EtOAc, and BuOH fractions obtained from methanol extract of leaves of Cordia rothii Roem and Schult, yielded 1-octacosanol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmast-5-en-3-O-β- D -glucoside (3, (2S,1′S,2′S,3′R,7′Z-N-1′-(O-β- D -glucopyranosylmethyl-2′,3′-dihydroxy-heptadec-7′-enyl-2-hydroxytetracosane-amide (4, methyl 2-hydroxy-3-(4′-hydroxy-phenyl propionate (5, (2R-(4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (6, syringaresinol mono-β- D -glucoside (7, 6-hydroxy-3-oxo-α-ionol 9-O-β- D -glucopyranoside (8, staphylionoside D (9, and 3-(3′,5′-dimethoxy-4′-O-β- D -glucopyranosyl-phenyl-prop-2E-en-1-ol (10. To the best of our knowledge, all compounds except 2 are reported for the first time from this source. Norterpenoid, lignan, cerebroside, and megastigmane are also reported for the first time. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated using oxidative burst; phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulated T-cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO assays. EtOAc fraction exhibited significant inhibitory activity against ROS with IC 50 value of 29.4 ± 2.8 µg/mL. n-Hexane fraction exhibited very strong suppressive effect on PHA stimulated T-cell proliferation with IC 50 value of 85% inhibition. Compound 7 exhibited significant inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 11.3 and 18.0 on PMN and whole blood respectively on zymosan activated ROS generation. Eight sub-fractions showed potent inhibitory activity on the NO with >60% inhibition. These results suggest that compounds from C. rothii could be potential inhibitor for the mediators involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, and potential anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. The structural complexity of the human BORIS gene in gametogenesis and cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M Pugacheva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BORIS/CTCFL is a paralogue of CTCF, the major epigenetic regulator of vertebrate genomes. BORIS is normally expressed only in germ cells but is aberrantly activated in numerous cancers. While recent studies demonstrated that BORIS is a transcriptional activator of testis-specific genes, little is generally known about its biological and molecular functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that BORIS is expressed as 23 isoforms in germline and cancer cells. The isoforms are comprised of alternative N- and C-termini combined with varying numbers of zinc fingers (ZF in the DNA binding domain. The patterns of BORIS isoform expression are distinct in germ and cancer cells. Isoform expression is activated by downregulation of CTCF, upregulated by reduction in CpG methylation caused by inactivation of DNMT1 or DNMT3b, and repressed by activation of p53. Studies of ectopically expressed isoforms showed that all are translated and localized to the nucleus. Using the testis-specific cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST promoter and the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR, it was shown that binding of BORIS isoforms to DNA targets in vitro is methylation-sensitive and depends on the number and specific composition of ZF. The ability to bind target DNA and the presence of a specific long amino terminus (N258 in different isoforms are necessary and sufficient to activate CST transcription. Comparative sequence analyses revealed an evolutionary burst in mammals with strong conservation of BORIS isoproteins among primates. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive repertoire of spliced BORIS variants in humans that confer distinct DNA binding and transcriptional activation properties, and their differential patterns of expression among germ cells and neoplastic cells suggest that the gene is involved in a range of functionally important aspects of both normal gametogenesis and cancer development. In addition, a burst in isoform diversification may

  2. 海洋活性物质对肝损伤修复作用的研究进展%Research Progress on Hepatoprotective Effect of Marine Active Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 陈锐; 杨最素; 余方苗; 丁国芳

    2016-01-01

    Liver is the body's center of metabolism and the important organ of human body to detoxicate. So liver becomes an important target of various drugs and chemicals. With the change of the peoples lifestyle and dietary habit, some liver diseases cause serious damage to people's health, such as fatty liver, liver cirrho-sis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. So it becomes a hot spot that acquire efficient and low toxicity active materi-al from Marine to protect liver in today's research. This article summarizes the new development of anti-liver injury of marine active substances such as polysaccharides, polypeptide, terpenoids, unsaturated fatty acid, cerebroside, nucleoside, taurine, vitamin, etc.%肝脏是人体重要的解毒器官,是各种药物、化学物质代谢的场所。随着人们生活方式及饮食习惯的改变,肝脏疾病如脂肪肝、肝硬化、肝纤维化及肝肿瘤等严重危害人类健康。从海洋中获得高效、低毒的保肝活性物质成为当今研究的热点。本文就国内外对肝损伤有修复作用的海洋活性物质,如多糖、多肽、萜类化合物、不饱和脂肪酸、脑苷脂、核苷类、牛磺酸、维生素等研究进展进行综述。

  3. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  4. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for accurate analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistance tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Linlin; Shangguan, Dihua; Wei, Yanbo; Han, Juanjuan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2015-02-13

    Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are important signaling molecules which are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Here we reported an effective method for accurate analysis of these lipids by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The methanol method was adopted for extraction of lipids due to its simplicity and high efficiency. It was found that two subclasses of sphingolipids, sulfatide (ST) and cerebroside (CB), were heat labile, so a decreased temperature in the ion source of MS might be necessary for these compounds analysis. In addition, it was found that the isobaric interferences were commonly existent, for example, the m/z of 16:0/18:1 PC containing two (13)C isotope being identical to that of 16:0/18:0 PC determined by a unit mass resolution mass spectrometer; therefore, a baseline separation of interferential species was required to maintain selectivity and accuracy of analysis. In this work, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-based method was developed for separation of interferential species. Moreover, in order to deal with the characteristics of different polarity and wide dynamic range of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in biological systems, three detecting conditions were combined together for comprehensive and rational analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was utilized to profile glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistant tumor cells. Our results showed that many lipids were significantly changed in drug resistant tumor cells compared to paired drug sensitive tumor cells. This is a systematic report about the isobaric interferences and heat labile compounds interferences when analyzing glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids by ESI-MS/MS, which aids in ruling out one potential source of systematic error to ensure the accuracy of analysis.

  5. Sulfate- and sialic acid-containing glycolipids inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbulan, C M; Taki, T; Tamiya-Koizumi, K; Suzuki, M; Savoysky, E; Shoji, M; Yoshida, S

    1994-03-16

    The effects of various glycolipids on the activity of immunoaffinity-purified calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha were studied in vitro. Preincubation with sialic acid-containing glycolipids, such as sialosylparagloboside (SPG), GM3, GM1, and GD1a, and sulfatide (cerebroside sulfate ester, CSE) dose-dependently inhibited the activity of DNA polymerase alpha, while other glycolipids, as well as free sphingosine and ceramide did not. About 50% inhibition was achieved by preincubating the enzyme with 2.5 microM of CSE, 50 microM of SPG or GM3, and 80 microM of GM1. Inhibition was noncompetitive with both the DNA template and the substrate dTTP, as well as with the other dNTPs. Since the inhibition was largely reversed by the addition of 0.05% Nonidet P40, these glycolipids may interact with the hydrophobic region of the enzyme protein. Apparently, the sulfate moiety in CSE and the sialic acid moiety in gangliosides were essential for the inhibition since neither neutral glycolipids (i.e., glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide) nor asialo-gangliosides (GA1 and GA2) showed any inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the ceramide backbone was also found to be necessary for maximal inhibition since the inhibition was largely abolished by substituting the lipid backbone with cholesterol. Increasing the number of sialic acid moieties per molecule further enhanced the inhibition, while elongating the sugar chain diminished it. It was clearly shown that the N-acetyl residue of the sialic acid moiety is particularly essential for inhibition by both SPG and GM3 because the loss of this residue or substitution with a glycolyl residue completely negated their inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha activity.

  6. 二蕊荷莲豆中的两个化合物%Two compounds from Drymaria diandra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪琼; 李美红; 杨亚滨; 丁中涛

    2005-01-01

    目的研究二蕊荷莲豆Drymaria diandra的化学成分.方法采用大孔树脂D-101,硅胶柱色谱和PR-18进行反复分离纯化,通过波谱分析方法鉴定化合物结构.结果分离并鉴定了2个化合物:6-羧甲基-5,7,4'-三羟基黄酮(Ⅰ)和4[E],8[E]-N-[2'-D-羟基-十六烷酰基]-1-O-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-4,8-二烯-十八鞘氨醇(大豆脑苷Ⅰ,Ⅱ).结论化合物Ⅰ为新化合物,化合物Ⅱ首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To investigate the chemical costituents from Drymaria diandra. Methods Compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographies on macroporous resin D101,silica gel, and RP-18.Two compounds were identified by spectral analysis. Results Two compounds were isolated from D. diandra. Theirs structures were identified as 6-carboxymethy1-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (Ⅰ) and l-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E,8E)-Z-N-(2'-hydroxypalmitoyl) octadecasphinga-4,8-dienine(soya cerebroside Ⅰ,Ⅱ). Conclusion Compound I is a new compound. Compound Ⅱ is obtained from this plant for the frist time.

  7. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  8. Research progress in Euryale ferox:a Chinese herb%中药芡实的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓曦; 张庆林

    2015-01-01

    The seed, coat, petiole and peduncle of Euryale ferox(belonging to Nymphaeaceae) are used as medicinal potions through solvent extraction, reflux extraction and ultrasonic extraction, and purification on macroporous resin. The quality controls are performed by near infra-red fingerprint spectrum, HPLC, X-ray diffraction Fourier spectrum, and ITS2 barcode. The nutrients of E. ferox contain large amount of amino acids, fatty acids and various microelements; medicinal ingredients are identified to be polyphenol, sesquineolignan, tocopherol, cerebroside, and cyclic dipeptide. The pharmacological effects of E. ferox extracts include antioxidant, free radical scavenging, hypoglycemic activity, decreasing urine protein, bacteriostasis and prevention of gastric mucosal injury. Treatment with E. ferox preparations for diabetes and chronic nephritis are performed in clinics. This review summarizes the study of E. ferox in recent years for further research and development.%芡实属于睡莲科植物,其种仁、种皮、叶柄和花梗均可入药。可通过浸提、回流和超声法提取,采用大孔树脂纯化,并利用近红外指纹图谱法、高效液相色谱法、X线衍射傅立叶分析法和ITS2条形码序列测序技术进行质量控制。芡实富含氨基酸、脂肪酸和多种微量元素,其主要药用成分包括多酚、倍半新木脂素、生育酚、脑苷脂和环二肽,具有抗氧化、清除自由基、降血糖、抗心肌缺血、降低尿蛋白、抑菌和防治胃黏膜损伤等药理活性,临床已开展芡实制剂对于糖尿病和慢性肾炎的治疗。本文综述了近年来芡实药用部位、提取纯化方式、质量控制、化学成分、药理作用及临床应用等方面的研究进展,旨在为芡实后续深入研究和开发提供参考依据。

  9. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Shao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1, 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2, 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3, ganotropic acid (4, 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5 and (3β,7α-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6. (4E,8E-N-d-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7, and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8 were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN. In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE and gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5 and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2, respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel

  10. Doenças priônicas: avaliação dos riscos envolvidos na utilização de produtos de origem bovina Prionic disease: evaluation of the risks involved in using products of bovine origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lupi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os príons são proteínas que se mostram capazes de auto-replicação apesar de, para isso, alterar o metabolismo celular. São responsáveis por inúmeras doenças em animais e no ser humano (doenças priônicas, todas elas fatais. Essas moléstias apresentam enorme variabilidade quanto ao período de incubação, de alguns meses a 40 anos. Os príons acumulam-se e destroem os neurônios, provocando quadros conhecidos como encefalopatias espongiosiformes. Discute-se a apresentação clínica, epidemiológica e histórica das doenças priônicas. O foco maior de discussão recai, no entanto, na possibilidade teórica da transmissão iatrogênica dos príons por meio das formulações tópicas que utilizam ceramidas (cerebrosídeos ou placenta de origem bovina, assim como pelo risco representado por alguns procedimentos dermatológicos, como transplantes da pele e implantes de colágeno.A prion is a protein that is capable of self replication, thereby altering a cell's metabolism. It is responsible for a number of human and animal diseases (prionic diseases, all of which are always lethal. These diseases have enormous variability in their incubation periods, ranging from a few months to forty years. Prions accumulate and destroy nerve cells, causing spongiform encephalopathy. We discuss the clinical picture, epidemiology, and historical background of prionic diseases. The major focus of the discussion lies, however, on the theoretical possibility of iatrogenic transmission of prion infection due to topical formulations using ceramides (cerebrosides or placenta of bovine origin, as well as the risk represented by some dermatological procedures such as skin grafts and collagen implants.

  11. Study on Secondary Metabolites of Endophytic Fungal Strain Botryosphaeria sp.MHF of Maytenus hookeri%云南美登木内生真菌Botryosphaeria sp. MHF次生代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琳; 沈放; 马银海; 陈晓妮; 黄兴南; 顾雪竹; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    目的:对云南美登木内生真菌Botryosphaeria sp.MHF的化学成分进行研究.方法:采用反相、正相等多种柱色谱法进行分离;应用波谱技术进行结构鉴定.结果:从云南美登木内生真菌B.sp.MHF的发酵物中分离得到8个化合物:分别是麦角甾-5-烯-3-醇(1)、麦角甾-4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮(2)、麦角甾-3β,5α,9α-三羟基-7,22-二烯-6-酮(3)、麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇(4)、麦角甾-5α,8α-环二氧-6,22-二烯-3-醇(5)、fusaproliferin (6)、脑苷脂C(7)和3,4,5-三羟基-四氢萘酮(8).结论:所有化合物均为首次从以Murashige-Skoog培养基培养的该菌株中分离得到.%Objective: To study the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungal strain Botryosphaeria sp. MHF of Maytenus hookeri. Method; The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography such as normal phase or reverse phase etc. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Result; Eight compounds were obtained and elucidated as 22E, 24R-ergosta-5-en-3β-ol (1) , 22E, 24R-ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one (2) , 22E, 24R-3B, 5a, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene-6-one (3) , 22E, 24R-ergosta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5a, 6β-triol (4), 22E, 24R-5α, 8α-epidioxyergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol (5), fusaproliferin (6), cerebroside C (7) and 3, 4, 5-trihydroxyl-tetralone (8). Conclusion; All these compounds were isolated from this strain cultivated on Murashige-Skoog culture medium for the first time.

  12. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanyan; Qiao, Liansheng; Wu, Lingfang; Sun, Xuefei; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Chen, Wenjing; Liang, Wenyi; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lanzhen

    2016-05-21

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds.

  13. Inhibitory effects of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide on liver cancer and malignant melanoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Zhong Wu; Li Zhang; Bi-Zhi Shi; Ping Hu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), the derivative of retinoic acid, on inhibition of migration, invasion, cell growth, and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) and malignant melanoma cells.METHODS: 4-HPR was chemically synthesized. Cellular migration and invasion were assayed by Borden chamber experiment. Cell growth was assayed by MTT chromometry.Apoptosis effect was measured using Hoechst 32258 staining and flow cytometry. Gene transfection was performed with lipofectamine.RESULTS: We observed that the migration of HCC and melanoma cells was significantly suppressed by 4-HPR and the migration cells were reduced to 58±5.03 (control 201±27.2, P<0.05, n = 4) in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC, and to 254±25.04 (control 302±30.1, P<0.05, n = 4) in melanoma cells after 6-h incubation with 4-HPR. The invasion through reconstituted basement membrane was also significantly reduced by 4-HPR treatment to 11.2±3.3 in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC (control 27±13.1), and to 24.3±3.2 in melanoma cells (control 67.5±10.1, P<0.05, n = 3). Cell growth, especially in melanoma cells, was also significantly inhibited.Furthermore, 3 μmol/L of 4-HPR induced apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells (37.11±0.94%) more significantly than all-trans retinoic acid (P<0.05), but it failed to induce apoptosis in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC. The mechanism for 4-HPR-induced apoptosis was not clear, but we observed that 4-HPR could regulate p27kip1, and overexpression of cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST) diminished the apoptosis induced by 4-HPR in melanoma cells.CONCLUSION: 4-HPR is a potent inhibitor of HCC migration and inducer of melanoma cell apoptosis. CST and p27kip1 expression might be associated with 4-HPR-induced apoptosis.

  14. GM1-gangliosidosis in American black bears: clinical, pathological, biochemical and molecular genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Torres, Paola A; Wang, Betty C; Zeng, Bai Jin; Eaton, Samuel; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Ducore, Rebecca; Maganti, Rajanikarath; Keating, John; Perry, Bain J; Tseng, Florina S; Waliszewski, Nicole; Pokras, Mark; Causey, Robert; Seger, Rita; March, Philip; Tidwell, Amy; Pfannl, Rolf; Seyfried, Thomas; Kolodny, Edwin H; Alroy, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    G(M1)-gangliosidosis is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of lysosomal β-galactosidase. We have identified seven American black bears (Ursus americanus) found in the Northeast United States suffering from G(M1)-gangliosidosis. This report describes the clinical features, brain MRI, and morphologic, biochemical and molecular genetic findings in the affected bears. Brain lipids were compared with those in the brain of a G(M1)-mouse. The bears presented at ages 10-14 months in poor clinical condition, lethargic, tremulous and ataxic. They continued to decline and were humanely euthanized. The T(2)-weighted MR images of the brain of one bear disclosed white matter hyperintensity. Morphological studies of the brain from five of the bears revealed enlarged neurons with foamy cytoplasm containing granules. Axonal spheroids were present in white matter. Electron microscopic examination revealed lamellated membrane structures within neurons. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in the liver, kidneys and chondrocytes and foamy macrophages within the lungs. Acid β-galactosidase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was only 1-2% of control values. In the brain, ganglioside-bound sialic acid was increased more than 2-fold with G(M1)-ganglioside predominating. G(A1) content was also increased whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides were markedly decreased. The distribution of gangliosides was similar to that in the G(M1)-mouse brain, but the loss of myelin lipids was greater in the brain of the affected bear than in the brain of the G(M1) mouse. Isolated full-length cDNA of the black bear GLB1 gene revealed 86% homology to its human counterpart in nucleotide sequence and 82% in amino acid sequence. GLB1 cDNA from liver tissue of an affected bear contained a homozygous recessive T(1042) to C transition inducing a Tyr348 to His mutation (Y348H) within a highly conserved region of the GLB1 gene. The coincidence of several

  15. Metabolites of Paecilomyces lilacinus ZBY-1 from deep-sea water and their antitumor activity%深海来源淡紫拟青霉ZBY-1的代谢产物及其抗肿瘤活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔香; 李长伟; 吴长景; 华威; 崔承彬; 朱天骄; 顾谦群

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the metabolites of Paecilomyces lilacinus ZBY-1 isolated from a deep-sea water sample and test their antitumor activity. Methods The separation procedure was guided by a bioassay and the metabolites were isolated by various chromatographic means. Compounds were identified on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic data coupled with the methanolysis of several compounds. The antitumor activity was assayed by the MTT method. Results Seven compounds were isolated from the metabolites of P. lilacinus ZBY-1 and identified as 9( 11)-dehydroergosterol peroxide(l) , ergosterol peroxide(2) , (22E, 24R)-5a,6a-epoxy-3p-hydroxyergosta-22-ene-7-one(3) , and cerebrosides A(4) , B(5) , C(6) and D(7) , respectively. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the human cancer K562, MCF-7, HL-60 and BGC-823 cells and their IC50 values on these cell lines ranged from 9. 5 to 59. 6 mg/L, while compounds 4-7 showed no inhibitory effect on the above four cancer cell lines. Conclusions This paper is the first report on the metabolites of P. lilacinus from the marine environment. For the first time, compounds 1-7 were isolated from the metabolites of P. lilacinus, with 1 and 3 from the genus Paecilomyces, and 3 from the fungi, respectively. The inhibitory effect of 1 on the K562 and BGC-823 cells and 3 on the above four cancer cell lines were also assayed for the first time.%目的 阐明来自深海海水的淡紫拟青霉ZBY-1的代谢产物及其抗肿瘤活性.方法 采用活性跟踪分离模式,利用各种色谱技术分离纯化代谢产物;根据理化和波谱数据结合部分化合物的甲醇解反应鉴定化合物结构;采用MTT法测试抗肿瘤活性.结果 从淡紫拟青霉ZBY-1发酵产物中分离鉴定了9(11)-去氢过氧化麦角甾醇(1)、过氧化麦角甾醇(2)、(22E,24R)-5α,6α-环氧-3β-羟基麦角甾-22-烯-7-酮(3)和脑苷脂A(4)、B(5)、C(6)、D(7)等7个化合物.化合物1~3对人癌细胞K562、MCF-7、HL-60、BGC-823