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Sample records for cerebrosides

  1. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

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    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  2. Cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol from Clinacanthus nutans.

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    Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya; Pootaeng-On, Yupa; Phansa, Photchana; Taylor, Walter Charles

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of nine cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol were separated from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-beta-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised a common long-chain base, (2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol with nine 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C(16), C(18), C(20-26)) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglyceride was characterized as (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. PMID:14709863

  3. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

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    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  4. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  5. Anti-inflammatory Cerebrosides from Cultivated Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Peng; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chan, You; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lee, Chia-Lin; Du, Ying-Chi; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-02-24

    Cordyceps militaris (bei-chong-chaw, northern worm grass) is a precious and edible entomopathogenic fungus, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a general booster for the nervous system, metabolism, and immunity. Saccharides, nucleosides, mannitol, and sterols were isolated from this fungus. The biological activity of C. militaris was attributed to the saccharide and nucleoside contents. In this study, the aqueous methanolic fraction of C. militaris fruiting bodies exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the active fraction led to the isolation of eight compounds, including one new and two known cerebrosides (ceramide derivatives), two nucleosides, and three sterols. Cordycerebroside A (1), the new cerebroside, along with soyacerebroside I (2) and glucocerebroside (3) inhibited the accumulation of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein and reduced the expression of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This is the first study on the isolation of cerebrosides with anti-inflammatory activity from this TCM. PMID:26853111

  6. Cerebroside Sulfatase Activity in Cultivated Human Skin Fibroblasts and Amniotic Fluid Cells

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    Booth, Carol W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Prenatal monitoring for metachromatic leukodystrophy (a fatal inherited metabolic disorder) suggested that the determination of levels of cerebroside sulfatase in the amniotic fluid helped in the prenatal detection of this disorder. (DB)

  7. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  8. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

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    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-09-15

    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  9. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in cerebrosides of psoriatic and normal human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in cerebrosides of normal and psoriatic human skin is different. In psoriatic epidermis and corium the turnover of this fatty acid is significantly elevated. It is suggested that in psoriasis the epidermal cell is not able to build up a regular carbohydrate sequences of lipids because the false carbohydrate chain activates the degradation of glycolipids and in compensating for the increased degradation raises the synthesis rate of glycolipids. (orig./MG)

  10. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

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    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  11. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

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    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host. PMID:27585906

  12. Structural Analysis of the Minor Cerebrosides from a Glass Sponge Aulosaccus sp.

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    Santalova, Elena A; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S

    2015-12-01

    The minor cerebrosides from a Far-Eastern glass sponge Aulosaccus sp. were analyzed as constituents of some multi-component RP-HPLC fractions. The structures of eighteen new and one known cerebrosides were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, optical rotation data and chemical transformations. These β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-ceramides contain sphingoid bases N-acylated with straight-chain (2R)-2-hydroxy fatty acids, namely, (2S,3S,4R,11Z)-2-aminoeicos-11-ene-1,3,4-triol, acylated with 15E-22:1, 16Z-21:1, 15Z-21:1, 15Z-20:1, 15E-20:1, 19:0, 18:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-13-methyltetradecane-1,3,4-triol--with 19Z-26:1, 16Z-23:1, 23:0, 22:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-14-methylpentadecane-1,3,4-triol--with 16Z-23:1, 16E-23:1, 15Z-22:1, 22:0 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-14-methylhexadecane-1,3,4-triol, linked to 16Z-23:1, 15Z-22:1 acids, (2S,3S,4R)-2-amino-9-methylhexadecane-1,3,4-triol--to 16Z-23:1 acid, and (2S,3S,4R)-2-aminohexadecane-1,3,4-triol, attached to 15Z-22:1 acid. The 13-methyl and 9-methyl-branched trihydroxy sphingoid base backbones (C15 and C17, respectively) have not been found previously in sphingolipids. The ceramide parts, containing other backbones, present new variants of N-acylation of the marine sphingoid bases with the 2-hydroxy fatty acids. The combination of the instrumental and chemical methods used in this study improved the efficiency of the structural analysis of such complex cerebroside mixtures that gave more detailed information on glycosphingolipid metabolism of the organism.

  13. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

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    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  14. 细柱五加中新的脑苷酯类成分%New Cerebrosides from Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静岩; 濮社班; 钱士辉; 刘丹

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the chemical constituents from the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus. METHODS: Compounds were isolated and purified by various chromatography techniques and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. RESULTS: A mixture of cerebrosides, called acanthopanax cerebrosides were isolated and characterized as 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosides of phytosphingosine type ceramides comprised of a common long chain base (2S, 3S, 4R, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-alkene-l, 3, 4-triol. The alkene chain is eicosene(1), nonadecene(2), octadecene (3, momor-cerebroside), heptadecene (4) and hexadecene (5).CONCLUSION: Compounds 1, 2 and 5 were new ones named as acanthopanx cerebroside A (1), acanthopanax cerebroside B (2), and acanthopanax cerebroside C (5), and compound 3, 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究细柱五加Acanthopaturx gracilistylus果实的化学成分.为阐明其有效成分提供科学依据.方法:采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20及Rp-18等柱层析色谱方法进行分离纯化,并根据理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:分离得到5个脑苷酯类同系物,分别鉴定为1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-eicosene-1,3,4-triol(1),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-nonadecene-1,3,4-trios(2),1-O-,β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol(momor-cerebroside)(3),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-heptadecene-1,3,4-triol(4),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-hexadecene-1,3,4-triol(5).结论:化合物3和4苦瓜脑苷为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物1,2,5均为新化合物,分别命名为:细柱五加脑苷A(1)、细柱五加脑苷B(2)、细柱五加脑苷C(5).

  15. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

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    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  16. Cerebroside C increases tolerance to chilling injury and alters lipid composition in wheat roots.

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    Hong-Xia Li

    Full Text Available Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC, isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4 °C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%, potential (23.46%, index (3.44 and the shorter germination time (6.19 d; root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4 °C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25 °C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA content and relative membrane permeability (RMP was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX, phospholipid C (PLC and phospholipid D (PLD were inhibited by 13.62-62.26%, 13.54-63.93% and 13.90-61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were individually increased by 7.69-46.06%, 3.37-37.96%, and -7.00-178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC.

  17. Three cerebrosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa%叶瓜参中的三个脑苷脂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喇明平; 邵俊杰; 焦健; 易杨华

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究叶瓜参化学成分.方法:对叶瓜参的65%乙醇提取物中小极性部分进行行分离纯化,得到脑苷脂分子种3,对脑苷脂分子种3应用高效液相色谱进一步分离纯化,得到3个脑苷脂单体,CF-3-1 (1)、CF-3-2 (2)和CF-3-3 (3).结果:根据化合物的波谱数据和化学方法鉴定了其结构.结论:三个化合物为首次从叶瓜参中分离得到,首次得到化合物2和3的单体化合物.%AIM:To study the chemical constituents of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa.METHOD:Three sphingosine-type glucocerebrosides,CF-3-1,CF-3-2 and CF-3-3 were isolated by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)from a cerebroside molecular species 3 which was obtained from the less polar fraction of the 65% EtOH extract of the sea cucumber Cucumariafrondosa Gunnerus.RESULT:The structures of these cerebrosides were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidences.CONCLUSION:Three compounds were isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa for the first time.CF-3-3 and CF-3-2 were obtained as pure compounds for the first time.

  18. Diagnosis of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe Disease, and Farber Disease after Uptake of Fatty Acid-labeled Cerebroside Sulfate into Cultured Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Kudoh, Tooru; Wenger, David A

    1982-01-01

    [14C]Stearic acid-labeled cerebroside sulfate (CS) was presented to cultured skin fibroblasts in the media. After endocytosis into control cells 86% was readily metabolized to galactosylceramide, ceramide, and stearic acid, which was reutilized in the synthesis of the major lipids found in cultured fibroblasts. Uptake and metabolism of the [14C]CS into cells from typical and atypical patients and carriers of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Krabbe disease, and Farber disease were observed....

  19. A Variation in the Cerebroside Sulfotransferase Gene Is Linked to Exercise-Modified Insulin Resistance and to Type 2 Diabetes

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    A. Roeske-Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The glycosphingolipid β-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate (sulfatide is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing β-cells and may act as a molecular chaperone of insulin. The final step in sulfatide synthesis is performed by cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST (EC 2.8.2.11. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291 gender matched controls were examined. Results. A higher proportion of T2D patients were heterozygous at SNP rs2267161 with both T (methionine and C (valine alleles present (49.8% versus 41.3%, P=.04. The calculated odd risk for T2D was 1.47 (1.01–2.15, P=.047. Among female controls, the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P=.05 than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P=.03. Conclusion. Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females with the CC allele showed lower insulin resistance.

  20. The WNT/β-catenin pathway is involved in the anti-adipogenic activity of cerebrosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa.

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    Xu, Hui; Wang, Fei; Wang, Jingfeng; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2015-07-01

    Both adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia lead to obesity. Here, we isolated cerebrosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CFC) and examined its anti-adipogenic activity in vitro. CFC inhibited the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed PPARγ and C/EBPα expressions, proving its anti-adipogenic activity. Furthermore, CFC suppressed lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. The WNT/β-catenin pathway acts as an anti-adipogenic factor. CFC enhanced β-catenin expression, promoted its nuclear translocation and up-regulated the expression of CCND1 and c-myc, two target genes of β-catenin. Moreover, after cells were treated with the β-catenin inhibitor 21H7, β-catenin nuclear translocation and transcription activity can be recovered by CFC. These findings suggested that CFC promoted the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Besides, CFC enhanced the expressions of Fz1, LRP5 and LRP6, while it had no effect on the expressions of Wnt10b and GSK3β. These findings indicated that CFC exhibits anti-adipogenic activity through enhancing the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway, which was mediated by FZ and LRPs. PMID:26091058

  1. Formation of lysosulfatide, 3',6'-anhydropsychosine, ceramide, and sphingosine by saponification of cerebroside sulfate. Effect of the sulfate group on the hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, G; Kishimoto, Y; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1979-02-01

    Saponification of cerebroside sulfate (sulfatide) by refluxing with 1 N KOH in 90% n-butanol for 1 h yielded ceramide, sphingosine, lysosulfatide (psychosine-3'-sulfate ester) and a hitherto unknown compound. The latter compound was identified as 3,6-anhydrogalactosyl sphingosine (3',6'-anhydropsychosine) from its mass spectrum. The structure of lysosulfatide was confirmed by reacylating it to sulfatide by condensing it with lignoceroyl chloride. The resulting sulfatide, which was chromatographically identical to control sulfatides, was not oxidized by periodate. The sulfatide was also permethylated and methanolyzed. The sugar moiety obtained was identified as methyl 2,4,6-tri-O-methylgalactoside by gas-liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The presence of the sulfate group in lysosulfatide was further confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the presence of radioactivity when it was prepared from [35S]sulfatide. The effect of the sulfate group on cleavage of the galactoside linkage and on the formation of the 3,6-anhydro derivative is discussed.

  2. New cerebroside analogues from marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes%海洋真菌Aspergillus flavipes中新神经胺成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亭; 李军; 付宏征; 季宇彬; 林文翰

    2002-01-01

    从黄海葵Anthopleura xanthogtammica(Berkly)中分离出海洋附生真菌Aspergillus flavipes,经实验室培养和化学分离纯化,分离得到四种新颖结构的神经酰胺同系物(1-4),它们的化学结构经波谱解析(1R、UV、2D NMR、MS等)和化学降解得以确定.%From the mycelium of the marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes,isolated from its associated anemona Anthopleura xanthogtammica (Berkly),four new cerebroside analogues,namely (4E,8E)-1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-(2'-hydroxyheptadecanoylamideo)-3-hydroxyl-9-methyl-4,8-nonadecadiene 1,(4E,8E)-1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-(2'-hydroxyl-(E)-3'-heptadecenoylamideo)-3-hydroxyl-9-methyl-4,8-nonadecadiene 2;(4E,8E)-1-O-(β-D-galacpyranosyl)-2-(2'-hydroxy heptadecanoylamideo)-3-hydroxyl-9-methyl-4,8-nonadecadiene 3,(4E,8E)-1-O-(β-D-galacpyranosyl)-2-(2'-hydroxyl-(E)-3'-heptadecenoy-(amideo)-3-hydrocyl-9-methyl-4,8-nonadecadiene) 4 are isolated,their structures are identified by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis,(IR,UV,2D NMR,MS,et al)and chemical degradation.

  3. Ceramide, cerebroside and triterpenoid saponin from the bark of aerial roots of Ficus elastica (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbosso, Emmanuel Jean Teinkela; Nguedia, Jules Clément Assob; Meyer, Franck; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Ngouela, Silvère; Lallemand, Benjamin; Mathieu, Véronique; Antwerpen, Pierre Van; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Tsamo, Etienne; Looze, Yvan; Kiss, Robert; Wintjens, René

    2012-11-01

    Three compounds, ficusamide (1), ficusoside (2) and elasticoside (3), were isolated from the bark of aerial roots of Ficus elastica (Moraceae), together with nine known compounds, including four triterpenes, three steroids and two aliphatic linear alcohols. The chemical structures of the three compounds were established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and by comparison with published data. The growth inhibitory effect of the crude extract and isolated compounds was evaluated against several microorganisms and fungi. The cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines was also assessed. Ficusamide (1) displayed a moderate in vitro growth inhibitory activity against the human A549 lung cancer cell line and a strong activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, while elasticoside (3) showed a potent activity on Enterococcus faecalis.

  4. The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Levery, Steven B; Hogan, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    myelin lipid biomarkers coappear with GalCer during myelinogenesis and disappear along with GalCer in de- or dys-myelinating disorders. Myelin lipid antigens, including FMCs, are keys to myelin biology, opening the possibility of new and novel immune modulatory tools for treatment of autoimmune diseases...

  5. A variation in the cerebroside sulfotransferase gene is linked to exercise-modified insulin resistance and to type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeske-Nielsen, A.; Buschard, K.; Manson, J.E.;

    2009-01-01

    , the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P = .05) than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P = .03). CONCLUSION: Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females...

  6. Dicty_cDB: SSL531 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15 M60258_1( M60258 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebroside sulfate activ... 84 4e-15... (Q6IBQ6) RecName: Full=Proactivator polypeptide; Contains: Rec... 84 4e-15 M60257_1( M60257 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebro...side sulfate activ... 84 4e-15 X57108_1( X57108 |pid:none) Human gene for cerebroside sulfat

  7. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B;

    2010-01-01

    Fast migrating cerebrosides (FMC) are derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer). The structures of the most hydrophobic FMC-5, FMC-6, and FMC-7 were determined by electrospray ionization linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complementing previous......GL-II from Mycoplasma fermentans. The cross-reactivity of highly acetylated GalCer with microbial acyl-glycolipid raises the possibility that myelin-O-acetyl-cerebrosides, bacterial infection, and neurological disease are linked....

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSE760 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CR861454 |pid:none) Pongo abelii mRNA; cDNA DKFZp459G1... 92 2e-17 M60258_1( M60258 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebro...e-17 M60257_1( M60257 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebroside sulfate activ... 92 2e-...17 X57108_1( X57108 |pid:none) Human gene for cerebroside sulfate act... 92 2e-17 AY892719_1( AY892719 |pid:

  9. A microwave-mediated saponification of galactosylceramide and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate and identification of their lyso-compounds by delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, T; Hara, A; Uemura, K; Kurahashi, H; Sugiyama, E

    1996-07-16

    Small amounts of galactosylceramide (cerebroside) and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate (sulfatide) obtained from porcine spinal cord and equine kidney were deacylated by a rapid method of microwave-mediated saponification to prepare their lyso-compounds. Mass spectra of their protonated or deprotonated molecular ion peaks were detected by recently developed new technology of a delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer with reflector detector in positive or negative ion mode. Long chain bases of lysocerebroside and lysosulfatide were different between porcine spinal cord and equine kidney, but similar to each other in the same organ, suggesting their common synthetic pathway. It is noted that the new rapid method can be similarly applied to the deacylation of both cerebroside and sulfatide in contrast to our classical method which was able to be applied to cerebroside, but not to sulfatide.

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSE882 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 861454_1( CR861454 |pid:none) Pongo abelii mRNA; cDNA DKFZp459G1... 99 9e-20 M60258_1( M60258 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebro...ec... 99 9e-20 M60257_1( M60257 |pid:none) Human mutant cerebroside sulfate activ...... 99 9e-20 X57108_1( X57108 |pid:none) Human gene for cerebroside sulfate act... 99 9e-20 AY892719_1( AY89

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13945-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne for cerebroside sulfate act... 39 0.91 AF196309_1( AF196309 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore B ... 38 1.2 AF196308_1( AF196308 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore A ... 38 1.2 (Q8C1C1) RecName: Full=

  12. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole;

    1987-01-01

    . aureus Wood 46 was not affected. It was demonstrated that the inhibitory capacity of the glucolipid mixture could be attributed to the content of gangliosides, since no inhibition was obtained with cerebrosides or with gangliosides from which sialic acid was removed. Preincubation of the cells...

  13. A New Sphingolipid from the Fungus Paxillus panuoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jin-Ming; ZHANG Zeng-Qiang; LIU Ji-Kai

    2003-01-01

    @@ The ceramides, cleavage products of various sphingolipids, including gangliosides and cerebrosides, are in volved in various signal transduction pathways. Many extracellular stresses, such as tumor necrosis factors-α (TNFα) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been shown to activate sphingomyelinases that release ceramides which inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Because of the importance of ceramides, chemistry and biology of ceramides have been the vital subject of the latest research in recent years. [1~4

  14. Self-assembled microstructures from 1,2-ethanediol suspensions of pure and binary mixtures of neutral and acidic biological galactosylceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D D; Mann, S

    1994-01-01

    Optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterize microstructures formed by thermal mechanical treatment of glycol suspensions of various pure and binary mixtures of the brain-derived galactosphingolipids hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (HFA-Cer), non-hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (NFA-Cer) and sulfatide (S-Cer). Negative staining indicated some new features of the neutral cerebroside suspensions in glycol. HFA-Cer formed a small fraction of both unilamellar cylinders (ULCs) (lumina ca. 27 nm) and giant multilamellar cochleates in addition to the typical nonhelical multilamellar cylinders (MLCs) (lumina ca. 10-30 nm). NFA-Cer formed a gel composed of a significant fraction of very long ULCs (lumina ca. 17 nm) without helical substructure, in addition to multilamellar helical structures such as ribbons and cylinders (lumina ca. 70 nm). Anisotropic lamellar micelle-shards of NFA-Cer were also detected by negative staining. S-Cer formed short ULCs (lumina ca. 44 nm) with no obvious helical substructure. Complex mixture data are thought to result from thermodynamic and kinetic factors. HFA-Cer is highly insoluble and promotes a network of rigid intralamellar hydrogen bonding that tends to exclude other lipids. NFA-Cer stabilizes helical defects in the lamellae, and S-Cer enhances disorder or micellization. The processes of microstructure nucleation and lipid phase separation were affected by mixtures such that metastable microstructures were trapped or the length of lamellar cylinders was altered. PMID:8200057

  15. High-energy collision-induced dissociation of [M+Na]+ ions desorbed by fast atom bombardment of ceramides isolated from the starfish Distolasterias nipon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Sun; Park, Taeseong; Bang, Geul; Lee, Chulhyun; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Ten ceramides and four cerebrosides were extracted from the starfish Distolasterias nipon by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification was conducted using tandem mass spectrometry of monosodiated ions desorbed by fast atom bombardment. The complete structures of four cerebrosides were determined by a previously reported method. The high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectral characteristics of ceramides with various structures depend on the number and positions of double bonds on both the N-acyl and sphingoid chains, the presence of a hydroxyl group or a double bond at the C-4 position of the sphingoid chain and the presence of an α-hydroxy group on the N-acyl chain. The high-energy CID of the monosodiated ion, [M+Na](+), of each ceramide molecular species generated abundant ions, providing information on the composition of the fatty acyl chains and sphingoid long-chain bases. Each homologous ion series along the fatty acyl group and aliphatic chain of the sphingoid base was used for locating the double-bond positions of both chains and hydroxyl groups on the sphingoid base chain. The double-bond positions were also confirmed by the m/z values of abundant allylic even- and odd-electron ions, and the intensity ratio of the T ion peak relative to the O ion peak. This technique could determine the complete structures of ceramides and cerebrosides in an extract mixture and has great potential for determining other sphingolipids isolated from various biological sources. PMID:23378088

  16. Alkyl phenols and saponins from the roots of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-11-01

    Recently, there is a remarkable boom in the sales of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) in the Malaysian market, as an extract of the plant is used to gain energy and libido as well as to treat many other ailments. A chemical analysis of its roots was undertaken and three metabolites, demethylbelamcandaquinone B (1), fatimahol (2), and dexyloprimulanin (3) together with 21 known compounds including epoxyoleanane glycosides, alkenated phenolics, cerebroside, glycerogalactolipids, and lipids were isolated and identified. Structure elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic and chemical studies. The MeOH extract of KF and compounds 12 and 13 exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial activity. PMID:21784496

  17. Isolation and Identification of the Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22 from Ginkgo biloba%银杏内生菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22次生代谢产物分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建春; 白莉; 李晓明; 张雅梅; 高锦明; Hartmut laatsch

    2009-01-01

    Six metabolites cerebroside B (1),cerebroside C (2),allantoin (3),9(11)-dehyoergosterol peroxide (4) and ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5),chaetoglobosin A (6) were isolated by column chromatography from the extract of cultural mycelium of fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22,an endophyte in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.Structures of them were established by spectroscopic methods.Among of them,cerebroside B,cerebroside C,allantoin were firstly obtained from endophytic fungus;The result of brine shrimp bioassay showed the mortality rates of them to Artemia salina are 1.6%,4.2%,7.4%,16.9%,12.8% and 83.6% respectively at the concentration of 10 μg/mL,chaetoglobosin A showed significant toxic effect on brine shrimp.%采用柱层析方法从银杏叶内生真菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22的培养菌丝体提取物中分离得到脑苷脂B(1)、脑苷脂C(2)、尿囊素(3)、9(11)-去氢麦角甾醇过氧化物(4)以及4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷(5)和球毛壳甲素(6)共6个次生代谢物;经波谱分析确定了6个化合物的结构,其中脑苷脂B、脑苷脂C和尿囊素是首次从内生真菌中得到;海虾致死试验结果显示,化合物1~6在10 μg/mL浓度下对丰年虾的致死率分别为1.6%、4.2%、7.4%、16.9%、12.8%、83.6%、表明球毛壳甲素对海虾表现出很强的毒性作用.

  18. Lipid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L. and maize (Zea mays L. root plasma membrane and membrane-bound peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane was isolated from roots of pea and maize plants and used to analyze POD and SOD isoforms, as well as lipid composition. Among lipids, phospholipids were the main lipid class, with phosphatidylcho­line being the most abundant individual component in both pea and maize plasma membranes. Significant differences between the two plant species were found in the contents of cerebrosides, free sterols, and steryl glycosides. Most maize POD isoforms were with neutral and anionic pI values, but the opposite was observed in pea. While both anionic and cationic SOD isoforms were isolated from maize, only two anionic SOD isoforms were detected in pea.

  19. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-05-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  20. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Rockwell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandhoff disease (SD is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex, resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients.

  1. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  2. 苦瓜的化学成分研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Momordica charantia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志艳; 陈迪华; 斯建勇

    2000-01-01

    为寻找降糖活性成分,利用多种层析技术,从苦瓜Momordica charantia果实的醇提物中分得5个化合物.根据包括2D-NMR在内的各种光谱数据,分别鉴定为:苦瓜脑苷(momor-cerebroside,Ⅰ)、大豆脑苷Ⅰ(soya-cerebrosideⅠ,Ⅱ)、苦瓜亭(charantin,Ⅲ)、尿嘧啶(uracil,Ⅳ)及β-谷甾醇.其中化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ为本属中首次分得;化合物Ⅲ为文献报道的降糖有效成分.

  3. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  5. Organization of lipids in avian stratum corneum: Changes with temperature and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Bautista-Jimenez, Robin C; Williams, Joseph B

    2016-02-01

    In response to increases in ambient temperature (Ta), many animals increase total evaporative water loss (TEWL) through their skin and respiratory passages to maintain a constant body temperature, a response that compromises water balance. In birds, cutaneous water loss (CWL) accounts for approximately 65% of TEWL at thermoneutral temperatures. Although the proportion of TEWL accounted for by CWL decreases to only 25% at high Ta, the magnitude of CWL still increases, suggesting changes in the barrier function of the skin. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of flat, dead cells called corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipids, many of which arrange in layers called lamellae. The classes of lipids that comprise these lamellae, and their attendant physical properties, determine the rate of CWL. We measured CWL at 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) caught in the winter and summer, and in sparrows acclimated to warm and cold lab environments. We then used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions in the SC under different conditions of temperature and hydration, and correlated these results with lipid classes in the SC. As CWL increased at higher temperatures, the amount of gauche defects in lipid alkyl chains increased, indicating that lipid disorder is partially responsible for higher CWL at high temperatures. However, variation in CWL between groups could not be explained by the amount of gauche defects, and this remaining variation may be attributed to greater amounts of cerebrosides in birds with low CWL, as the sugar moieties of cerebrosides lie outside lipid lamellae and form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. PMID:26708071

  6. Transport and uptake effects of marine complex lipid liposomes in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Yu-Hong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xue, Chang-Hu; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koretaro

    2016-04-20

    Nowadays, marine complex lipids, including starfish phospholipids (SFP) and cerebrosides (SFC) separated from Asterias amurensis as well as sea cucumber phospholipids (SCP) and cerebrosides (SCC) isolated from Cucumaria frondosa, have received much attention because of their potent biological activities. However, little information is known on the transport and uptake of these lipids in liposome forms in small intestinal cells. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these complex lipid liposomes on transport and uptake in Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. The results revealed that SFP and SCP contained 42% and 47.9% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), respectively. The average particle sizes of liposomes prepared in this study were from 169 to 189 nm. We found that the transport of the liposomes across the M cell monolayer model was much higher than the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The liposomes consisting of SFP or SCP showed significantly higher transport and uptake than soy phospholipid (soy-PL) liposomes in both Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. Our results also exhibited that treatment with 1 mM liposomes composed of SFP or SCP for 3 h tended to increase the EPA content in phospholipid fractions of both differentiated Caco-2 and M cells. Moreover, it was also found that the hybrid liposomes consisting of SFP/SFC/cholesterol (Chol) revealed higher transport and uptake across the M cell monolayer in comparison with other liposomes. Furthermore, treatment with SFP/SFC/Chol liposomes could notably decrease the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of Caco-2 and M cell monolayers. The present data also showed that the cell viability of differentiated Caco-2 and M cells was not affected after the treatment with marine complex lipids or soy-PL liposomes. Based on the data in this study, it was suggested that marine complex lipid liposomes exhibit prominent transport and uptake in small intestinal epithelial cell models. PMID

  7. Chemical constituents from the root of Croton lachynocarpus%毛果巴豆根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the root of Croton lachynocarpus .They were identified as 3-acetoxy-erythrodiol(1 ),3-acetoxy-oleanoic acid (2 ),ilexgenin A (3 ),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol (4 ),dibutyl phthalate(5),diisobutyl phthalate(6),phthalic acid butyl isobutyl ester(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),ursolic acid(9),β-sitosterol(10)and daucosterol(11)on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses.All the compounds were firstly isolated from this plant.%对大戟科巴豆属植物毛果巴豆的根进行化学成分研究,并利用多种色谱方法分离得到11个化合物,根据理化性质和波谱学手段鉴定了结构。它们分别是3-乙酰高根二醇(1),3-乙酰齐墩果酸(2),ilexgenin A (3),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol(4),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(5),邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(6),邻苯二甲酸正丁异丁酯(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),熊果酸(9),β-谷甾醇(10),胡萝卜苷(11)。所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。

  8. The effects of GM1 and Bfgf synergistically inducing adult rat bone marrow stromal cells to form neural progenitor cells and their differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉; 王纪佐; 孙红宇; 张建宁; 杨树源

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of GM1 on inducing adult rat bone marrow stromal cells(MSCs) to form neural progenitor cells and their differentiation. Methods: Purified MSCs were induced by different components of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) alone, GM1 alone or combination of bFGF with GM1. After 3 days' incubation, fibronectin and collagen I were detected with immunocytochemistry, and nestin was detected with immunofluorescence. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactose cerebroside (GalC) were detected with immunocytochemistry after 7 days' incubation. Results: After induction with bFGF alone or combination of bFGF and GM1, some MSCs exhibited the phenotypes of neural progenitor cells, and then neurons and astrocytes. In these two groups, the positive cells for fibronectin and collagen I decreased markedly after 3 days' induction. At the same time, the positive cells for nestin increased markedly. After 7 days' induction, NSE and GFAP-positive cells increased significantly. Furthermore, the addition of bFGF and GM1 caused the maximal variation. However, addition of GM1 alone had no inductive effects.Conclusions: Combination of bFGF with GM1 may synergistically promote the transformation of MSCs and differentiation into neurons and astrocyte-like cells. The results suggest a promising route for the application of MSCs.

  9. 南瓜化学成分的研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Cucurbita Moschata Duch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱杰; 杜琪珍; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 张立金; 段文娟; 傅茂润; 葛长军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究南瓜的化学成分.方法 采用乙醇、氯仿提取,硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱分离,通过理化常数和光谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从南瓜的氯仿提取物中分离并鉴定了6个化合物:β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,Ⅰ)、顺-15-十八烯酸(cis-15-vaccenic acid,Ⅱ)、硬脂酸(stearic acid,Ⅲ)、顺-15-十八烯酸甲酯(cis-15-vacxenic acid methyl ester,Ⅳ)、大豆脑苷Ⅰ(soya-cerebroside Ⅰ,Ⅴ)和蔗糖(sucrose,Ⅵ).结论 6个化合物均系首次从南瓜中分离得到.

  10. 三花莸的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 陈革林; 陈崇宏; 彭丽彰; 汪汉卿

    2005-01-01

    三花莸Caryopteris terniflora Maxim.为马鞭草科莸属植物,又名野荆芥、大风寒草等。主要分布于河北、山西、陕西、甘肃等地。全草药用,具有解表散寒、宣肺之效。治疗外感头痛、咳嗽、外障目翳、烫伤等症。其化学成分未见报道。为探讨其有效成分,对其化学成分进行了系统研究,从其正丁醇部分分离并鉴定了4个化合物,这些化合物分别为两个脑苷脂类化合物:大豆脑苷Ⅱ(soya-cerebroside Ⅱ,

  11. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. PMID:26447196

  12. Identification of Disease Markers in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Lipidomic and Proteomic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N. Fonteh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprise the bulk of the dry mass of the brain. In addition to providing structural integrity to membranes, insulation to cells and acting as a source of energy, lipids can be rapidly converted to mediators of inflammation or to signaling molecules that control molecular and cellular events in the brain. The advent of soft ionization procedures such as electrospray ionization (ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI have made it possible for compositional studies of the diverse lipid structures that are present in brain. These include phospholipids, ceramides, sphingomyelin, cerebrosides, cholesterol and their oxidized derivatives. Lipid analyses have delineated metabolic defects in disease conditions including mental retardation, Parkinson's Disease (PD, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's Disease (AD, depression, brain development, and ischemic stroke. In this review, we examine the structure of the major lipid classes in the brain, describe methods used for their characterization, and evaluate their role in neurological diseases. The potential utility of characterizing lipid markers in the brain, with specific emphasis on disease mechanisms, will be discussed. Additionally, we describe several proteomic strategies for characterizing lipid-metabolizing proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. These proteins may be potential therapeutic targets since they transport lipids required for neuronal growth or convert lipids into molecules that control brain physiology. Combining lipidomics and proteomics will enhance existing knowledge of disease pathology and increase the likelihood of discovering specific markers and biochemical mechanisms of brain diseases.

  13. Recent Advances in Researches on Physiologically Active Substances in Holothurians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirata Takashi; Zaima Nobuhiro; Yamashita Kyoko; Noguchi Ryoko; XUE Changhu; Sugawara Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide.SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  14. Ceramide synthesis from free fatty acids in rat brain: function of NADPH and substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.

    1983-06-01

    At the subcellular level, the synthesis of ceramide from free lignoceric acid and sphingosine in brain required reconstituted enzyme system (particulate fraction, heat-stable and heat-labile factors) and pyridine nucleotide (NADPH). The mitochondrial electron transfer inhibitors (KCN and antimycin A), energy uncouplers (oligomycin and 2,4-dinitrophenol), and carboxyatractyloside, which prevents the transport of ATP and ADP through the mitochondrial wall, inhibit the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of NADPH but have very little effect in the presence of ATP. Similar to the synthesis of ceramide, the synthesis of ATP from NADPH and NADH by the particulate fraction also required cytoplasmic factors (heat-stable and heat-labile factors). Moreover, ATP, but not its analog (AMP-CH2-P-O-P), can replace NADPH, thus suggesting that the function of the pyridine nucleotide is to provide ATP for the synthesis of ceramide. The cytoplasmic factors were not required for the synthesis of ceramide in the presence of ATP. The maximum velocity for synthesis of ceramide from free fatty acids of different chain lengths (C16-C26) was bimodal, with maxima around stearic acid (C18) and behenic acid (C22). The relative rate of synthesis of ceramide parallels the relative distribution of these fatty acids in brain cerebrosides and sulfatides.

  15. Clinacanthus nutans: A review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ariful; Ferdosh, Sahena; Ghafoor, Kashif; Hakim, Abdul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Khatib, Alfi; Sarker, Zaidul I

    2016-04-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work. PMID:27086161

  16. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463 that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  17. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. II. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of experimental lead pollution on the ganglia in Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Franchini, A.; Ottaviani, E.; Benedetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lead on ganglia of Viviparus ater were studied by histochemical and histomorphological procedures. The pollution experiment should be considered a short-time static bioassay because of its experimental characteristics. There was considerable accumulation of lead in the ganglia as determined by atomic absorbance (A.A.S.). The cytological damage principally affected the neuronal cell bodies which undergo degenerative processes. The most serious cytopathological changes occurred in the following sequence: nuclear damage leading to pyknosis; nucleolar damage until disappearance; changes in Nissl bodies, at times forming a uniform mass. These cytological disorders led to markedly altered protein synthesis. Nerve fibers and neuroglia did not appear affected by lead exposure, even at higher doses. Membrane enzymes, phosphorylase, NADHDH, NADPHDH and SDH activities were decreased, whereas D-LDH, G-6-PDH, G-6-Pase and MAO activities increased. GDH was unchanged. Changes in polar lipid composition were also observed with an increase of phospholipids and a decrease of sulpholipids and cerebrosides.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and systemic lupus arythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Marchiorji

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Immuneglobulins isotypes (IgG and IgM for myelin basic protein (MBP, cerebrosides (CER, gangliosides (GANG and cardiolipin (CARD were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from 33 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, 18 with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and 30 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In MS patients occurred positive and significant levels of IgG-MBP in 51,5% (p<0.05 and IgM-MBP in only 18.2%, IgG-CARD in 46.2%, as long as CER and GANG were detected in almost 20%. From serum samples of MS patients 20.6% presented IgG-MBP, while 53% showed positive levels foi IgM-MBP. The CSF analysis of patients with GBS showed that 56.3% revealed IgG-MBP (p<0.05, 53% for IgM-MBP. 3&.5% for IgG-CER and 23% for IgM-CER, while 50% of patients had IgG-CARD, as long -as 31% also had IgG-GANG. The serum evaluation from 14 patients showed that 18.8% had positive concentrations of IgG-MBP and 56.3% presented IgM-MBP (p<0.05 Except for 50% of patients with SLE who presented positive CSF levels of IgG-CARD. only 24.1% had positive levels of IgG-MBP. We believe that the presence of antiphosphohoid antibodies in CSF of the above mentioned diseases occurred as immune epiphenomena, but their appearance would permit the maintenance of and perpetuate the immune event.

  19. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  20. 海洋活性物质对肝损伤修复作用的研究进展%Research Progress on Hepatoprotective Effect of Marine Active Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 陈锐; 杨最素; 余方苗; 丁国芳

    2016-01-01

    Liver is the body's center of metabolism and the important organ of human body to detoxicate. So liver becomes an important target of various drugs and chemicals. With the change of the peoples lifestyle and dietary habit, some liver diseases cause serious damage to people's health, such as fatty liver, liver cirrho-sis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. So it becomes a hot spot that acquire efficient and low toxicity active materi-al from Marine to protect liver in today's research. This article summarizes the new development of anti-liver injury of marine active substances such as polysaccharides, polypeptide, terpenoids, unsaturated fatty acid, cerebroside, nucleoside, taurine, vitamin, etc.%肝脏是人体重要的解毒器官,是各种药物、化学物质代谢的场所。随着人们生活方式及饮食习惯的改变,肝脏疾病如脂肪肝、肝硬化、肝纤维化及肝肿瘤等严重危害人类健康。从海洋中获得高效、低毒的保肝活性物质成为当今研究的热点。本文就国内外对肝损伤有修复作用的海洋活性物质,如多糖、多肽、萜类化合物、不饱和脂肪酸、脑苷脂、核苷类、牛磺酸、维生素等研究进展进行综述。

  1. 苦瓜叶的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from leaves of Momordica charantia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 陈燕芬; 吴楠; 池墨瑶; 费佳

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究苦瓜Momordica charantia叶的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20等多种柱色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过理化常数和波谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从苦瓜叶95%乙醇提取物中分离得到11个化合物,分别鉴定为(19S,23E)-5β,19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,25-diol (1)、(19R,23E)-5β,19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,25-diol (2)、3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien- 19-al (3)、3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4)、苦瓜素Ⅰ(5)、苦瓜素Ⅳ (6)、大豆脑苷Ⅰ(7)、α-菠甾醇(8)、α-香树素乙酸酯(9)、β-谷甾醇(10)和胡萝卜苷(11).结论 化合物1、3、8~11为首次从该植物中分离得到.%To study the chemical constituents from the leaves of Momordica charantia. Methods The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral data. Results Eleven compounds were isolated from 95% ethanol extract of M. charantia and elucidated as (19S, 23E)-5β, 19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6, 23-diene-3β, 25-diol (1), (19R, 23E)5β, 19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6, 23-diene-30, 25-diol (2), 30, 70, 25-trihydroxycucurbita-5, 23-dien-19-al (3), 3β, 7β, 25-trihydroxy-cucurbita-5, 23-dien-19-al-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), momordicin I (5), momordicin IV (6), soya-cerebroside I (7), a- spinasterol (8), a-amyrin acetate (9), 0-sitosterol (10), and daucosterol (11), respectively. Conclusion Compounds 1, 3, and 8-11 are isolated from M. charantia for the first time.

  2. Isolation of cytotoxic glucoerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa using high speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Guo, Shuang; Du, Lei; Wang, Yu-Ming; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi; Xue, Chang-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Total glucocerebrosides of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CFC) have been isolated from the less polar lipid fraction of the chloroform-methanol extract using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v). Three glucocerebroside molecular species (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3) were isolated from crude total cerebrosides with repeated column chromatography. The structures of these three glucocerebroside molecular species were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: fatty acids were mainly saturated (C22:0 and C18:0), monounsaturated (C24:1 and C20:1) and α-hydroxyl fatty acids (C24:1h, C23:0h, C23:1h and C22:0h), the structures of long-chain bases were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:2 and d18:1) and trihydroxy (t17:0 and t16:0), and the glycosylation was glucose. High purity long-chain bases of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (CF-LCB) were prepared from total lipids by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert butyl ether-methanol-water (1:1:2:1, v/v). Compare with traditional preparative methods, the method of HSCCC is short cycle, high yield and less solvent consumption. The composition analysis of CF-LCB showed that the ratio of d18:2 and d17:1 was approximately 2:1. The four glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa were evaluated for activity in vitro assays for the cytotoxic activities against Caco-2 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that both glucocerebrosides and long-chain bases exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in four glucocerebrosides to Caco-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was much stronger than glucocerebrosides. PMID:23470440

  3. Doenças priônicas: avaliação dos riscos envolvidos na utilização de produtos de origem bovina Prionic disease: evaluation of the risks involved in using products of bovine origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lupi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os príons são proteínas que se mostram capazes de auto-replicação apesar de, para isso, alterar o metabolismo celular. São responsáveis por inúmeras doenças em animais e no ser humano (doenças priônicas, todas elas fatais. Essas moléstias apresentam enorme variabilidade quanto ao período de incubação, de alguns meses a 40 anos. Os príons acumulam-se e destroem os neurônios, provocando quadros conhecidos como encefalopatias espongiosiformes. Discute-se a apresentação clínica, epidemiológica e histórica das doenças priônicas. O foco maior de discussão recai, no entanto, na possibilidade teórica da transmissão iatrogênica dos príons por meio das formulações tópicas que utilizam ceramidas (cerebrosídeos ou placenta de origem bovina, assim como pelo risco representado por alguns procedimentos dermatológicos, como transplantes da pele e implantes de colágeno.A prion is a protein that is capable of self replication, thereby altering a cell's metabolism. It is responsible for a number of human and animal diseases (prionic diseases, all of which are always lethal. These diseases have enormous variability in their incubation periods, ranging from a few months to forty years. Prions accumulate and destroy nerve cells, causing spongiform encephalopathy. We discuss the clinical picture, epidemiology, and historical background of prionic diseases. The major focus of the discussion lies, however, on the theoretical possibility of iatrogenic transmission of prion infection due to topical formulations using ceramides (cerebrosides or placenta of bovine origin, as well as the risk represented by some dermatological procedures such as skin grafts and collagen implants.

  4. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanyan; Qiao, Liansheng; Wu, Lingfang; Sun, Xuefei; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Chen, Wenjing; Liang, Wenyi; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lanzhen

    2016-05-21

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds.

  5. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanyan; Qiao, Liansheng; Wu, Lingfang; Sun, Xuefei; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Chen, Wenjing; Liang, Wenyi; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lanzhen

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds

  6. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Shao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1, 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2, 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3, ganotropic acid (4, 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5 and (3β,7α-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6. (4E,8E-N-d-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7, and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8 were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN. In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE and gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5 and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2, respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel

  7. Research progress in Euryale ferox:a Chinese herb%中药芡实的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓曦; 张庆林

    2015-01-01

    The seed, coat, petiole and peduncle of Euryale ferox(belonging to Nymphaeaceae) are used as medicinal potions through solvent extraction, reflux extraction and ultrasonic extraction, and purification on macroporous resin. The quality controls are performed by near infra-red fingerprint spectrum, HPLC, X-ray diffraction Fourier spectrum, and ITS2 barcode. The nutrients of E. ferox contain large amount of amino acids, fatty acids and various microelements; medicinal ingredients are identified to be polyphenol, sesquineolignan, tocopherol, cerebroside, and cyclic dipeptide. The pharmacological effects of E. ferox extracts include antioxidant, free radical scavenging, hypoglycemic activity, decreasing urine protein, bacteriostasis and prevention of gastric mucosal injury. Treatment with E. ferox preparations for diabetes and chronic nephritis are performed in clinics. This review summarizes the study of E. ferox in recent years for further research and development.%芡实属于睡莲科植物,其种仁、种皮、叶柄和花梗均可入药。可通过浸提、回流和超声法提取,采用大孔树脂纯化,并利用近红外指纹图谱法、高效液相色谱法、X线衍射傅立叶分析法和ITS2条形码序列测序技术进行质量控制。芡实富含氨基酸、脂肪酸和多种微量元素,其主要药用成分包括多酚、倍半新木脂素、生育酚、脑苷脂和环二肽,具有抗氧化、清除自由基、降血糖、抗心肌缺血、降低尿蛋白、抑菌和防治胃黏膜损伤等药理活性,临床已开展芡实制剂对于糖尿病和慢性肾炎的治疗。本文综述了近年来芡实药用部位、提取纯化方式、质量控制、化学成分、药理作用及临床应用等方面的研究进展,旨在为芡实后续深入研究和开发提供参考依据。

  8. Influence of incubation time on metabolites in mycelia of Paecilomyces militaris%培养时间对蛹拟青霉(Paecilomyces militaris)菌丝体中代谢产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德龙; 李淑林; 陆瑞利; 李康乐; 罗飞飞; 彭凡; 胡丰林

    2012-01-01

    些抗生素并不相同,同时后一阶段新的抗生素的产生常常伴随着前一阶段的抗生素减少,因此前期的抗生素可能是后期产生的抗生素的前体.%To determine the secondary metabolites production in mycelia of Paecilomyces militaris. [ Methods] Mycelia were cultured in plates with sabouraud dextrose agar yeast medium at 25℃ for 9 days. Sampling was done every day from the second to the ninth day. The secondary metabolites in the mycelia of Paecilomyces militaris were extracted with either methanol or ethyl acetate. The extracts were blended and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ( LC-MS) . LC-MS data were collected and analyzed by MetaboAnalyst software. [ Result ] Principal component analysis indicates different secondary metabolites accumulation with incubation times. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that the metabolic process of cationic compounds such as alkaloids, peptides and nucleosides can be divided into three stages, and that the metabolic process of anionic compounds such as organic acids and saccharides can be divided into two stages. Metabolites difference and heat map analysis show that; (1) The number of metabolites with significant increased contents was raised significantly in mycelia of Paecilomyces militaris on the second and third incubation days. The main species with increased contents were esters and their hydrolized products, destruxin B, variotin and some unidentified nitrogin contained compounds. (2) The number of metabolites with significant raised contents was decreased significantly on the fourth and fifth incubation days. The main species with increased contents were ophiocordin and destruxin A. (3) Apart from peptide antibiotics such as several beauverolides, the content increased metabolites included also several organic acids, amino acids, rhamnose, trehalose, cerebroside and riboflavine during the sixth to ninth incubation days. [Conclusion] The secondary metabolites in