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Sample records for cerebral ventricles

  1. Ultrasonographic measurements of cerebral ventricles in normal newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various measurements of cerebral ventricles in 50 normal newborn infants were performed, using ultrasonography. In transverse scan using linear array realtime scanner with 3 MHz transducer, the ratio of the distance between the falx and lateral wall of lateral ventricle to the hemispheric width was measured. In coronal scan through the anterior fontanelle using gray scale B-mode scanner with 5 MHz transducer, the ratios of the bifrontal diameter of the lateral ventricles to externally measured biparietal diameter and to head circumference were measured. Width of frontal horn at 5 mm distance from the lateral end of frontal horn was also measured. In addition, the presence of cavum septi pellucidi was investigated in coronal scan. The result are as follows: 1. The lateral ventricle/hemispheric width ratio in transverse scan was 0.31 ± 0.03. 2. Bifrontal diameter of lateral ventricle/biparietal diameter ratio was 0.20 ± 0.02 and bifrontal diameter of lateral ventricle/head circumference ratio was 0.054 ± 0.006. 3. Width of frantal horn was about 1 mm and maximum width was 2 mm. 4. There was no significant difference in ventricular size between male and female, and among different gestation ages. 5. Cavum septi pellucidi was found in 44 neonates (88%) among 50 normal neonates in coronal scan

  2. Sex and handedness differences in size of cerebral ventricles of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ali Riza; Dane, Senol; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Ozdikici, Mete; Diyarbakirli, Semih

    2004-01-01

    Sex and handedness differences in the volumes of cerebral ventricles were studied in 20 right- and 21 left-handed subjects. To assess the volumes of cerebral ventricles, Cavalieri's method was used using MRI. In right-handers, the volume of the lateral ventricle was higher in the right side than in the left side, but, in left-handers, it was higher in the left side than in the right side. The volumes of right-lateral and third ventricles were larger in right-handers than in left -handers. There were no sex related differences in terms of the volumes of right- and left -lateral, third, and fourth ventricles. These results suggest that left-handedness is an important factor reducing the sizes of all the brain ventricles. PMID:14660068

  3. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht's solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

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    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of fetal brain development by magnetic resonance imaging. Subependymal germinal matrix layer and cerebral ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional data of brain from the formalin-fixed fetuses were collected without isolation, by the 4.7 tesla super high magnetic field MRI and the developmental process of the cerebral parenchyma was studied by 3D images. Subjects were 13 fetal brain and MRI was performed using 3D-steady-state free precession sequence. The isolated brain is very soft and fragile and is deformed by its weight at the imaging. However 3D-MRI can be obtained without isolation, and the deformation is remarkably small. The subependymal germinal matrix layer did not be observed in 7 weeks-old fetus, appeared at 9 weeks-old and increased gradually. Then it rapidly reduced from 28 weeks-old. The volume calculated, from 3D-MRI, increased rapidly from 9 weeks-old to 23 weeks-old, and reached the maximum (2.346 mm3) at 23 weeks-old. The relation between fetal ages and volume of cerebral ventricle also showed similar pattern. This method will be useful to examine the development of the fetal brain without any damage. (K.H.)

  6. Effects of fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation on lateral ventricle nestin expression after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Huang; Yong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed that fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation can induce endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms and produce wide and long-lasting neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the effects of fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation on nestin-positive cell expression in adult rat lateral ventricle after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, as well as neurological functional changes as a function of time.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology from September 2004 to February 2006. A total of 180 healthy, adult, male Wistar rats, aged 8 weeks old, were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Chongqing Medical University. The main reagents and equipments were as follows: rabbit anti-rat nestin monoclonal antibody (Wuhan Boster Company, China).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nestin-positive cells were detected by immunohistochemical staining in the rat ischemic lateral cerebral ventricle at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-reperfusion. RESULTS: Morphological changes of nestin-positive cells in the ischemic lateral ventricle: in the normal control group, very few nestin-positive cells were detected in the choroid plexus, ependyma, and subependymal region of the lateral ventricle. In the model group, the number of nestin-positive cells exhibited a tendency towards a single peak, i.e., cells increased at day 1, reached peak levels by day 7, and then decreased sharply. Fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation was administered following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and results revealed that nestin-positive cell morphology was similar to

  7. [Diagnosis and follow-up of cerebral ventricle pathology using transfontanelle real-time echography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogués, A; Pagola, C; Rey, A; Collado, V; Gaztañaga, R; Albisu, J

    1984-01-01

    Authors evaluate 36 patients with different degrees of cerebral ventricular dilation divided in three groups according with previous clinical features. Cerebral ultrasonography demonstrated to be a more accurate method than CAT in most of cases examined by these two procedures. Real time cerebral ecography is indicated in follow-up of conditions which need repetitive controls like hydrocephalus with ventriculo-peritoneal shunts, posthemorhagic ventricular dilations or daily follow-up o acute pathology like ill-course meningitis. Finally they describe situations in which ultrasonography may have a great value as cerebral screening test. PMID:6608302

  8. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Vitor E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS. Methods We evaluated males Wistar rats (320-370 g, which were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, 5 days/week (CO: 100-300 ppm. Baroreflex was tested with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus to induce bradycardic reflex and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus to induce tachycardic reflex. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001 g/100 μL injection into the 4th V. Results Central catalase inhibition increased basal HR in the control group during the first 5 minutes. SSCS exposure increased basal HR and attenuated bradycardic peak during the first 15 minutes. Conclusion We suggest that SSCS exposure affects cardiovascular regulation through its influence on catalase activity.

  9. Evaluation of post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle changes using sequential scans during post-mortem computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Shimizu, Akinobu; Saito, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hideto; Vogel, Hermann; Püschel, Klaus; Heinemann, Axel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle (LCV) changes using computed tomography (CT). Subsequent periodical CT scans termed "sequential scans" were obtained for three cadavers. The first scan was performed immediately after the body was transferred from the emergency room to the institute of legal medicine. Sequential scans were obtained and evaluated for 24 h at maximum. The time of death had been determined in the emergency room. The sequential scans enabled us to observe periodical post-mortem changes in CT images. The series of continuous LCV images obtained up to 24 h (two cases)/16 h (1 case) after death was evaluated. The average Hounsfield units (HU) within the LCVs progressively increased, and LCV volume progressively decreased over time. The HU in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased at an individual rate proportional to the post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, an early longitudinal radiodensity change in the CSF could be potential indicator of post-mortem interval (PMI). Sequential imaging scans reveal post-mortem changes in the CSF space which may reflect post-mortem brain alterations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the proposed CSF change markers in correlation with other validated PMI indicators. PMID:27048214

  10. ATZ (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle influences the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the importance of oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system. In this study we evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula in the fourth cerebral ventricle. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and for drug infusion, respectively. After basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate recordings, the cardiopulmonary reflex was tested with a dose of phenylbiguanide (PBG, 8 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiopulmonary reflex was evaluated before and μl15 minutes after 1.0 μl 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, 0.01g/100μl0.01 g/100 μl injection into the fourth cerebral ventricle. Vehicle treatment did not change cardiopulmonary reflex responses. RESULTS: Central ATZ significantly increased hypotensive responses without influencing the bradycardic reflex. CONCLUSION: ATZ injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic inhibition but does not change the parasympathetic component of the cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats.

  11. Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth Regeur; Korbo, L; Bang, N.; Pakkenberg, B

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome on computed tomographic (CT) scannings using unbiased stereological principles and to compare that volume with a control group. We found a significantly reduced ventricular volume in 24 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) compared with 28 controls.

  12. Morphological changes in the neurons of hypothalamus and ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We focused on changes in the hypothalamic neuro-secretion, morphology of brain ventricle ependyma of sheep after irradiation and hormonal stimulation. We observed sheep in anoestrus. Synchronization was ensured with Agelin for 10 days. On day 5 after the instillation of sponges, we started with irradiation lasting for 5 days (2.5 Gy) and on day 10 we stimulated the sheep with SG and FSH. The samples from hypothalamus intended for REM, were processed according to Murakami et al. (1977). Hormonal treatment in combination with irradiation produced qualitative changes, more marked in the ependyma than in the hypothalamus. (authors)

  13. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Pivoňková, Helena; Honsa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S125-S126. ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cerebral ischemia * neuroscience * MDACH1 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH (16 weeks old were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm. The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL into the 4th V. RESULTS: Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (p<0.05 to a greater extent in WKY rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke than in WKY rats exposed to fresh air. However, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, the effect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Administration of a catalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  15. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  16. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the right ventricle is small and not fully developed. The child's survival depends on there being an opening in ... the right ventricle is small and not fully developed. The child's survival depends on there being an opening in ...

  17. The systemic right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In patients with a surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries or a congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, the right ventricle supports the systemic circulation. Although the right ventricle adjusts remarkably well to systemic pressures, long term complication seem inevitable. Most adult patients with a systemic right ventricle have decreased exercise intolerance and right ventricular dysfunction, and arrhythmias and clinical heart failure are common. Heart f...

  18. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  19. Infarto cerebral hemorrágico por embolización de un trombo mural cardíaco Hemorrhagic cerebral infarction due to embolization of a mural thrombus within the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, R; Rico, A.; Blanco, M.; E. Barrero; I. Manresa; Santos, M.; J. Lucena

    2008-01-01

    Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consecuencia de una alteración en la circulación cerebral. Su forma más distintiva de presentación es el ictus, entendido como un déficit neurológico focal de instauración brusca y evolución rápida. Un infarto cerebral de origen oclusivo puede deberse bien a una trombosis in situ o bien a una embolia procedente de un foco distante. En las embolias cerebrales la causa principal son los trombos murales cardiacos y el área encefálica afectada con mayor frec...

  20. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed during this surgery. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle Texas Adult ...

  1. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  2. Computed tomography findings of a giant cysticercosis of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwi Ryeon; Woo, Seong Ku; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    Intraventricular cysticercosis is the rarest form of cerebral cysticercosis and almost all are within the fourth and third ventricles. Authors have experienced a case of pathologically proven giant intraventricular cysticercal cyst involving the lateral ventricle, studied by conventional CT and metrizamide CT, and report with brief review of literature.

  3. Computed tomography findings of a giant cysticercosis of the lateral ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraventricular cysticercosis is the rarest form of cerebral cysticercosis and almost all are within the fourth and third ventricles. Authors have experienced a case of pathologically proven giant intraventricular cysticercal cyst involving the lateral ventricle, studied by conventional CT and metrizamide CT, and report with brief review of literature

  4. Double chambered right ventricle

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    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  5. Preliminary study on the size-changing lateral cerebral ventricle in second-third trimester normal pregnancy with gestational age%正常中晚孕胎儿侧脑室大小随胎龄变化的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾旭; 周芷溪; 董国礼; 许林; 王晓红; 赵春刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常中晚孕胎儿磁共振成像上侧脑室大小随胎龄增长变化的规律,为临床监测胎儿发育提供参考。方法回顾分析正常的中晚孕胎儿98例的 MRI 资料;按不同胎龄大小分成6组(单位:周),即18~21、22~25、26~29、30~33、34~37、38~40。测量各组胎儿侧脑室前角、后角的横径最大值(cm),计数并进行统计学分析。结果不同胎龄组侧脑室前角横径分别为0.35±0.03,0.33±0.05,0.31±0.04,0.30±0.03,0.26±0.05,0.25±0.04;侧脑室后角横径分别为0.91±0.09,0.84±0.09,0.84±0.11,0.81±0.13,0.80±0.11,0.74±0.13。经方差分析显示,各胎龄组间侧脑室前角间、侧脑室后角部分组间差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),侧脑室前角、侧脑室后角宽度随胎龄增长逐渐缩小。结论正常中晚孕胎儿侧脑室前角、侧脑室后角大小随胎龄增长逐渐缩小。%Objective To explore the growing change of sizes of lateral cerebral ventricle in second-third trimester normal fetuses in MRI,to provide the normal reference for clinical monitoring.Methods MRI findings in 98 normal second-third trimester fetuses were retrospectively analyzed.The fetuses were divided into 6 groups according to gestational age (unit:week)including 18-21,22-25,26-29,30-33,34-37 and 38-40 weeks,respectively.The maximum transverse sizes of fetal atrium and occipital horns of lateral ventricle (cm)were measured.The SigmaStat statistical program was used for statistical analysis.Results The length of lateral ventricle atrium horn in 6 groups were 0.35 ± 0.03,0.33 ± 0.05,0.31 ± 0.04,0.30 ± 0.03,0.26 ± 0.05 and 0.25 ± 0.04,respectively,and the ventricle length of occipital horns were 0.91± 0.09,0.84 ± 0.09,0.84 ± 0.1 1,0.81 ± 0.13,0.80 ± 0.1 1 and 0.74 ± 0.13,respectively.The length of lateral ventricle atrium horn and ventricle occipital horns among some differ-ent groups showed significant differences (P <0.05).The length of fetal ventricle atrium and

  6. Effects of lateral ventricle transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells on the movement and cognitive function of cerebral ischemic reperfusion rats%侧脑室移植骨髓基质细胞对脑缺血再灌注大鼠运动及认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾平; 张忠霞; 张宝华; 王彦永; 张振清; 崔冬生; 耿媛; 王铭维

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some results of improved motor function have been achieved by the transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into lateral cerebral ventricle to treat middle cerebral artery obstruction (MCAO) rats, while the cognitive function has not been reported.OBJECTIVE: To observe the movement, cognitive function, infarction size of the MCAO rats, and the migration way of the transplanted BMSCs.METHODS: MCAO 2 hours reperfusion cerebral ischemia models were manufactured and were randomly divided into 3 groups:BMSCs group, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) group, and model group. The suspension of BMSCs (5 μL, 1.0×106/μL) labled with BrdU and the same volume of phosphate buffered solution were injected into the infarction side lateral cerebral ventricle of BMSCs group and PBS group respectively, while model group and normal group received no treatment. The ability of motor coordination of the MCAO rats was observed by balancing beam experiment, the swimming speed and the ability of space learning and memory were detected by morris water maze test. The infarction size was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining,and the migration way of the BrdU positive cells was detected by immunohistochemistry staining.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The score of the balance beam test in BMSCs group was significantly improved on the 3rd, 7th,14th day after transplantation (P < 0.05). On the 7th-10th days after transplantation, the swimming speed in the BMSCs group was significantly faster than that of PBS group (P < 0.05). The escape lantency in BMSCs group was significantly decreased (P <0.05), while the percentage of swimming time (T1%), swimming distance (D1%) in the plantform quadrant and the crossing times in BMSCs group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Typical pathomorph of cerebral infarction could be seen on 7th and 14th day after transplantation in hematoxylin-eosin staining of model group rats. There was no obvious difference among the percentage

  7. Morphological analysis of enlarged ventricle on CT image, using multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate analysis of enlarged cerebral ventricle on CT was undertaken to study the characteristics of ventricular morphology. Several ventricular segments of enlarged ventricle, defined on the basis of the study of normal group, were linearly measured on CT image. Then the discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of variable was applied. The following are the results obtained. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4 %, and between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3 %. Ventricular segments were divided into three groups according to their character of enlargement: (1) the temporal horn and trigone are large in pressure hydrocephalus; (2) the hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; (3) the anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei and thalamic segment of the third ventricle are relatively large in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. These findings are contributory to pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. (author)

  8. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  9. Dissection technique for the study of the cerebral sulci, gyri and ventricles Técnica de dissecação para o estudo dos sulcos, giros e ventriculos cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mattos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomy in addition to neurophysiology, are the basic areas for the proper formation from health students to specialized professionals in neuroscience. A step by step guide for practical studies of neuroanatomy is required for this kind of knowledge to become more acceptable among medical students, neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuropediatricians and psychiatric physicians. Based on the well known courses of sulci, gyri and ventricles offered by Beneficência Portuguesa Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, two times a year, since 1994, totalizing more than 20 complete courses, and answering the request of many neuroscience students and professionals whose asked for a practical guide to the neuroanatomy study, the authors suggest a protocol for the study of superficial and deep brain structures showing how to approach the more structures as possible with minimum damage to the anatomic piece and with the smaller number of brains.Neuroanatomia e a neurofisiologia são as áreas básicas para a adequada formação desde estudantes na área da saúde a profissionais especializados em neurociências. Um guia prático, passo a passo, para o estudo de neuroanatomia é necessário para tornar esse conhecimento mais acessível entre estudantes de medicina, neurologistas, neurofisiologistas, neurocirurgiões, neuropediatras e psiquiatras. Baseados em cursos reconhecidos nacional e internacionalmente a respeito dos sulcos, giros e ventrículos cerebrais elaborados e realizados pelo Instituto de Ciências Neurológicas (ICNE no Hospital de Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Brasil, duas vezes ao ano, totalizando mais de 20 cursos já realizados, os autores apresentam um protocolo de dissecação para o estudo das estruturas superficiais e profundas do encéfalo, mostrando como expor o máximo de estruturas com um mínimo de manipulação e dano à peça anatômica e utilizando o menor número de encéfalos possíveis.

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Alpendurada, Francisco Diogo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Whilst most of the attention has been devoted to the left ventricle in cardiovascular disease, the right ventricle has been somewhat neglected. In the last decades, there has been a renewal of interest in the right ventricle, in part driven by advances in cardiovascular imaging. Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is arguably the best imaging modality for the study of the right ventricle. In this research thesis, cardiovascular magnetic resonance w...

  11. Right Ventricle Myocardial Performance Index Versus Simpson's Right Ventricle Ejection Fraction in Patients with Isolated Left Ventricle Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Maheshwari; Sita Ram Mittal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction may be secondary to left ventricle (LV) dysfunction in patients of isolated left ventricle anterior myocardial infarction as a consequence of "Ventricular Interdependence". As RV dysfunction is associated with high in-hospital morbidity and mortality, early recognization of RV dysfunction is warranted; but until today it remains a challenging task because of complex structure and asymmetric shape of RV. Aims and Objectives: Our aim in the pres...

  12. 体位变化对脑室引流术患者颅内压和平均动脉压及脑灌注压的影响%Relation of position change to patients' intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and mean arterial pressure after ventricle puncture and drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周薇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨脑室引流患者的体位变化对平均动脉压、颅内压和脑灌注压的影响.方法 对60例接受过脑室穿刺术并留置脑室引流管患者,监测其抬高床头0°、15°、30°、45°时的颅内压(ICP)和平均动脉压(MAP),再计算出脑灌注压(CPP),比较不同体位状态下患者的MAP、ICP和CPP.结果 ICP随着床头的抬高而显著降低(均P<0.01);CPP在0°与30°、45°体位,以及15°与45°体位时比较,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 脑室引流患者床头抬高30°既能有效降低ICP,也可有效保证CPP.%Objective To investigate the relation of position changes to patients'intracranial pressure(ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure(CPP)and mean arterial pressure(MAP). Methods Totally, 60 patients who were treated by ventricle puncture and drainage therapy were recruited into the research. We monitored their ICP and MAP when the head of bed was raised from 0°to 15°, 30°,and 45°, and then we calculated the CPP at different angles. Results ICP was significantly decreased as the head of bed was elevated (P<0.01 for all). CPP at 0° head of bed position had significant differences with CPP at 30°, or 45°head of bed positions; CPP at 15° head of bed position had significant difference with CPP at 45°(P<0.01 for all). Conclusions The 30° head of bed position for paients after ventrical puncture and drainage can decreased ICP significantly and maintain stable CPP.

  13. Somatic growth in 94 single ventricle children -- comparing systemic right and left ventricle patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine witzner; Greisen, Gorm; Idorn, Lars; Reimers, Jesper Irving

    2013-01-01

    We sought to compare and assess growth in single ventricle children with a systemic right or left ventricle in five time periods: at birth, before neonatal surgery, before the Glenn anastomosis and finally before and after the Fontan operation to 11 years of age.......We sought to compare and assess growth in single ventricle children with a systemic right or left ventricle in five time periods: at birth, before neonatal surgery, before the Glenn anastomosis and finally before and after the Fontan operation to 11 years of age....

  14. Comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugie, Y.; Sugie, H.; Kitai, A.; Maruyama, H.; Fukuyama, Y. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with cerebral palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissures, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases.

  15. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  16. Ventricle morphology in pelagic elasmobranch fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S H; Mangano, C; Randazzo, V

    1985-01-01

    Ventricle weights of the warm-bodied great white shark, Atlantic shortfin mako, and the common thresher shark (the latter presumed to be warm-bodied) are similar to those of ectothermic blue sharks, sandbar sharks, dusky sharks, tiger sharks and scalloped hammerhead sharks. Ventricle muscularity, as estimated by the ratio of cortical to spongy layer thickness, is almost twice as great in the former three species than in the latter elasmobranchs. Measurements of ventricular volumes suggest that the ventricles of the great white, Atlantic shortfin mako and common thresher sharks are better adapted to respond to demands for increases in cardiac output via increased heartbeat frequency in comparison with ectothermic species of shark. PMID:2866886

  17. Radiographic studies of the ventricles in syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic investigations of 171 patients with communicating syringomyelia have been reviewed. Hydrocephalus was found in one third of the cases and has occasionally progressed after operation on the posterior fossa, sometimes with accompanying clinical deterioration. The outlets of the fourth ventricle were usually abnormal; tonsillar descent, arachnoiditis and both together were seen. Arachnoiditis correlated strongly with a history of difficult birth. The foramen of Magendie was sometimes patent and sometimes blocked. There was no consistent level of occulusion corresponding to a persistent roof of the fourth ventricle. The cisterna magna was usually small or obliterated but some examples of large cisterns or subarachnoid pouches were found. Radiological demonstration of a communication from the fourth ventricle to the syrinx occurred in only seven patients by positive contrast material and not by air. It is suggested that a sizable communication is rare at the time when patients seek treatment. (orig.)

  18. A comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with children palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissurem, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. (author)

  19. Resection of tumors in the third ventricle and thalamus by laser endoscopy: report of three cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Han-Jie; Li, Chan-Yuan

    1998-11-01

    Common intraventricular operation often brings about some server complications such as high fever, lost of consciousness, stress ulcer and serious encephaledema etc. this is changing with the development of minimally invasive neurosurgery. SLT contact laser has advantages of little thermal effect, slight brain tissue injury and working normally in liquid environment. Endoscopy makes it possible that the operation can be carried out in tiny space. Combination of both techniques mentioned above leads to convenient removal of cerebral tumors in vital part of the brain like ventricle, thalamus and cerebellopontile angle et at. with little even without brian harm or no complications. The article reports three cases of patient of grain tumors in the third ventricle and thalamus and underwent such operations. It also discusses the indications of this kind of operation and presented the experience about this aspect.

  20. Brain ventricle development in H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavighi, S H; Saadatfar, Z; Shojaei, B; Rassouli, M Behnam

    2016-09-01

    The development of ventricles in the brain of H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) from 1 to 54 days old is presented in this study. The components observed in the 1-day-old ventricular system were the telencephalic, tectal, and cerebellar ventricles. These ventricles were not observed to have any recess or sulcus. They were surrounded by copious ependymal and embryonic cells. Two different parts were detected in the 6-day-old telencephalic ventricle: the olfactory and lateral ventricle. The olfactory ventricle was observed as a cranial extension of the telencephalic ventricle from 6 days old, as was the inner cell layer of the olfactory bulb (ic) adjacent to this extension. In the preoptic region, the lateral ventricle was connected to the preoptic recess from 15 days old, and this recess was connected by the interventricular foramen to the third ventricle in the diencephalon. At 6 days old, the third ventricle in the diencephalon was visible at the caudal part of the lateral ventricle, and the third ventricle had a recess near to the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus. At 6 days old, the tectal ventricle was observed to have bilateral extensions which proceeded to grow with age. The cerebellar ventricle, situated between the two lobes of the cerebellum, was observed from 1 day old. The cerebellar ventricle grew with age, extending laterally from 6 days old. The connection of the cerebellar ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata was visible from 6 days old. Upon dividing the ventricular system into three regions (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), stereological studies performed utiizing Cavalieri's principle indicated that the forebrain ventricular region had the smallest volume while the hindbrain ventricular region had the largest. PMID:26530640

  1. The hypertrabeculated (noncompacted) left ventricle is different from the ventricle of embryos and ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Agger, Peter; de Boer, Bouke A; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Pedersen, Michael; van der Wal, Allard C; Nils Planken, R; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2016-07-01

    Ventricular hypertrabeculation (noncompaction) is a poorly characterized condition associated with heart failure. The condition is widely assumed to be the retention of the trabeculated ventricular design of the embryo and ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates. This assumption appears simplistic and counterfactual. Here, we measured a set of anatomical parameters in hypertrabeculation in man and in the ventricles of embryos and animals. We compared humans with left ventricular hypertrabeculation (N=21) with humans with structurally normal left ventricles (N=54). We measured ejection fraction and ventricular trabeculation using cardiovascular MRI. Ventricular trabeculation was further measured in series of embryonic human and 9 animal species, and in hearts of 15 adult animal species using MRI, CT, or histology. In human, hypertrabeculated left ventricles were significantly different from structurally normal left ventricles by all structural measures and ejection fraction. They were far less trabeculated than human embryonic hearts (15-40% trabeculated volume versus 55-80%). Early in development all vertebrate embryos acquired a ventricle with approximately 80% trabeculations, but only ectotherms retained the 80% trabeculation throughout development. Endothermic (warm-blooded) animals including human slowly matured in fetal and postnatal stages towards ventricles with little trabeculations, generally less than 30%. Further, the trabeculations of all embryos and adult ectotherms were very thin, less than 50μm wide, whereas the trabeculations in adult endotherms and in the setting of hypertrabeculation were wider by orders of magnitude. It is concluded in contrast to a prevailing assumption, the hypertrabeculated left ventricle is not like the ventricle of the embryo or of adult ectotherms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes

  2. Nonaxisymmetric mathematical model of the cardiac left ventricle anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pravdin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We describe a mathematical model of the shape and fibre direction field of the cardiac left ventricle. The ventricle is composed of surfaces which model myocardial sheets. On each surface, we construct a set of curves corresponding to myocardial fibres. Tangents to these curves form the myofibres direction field. The fibres are made as images of semicircle chords parallel to its diameter. To specify the left ventricle shape, we use a special coordinate system where the left ventricle boundari...

  3. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  4. Primary Central Nervous System Burkitt Lymphoma With Non-Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Translocation in Right Ventricle: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Guan, Yong-Song; Zou, Li-qun

    2011-01-01

    Primary central nervous system Burkitt lymphoma (PCNSBL) is rare. Few cases of primary central nervous system involvement with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma have been reported and its treatment is now controversial. Here, the authors report a case of a 14-year-old boy suffering from non-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) translocation PCNSBL. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report describing primary Burkitt lymphoma involving cerebral ventricles. After receiving combination treat...

  5. Intraventricular neurocysticercosis. Presentation of a case located in the third ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common cerebral parasitosis. Of the three forms in which it can present itself, intraventricular cysticercosis is the least common and has the poorest prognosis. Diagnosis is principally made through the use of neuroimaging methods, especially MR, which is also indispensable both as a preoperative control and in the choice and response evaluation of postoperative treatment. We present the case of a 24-year-old Ecuadoran woman with clinical intracraneal hypertension due to a cysticercus cyst in the third ventricle. We analyze the imaging findings and their usefulness in assessing possible treatments. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle: angiography, preoperative embolization, and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, H.M. [Interventional Neuroradiology, S-047, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center (United States); Dept. of Radiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Marx, W.F. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Khanam, H. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jensen, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Dept. of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    We report a unique case of choroid plexus papilloma of the third ventricle in an 8-month-old girl in which preoperative embolization played a salient role in management. Initial surgery was aborted due to excessive bleeding. Cerebral angiography demonstrated enlarged posterior choroidal arteries feeding the tumor, and intense, persistent tumor staining. These vessels were effectively embolized to stasis with polyvinyl alcohol particles. The patient underwent a second craniotomy and complete resection of the tumor with minimal blood loss. Postsurgical histology showed postembolization iatrogenic intratumoral necrosis. (orig.)

  7. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c. injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Results: Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat, was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  8. Left ventricle's surface reconstruction and volume estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Panyella, O.; Susín Sánchez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    This document describes the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal and external surfaces of the human’s left ventricle from actual SPECT data. The reconstruction is a first process fitting in a complete VR application that will serve as an important diagnosis tool for hospitals. Beginning with the surfaces reconstruction, the application will provide volume and interactive real-time manipulation to the model. We focus on speed, precision and smoothness for the final surfaces. As lon...

  9. The right ventricle in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Naeije

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a right heart failure syndrome. In early-stage PAH, the right ventricle tends to remain adapted to afterload with increased contractility and little or no increase in right heart chamber dimensions. However, less than optimal right ventricular (RV–arterial coupling may already cause a decreased aerobic exercise capacity by limiting maximum cardiac output. In more advanced stages, RV systolic function cannot remain matched to afterload and dilatation of the right heart chamber progressively develops. In addition, diastolic dysfunction occurs due to myocardial fibrosis and sarcomeric stiffening. All these changes lead to limitation of RV flow output, increased right-sided filling pressures and under-filling of the left ventricle, with eventual decrease in systemic blood pressure and altered systolic ventricular interaction. These pathophysiological changes account for exertional dyspnoea and systemic venous congestion typical of PAH. Complete evaluation of RV failure requires echocardiographic or magnetic resonance imaging, and right heart catheterisation measurements. Treatment of RV failure in PAH relies on: decreasing afterload with drugs targeting pulmonary circulation; fluid management to optimise ventricular diastolic interactions; and inotropic interventions to reverse cardiogenic shock. To date, there has been no report of the efficacy of drug treatments that specifically target the right ventricle.

  10. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  11. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  12. Innervation of the rabbit cardiac ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauziene, Neringa; Alaburda, Paulius; Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Kristina; Pauza, Audrys G; Inokaitis, Hermanas; Masaityte, Aiste; Rudokaite, Gabriele; Saburkina, Inga; Plisiene, Jurgita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit is widely used in experimental cardiac physiology, but the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart remains insufficiently examined. This study aimed to ascertain the architecture of the intrinsic nerve plexus in the walls and septum of rabbit cardiac ventricles. In 51 rabbit hearts, a combined approach involving: (i) histochemical acetylcholinesterase staining of intrinsic neural structures in total cardiac ventricles; (ii) immunofluorescent labelling of intrinsic nerves, nerve fibres (NFs) and neuronal somata (NS); and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of intrinsic ventricular nerves and NFs was used. Mediastinal nerves access the ventral and lateral surfaces of both ventricles at a restricted site between the root of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The dorsal surface of both ventricles is supplied by several epicardial nerves extending from the left dorsal ganglionated nerve subplexus on the dorsal left atrium. Ventral accessing nerves are thicker and more numerous than dorsal nerves. Intrinsic ventricular NS are rare on the conus arteriosus and the root of the pulmonary trunk. The number of ventricular NS ranged from 11 to 220 per heart. Four chemical phenotypes of NS within ventricular ganglia were identified, i.e. ganglionic cells positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and biphenotypic, i.e. positive for both ChAT/nNOS and for ChAT/tyrosine hydroxylase. Clusters of small intensely fluorescent cells are distributed within or close to ganglia on the root of the pulmonary trunk, but not on the conus arteriosus. The largest and most numerous intrinsic nerves proceed within the epicardium. Scarce nerves were found near myocardial blood vessels, but the myocardium contained only a scarce meshwork of NFs. In the endocardium, large numbers of thin nerves and NFs proceed along the bundle of His and both its branches up to the apex of the ventricles. The endocardial meshwork of fine NFs was

  13. Cerebral Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... lead to cerebral atrophy. NIH Patient Recruitment for Cerebral Atrophy Clinical Trials ... by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  14. Antenatal and postnatal sonographic imaging findings of a single ventricle presenting as double outlet right ventricle with rudimentary left ventricle and single atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donboklang Lynser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Single ventricle is a rare finding and usually of left ventricular morphology. We present here interesting antenatal and postnatal echocardiographic findings of a baby having a rare single ventricle of right ventricular morphology with double outlet. Antenatally we saw a large ventricular septal defect indistinguishable from a single ventricle with left to right ventricular ratio of 1:1. Postnatally we saw a single ventricle having the outlets for both the main pulmonary artery and aortic root. The left ventricle is collapse with a rudimentary morphology possibly due to changes in hemodynamics after birth and absent of outlet from it.

  15. ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION- AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF A MASS IN LEFT VENTRICLE AND RIGHT VENTRICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Pisharadi; Jayakumar B; Amritha Jayakumar

    2010-01-01

    Acute Myocardial infarction is not a rare finding in patients with a history of carcinoma with second aries. We report a case of a 38-year old man who presented with symptoms of acute MI. The echocardiography showed a rare finding of a mass in both right and left ventricle

  16. Investigating cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). PMID:26749338

  17. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  18. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  19. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa 5-15% das formas extrapulmonares e é reconhecida como de alta letalidade. Apresentação tumoral como a relatada é rara, particularmente em imunocompetentes. Quando tratada, pode ter bom prognóstico e deve entrar sempre no diagnóstico diferencial de massas cerebrais.It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

  20. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-shu Xu; Xuan Sun; Cheng-guang Song; Xiao-peng Mu; Wen-ping Ma; Xing-hu Zhang; Chuan-sheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-...

  1. Cerebral Ventricular Changes Associated With Transitions Between Normal Cognitive Function, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Owen T.; Kuller, Lewis H; Lopez, Oscar L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Lu, Allen; Lee, Sharon E.; Lee, Jessica Y.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Liu, Yanxi; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Expansion of the cerebral ventricles may occur at an accelerated rate in subjects with dementia, but the time course of expansion during transitions between normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia is not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of cardiovascular risk factors on rate of ventricular expansion are unclear. We used a fully automated segmentation technique to measure change rate in lateral ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) on 145 longitudinal pairs o...

  2. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Occurring in the Third Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA is a rare central nervous system tumor that has been included in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Due to its more aggressive behavior, PMA is classified as Grade II neoplasm by the World Health Organization. PMA predominantly affects the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region and occurs in children (mean age of occurrence = 10 months. We report a case of a 24-year-old man who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Brain CT and MRI revealed a mass occupying only the third ventricle. We performed partial resection. Histological findings, including monophasic growth with a myxoid background, and absence of Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies, as well as the strong positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein were consistent with PMA.

  3. COMPUTER MODELING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL VENTRICLES OF HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Belyaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In article modern researches of processes of development of artificial ventricles of heart are described. Advanta- ges of application computer (CAD/CAE technologies are shown by development of artificial ventricles of heart. The systems developed with application of the given technologies are submitted. 

  4. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cerebral Palsy: Keith's Story Physical Therapy I Have Cerebral Palsy. Can I Babysit? Body Image and Self-Esteem Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  5. Computed tomographic findings in cerebral palsy: Analysis of hemisphere and lateral ventricular volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seoung Hwan; Kim, Hak Jin; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    Authors analysed the CT findings of 28 cerebral palsy patients at Pusan National University Hospital from January, 1984 to December, 1987. Volumes of hemispheres, lateral ventricles and paranchymes were measured in patients who showed no remarkable abnormality on CT film, and compared with those of normal control group. 1. Among the 28 cerebral palsy patients, there were 6 cases of diffuse atrophy in CT findings, and unilateral atrophy in 2 cases and encephalomalacia and diffuse white matter low density in 1 case and generalized symmetrical white matter low density in 1 case, but remaining 18 cases had no specific abnormal finding on CT. 2. Difference in volumes of brain parenchyma and lateral ventricles of each hemisphere was greater than that of control group. 3. There were more enlarged lateral ventricles and prominent unilateral brain atrophy in 18 cases of cerebral palsy who showed no specific abnormality on CT as compared with normal control group.

  6. Computed tomographic findings in cerebral palsy: Analysis of hemisphere and lateral ventricular volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors analysed the CT findings of 28 cerebral palsy patients at Pusan National University Hospital from January, 1984 to December, 1987. Volumes of hemispheres, lateral ventricles and paranchymes were measured in patients who showed no remarkable abnormality on CT film, and compared with those of normal control group. 1. Among the 28 cerebral palsy patients, there were 6 cases of diffuse atrophy in CT findings, and unilateral atrophy in 2 cases and encephalomalacia and diffuse white matter low density in 1 case and generalized symmetrical white matter low density in 1 case, but remaining 18 cases had no specific abnormal finding on CT. 2. Difference in volumes of brain parenchyma and lateral ventricles of each hemisphere was greater than that of control group. 3. There were more enlarged lateral ventricles and prominent unilateral brain atrophy in 18 cases of cerebral palsy who showed no specific abnormality on CT as compared with normal control group

  7. Ventricles of brain: A morphometric study by computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Raj Singh, Ujwal Gajbe, Amit Agrawal, Anilkumar Reddy Y, Sunita Bhartiya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As the human brain ages, characteristic structural changes occur that are considered to be normal and are expected. Thus the thorough knowledge of the age related normal changes that occur in the brain is required before any abnormal findings are analyzed. As ageing advances, the brain undergoes many gross and histopathological changes with regression of the brain tissue leading to the enlargement of the ventricles. To understand these changes the knowledge of normal morphometry and size of normal ventricular system of brain is important. Materials & Methods: For the present study 358 (Males – 207 and Females – 151 individuals Computerized Tomography (CT images of brain studied. Measurements of fourth ventricle, third ventricle and lateral ventricle were noted down from CT images and it was statistically analyzed. Results: After analysis it was observed that the height and width of the fourth ventricle was larger in males as compared to females. The length of the third ventricle was observed to be greater in females than in males. The width of the third ventricle it was observed to be greater in males than in females. Antero-posterior extent of the left frontal horn (males = 26.26 ± 2.94, 95% CI 25.86 – 26.66 mm and females = 26.53 ± 3.38, 95% CI 25.99 – 27.08 mm was greater than that of the right ones (males = 25.00 ± 3.18, 95% CI 24.57 – 25.44 mm and females = 25.34 ± 3.50, 95% CI 24.78 – 25.90 mm. Conclusion: Advances in sensitive imaging techniques like the Computerized Tomography helps in dramatic expansion of our understanding of the normal structure of brain. The present study has defined the morphometric measurements of the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle of the brain which has clinical correlations in diagnosis and for further line of treatment.

  8. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  9. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  10. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanol, B.; Kleriga, E.; Loyo, M.; Mateos, H.; Lombardo, L.; Gordon, F.; Saguchi, A.F.

    1983-08-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested.

  11. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested

  12. Cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  13. Nonthrombotic artificial mass in right ventricle and pulmonary circulation as a sequence of vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for the treatment of the vertebral body fractures is considered to be relatively safe therapeutic procedure. Nevertheless there is a potential risk of spread of emboli from artificial material through external vertebral venous plexus. What you will learn: This is a 60 -year-old patient with primary diagnosis of multiple myeloma and conducted vertebroplasty due to the vertebral bodies fractures. Accompanying symptoms are: coughing up blood and pain in the right the chest with medication for micro thromboembolism form of Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). There are echocardiographic data on hospitalization for a formation in the right ventricle. Based on additionally performed CT study, a ‘foreign body’ - artificial material in right ventricle and subsegmentary branches of the pulmonary arteries as a complication of previous vertebroplasty has been recorded. Paravertebral venous vessels in the area of the thoracic section filled with cement have been noticed. Discussion: non-thrombotic embolism of artificial material prior vertebroplasty can be asymptomatic, or condition may be associated with life-threatening symptoms - compression of the spinal cord resulting in paraplegia, emboli in the cerebral vessels, right ventricle, kidney arteries. The frequency of the topical flowing of the used material is relatively high (80-90 %) to the para-vertebral vein (over 24%), with subsequent pulmonary emboli (4.6 to 6.8 %). The path of the embolization material dissemination is in the course of the para-vertebral veins, v. azygos and v. cafa inf., with the end goal pulmonary circulation. Conclusion: Follow-up of patients after the therapeutic vertebroplasty and integrated diagnostic approach with appropriate imaging methods allow timely diagnosis and treatment of this unusual form of non-thrombotic embolism

  14. Cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the veins ( deep vein thrombosis ) Lung infections (pneumonia) Malnutrition When to Contact a Medical Professional Cerebral hypoxia ... References Bernat JL. Coma, vegetative state, and brain death. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Injecting erythropoietin into lateral ventricle and abdominal subcutaneous tissue improves the learning and memory ability of rats with vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqi Huang; Fuyuan Shao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is found in recent studies that erythropoietin (EPO) has protective effect on ischemic/hypoxic injury in central nervous system (CNS). Most of neuroprotective studies of EPO are aimed at nerve cells cultured in vitro, and whether or not EPO can improve cognitive function of rats with vascular dementia (VaD) induced by ischemic and hypoxic injury is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of injecting EPO into lateral ventricle and abdominal subcutaneous tissue on learning and memory ability of rats with VaD.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Eight-six Wistar rats, aged > 16 months, weighing (300±41) g, of either gender, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Y-maze (type MG-3)was purchased from Zhangjiagang Biomedical Instrument Factory. EPO was produced by Shenyang Sunshine Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (No. S19980074).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Department of Neurology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between July 2003 and December 2005. Animal models of VaD were developed by the method of permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid artery.Eighty-six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: ① Sham-operation group (n =18): Bilateral common carotid artery was isolated. Suture was buried without ligation. ② Model group (n =21): Rat models of vascular dementia were developed. ③Lateral cerebral ventricle injection group (n =26): Following a cannula was buried in lateral cerebral ventricle for one week, rat models of vascular dementia were developed and injected with 200 U/kg recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) via lateral cerebral ventricle, 3 times a week. ④ Intraperitoneal injection group (n =21 ): After rat models of VaD were developed, they were intraperitoneally injected with

  16. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  17. Segmentation of Right Ventricle in 3D Ultrasound Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Engås, Asbjørn Breivik

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents segmentation of the right ventricle of the heart in real-time tracking of 3D ultrasound recordings. A simple deformable model for the right ventricle is developed based on statistical data from manual segmentations, and the model has been tested out in a set of 3D ultrasound recordings and compared to manually segmented right ventricular volumes. The manual segmentation method with volume approximation is also developed. The segmentation tests on the recordings are pe...

  18. Pseudoaneurysm of Left Ventricle following Staphylococcal Pericarditis in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaldeep Arora; Rashmi Ranjan Das; Rohit Tandon; Kajal Goyal; Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2015-01-01

    Formation of pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle is a rare entity particularly in the pediatric age group. We report a case of a pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle in a 6-year-old boy who initially presented to us with staphylococcus aureus septicemia. The left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm was surgically resected and the boy was discharged in a healthy condition.

  19. Surgical treatment of double outlet ventricle: report on 72 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-fu; HU Dong-xu; HU Jian-guo; YIN Bang-liang; ZHOU Xin-min; ZHOU Wen-wu; TAN Si-chuang; YIN Ni

    2005-01-01

    @@ Double outlet ventricle (DOV) is defined as a congenital heart disease with: (1) both great arteries arising completely, or almost completely (≥90%), from a single ventricle (usually, right ventricle); (2) an aortic valve having no fibre connection with mitral valve; and (3) the only outlet of the other ventricle is a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The incidence of DOV accounts for 1% of all congenital heart disease.1 Clinically there are three common types: Fallot type or double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with subaortic VSD with pulmonary stenosis; Eisenmenger type or DORV with subaortic VSD without pulmonary stenosis and Taussig-Bing type or DORV with subpulmonary VSD. Operative techniques are different according to the position of the VSD and great arteries and the presence or absence of ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The operative difficulty increases in the presence of coronary artery malformation. Recently, our research centre has treated 72 cases of patients suffering from double outlet ventricle. This article is the report of the operative methods and the outcomes.

  20. Comparison of the relationship between cerebral white matter and grey matter in normal dogs and dogs with lateral ventricular enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Martin J.; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of...

  1. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause

  2. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin J; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  3. Tuberculoma cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO ELIZABETH CLARA; OLIVEIRA TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE; AMARAL ANA MARIA DANTAS DO; PINHEIRO VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA; SOUSA ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  4. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-chun ZHAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinicopathological features of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT of the fourth ventricle.  Methods The clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, histopathological and immunohistochemical features were analysed in one case of RGNT of the fourth ventricle, and related literatures were reviewed.  Results A 24-year-old female presented with progressive dizziness under no obvious predisposing causes and dyskinesia such as stumbling. MRI revealed expansion of the fourth ventricle, and a mass with long T1WI and T2WI signal and clear boundary could be seen within the fourth ventricle. The border of tumor showed slight enhancement. At surgery, it was observed that the solitary tumor arised from the fourth ventricle and appeared well demarcated with rhomboid fossa. The tumor was blocking the aqueduct of sylvius before it was removed. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited both neuronic and astrocytic components. In the neuronic components, neurocytes formed neurocytic rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes. At the center of the neurocytic rosettes, there was an eosinophilic core and some region consisted of microcysts. While the astrocytic components of the tumor revealed typical pilocytic astrocytoma structure. The center of neuronic rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes displayed strong positive staining with synaptophysin (Syn and oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Olig-2. The astrocytic components showed positive immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were focal and partial positive immunostaining of neuron-specific enolase (NSE in both components of the tumor. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.50%-2.00% in two components.  Conclusions Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle is an unusual neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. The imaging examination showed solid or mixed solid-cystic mass at the fourth ventricle with well demarcated border. The lesion has two

  5. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  6. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  7. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  8. Cerebral damage following ventricular shunt for infantile hydrocephalus evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a late CT control of infantile hydrocephalus is reported with an analysis of effects of the catheter on the cerebral tissue in the immediate and late postoperative course. The most frequent finding is blood in the ventricle and/or subependymal or intraparenchymal along the catheter or near its tip. (orig.)

  9. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Zenji

    1987-06-01

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor.

  10. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor. (author)

  11. Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy leading to external hydrocephalus and the cerebral atrophy: mechanism and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is a study of the mechanism and differential diagnosis of the infant external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy. Methods: In total 84 cases of neonatal hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy followed by infant external hydrocephalus were investigated, among which 26 patients gradually were found having developed cerebral atrophy in follow up. Results: Characteristic dilation of the frontal-parietal subarachnoid space and the adjacent cistern was noted on the CT images of the external hydrocephalus. CT revealed the enlarged ventricle besides the dilated subarachnoid space in the cases of cerebral atrophy, while these two entities were indistinguishable on CT in the early stage. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations make a major differential diagnosis of the external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy: tic and mild delayed development of locomotion over major presentation of external hydrocephalus, while cerebral atrophy is featured by remarkable dysnoesia and severe delayed development of locomotion. In addition, hemiplegia and increased muscular tension are presented in a few cases of cerebral atrophy

  12. One and a half ventricle repair: clinical and animal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Anil

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Since the first description of the so called “one and a half ventricle repair”, published by Billingsly et al. in 1989 1, this type of correction has been applied to several complex congenital cardiac anomalies. The rationale underlying this repair is twofold. On one hand the aim is to reduce the blood flow to, and therefore to downsize the pre-load of, a dysfunctional or hypoplastic right ventricle (RV), considered to be unable to sustain a biventricular correction. On the other h...

  13. Coronal MRI in the diagnosis of corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the lateral ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kanaya, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Hideki; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    To clarify pathophysiology of vascular lesions in corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle (CRILV), 17 patients with CRILV were studied by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on the coronal MR images obtained between the anterior and posterior commissures, the patients were divided into two groups: (I) the group having infarcts below a line extending from the upper edge of the insular cistern to the external angle of the lateral ventricle adjacent to the corpus callosum (n=11); and (II) the group having lesions above the line towards the centrum semiovale (n=6). Most of the patients in both groups were male and had hypertension. Symptoms were gradually deteriorated and stroke in the morning was frequent in both groups, althrough the time from onset to completion was longer in Group II than Group I. In comparing clinical manifestations in Groups I and II, pure motor hemiparesis was found in 5 and 3 patients, and sensorimotor stroke in 2 and one patients, respectively. Drowsiness was found in 2 for Group I, while aphasia occurred in 2 for Group II. In addition, pseudobular and asymptomatic palsy occurred in each one patient for Group I. Prognosis was favorable in both groups, except for 2 who died of aspiration pneumonia. In Group I, 11 infarcts were well-defined, less than 15 mm in diameter on CT scans and were sclerotic in the main arteries without obstruction on angiograms. In contrast, Group II had ill-defined, larger low-density areas on CT scans and trunk obstruction of the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries on angiograms. SPECT scans showed diffuse defect in Group II, in contrast to normal to diffuse or multiple defects in Group I. In Group I, lacunar lesions seemed to be caused by ischemia of the perforators, and in Group II, terminal zone infarcts in the territory of the cortical branches or watershed infarcts seemd to be caused by main trunk obstruction. (N.K.).

  14. Coronal MRI in the diagnosis of corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the lateral ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify pathophysiology of vascular lesions in corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle (CRILV), 17 patients with CRILV were studied by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on the coronal MR images obtained between the anterior and posterior commissures, the patients were divided into two groups: (I) the group having infarcts below a line extending from the upper edge of the insular cistern to the external angle of the lateral ventricle adjacent to the corpus callosum (n=11); and (II) the group having lesions above the line towards the centrum semiovale (n=6). Most of the patients in both groups were male and had hypertension. Symptoms were gradually deteriorated and stroke in the morning was frequent in both groups, althrough the time from onset to completion was longer in Group II than Group I. In comparing clinical manifestations in Groups I and II, pure motor hemiparesis was found in 5 and 3 patients, and sensorimotor stroke in 2 and one patients, respectively. Drowsiness was found in 2 for Group I, while aphasia occurred in 2 for Group II. In addition, pseudobular and asymptomatic palsy occurred in each one patient for Group I. Prognosis was favorable in both groups, except for 2 who died of aspiration pneumonia. In Group I, 11 infarcts were well-defined, less than 15 mm in diameter on CT scans and were sclerotic in the main arteries without obstruction on angiograms. In contrast, Group II had ill-defined, larger low-density areas on CT scans and trunk obstruction of the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries on angiograms. SPECT scans showed diffuse defect in Group II, in contrast to normal to diffuse or multiple defects in Group I. In Group I, lacunar lesions seemed to be caused by ischemia of the perforators, and in Group II, terminal zone infarcts in the territory of the cortical branches or watershed infarcts seemd to be caused by main trunk obstruction. (N.K.)

  15. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  16. CT study of infantile cerebral vitamin B1 deficiency (analysis of 22 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the CT features of infantile cerebral vitamin B1 deficiency. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations and CT findings of 22 cases of infantile vitamin B1 deficiency. Results: The main clinical signs were seizure malaise dullness and vomiting. CT scans showed bilateral symmetrical hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus (20/22), head of caudate nucleus (15/22), thalamus (3/22), anterior limb of internal capsule (4/22), external capsule (1/22) and para-ventricle white matter (2/22), and in many cases, signs of cerebral atrophy. 22 cases received thiamine treatment and were fully recovered. Conclusion: The authors concluded that bilateral symmetric hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior limb of internal capsule, external capsule and para-ventricle white matter were important CT signs suggestive of infantile cerebral vitamin B1 deficiency

  17. Is the human left ventricle partially a fractal pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2011-11-01

    Ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunctions represent a large portion of healthcare problems in the United States. Many of these problems are caused and/or characterized by their altered fluid-structure mechanics. The structure of the left ventricle in particular is complex with time dependent multi-scale geometric complexity. At relatively small scales, one facet that is still not well understood is the role of trabeculae in the pumping function of the left ventricle. We utilize fractal geometry tools to help characterize the complexity of the inner surface of the left ventricle at different times during the cardiac cycle. A high-resolution three dimensional model of the time dependent ventricular geometry was constructed from computed tomography (CT) images in a human. The scale dependent fractal dimension of the ventricle was determined using the box-counting algorithm over the cardiac cycle. It is shown that the trabeculae may indeed play an integral role in the biomechanics of pumping by regulating the mechanical leverage available to the cardiac muscle fibers.

  18. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  19. Cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  20. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Qiang; Song, Jun-Ying; Jia, Ya-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ke

    2016-03-01

    Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days). These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27127482

  1. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury:mechanisms of brain tissue repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-qiang Zhang; Jun-ying Song; Ya-quan Jia; Yun-ke Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically givenBuyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reper-fusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administeredBuyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrinαvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects ofBuyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days). These data suggest thatBuyanghuanwu de-coction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  2. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-qiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days. These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  3. Intraventricular neurocysticercosis. Presentation of a case located in the third ventricle; Neurocisticercosis intraventricular. Presentacion de un caso localizado en el tercer ventriculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L.; Abad, L.; Lozano, E.; Maldonado, G. [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common cerebral parasitosis. Of the three forms in which it can present itself, intraventricular cysticercosis is the least common and has the poorest prognosis. Diagnosis is principally made through the use of neuroimaging methods, especially MR, which is also indispensable both as a preoperative control and in the choice and response evaluation of postoperative treatment. We present the case of a 24-year-old Ecuadoran woman with clinical intracraneal hypertension due to a cysticercus cyst in the third ventricle. We analyze the imaging findings and their usefulness in assessing possible treatments. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Colloidal cyst of the third ventricle. Case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Sánchez Lozano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal cysts are congenital intracranial benign lesions of the anterior superior portion of the third ventricle. They represent between the 0,2 and 2 % of all the intracranial tumours and represent the 15 or 20 % of all the intraventricular masses. They become symptomatic during the adolescence or early adulthood and start normally with migraine or symptoms of intracranial hypertension causing obstructive hydrocephaly. We present the case of a teenager of 18 years of age with history of migraine after two years and the symptoms worsened in intensity and frequency including vomiting and bilateral paresthesia; the diagnosis was obstructive hydrocephaly with colloidal cyst of the third ventricle. An appropriate practice was adopted due to the uncertain diagnosis in order to avoid neurological damage and death. We discussed the main characteristics of the colloidal cyst, its clinical presentation and radiological characteristics and we performed.

  5. Magnetic resonance findings in arrhythmogenic dysplasia of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) findings in patients with arrhythmogenic dysplasia of right ventricle (ADRV) with the images of right ventricle (RV) presenting normal morphology. Three groups of patients were studied by MR: a) a group of 20 healthy volunteers; b) 22 patients with ADRV diagnosed by other methods; and c) 11 patients presenting right ventricular tachycardia (VT) with no evidence of ADRV. When compared with the other two groups, the patients with ADRV were found to have an enlarged right atrium and RV, one wall of RV abnormally thin, changes in the myocardial signal and significant left ventricular involvement. MR is a noninvasive method that is useful in the assessment of RV dilation, ventricular wall thinning, deformities and sacculations and in the detection of changes in the myocardial MR signal produced by the replacement. It aids in the localization, characterization and quantification of morphological changes in RV. (Author) 36 refs

  6. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  7. Single ventricle anatomy predicts delayed microstructural brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Viyeka; Tabbutt, Sarah; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Harris, Kevin C.; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Campbell, Andrew; Azakie, Anthony; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, Anthony J.; Steven P. Miller; McQuillen, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Term newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) show delayed brain development as early as the third trimester, especially in single ventricle physiology (SVP). Mechanisms causing delayed brain development in CHD are uncertain, but may include impaired fetal brain blood flow. Our objective was to determine if cardiac anatomy associated with obstruction to antegrade flow in the ascending aorta is predictive of delayed brain development measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) an...

  8. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following apical approach TAVI

    OpenAIRE

    Vanezis Andrew P; Baig Mirza K; Mitchel Ian M; Shajar Matloob; Naik Surendra K; Henderson Robert A; Mathew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an eld...

  9. Cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered

  10. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the lateral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Darmoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs are rare and highly malignant embryonal central nervous system neoplasms, usually seen in very young children with rapid fatal outcome despite aggressive treatment. They are most commonly located in the posterior fossa. Intraventricular location is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 4 cases of lateral ventricle location were reported in the literature. We report the fifth case of lateral ventricle AT/RT in a 2-month-old male who presented with rapid increase of his head circumference. Brain computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous huge mass within the left lateral ventricle extending to the parieto-occipital parenchyma and markedly enhancing by contrast. The baby underwent left transparietal approach with complete removal of the tumor. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of AT/RT. An aggressive chemotherapy was administrated postoperatively. The outcome is good without neurological deficit or recurrence after 3 years and half of follow-up.

  11. Blockade of the cerebral aqueduct in rats provides evidence of antagonistic leptin responses in the forebrain and hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaill, Michael I; Desai, Bhavna N; Harris, Ruth B S

    2014-02-15

    Previously, we reported that low-dose leptin infusions into the fourth ventricle produced a small but significant increase in body fat. These data contrast with reports that injections of higher doses of leptin into the fourth ventricle inhibit food intake and weight gain. In this study, we tested whether exogenous leptin in the fourth ventricle opposed or contributed to weight loss caused by third ventricle leptin infusion by blocking diffusion of CSF from the third to the fourth ventricle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received third ventricle infusions of PBS or 0.3 μg leptin/24 h from miniosmotic pumps. After 4 days, rats received a 3-μl cerebral aqueduct injection of saline or of thermogelling nanoparticles (hydrogel) that solidified at body temperature. Third ventricle leptin infusion inhibited food intake and caused weight loss. Blocking the aqueduct exaggerated the effect of leptin on food intake and weight loss but had no effect on the weight of PBS-infused rats. Leptin reduced both body fat and lean body mass but did not change energy expenditure. Blocking the aqueduct decreased expenditure of rats infused with PBS or leptin. Infusion of leptin into the third ventricle increased phosphorylated STAT3 in the VMHDM of the hypothalamus and the medial NTS in the hindbrain. Blocking the aqueduct did not change hypothalamic p-STAT3 but decreased p-STAT3 in the medial NTS. These results support previous observations that low-level activation of hindbrain leptin receptors has the potential to blunt the catabolic effects of leptin in the third ventricle. PMID:24347057

  12. Optimized multisite ventricular pacing in postoperative single-ventricle patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havalad, Vinod; Cabreriza, Santos E; Cheung, Eva W; Aponte-Patel, Linda; Wang, Alice; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Daniel Y; Silver, Eric; Bacha, Emile A; Spotnitz, Henry M

    2014-10-01

    Ventricular dyssynchrony is associated with morbidity and mortality after palliation of a single ventricle. The authors hypothesized that resynchronization with optimized temporary multisite pacing postoperatively would be safe, feasible, and effective. Pacing was assessed in the intensive care unit within the first 24 h after surgery. Two unipolar atrial pacing leads and four bipolar ventricular pacing leads were placed at standardized sites intraoperatively. Pacing was optimized to maximize mean arterial pressure. The protocol tested 11 combinations of the 4 different ventricular lead sites, 6 atrioventricular delays (50-150 ms), and 14 intraventricular delays. Optimal pacing settings were thus determined and ultimately compared in four configurations: bipolar, unipolar, single-site atrioventricular pacing, and intrinsic rhythm. Each patient was his or her own control, and all pacing comparisons were implemented in random sequence. Single-ventricle palliation was performed for 17 children ages 0-21 years. Pacing increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) versus intrinsic rhythm, with the following configurations: bipolar multisite pacing increased MAP by 2.2 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.2 ± 2.4 mmHg; p = 0.013) and unipolar multisite pacing increased MAP by 2.8 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.6 ± 2.7 mmHg; p = 0.002). Atrioventricular single-site pacing increased MAP by 2.1 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.1 ± 2.5 mmHg: p = 0.02, insignificant difference under Bonferroni correction). The echocardiographic fractional area change in nine patients increased significantly only with unipolar pacing (32 ± 3.1 to 36 ± 4.2 %; p = 0.02). No study-related adverse events occurred. Multisite pacing optimization is safe and feasible in the early postoperative period after single-ventricle palliation, with improvements in mean arterial pressure and fractional area shortening. Further study to evaluate clinical benefits is required. PMID:24827078

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Two Pseudoaneurysms Originating From the Left Ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwikiel, Wojciech, E-mail: wcwikiel@gmail.com; Keussen, Inger [Skane University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Sweden); Gustafsson, Ronny; Mokhtari, Arash [Skane University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    A 67-year-old woman resented with an acute type A aortic dissection, which was treated surgically with aortic valve replacement as a composite graft with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. At the end of surgery, a left-ventricular venting catheter was placed through the apex and closed with a buffered suture. Consecutive computed tomography (CT) examinations verified a growing apex pseudoaneurysm. Communication between the ventricle and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully closed with an Amplatz septal plug by the transfemoral route. Follow-up CT showed an additional pseudoaneurysm, which also was successfully closed using the same method.

  14. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voices of UCP blog for the latest updates. United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support ... Our Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 ...

  15. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  16. Cerebral migration of intraocular silicone oil: an MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Milea, Dan; Løgager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    informed consent, the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fat saturation as well as short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequences combined with water saturation allowed silicone oil to be easily detectable. Results: The mean delay between the silicone oil injection and the MRI procedure was...... 115 days. No extraocular silicone oil in the orbit, in the optic nerve or in the cerebral ventricles was found on MRI. Conclusions: This is the first published in vivo study on the frequency of extraocular silicone oil migration after retinal detachment surgery. Special dedicated MRI sequences are...

  17. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  18. [Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle: a report of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, G; Lupia, M; Milano, A; Gribaldo, R

    1993-03-01

    Two cases of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following myocardial infarction are presented. In the first patient a two-dimensional echocardiography study revealed a small posterior echo-free space that appeared to communicate with the left ventricle through a small defect in the left ventricular posterior wall. Conventional Doppler echocardiography and colour flow imaging demonstrated flow between the left ventricle and the paraventricular chamber. In the other patient, the same study detected an enormous false aneurysm. We found a large extramyocardial echo-free space within the pericardial cavity. The site of this space was posterolateral and communicating with the left ventricular cavity. Cardiac catheterization and surgery confirmed the diagnosis. A postoperative echocardiographic study demonstrated a persistent but smaller saccular echo-free space and a residual shunt through one site of repair in the first patient; in the other, after surgical treatment there was no residual flow, but a left ventricular dysfunction was detected. Two dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography is the best technique among the noninvasive methods, for detecting and following up left ventricular pseudoaneurysms. PMID:8325466

  19. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Trung; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale int...

  20. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition in patient with acute leukaemia: unusual involvement of caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 13-year-old girl with leukaemia and Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition. MRI showed unusual bilateral lesions of the caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, as well as typical lesions surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct. After intravenous thiamine, the patient improved, and the abnormalities on MRI disappeared. (orig.)

  1. Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Eddie YK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep and active (Ea elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling.

  2. PBPK model of methotrexate in cerebrospinal fluid ventricles using a combined microdialysis and MRI acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhonneur, Nolwenn; Noury, Fanny; Bruyère, Arnaud; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Le Corre, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the distribution of methotrexate (MTX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lateral ventricles and in cisterna magna after 3rd intraventricular CSF administration in a rabbit model. MTX or gadolinium chelate (Gd-DOTA) was administered in the 3rd ventricle with a local microdialysis to study the pharmacokinetics at the site of administration and with a simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition in the 3rd ventricle, the lateral ventricles and in the cisterna magna. A specific CSF Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was then extrapolated for MTX from Gd-DOTA data. The relative contribution of elimination and distribution processes to the overall disposition of MTX and Gd-DOTA in the 3rd ventricle was similar (i.e., around 60% for CLE and 40% for CLI) suggesting that Gd-DOTA was a suitable surrogate marker for MTX disposition in ventricular CSF. The PBPK predictions for MTX both in CSF of the 3rd ventricle and in plasma were in accordance with the in vivo results. The present study showed that the combination of local CSF microdialysis with MRI acquisition of the brain ventricles and a PBPK model could be a useful methodology to estimate the drug diffusion within CSF ventricles after direct brain CSF administration. Such a methodology would be of interest to clinicians for a rationale determination and optimization of drug dosing parameters in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases. PMID:27142258

  3. Study on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of multiple cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical significance of MRI in thrombotic multiple cerebral infarction was examined in 9 patients having recent lacunar stroke. Recent infarct was identified on Gd-enhanced MRI in 4 patients. For patients multiple small infarction, Gd-enhanced MRI made it possible to differentiate recent from other lesions. To clarify the significance of periventricular high intensity lesion (PVH) on T2-weighted MRI, hemodynamic and neuropsychologic examinations were carried out in 41 patients with multiple cerebral infarction. All the patients had PVH, which was classified into three grades as follows: grade I (n=16) showing only a thin high intensity band along the body of lateral ventricles; grade 2 (n=15) showing a definite high intensity area around the lateral ventricles; grade 3 (n=10) showing diffuse thick and irregular foci around the whole ventricle. In these patients, rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation methods. Initial slope index was significantly higher in patients with grade 3 than those with grade I. Mini-mental state test score was significantly higher in patients with grade l than those with grade 2 and 3. Progression of PVH may be related with the reduction of the cerebral circulation and mental function in cases of multiple cerebral infarction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions can be distinguished by MRI, because old intracerebral hemorrhage appear as hypointensity areas with or without hyperintensity area on T2w images. In 92 patients with multiple infarction, MRI was used to evaluate the incidence and distribution of coexisting old intracerebral hemorrhage. Old hemorrhage were found in 15 patients (16.3%). locating the site where hypertensive hemorrhage commonly occurred. High-field MRI is useful for assessing the coexistence of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with multiple cerebral infarction. (N.K.)

  4. Study on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of multiple cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Kotaro (Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.)

    1991-09-01

    The clinical significance of MRI in thrombotic multiple cerebral infarction was examined in 9 patients having recent lacunar stroke. Recent infarct was identified on Gd-enhanced MRI in 4 patients. For patients multiple small infarction, Gd-enhanced MRI made it possible to differentiate recent from other lesions. To clarify the significance of periventricular high intensity lesion (PVH) on T2-weighted MRI, hemodynamic and neuropsychologic examinations were carried out in 41 patients with multiple cerebral infarction. All the patients had PVH, which was classified into three grades as follows: grade I (n=16) showing only a thin high intensity band along the body of lateral ventricles; grade 2 (n=15) showing a definite high intensity area around the lateral ventricles; grade 3 (n=10) showing diffuse thick and irregular foci around the whole ventricle. In these patients, rCBF was measured by {sup 133}Xe inhalation methods. Initial slope index was significantly higher in patients with grade 3 than those with grade I. Mini-mental state test score was significantly higher in patients with grade l than those with grade 2 and 3. Progression of PVH may be related with the reduction of the cerebral circulation and mental function in cases of multiple cerebral infarction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions can be distinguished by MRI, because old intracerebral hemorrhage appear as hypointensity areas with or without hyperintensity area on T2w images. In 92 patients with multiple infarction, MRI was used to evaluate the incidence and distribution of coexisting old intracerebral hemorrhage. Old hemorrhage were found in 15 patients (16.3%). locating the site where hypertensive hemorrhage commonly occurred. High-field MRI is useful for assessing the coexistence of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with multiple cerebral infarction. (N.K.).

  5. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  6. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  8. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  9. Pallidum and lateral ventricle volume enlargement in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andia H; Greenspan, Kiefer S; van Erp, Theo G M

    2016-06-30

    Studies on structural brain abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been of limited size and many findings have not been replicated. In the largest ASD brain morphology study to date, we compared subcortical, total brain (TBV), and intracranial (ICV) volumes between 472 subjects with DSM-IV ASD diagnoses and 538 healthy volunteers (age range: 6-64 years), obtained from high-resolution structural brain scans provided by the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Compared to healthy volunteers, we found significantly larger pallidum (Cohen's d=0.15) and lateral ventricle volumes (Cohen's d=0.18) in ASD. These enlargements were independent of total brain volume and IQ, passed FDR correction for multiple comparisons, and were observed in overall, male-only, and medication-free subjects. In addition, intracranial, hippocampal, and caudate volumes were enlarged in ASD at a nominal statistical threshold of p<0.05. This study provides the first robust evidence for pallidum enlargement in ASD independent from TBV and encourages further study of the functional role of the pallidum in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27179315

  10. Visualization of Fiber Structure in the Left and Right Ventricle of a Human Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of muscle fibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber tracking techniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration was visualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visual perception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performed using the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shown within the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similar fiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right and left ventricles on the posterior region of the heart

  11. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis ofPdgfcnull mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants forPdgfc(-/-)andPdgfra(GFP/+) These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data onPdgfa,PdgfcandPdgfrain the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  12. A flexible endoscope-assisted interhemispheric transcallosal approach through the contralateral ventricle for the removal of a third ventricle craniopharyngioma: A technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraventricular craniopharyngiomas are difficult to remove. We combined an interhemispheric transcallosal approach with a flexible endoscope (videoscope for successful tumor removal. Case Description: A 52-year-old male complained of general fatigue and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhanced third ventricle mass with dilatation of lateral ventricles. During removal with the interhemispheric transcallosal approach, a videoscope that was inserted into the left lateral ventricle revealed the interface of the tumor and the ventricular wall. The tumor was pushed to the right using forceps and removed totally through the right foramen of Monro without any fornix injury. Conclusion: This procedure is a safe option for removing third ventricular tumors especially in the case with hydrocephalus.

  13. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-shu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  14. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang-shu; Sun, Xuan; Song, Cheng-guang; Mu, Xiao-peng; Ma, Wen-ping; Zhang, Xing-hu; Zhao, Chuan-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  15. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and Tc-99m human serum albumin were used. Cerebral tomographic imaging was performed using a rotating scintillation camera. The values of cerebral haematocrit obtained, taken as a ratio to venous haematocrit, range between 0.65-0.88 in the subjects studied. As a general finding in normal subjects and in patients with transient ischaemic attacks, no significant difference between right and left hemispheric haematocrit value was noted. However, in the group of patients affected with stroke, a significant difference in the right versus left hemispheric Hct was observed in 3 patients, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side. The clinical implication is on the emphasis of cerebral Hct measurement when the measurement of cerebral blood flow or volume is sought. Also the variation in regional Hct value observed in patients with stroke, above mentioned, points to a regulation mechanism of the blood composition for optimal oxygen delivery to the brain that is impaired in these patients. 14 refs. (Author)

  16. Laparoscopic colectomy in an adult with single ventricle physiology: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of adult patients with complex congenital heart conditions are presenting for noncardiac surgery later in life. These disorders can present challenges for surgical and anesthesia providers. Specifically, single ventricle lesions offer anatomic and physiologic concerns during the perioperative period. Single ventricle physiology represents a delicate balance between systemic and pulmonary blood flow. Any alterations in blood flow through these systems can produce undesirable hemodynamic changes, especially during the perioperative period. We present a case of an adult patient with a single left ventricle who presented for laparoscopic total colectomy due to inflammatory bowel disease. His abnormal anatomy coupled with the hemodynamic disruptions caused by laparoscopy presented significant anesthetic challenges. We highlight the anesthetic concerns of single ventricle physiology, specifically pertaining to laparoscopic surgery. We provide recommendations for safely managing these patients perioperatively. With detailed preoperative evaluation and close hemodynamic monitoring during the perioperative period, these patients can experience successful surgical and anesthetic outcomes.

  17. Non-invasive measurement of pressure and volume parameters of left ventricle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume parameters of cardiac function, obtained by gated-blood-pool scintigraphy, were supplemented by the ventricle dimensions and by the medium arterial pressure, measured non-invasively after Riva-Rocci. From this, the systolic effect as a load-dependent parameter of contractility and the global effect of the left ventricle were derived. If the latter is related to the volume effect, information about the relative efficiency of the heart action is obtained. By studying three collectives of patients with different performance abilities of the left ventricle it was shown that, by including the ventricle geometry and the medium arterial pressure, the myocardial contractility can better assessed quantitatively as well as qualitatively and that useful data about the performance economy of the heart can be obtained. (orig.)

  18. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  19. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  20. 3D shape analysis of the brain's third ventricle using a midplane encoded symmetric template model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J; Valdes Hernandez, Maria; Royle, Natalie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Aribisala, Benjamin; Gow, Alan; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna; Park, J.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundStructural changes of the brain's third ventricle have been acknowledged as an indicative measure of the brain atrophy progression in neurodegenerative and endocrinal diseases. To investigate the ventricular enlargement in relation to the atrophy of the surrounding structures, shape analysis is a promising approach. However, there are hurdles in modeling the third ventricle shape. First, it has topological variations across individuals due to the inter-thalamic adhesion. In addition...

  1. A comparative study of contractility of the heart ventricle in some ectothermic vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Kharin; Dmitry Shmakov

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze contractility of the heart ventricle in selected reptilian and amphibian species having the same ventricular excitation pattern. Systolic time intervals and indices of contractility of the heart ventricle were measured in anaesthetized frogs, snakes, and tortoises by use of polycardiography. The electromechanical delay was significantly shorter in tortoises compared with the other two species. The isovolumetric contraction time in frogs was approximate...

  2. Laparoscopic colectomy in an adult with single ventricle physiology: Anesthetic implications and management

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly J Zach; Harish Ramakrishna; Krishnashwamy Chandrasekaran; Ricardo A. Weis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adult patients with complex congenital heart conditions are presenting for noncardiac surgery later in life. These disorders can present challenges for surgical and anesthesia providers. Specifically, single ventricle lesions offer anatomic and physiologic concerns during the perioperative period. Single ventricle physiology represents a delicate balance between systemic and pulmonary blood flow. Any alterations in blood flow through these systems can produce undesirable...

  3. Twin heart with a fused atria and separate ventricles in conjoined twins

    OpenAIRE

    Ambar Sameer; Halkati Prabhu; Patted Suresh; Yavagal S

    2010-01-01

    One of the most interesting congenital malformations is that of conjoined twins. We report echocardiographic features of twin heart in dicephalus, tribrachius, dispinous, thoracoomphalopagus twin. It showed two hearts fused at atrial level. Right-sided heart had single atrial chamber with a single ventricle. A single great vessel, aorta, originated from it. Left-sided heart was well developed with two atria and two ventricles. There was a small mid muscular ventricular septal defect and a sma...

  4. The elusive heart: the right ventricle in chronic abnormal loading conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Borgdorff, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    The right ventricle normally pumps the oxygen-poor blood from the body, towards the lungs, where it is oxygenated. When the function of the right ventricle is insufficient (this is called ‘right ventricular failure’), patients get severe symptoms such as fluid accumulation in the legs, fatigue and shortness of breath. In the majority of patients, right ventricular failure is ultimately lethal. Many different diseases of the heart and blood vessels (congenital heart defects, myocardial infarct...

  5. Profile analysis of ventricle specimen based on a new phase measuring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Xiang, Liqun; Zhang, Qichan; Liu, Yuankun

    2009-08-01

    The size and shape of ventricle are very important to analyze and diagnose pathology of human heart. So it is very necessary to measure the profile of ventricle. It is very difficult to measure the ventricle by vivisectional method for its unique function of heart, so the ventricle specimen is adopted to be measured. Three-dimensional (3D) automatic measurement methods are widely used in many fields. In Biology and Medicine society, it can be applicable for surgery, orthopedics, viscera disease analysis and diagnosis etc. Here a new method to measure the 3D surface of ventricle specimen is proposed. Although the traditional 3D measuing method with equal or stated phase-shifting step length possess excellent accuracy, they are much dependent on the consistency of these phase-shifting step lengths. In fact, this condition is very difficult to guarantee. which may lead to the incorrect wrapped phase and incorrect phase unwrapping in some regions, even the reconstructed object may be misshapen or anamorphic. In the proposed method, a novel improved three undecided step lengths phase-shifting algorithm with three unequal phase-shifting steps has been presented detailed and is applied to measure the profile of ventricle sucssesfully. Experiments show that the improved algorithm can not only effectively improve the measuring accuracy, but also branch out its application.

  6. Extraneuronal accumulation of isoproterenol in atria and ventricle of perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraneuronal accumulation of isoproterenol in atria and ventricle of perfused rat heart was investigated. Rat hearts were perfused with various concentrations of 3H-isoproterenol for 30 min in the absence and the presence of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor (tropolone). When COMT was intact, the accumulation of 3H-isoproterenol in both atria and ventricle after perfusion with low concentration of 3H-isopreterenol was less than that of perfusing concentration; the tissue/medium ratio (T/M) of isoproterenol for atria was lower than that for ventricle. The T/M of isoproterenol after perfusion with 10 and 20 μmol/1 of 3H-isoproterenol were 0.94 and 1.76 for atria and 3.25 and 2.95 for ventricle, respectively. When COMT was inhibited by tropolone, the T/M increased 6.3 - 9.0 folds for atria and 5.1 - 6.7 folds for ventricle after perfusion with 3H-isoproterenol. From these results, it was concluded that both atria and ventricle of the rat heart have an extraneuronal O-methylating system as reported in rat whole heart, and was suggested that there might be different capacities of extraneuronal uptake and COMT between them. 10 references, 1 figure

  7. Two-chambered right ventricle resulting from aberrant muscle bundles: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the Two-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.

  8. Two-chambered right ventricle resulting from aberrant muscle bundles: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. H.; Ko, K. H.; Im, C. K.; Han, M. C.; Chi, J. G [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the {sup T}wo-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.

  9. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The presentation, treatment, and outcome of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (SVT) were studied in 42 children, using neurology clinic records (1986-2005) at Indiana University School of Medicine.

  10. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  11. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  12. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  13. Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Yokoi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.

  14. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process.

  15. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.; Johnston, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothe...

  16. The cranial MRI in severe cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance examination was performed in 38 patients with severe cerebral palsy (CP; 15 males and 23 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move anywhere) and mental retardation (I.Q. or D.Q. below 30). Neuroimaging findings were compared with the CP type, etiology, and grade of understanding of language. Cranial magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) in CP were divided into five types. In type 1, nine predominantly showed cyst-liked ventricles and periventricular hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging (PVH) and only scarred basal ganglia and thalamus were visible. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was rigospastic tetraplegia (RST). In type 2, eleven predominantly showed PVH and hyperintensity on T2-weighted (HT2) in basal ganglia and thalamus. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was RST or rigospastic diplegia. In type 3, five showed PVH and three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was spastic diplegia. In type 4, four predominantly showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia. The clinical type was athetotic CP (ATH). In type 5, nine predominantly showed HT2 in globus pallidus. Four had cortical atrophy and two had hippocampal atrophy. All suffered from neonatal jaundice and the clinical type was ATH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and spastic CP had MRI in PVH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and ATH showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Almost patients who suffered from neonatal jaundice and ATH showed HT2 in globus pallidus. With athetotic CP, cases with atrophy of the cerebral cortex and/or hippocampus were lower grade of understanding of language than no atrophy of both. The results of studies of MRI are in agreement with neuropathological findings. (author)

  17. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butenko, Olena; Benešová, Jana; Mikešová, M.; Honsa, Pavel; Džamba, Dávid; Kriška, Ján; Rusňáková, Vendula; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S207-S207. ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : neuroscience * astrocyte Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti Vitor E; de Abreu Luiz; Sato Monica A; Ferreira Celso; Adami Fernando; Fonseca Fernando LA; Xavier Valdelias; Godoy Moacir; Monteiro Carlos B; Vanderlei Luiz Carlos M; Saldiva Paulo HN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS). M...

  19. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG)

  20. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  1. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  2. CT STUDY COMPARING SULCAL CHANGES AND THIRD VENTRICLE SIZE AS AGE PROGRESSES FROM 40 TO 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinu C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Computerized tomography, also called CT combines a series of X-ray views taken from many different angles and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues inside your body. It has brought about tremendous changes in the field of diagnostic and research medicine. Here CT is used to measure the various dimensions of 6 selected sulci of brain and third ventricle. With the recent advances in technology, sulcal pattern and development is being studied extensively to understand the functioning of brain. There is evidence of sulcal dimensional changes as age of an individual progress. This may be responsible for behavioral or intellectual changes in a individual. Through this study I intend to understand how the sulcal dimension may vary with the help of CT scans. 6 sulci were selected and their width was measured in 80 individuals between the age group of 40 and 80. Through statistical analysis the data will reveal any recognizable changes in the width of the selected sulcus with progression of age. The third ventricle size may also be influenced by the age of the individual. Using the help of CT scan I am intending to measure the dimensions of the third ventricle. Recent studies have shown that size and volume of the third ventricle have significant role in the geriatric population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the age related changes in the width of left and right central sulcus, superior temporal sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus and to study the age related changes in third ventricle depth, length and width through the use of CT scans. STUDY SETTINGS: A cross-sectional study comprising of 60 patients coming to the radiology department for the C T scan. The CT scans for the study were taken randomly between the ages of 40 to 80. RESULTS: The purpose of the study was to study the changes in the dimensions of sulci and the third ventricle of the brain. Hypothesis was that the sulcal width increases

  3. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard; Sina Tamaddonfard; Salar Pourbaba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induce...

  4. Selective pulmonary vasodilation improves ventriculovascular coupling and gas exchange in a patient with unrepaired single-ventricle physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rischard, F.; Vanderpool, R.; Jenkins, I.; Dalabih, M.; Colombo, J.; Lax, D.; Seckeler, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 63-year-old patient with unrepaired tricuspid valve atresia and a hypoplastic right ventricle (single-ventricle physiology) who presented with progressive symptomatic hypoxia. Her anatomy resulted in parallel pulmonary and systemic circulations, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and uncoupling of the ventricle/pulmonary artery. Hemodynamic and coupling data were obtained before and after pulmonary vasoactive treatment, first inhaled nitric oxide and later inhaled treprostinil. Th...

  5. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation suppresses inflammatory responses in global cerebral ischemia:contribution of TNF-α-induced protein 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ming LIN; Shen ZHAO; Li-li ZHOU; Xiang-shao FANG; Yue FU; Zi-tong HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on rat global cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Adult male SD rats underwent asphxial cardiac arrest to induce global cerebral ischemia,then received intravenous injection of 5x106 cultured MSCs of SD rats at 2 h after resuscitation.In another group of cardiac arrest rats,tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 6 (TSG-6,6 μg) was injected into the right lateral ventricle.Functional outcome was assessed at 1,3,and 7 d after resuscitation.Donor MSCs in the brains were detected at 3 d after resuscitation.The level of serum S-1OOB and proinflammatory cytokines in cerebral cortex were assayed using ELISA.The expression of TSG-6 and proinflammatory cytokines in cerebral cortex was assayed using RT-PCR.Western blot was performed to determine the levels of TSG-6 and neutrophil elastase in cerebral cortex.Results:MSCs transplantation significantly reduced serum S-1OOB level,and improved neurological function after global cerebral ischemia compared to the PBS-treated group.The MSCs injected migrated into the ischemic brains,and were observed mainly in the cerebral cortex.Furthermore,MSCs transplantation significantly increased the expression of TSG-6,and reduced the expression of neutrophil elastase and proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebral cortex.Intracerebroventricular injection of TSG-6 reproduced the beneficial effects of MSCs transplantation in rats with global cerebral ischemia.Conclusion:MSCs transplantation improves functional recovery and reduces inflammatory responses in rats with global cerebral ischemia,maybe via upregulation of TSG-6 expression.

  7. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the...... radical scavenger α-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial...

  8. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W;

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types of...... migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do not...

  9. Cerebral abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral abscess (CA) is a focal, infectious process only or multiple, located in the cerebral parenchyma that produces tisular lysis and it behaves like a lesion of space occupative, being a suppurative illness, who origin is a distant infection, or for continuity that studies initially as an area of focal cerebritis and it is developed to a collection surrounded purulent. At the moment they are perfecting technical and protocols diagnoses and therapeutic and measures for allow to control the natural history of the illness, making from the confrontation to this pathology a necessarily interdisciplinary complicated art, stiller in the infantile population, due to their difficulty in the diagnosis and the relevance of the same one. The paper includes epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, localization, pathology, clinic, diagnoses, treatment and diagnostic images

  10. Multimodality cardiac imaging of a double chambered right ventricle with intrapulmonary shunting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kha Lan-Chau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double chambered right ventricle (DCRV is a relatively rare congenital heart disease, characterized by the abnormal division of the right ventricle into a high-pressure inlet and low-pressure outlet by anomalous muscle bundles. Extra-cardiac right-to-left shunts may present with clinical symptoms in adulthood and should be sought in patients with previous cavo-pulmonary shunt procedures. Case presentation We report a case of DCRV in a 29 year old Caucasian male presenting in adulthood with a right-to-left shunt secondary to venous collaterals, following cavopulmonary anastomosis for congenital pulmonary atresia and hypoplastic right ventricle. Conclusion Multimodality cardiac imaging using echocardiography, cardiac CT, cardiac MRI and cardiac catheterization is often required for complete characterization of complex congenital heart anomalies in adulthood.

  11. Unexpected death after headache due to a colloid cyst of the third ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twaij Zuhair

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are rare benign intracranial non-neoplastic cysts. Headache is the most common symptom. We present a case of sudden death due to colloid cyst in a 17 year old female who had symptoms of intermittent headaches. Case presentation A 17 year old female presented with intermittent mild headaches for a period of two years. She complained of severe headache in the night and was found unresponsive the next morning. Resuscitation team was called on site but the patient was already dead. At post mortem examination a dilated ventricular system was found with a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Conclusion This report highlights the difficulty in the diagnosis and importance of recognizing colloid cyst of the third ventricle which should be in the differential diagnosis of headaches in children and young adults and of hydrocephalus at autopsy

  12. Retrospective analyses of super acute cerebral infarction on plain CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the diagnostic value of plain CT scan on super acute cerebral infarction. Method 23 patients were retrospective studied, which were confirmed suffering from super acute cerebral infarction. CT scans were performed within 6 hours after onset. TCT-300SCT was used, with slice thickness and distance 10mm. Results 14 patients showed cerebral shape abnormal on CT imaging. Among them, 4 patients showed locally narrowed or disappeared sulci, 8 patients displayed cistern asymmetry of both sides, 2 patients showed lateral ventricle distortion, 5 patients showed slight lower density, 6 cases showed blurry basal nuclei structure. 7 patients showed normal on CT scans. Only 7 patients were diagnosed as super acute cerebral infarction, with the accurate ratio 30.43%. Conclusion: Brain edema and blurry basal nuclei structure are very important features for diagnosing super acute cerebral infarction on plain CT scan, but these features are easily ignored. So we should pay more attention to the CT exhibitions combined with clinical information in order to diagnose correctly and provide useful information for clinical treatment. (authors)

  13. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  14. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  15. Imaging manifestation of cerebral gumma: report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma. Methods: Three cases of surgically proved cerebral gumma were analyzed. All patients had history of ultra-marriage sexual life, and the laboratory tests, including the serums and/or the cerebrospinal fluid test, highly indicated the diagnosis of syphilis. Pathological results demonstrated cerebral gumma after operation. Results: On CT scan, case 1 showed a 5.0 cm x 3.5 cm hypo-density area at left temporal lobe with obvious mass effect, and post-contrast CT scan revealed a rim enhancement. MR scanning was not performed. In case 2, a mixture lesion was detected on right frontal lobe on pre-contrast CT scan, and spot-like central enhancement and mild mass effect were demonstrated on postcontrast CT scan. Pre-contrast T1WI showed 2 round lesions situated at right frontal lobe (1.5 cm in diameter) and right periventricular areas (1.0 cm in diameter), separately, which showed iso-signal on T1WI and hyper-signal on T2WI, and ring-like enhancement with slight compression of the right lateral ventricle. In case 3, CT plain scan demonstrated multiple hypo-dense lesions, most of the lesions located on both frontal lobe and left temporal lobe, and enhanced CT scan was not performed. MR imaging revealed many nodule and mass lesions with hypo-signal on T1WI and hyper-signal on T2WI, located on both hemispheres with nodular or circular enhancement after injection of contrast media. Conclusion: The imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma were nonspecific. Thus, the preoperational diagnosis should be made combining the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data

  16. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  17. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  18. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. I. The ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the heart in three species of hagfish: Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus and report about the morphology of the ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta. On the whole, the hagfish heart lacks outflow tract components, the ventricle and atrium adopt a dorso-caudal rather than a ventro-dorsal relationship, and the sinus venosus opens into the left side of the atrium. This may indicate a "defective" cardiac looping during embryogenesis. The ventral aorta is elongated in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii but sac-like in E. cirrhatus. The ventricles are entirely trabeculated. The myocytes show a low myofibrillar content and junctional complexes formed by fascia adherens and desmosomes. Gap junctions could not be demonstrated. Myocardial cells in M. glutinosa contain numerous lipid droplets. These droplets are less numerous in E. stoutii and practically absent in E. cirrhatus, suggesting different metabolic requirements. Other cell types present in the ventricle are chromaffin cells and granular leukocytes that contain rod-shaped granules. The ventricle-aorta connection is guarded by a bicuspid valve with left and right, pocket-like leaflets. The leaflets extend from the cranial end of the ventricle into the aorta but the junction is asymmetrical. This junction contains a ganglion-like structure in E. cirrhatus. The ventral aorta shows endothelial, media, and adventitial layers. The media contains smooth muscle cells surrounded by dense bands formed by tightly-packed extracellular filaments. In addition, a short number of elastic fibers are observed in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii. Cellular and extracellular elements are more loosely organized in the aorta of E. cirrhatus. The collagenous adventitia contains ganglion-like cells in the three species. In the absence of nerves, chromaffin and ganglion-like cells may control the activity of the myocardium and that of the aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. PMID

  19. A clinical case of a patient with probable cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL from Chuvashia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vladimirovna Mokina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL syndrome is a congenital small-vessel disease running with recurrent lacunar infarcts and leading to gradually progressive subcortical, pseudobulbar, and cerebellar syndromes and dementia. Neuroimaging reveal multiple lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia, thalamus, pons Varolii, and cerebral hemispheric white matter, as well as cerebral atrophy. The specific feature of the disease is white matter lesion adjacent to the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles and to the external capsules. The paper describes a patient with CADASIL syndrome. The latter runs a progressive course and includes the following neurological disorders: cognitive, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and axial ones. This clinical case was differentially diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, including with consideration for neuroimaging findings. The CADASIL syndrome is a rare potentially menacing neurological condition that is observed in young patients and requires a detailed examination using current diagnostic techniques.

  20. Using a new computer system for the nuclear determination of the left-ventricle volume curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are used with growing success for an early detection of coronary diseases. After sequential scintiscanning of the first passage of the applied tracer, diagnostic parameters of the time-volume curves of the left ventricle are determiend. The time-volume curves are determined interactively on-screen using the conventional ROI technique. Coronary heart diseases lead to a significant reduction of the output fraction of the left ventricle as well as of its maximum emptying and filling time. The advantages of the method as compared to quantitative laevocardiography are described. (ORU)

  1. Myoarchitecture and vasculature of the heart ventricle in some freshwater teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, K; Vicentini, C A; Orsi, A M; Cruz, C

    2002-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of the ventricular myocardium and of coronary vascularization were studied in three freshwater teleost species, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish), by correlating their ventricular shapes and swimming habits. In Piaractus mesopotamicus and Colossoma macropomum, species with highly active swimming habits, the cardiac ventricle showed a pyramidal shape and a richly vascularized myocardium consisting of an outer compact layer and inner spongy layer. In Clarias gariepinus, a less active species, we observed a saccular ventricle with a mixed myocardium and coronary arteries, in contrast to the ventricular structure of other species described in the literature. PMID:12090393

  2. Twin heart with a fused atria and separate ventricles in conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting congenital malformations is that of conjoined twins. We report echocardiographic features of twin heart in dicephalus, tribrachius, dispinous, thoracoomphalopagus twin. It showed two hearts fused at atrial level. Right-sided heart had single atrial chamber with a single ventricle. A single great vessel, aorta, originated from it. Left-sided heart was well developed with two atria and two ventricles. There was a small mid muscular ventricular septal defect and a small patent ductus arteriosus. Great arteries had normal origins.

  3. COMPARISON OF ENALAPRIL AND PERINDOPRIL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. I. Grinshtein; O. L. Barbarash; D. A. Yakhontov; A. E. Popelysheva; V. V. Shabalin; N. B. Osetrova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare efficacy of enalapril and perindopril in patients with arterial hypertension (HT) and left ventricle systolic dysfunction.Material and methods. Patients (n=51) with HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction<45%) were included in the prospective open randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of therapy with enalapril 10-20 mg BID (n=25) or with perindopril 4-8 mg OD (n=26). Hydrochlorothiazide (12,5-25 mg OD) was added in case o...

  4. 3D shape analysis of the brain's third ventricle using a midplane encoded symmetric template model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeil; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Gow, Alan J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Park, Jinah

    2016-01-01

    Background Structural changes of the brain's third ventricle have been acknowledged as an indicative measure of the brain atrophy progression in neurodegenerative and endocrinal diseases. To investigate the ventricular enlargement in relation to the atrophy of the surrounding structures, shape analysis is a promising approach. However, there are hurdles in modeling the third ventricle shape. First, it has topological variations across individuals due to the inter-thalamic adhesion. In addition, as an interhemispheric structure, it needs to be aligned to the midsagittal plane to assess its asymmetric and regional deformation. Method To address these issues, we propose a model-based shape assessment. Our template model of the third ventricle consists of a midplane and a symmetric mesh of generic shape. By mapping the template's midplane to the individuals’ brain midsagittal plane, we align the symmetric mesh on the midline of the brain before quantifying the third ventricle shape. To build the vertex-wise correspondence between the individual third ventricle and the template mesh, we employ a minimal-distortion surface deformation framework. In addition, to account for topological variations, we implement geometric constraints guiding the template mesh to have zero width where the inter-thalamic adhesion passes through, preventing vertices crossing between left and right walls of the third ventricle. The individual shapes are compared using a vertex-wise deformity from the symmetric template. Results Experiments on imaging and demographic data from a study of aging showed that our model was sensitive in assessing morphological differences between individuals in relation to brain volume (i.e. proxy for general brain atrophy), gender and the fluid intelligence at age 72. It also revealed that the proposed method can detect the regional and asymmetrical deformation unlike the conventional measures: volume (median 1.95 ml, IQR 0.96 ml) and width of the third

  5. A double-chambered left ventricle in a patient with palpitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 28 years old male patient was admitted to the department of cardiology after an episode of atypical chest pain, exertional dyspnea and palpitation on exercise. He was a chronic smoker and was smoking about 15 cigarettes per day, but had no family history of early heart disease. The echocardiography demonstrated the presence of an abnormal chamber in close contact to the left ventricle that followed systole and diastole. The coronary angiography was normal and the left ventriculography showed a double-chambered left ventricle. Theradionuclide ventriculography confirmed the presence of two separate chambers that communicate with each other and the ejection fraction obtained was 43%. (author)

  6. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Xu He; Feng-jun Deng; Jin-wen Ge; Xiao-xin Yan; Ai-hua Pan; Zhi-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ische...

  7. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Cerebral Scintigraphy in the Child and Nursing Infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cerebral scintigraphy are less favourable in the case of cerebral tumours in children than in that of adults. The reason for this is the high frequency in children of tumours of the brain stem, the pituitary and the third ventricle, the detectability of which is low. However, very good results were obtained in the case of 35 tumours of the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle as a result of using very rigorous techniques. Excellent results have also been obtained with other surgical lesions, such as chronic subdural haematoma in the nursing infant and vascular malformations. In conditions not amenable to neurosurgery definitely false results were the exception. Lastly, the authors present the initial results of a study of the cerebral cisterns and ventricles. They emphasize the abundance of information supplied by these scintigraphic methods and their great utility for the neurosurgeon. (author)

  9. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  10. Feasibility of conductance catheter-derived pressure–volume loops to investigate ventricular mechanics in shunted single ventricles

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Ryan J.; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Baker, G. Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    We present pressure–volume loops obtained from two patients with single-ventricle physiology, one with a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt and one with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt. The dissimilarities in pressure–volume loop contour and related indices highlight potentially important differences in ventricular mechanics between the shunt types.

  11. A comparative study of contractility of the heart ventricle in some ectothermic vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kharin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze contractility of the heart ventricle in selected reptilian and amphibian species having the same ventricular excitation pattern. Systolic time intervals and indices of contractility of the heart ventricle were measured in anaesthetized frogs, snakes, and tortoises by use of polycardiography. The electromechanical delay was significantly shorter in tortoises compared with the other two species. The isovolumetric contraction time in frogs was approximately twofold longer than in reptiles. The pre-ejection period was the longest in frogs and the shortest in tortoises, whereas snakes were intermediate. The ejection time was slightly longer in tortoises compared with the other two species. The greatest isovolumetric contraction index and the smallest myocardial tension index corresponded to the frog and tortoise heart ventricle, respectively. The intrasystolic index in tortoises was significantly greater than in frogs, whereas quite similar to that in snakes. The frog ventricle had lower contractility compared with the reptilian one. Although ventricular contractility tended to be lower in snakes compared with tortoises, this difference was not statistically significant. Possible causes for these differences are discussed. We suppose a large variety in ventricular contractility among amphibian and reptilian species having the same ventricular activation pattern. This variety may be conditioned by heart anatomy, intracardiac shunting, lifestyles, and habitats. It can only be hypothesized that on the average, ventricular contractility is higher in reptiles compared with amphibians and in chelonians compared with snakes.

  12. Blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, with intrapericardial rupture of the diaphragm: successful surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Y P; Herve, L; Cardon, J M; Boutboul, R; Bricot, R

    1981-07-01

    The authors report a case of chest injury causing rupture of the right ventricle and diaphragm, discovered during laparotomy for haemoperitoneum. This type of injury to the heart has rarely been cited in the literature since survival rates are low and the diagnosis often overlooked. PMID:7319634

  13. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting. PMID:25595611

  14. Study of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI. Materials and methods: Nine patients with intraventricular cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in all cases. All of these patients were examined systematically before the operation and studied with CSF cinema MRI in mid sagittal section and finger-gated scan technique. Results: (1) The path of CSF flow was directly displayed. All cysticercosis presented as a filling defect, and a cyst with a smooth wall. (2) The ventricular compliance was normal in cysticercosis. (3) The cysticercosis in active stage was free in the fourth ventricle and could be rolled over, its shape might change slightly within a cardiac cycle. In the degenerative stage, its wall could adhere to the ependyma and obstruct the CSF flow. Conclusion: CSF cinema MRI can demonstrate the degree of obstruction and pattern of CSF flow in cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle, thereby providing useful information for proper management

  15. Left ventricle shortening fraction: a comparison between euploid and trisomy 21 fetuses in the first trimester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calda, P.; Břešťák, M.; Tomek, V.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Sonek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 368-371. ISSN 0197-3851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : trisomy 21 * first trimester * shortening fraction of the left ventricle Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2010

  16. Long-term benefits of exercise training in patients with a systemic right ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, T. van der; Winter, M.M.; Knaake, J.L.; Cervi, E.; Vries, L.S. de; Balducci, A.; Meregalli, P.G.; Pieper, P.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bonvicini, M.; Mulder, B.J.; Bouma, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to determine the long-term effects of a ten-week exercise training program in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle. METHODS: All patients who participated in a 2009 randomized controlled trial were approached. At approximately three years of foll

  17. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle. Duri

  18. Perforation of the Right Ventricle as a Complication of Pericardiocentesis: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Milovan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial effusion represents the accumulation of larger amounts of fluid in the pericardial cavity. If not timely diagnosed and adequately treated, it can lead to cardiac tamponade. The treatment of pericardial effusion includes primarily the use of drugs like aspirin, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and/or colchicine followed by invasive procedures such as pericardiocentesis or pericardiectomy. Pericardiocentesis complications are extremely rare but very serious especially in the case of the rupture of the right ventricle or the coronary arteries. Patient S.V, born in 1938, from Svrljig, was examined because of suffocating and swollen shin. The medical reports showed that the patient previously had had a permanent pacemaker implanted and that he had undergone a triple coronary artery bridging. Medical reports also showed that two months before the examination he was hospitalized due to pericardial effusion at the reference institution. The ultrasonographic examination registered large circular effusion with the motion of the right ventricle and the patient underwent urgent pericardiocentesis. During pericardiocentesis, the rupture of the right ventricle occurred and the patient was sent to the cardiac surgery clinic where he had catheter extraction performed. The control ultrasound examination of the heart showed no pericardial effusion, and no signs of damage to the right ventricle.

  19. Ranolazine reduces remodeling of the right ventricle and provoked arrhythmias in rats with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, John T; Hoyer, Kirsten; Oliver, Jason; Chi, Liguo; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that often results in right ventricular (RV) failure and death. During disease progression, structural and electrical remodeling of the right ventricle impairs pump function, creates proarrhythmic substrates, and triggers for arrhythmias. Notably, RV failure and lethal arrhythmias are major contributors to cardiac death in patients with PAH that are not directly addressed by currently available therapies. Ranolazine (RAN) is an antianginal, anti-ischemic drug that has cardioprotective effects in experimental and clinical settings of left-sided heart dysfunction. RAN also has antiarrhythmic effects due to inhibition of the late sodium current in cardiomyocytes. We therefore hypothesized that RAN could reduce the maladaptive structural and electrical remodeling of the right ventricle and could prevent triggered ventricular arrhythmias in the monocrotaline rat model of PAH. Indeed, in both in vivo and ex vivo experimental settings, chronic RAN treatment reduced electrical heterogeneity (right ventricular-left ventricular action potential duration dispersion), shortened heart-rate corrected QT intervals in the right ventricle, and normalized RV dysfunction. Chronic RAN treatment also dose-dependently reduced ventricular hypertrophy, reduced circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, and decreased the expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, the acute administration of RAN prevented isoproterenol-induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and subsequent cardiovascular death in rats with established PAH. These results support the notion that RAN can improve the electrical and functional properties of the right ventricle, highlighting its potential benefits in the setting of RV impairment. PMID:25770134

  20. VACTERL association with double-chambered left ventricle: A rare occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Al-Farqani; Prashanth Panduranga; Salim Al-Maskari; Eapen Thomas

    2013-01-01

    VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects of unknown etiology derived from structures of embryonic mesoderm. The common cardiac defects seen with VACTERL association are ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot. We present a 2-year-old child with VACTERL association in whom we detected double-chambered left ventricle on transthoracic echocardiography.

  1. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  2. Two different gene loci related to the spatial patterning of brain ventricle in vertebrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Minna; LI Bingxia; TONG Ying; ZHAO Shufang; LUO Chen

    2007-01-01

    Observations on living embryonic brains and the microstructure of brain ventricle of goldfish revealed that there are two brain ventricle phenotypes in gynogenetic haploid embryos. One phenotype is as normal as that of the control inbreeding diploid embryos,which has normal differentiated forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Another phenotype is obviously abnormal, the brain patterning is irregular, and no distinct brain ventricle can be observed. The ratio of haploid embryos with normal brain pattern to that with abnormal brain pattern is 1:3. This ratio indicates that there are two gene loci involved in the spatial patterning of the brain ventricle. Since the possibility that deleterious recessive mutant alleles exist on both of the two gene loci had been excluded in this experiment, the phenotype represented the expressional state rather than the genotype of these two genes. Therefore, the ratio of 1∶ 3 suggests that the expressing probability for each copy of the two genes is 50%, and the regulatory mechanism of the expression is based on two sets of chromosomes, controlled by the rule of the diploid-dependent regulatory mechanism.

  3. Suprasellar seeding of a benign choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle with local recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irsutti, M.; Thorn-Kany, M.; Arrue, P.; Manelfe, C. [Service de Neuro-Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Toulouse (France); Richaud, J.; Sol, J.C. [Service de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Delisle, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, Toulouse (France)

    2000-09-01

    A suprasellar location of a benign choroid plexus papilloma is reported. Local recurrence within the fourth ventricle was also present, 8 years after apparently complete removal. Imaging and histological findings were similar to those of the initial lesion. At surgery, the suprasellar lesion had no connection with the ventricular system. Seeding of choroid plexus papillomas is discussed, and the pertinent literature reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Statistical 3D shape analysis of gender differences in lateral ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Karpman, Dmitriy; Duan, Ye

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at analyzing gender differences in the 3D shapes of lateral ventricles, which will provide reference for the analysis of brain abnormalities related to neurological disorders. Previous studies mostly focused on volume analysis, and the main challenge in shape analysis is the required step of establishing shape correspondence among individual shapes. We developed a simple and efficient method based on anatomical landmarks. 14 females and 10 males with matching ages participated in this study. 3D ventricle models were segmented from MR images by a semiautomatic method. Six anatomically meaningful landmarks were identified by detecting the maximum curvature point in a small neighborhood of a manually clicked point on the 3D model. Thin-plate spline was used to transform a randomly selected template shape to each of the rest shape instances, and the point correspondence was established according to Euclidean distance and surface normal. All shapes were spatially aligned by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Hotelling T2 twosample metric was used to compare the ventricle shapes between males and females, and False Discovery Rate estimation was used to correct for the multiple comparison. The results revealed significant differences in the anterior horn of the right ventricle.

  5. Determination of Three-Dimensional Left Ventricle Motion to Analyze Ventricular Dyssyncrony in SPECT Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Aarre, Ann Kirstine Hummelgaard; Clemmesen, Karen-Louise;

    2010-01-01

    A method to compute three-dimension (3D) left ventricle (LV) motion and its color coded visualization scheme for the qualitative analysis in SPECT images is proposed. It is used to investigate some aspects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). The method was applied to 3D gated-SPECT images...

  6. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  7. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  8. Recovery of the 3-D shape of the left ventricle from echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppini, G; Poli, R; Valli, G

    1995-01-01

    A computational method is reported which allows the fully automated recovery of the three-dimensional shape of the cardiac left ventricle from a reduced set of apical echo views. Two typically ill-posed problems have been faced: 1) the detection of the left ventricle contours in each view, and 2) the integration of the detected contour points (which form a sparse and partially inconsistent data set) into a single surface representation. The authors' solution to these problems is based on a careful integration of standard computer vision algorithms with neural networks. Boundary detection comprises three steps: edge detection, edge grouping, and edge classification. The first and second steps (which are typical early-vision tasks not involving specific domain-knowledge) have been performed through fast, well-established algorithms of computer vision. The higher level task of left ventricle-edge discrimination, which involves the exploitation of specific knowledge about the left ventricle silhouette, has been performed by feedforward neural networks. Following the most recent results in the field of computer vision, the first step in solving the problem of recovering the ventricle surface has been the adoption of a physically inspired model of it. Basically, the authors have modeled the left ventricle surface as a closed, thin, elastic surface and the data as a set of radial springs acting on it. The recovery process is equivalent to the settling of the surface-plus-springs system into a stable configuration of minimum potential energy. The finite element discretization of this model leads directly to an analog neural-network implementation. The efficiency of such an implementation has been remarkably enhanced through a learning algorithm which embeds specific knowledge about the shape of the left ventricle in the network. Experiments using clinical echographic sequences are described. Four apical views (each with a different rotation of the probe) have been acquired

  9. Fisiopatología del ventrículo derecho Right ventricle pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN CAVIEDES S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El ventrículo derecho (VD ha sido tradicionalmente poco valorado, al concentrarse la investigación y el tratamiento de la patología cardíaca en el comportamiento del ventrículo izquierdo (VI. Desde antiguo se suponía que la importancia funcional del VD era secundaria y poco determinante. En el ámbito de las Enfermedades Respiratorias, el concepto de falla cardíaca derecha derivada de patología pulmonar o corazón pulmonar, ha estado siempre vigente, sin embargo, la limitación para efectuar las técnicas de estudio cardíaco, mantuvo distante la información disponible sobre el VD. En los últimos cinco años, ha habido un renovado interés en incrementar el conocimiento sobre el VD, produciéndose cambios significativos en lo conceptual, en los métodos de estudio y en las proyecciones de tratamiento. En este artículo revisaremos conceptos fisiopatológicos recientes, basados en publicaciones actualizadas sobre los mecanismos y patologías que comprometen el VD. Esta cavidad es marcadamente diferente del VI, tanto en su origen, como en su anatomía, función y capacidad de recuperación. Es tributario de la circulación pulmonar y dependiente de la patología respiratoria, la que es capaz de dañarlo. Además, la precarga del ventrículo izquierdo es de su dependencia, convirtiéndolo en un componente importante de su patología y de su capacidad de respuesta.Right ventricle has traditionally been underemphasized considering the amount of information and investigation about the left ventricle, its pathologies and treatments. Old physiological concepts considered right ventricle as a secondary organ without significance in cardiovascular pathology. The scope of respiratory diseases usually deals with heart involvement or cor pulmonale secondary to pulmonary diseases. Nevertheless, the limited availability of cardiac techniques to evaluate right ventricle has restricted the information about its physiological behavior and diseases. In

  10. Evaluation of the cerebral ventricular system and cortical sulci associated with aging on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was attempted to establish a relationship between normal values and aging process of cerebral ventricular size and cortical sulci on computed tomography. A total of two hundred and fifty-eight cases of 126 males and 132 females was selected. The width of the fourth ventricle increased significantly in the fourth decade comparing with in the third decade. The width of the third ventricle increased significantly in the fourth decade compaing with in the third decade at the hypothalamic level and also in the sixth decade comparing with in the fifth decade at the thalamic level. The width of the anterior horn and the body of the lateral ventricles increased gradually with age, and showed a significant increase in the sixth decade comparing with in the fifth decade. The number of cortical sulci increased gradually with age, and increased significantly in the seventh decade comparing with in the sixth decade, especially in the occipital areas. The cortical sulci started to appear initially in the frontal areas during the second decade, subsequently in the central during the third decade and finally in both the parietal and occipital areas during the fourth decade. The width of the cortical sulci was less than 4.5 mm under the fifth decade. It did not exeed 6.2 mm in all of the cases, though widening gradually with age over the fifth decade. (J.P.N.)

  11. Cerebral infarction showed hyperperfusion pattern on radionuclide cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients of middle cerebral infarctin showed hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and fan-shape accumulation at the area of middle cerebral artery on early and delayed brain scan. In these patients, bone scanning agents such as sup(99m)Tc-EHDP or sup(99m)Tc-MDP also prominently accumulated at the area of infarction. These findings were observed on the study when it was performed within seventeen days after attack, but reexamination tended to show normal or decreased perfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and improve abnormal accumulation on brain scans. The clinical diagnosis of these three patients were cerebral embolism with heart disease, but one patient was internal carotid artery occlusion. The prognosis of all patients were very good. The hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography of these patients represents the luxury perfusion in the lesion and these infarction has been called hot stroke by Yarnell et al. (author)

  12. PET measurements of cerebral metabolism corrected for CSF contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three subjects have been studied with PET and anatomic imaging (proton-NMR and/or CT) in order to determine the effect of cerebral atrophy on calculations of metabolic rates. Subgroups of neurologic disease investigated include stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, psychosis, and dementia. Anatomic images were digitized through a Vidicon camera and analyzed volumetrically. Relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue were calculated. Preliminary analysis suggests that ventricular volumes as determined by NMR and CT are similar, while sulcal volumes are larger on NMR scans. Metabolic rates (18F-FDG) were calculated before and after correction for CSF spaces, with initial focus upon dementia and normal aging. Correction for atrophy led to a greater increase (%) in global metabolic rates in demented individuals (18.2 +- 5.3) compared to elderly controls (8.3 +- 3.0,p < .05). A trend towards significantly lower glucose metabolism in demented subjects before CSF correction was not seen following correction for atrophy. These data suggest that volumetric analysis of NMR images may more accurately reflect the degree of cerebral atrophy, since NMR does not suffer from beam hardening artifact due to bone-parenchyma juxtapositions. Furthermore, appropriate correction for CSF spaces should be employed if current resolution PET scanners are to accurately measure residual brain tissue metabolism in various pathological states

  13. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures

  14. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan B; Nance E; Johnston MV; Kannan R; Kannan S

    2013-01-01

    Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the...

  15. Cerebral palsy and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Haak, Peterson; Lenski, Madeleine; HIDECKER, MARY JO COOLEY; Li, Min; Paneth, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common major disabling motor disorder of childhood, is frequently thought of as a condition that affects only children. Deaths in children with CP, never common, have in recent years become very rare, unless the child is very severely and multiply disabled. Thus, virtually all children assigned the diagnosis of CP will survive into adulthood. Attention to the adult with CP has been sparse, and the evolution of the motor disorder as the individual moves through ad...

  16. Osteopenia in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, N J; White, C. P.; Fraser, W. D.; ROSENBLOOM, L.

    1994-01-01

    The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was assessed in nine non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy combined with measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and urinary calcium excretion. Three children with recurrent fractures received treatment with bisphosphonates for periods ranging from 12-18 months. All the children demonstrated a severe reduction in bone mineral density even when allowance was made for their body weight. There were no consistent abnormaliti...

  17. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  18. Plasticidad cerebral y lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Torres Sánchez, Ignacio; Berthier Torres, Marcelo Luís

    2012-01-01

    Hace pocos años se daba por sentado que la recuperación del lenguaje tras una lesión cerebral era imposible, al igual que adquirir la lengua materna más allá de los tres primeros años de vida. Sin embargo, las últimas indagaciones muestran que nuestra capacidad de aprender es mucho mayor.

  19. Dysphagia in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Salghetti, Annamaria; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Feeding problemsare often present in children with neuromotor impairment: dysphagia is usuallyseen in the most severe form of cerebral palsy and it’s defined as thedifficulty with any of the four phases of swallowing. Clinical consequences aremalnutrition and recurrent chest infections that reduce expected duration andquality of life. In order to prevent these consequences it’s important todetect with clinical and instrumental examinations dysphagia symptoms and totreat them. Clinic...

  20. Perfusion MRI in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the hemodynamic changes in patients with acute cerebral stroke by perfusion MRI. Materials and methods: In 12 patients with acute stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, perfusion MRI was performed. Peak time, mean transit time, regional cerebral blood volume and regional cerebral blood flow were calculated in the infarction, the peri-infarction area and the contralateral hemisphere. Results: In the infarction the mean blood flow was 29 ml/100 g/min, compared to about 40 ml/100 g/min in the peri-infarction area and the contralateral hemisphere. In two patients increased cortical blood flow was found in the infarction due to luxury perfusion. The cerebral blood volume was reduced in the infarction, but significantly increased, to 7.3 ml/100 g, in the peri-infarction tissue. Conclusion: Perfusion MRI allows one to differentiate various patterns of perfusion disorders in patients with acute cerebral stroke. (orig./AJ)

  1. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H;

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2 the......This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon...... contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...

  2. [Insomnia and cerebral hypoperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára

    2007-11-18

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century. PMID:17988972

  3. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyRichardBain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  4. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  6. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response on...... cerebral vessels....

  7. Proliferation and Glia-Directed Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone of the Lateral Ventricle and the Migratory Pathway to the Lesions after Cortical Devascularization of Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Bai, Hua-Jing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Tian, Mo; Wang, Yong-Xue; Niu, Xin; Si, Yin-Chu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cortical devascularization on the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rats. 60 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and devascularized group. At 15 and 30 days after cerebral cortices were devascularized, rats were euthanized and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The number of PCNA-, Vimentin-, and GFAP-positive cells in the bilateral SVZ of the lateral wall and the superior wall of the lateral ventricles of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The area density of PCNA-, Vimentin-, and GFAP-positive cells in cortical lesions of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). PCNA-, GFAP-, and Vimentin-positive cells in the SVZ migrated through the rostral migratory stream (RMS), and PCNA-, GFAP-, and Vimentin-positive cells from both the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsolateral SVZ (dl-SVZ) migrated into the corpus callosum (CC) and accumulated, forming a migratory pathway within the CC to the lesioned site. Our study suggested that cortical devascularization induced proliferation, glia-directed differentiation, and migration of NSCs from the SVZ through the RMS or directly to the corpus callosum and finally migrating radially to cortical lesions. This may play a significant role in neural repair. PMID:27294116

  8. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the lateral ventricle in a patient with neurofibromatosis 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S; Achan, A; Ng, T; Dexter, M A J

    2012-08-01

    We report a 33-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) with a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) in the lateral ventricle. The patient had been treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for a typical juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the hypothalamus seven years prior. MRI revealed a contrast-enhancing mass in the anterior horn of the left lateral ventricle. Histological examination demonstrated two distinct regions characterised by a rosette-forming neurocytic component and an astrocytic predominant component. Immunohistochemical studies showed glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 positivity in the astrocytic component and neuron-specific enolase was positive in the neurocytic cells. Although RGNT has been reported at other sites within the central nervous system, this report documents a previously undescribed lateral ventricular location of a rare RGNT in an asymptomatic patient with NF-1. PMID:22613490

  9. A novel type of self-beating cardiomyocytes in adult mouse ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the presence of resident heart cells that are distinct from terminally-differentiated cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse heart was coronary perfused with collagenase, and ventricles were excised and further digested. After spinning cardiomyocyte-containing fractions down, the supernatant fraction was collected and cultured without adding any chemicals. Two to five days after plating, some of rounded cells adhered to the culture dish, gradually changed their shape and then started self-beating. These self-beating cells did not appreciably proliferate but underwent a further morphological maturation process to form highly branched shapes with many projections. These cells were mostly multinucleated, well sarcomeric-organized and expressed cardiac marker proteins, defined as atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs). Patch-clamp experiments revealed that ACMs exhibited spontaneous action potentials arising from the preceding slow diastolic depolarization. We thus found a novel type of resident heart cells in adult cardiac ventricles that spontaneously develop into self-beating cardiomyocytes.

  10. Complete transposition of the great arteries with double outlet right ventricle in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, S T; LeBlanc, N L; Scollan, K F; Sisson, D D

    2016-06-01

    A 2-year old intact male Collie dog presented to the cardiology service at Oregon State University for evaluation of cyanosis and suspected congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography revealed a constellation of cardiac abnormalities including a single large vessel exiting the right ventricle with a diminutive left ventricular outflow tract, a ventricular septal defect, and marked concentric right ventricular hypertrophy with moderate right atrial dilation. Cardiac-gated computed tomography confirmed the previous anomalies in addition to supporting a diagnosis of complete transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and pulmonic hypoplasia with a single coronary ostium. Prominent bronchoesophageal collateral vessels were concurrently identified. Clinically, the dog was stable despite mild cyanosis that worsened with exercise; no intervention was elected at the time. This case report describes a rare combination of congenital cardiac defects and the usefulness of cardiac-gated cross-sectional imaging in the anatomic diagnosis. PMID:26936424

  11. Aspiration of coagulated hematoma in the third and fourth ventricles via paracele anterior horn puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Tao; Sheng-Hong Ding

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a neurological urgency with a high mortality and unfavorable prognosis.Fast removal of intraventricular blood should be considered as a priority.The current treatments of IVH mainly focus on external ventricular drain and endoscopic aspiration,but neither way can remove the blood in the fourth ventricle easily and relieve the compression of brainstem.Here we report a unique procedure to solve this problem.A 41-year-old male patient who had suffered sudden attack of headache and disturbance of consciousness for 2 h was diagnosed as having high density lesion in thewhole ventricular system by computed tomographic (CT) imaging.An emergent bilateral ventriculopuncture and intraventricular hematoma removal under non-line-of-sight was performed immediately;the catheter was extended to the fourth ventricle to maximally remove the hematoma.Postoperative CT scan demonstrated total removal of IVH and no sign of extra brain damage.

  12. Aspiration of coagulated hematoma in the third and fourth ventricles via paracele anterior horn puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Qiang; Ding, Sheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a neurological urgency with a high mortality and unfavorable prognosis. Fast removal of intraventricular blood should be considered as a priority. The current treatments of IVH mainly focus on external ventricular drain and endoscopic aspiration, but neither way can remove the blood in the fourth ventricle easily and relieve the compression of brainstem. Here we report a unique procedure to solve this problem. A 41-year-old male patient who had suffered sudden attack of headache and disturbance of consciousness for 2 h was diagnosed as having high density lesion in the whole ventricular system by computed tomographic (CT) imaging. An emergent bilateral ventriculopuncture and intraventricular hematoma removal under non-line-of-sight was performed immediately; the catheter was extended to the fourth ventricle to maximally remove the hematoma. Postoperative CT scan demonstrated total removal of IVH and no sign of extra brain damage. PMID:27033269

  13. MicroRNA profiling in early hypertrophic growth of the left ventricle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter K.; Cirera, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    relative to body weight of animals with aortic banding had increased 65% compared to matched control rats. Furthermore, RNA was extracted from left ventricles and reverse transcription qPCR showed that expression of the hypertrophic markers atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide was......Pressure overload induces hypertrophic growth of the heart and in the long term this condition can lead to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Several miRNAs are upregulated in heart failure. However, it is not clear, which miRNAs (if any) are induced during the early hypertrophic growth phase. To...... investigate whether the upregulation of miRNAs is an integrated part of hypertrophic growth or an effect of cardiac disease we investigated miRNA expression in early hypertrophic development. Hypertrophy was induced by banding of the ascending aorta of male rats. After 14 days, the heart left ventricle weight...

  14. Left ventricle function in patients with ischemic cardiopathy: determination of the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle with gated-SPECT. Experience in the CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to correlate the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle (FEVI) obtained by means of g-SPECT and other diagnostic methods: ECO 2D and ventriculography for heart catheterization (CTT). (Author)

  15. Colloid Cyst of the Third Ventricle Presenting with Features of Terson′s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Mary K.; Anand, S K; Prasad George

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a middle-aged man presenting to the ophthalmologist with history of seeing floaters before both eyes since 2-weeks duration. A history of intermittent headache and dizziness of recent onset was elicited on questioning. Ocular examination showed bilateral early papilloedema and mild vitreous hemorrhage. Brain computed tomography (CT) disclosed features suggestive of colloid cyst of the third ventricle in the region of foramen of Monro with moderate hydrocephalus. Emergenc...

  16. Bullet embolisation from injured inferior cava vein to the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Zenelaj, A; M Brati; Kerci, M

    2010-01-01

    Gunshot injuries of the human body challenge surgical teams in the emergency department. Since such injuries do not follow any rule, every patient should be considered a special case. Our case, of bullet embolism from injured inferior cava vein to the right heart ventricle is a rare one. Such cases make us be more alert for diagnosis and treatment of this kind of injury. Well equipped hospitals and experienced medical teams are necessary for successful outcome.

  17. Reduced Na+ Current Density Underlies Impaired Propagation in the Diabetic Rabbit Ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Stables, Catherine L.; Musa, Hassan; Mitra, Aditi; Bhushal, Sandesh; Deo, Makarand; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Mironov, Sergey; Zarzoso, Manuel; Vikstrom, Karen L.; Cawthorn, William; Pandit, Sandeep V.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our goal was to investigate changes occurring in the action potential duration (APD) and conduction velocity (CV) in the diabetic rabbit ventricle, and delineate the principal ionic determinants. A rabbit model of alloxan-induced diabetes was utilized. Optical imaging was used to record electrical activity in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts in normo-, hypo- and hyper-kalem...

  18. A giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery-to-right ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-hui Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula including the left trunk and left circumflex is uncommon. We present a 24-year-old male patient with a giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery to right ventricle fistula, which is diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and coronary computed tomography angiography. In this paper, the case report is to provide a better understanding of clinical characteristics for this disease.

  19. Primary Burkitt Lymphoma of the Fourth Ventricle in an Immunocompetent Young Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Alabdulsalam; Syed Z. A. Zaidi; Imran Tailor; Yasser Orz; Sadeq Al-Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare, with only few cases reported in the literature. An 18 year-old immunocompetent male presented with multiple cranial nerves palsies and was found to have a mass predominantly in the 4th ventricle of the brain. Tumor was surgically removed and showed morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with Burkitt lymphoma. The patient responded very well to anthracycline based chemotherapy with high dose methotrexate (...

  20. Simplified surgical placement and stabilization methods for intracerebroventricular cannulas in rat lateral ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, David H; Engelhard, Herbert H; Juarez, Altair; Espat, N Joseph

    2003-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular cannulation in rat models is an efficient tool for exploring the effects of substances directly injected into the CNS, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Techniques for surgically securing the ICV cannula require a balance between ease of application and adequate stability. The authors tested several methods of lateral ventricle cannula stabilization, especially focusing on a comparison of cyanoacrylate gel to cranioplastic cement with an anchoring bone screw. PMID:15235663

  1. Mathematical model of the anatomy and fibre orientation field of the left ventricle of the heart

    OpenAIRE

    Pravdin, Sergey F; Berdyshev, Vitaly I; Alexander V. Panfilov; Katsnelson, Leonid B.; Solovyova, Olga; Markhasin, Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the main factors affecting propagation of electrical waves and contraction in ventricles of the heart is anisotropy of cardiac tissue. Anisotropy is determined by orientation of myocardial fibres. Determining fibre orientation field and shape of the heart is important for anatomically accurate modelling of electrical and mechanical function of the heart. The aim of this paper is to introduce a theoretical rule-based model for anatomy and fibre orientation of the left ventri...

  2. Embolization of caval umbrella. Discussion and report of successful removal from the right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isch, J H; Shumacker, H B

    1976-08-01

    The first case of successful diagnosis and operative removal of a vena caval umbrella which had become detached and migrated to the right ventricle is reported. Complications from the employment of this device are discussed. In all cases of umbrella embolization to the right heart and pulmonary arterial tree, immediate operative removal is indicated. Precautions regarding umbrella insertion which minimize the likelihood of dislodgment and embolization are also mentioned. PMID:785105

  3. A life-threatening infective pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle in a toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Mani Ram Krishna; Kottayil, Brijesh P; Gopalraj Sumangala Sunil; Raman Krishna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the ventricle are an uncommon occurrence in children. They may be secondary to previous cardiac surgery or infection of the pericardial space. Infective pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgery because rupture of the pseudoaneurysm may have catastrophic consequences. The outcome with surgery is excellent. We report a toddler with ruptured pseudoaneurysm secondary to purulent pericarditis who recovered with an emergency surgical closure of the opening of the pseudo-aneurysm.

  4. A life-threatening infective pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ram Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of the ventricle are an uncommon occurrence in children. They may be secondary to previous cardiac surgery or infection of the pericardial space. Infective pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgery because rupture of the pseudoaneurysm may have catastrophic consequences. The outcome with surgery is excellent. We report a toddler with ruptured pseudoaneurysm secondary to purulent pericarditis who recovered with an emergency surgical closure of the opening of the pseudo-aneurysm.

  5. VACTERL association with double-chambered left ventricle: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Al-Farqani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects of unknown etiology derived from structures of embryonic mesoderm. The common cardiac defects seen with VACTERL association are ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot. We present a 2-year-old child with VACTERL association in whom we detected double-chambered left ventricle on transthoracic echocardiography.

  6. Ca2+-regulatory proteins in cardiomyocytes from the right ventricle in children with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia and hypertrophy are the most frequent pathophysiological consequence of congenital heart disease (CHD which can induce the alteration of Ca2+-regulatory proteins and inhibit cardiac contractility. Few studies have been performed to examine Ca2+-regulatory proteins in human cardiomyocytes from the hypertrophic right ventricle with or without hypoxia. Methods Right ventricle tissues were collected from children with tetralogy of Fallot [n = 25, hypoxia and hypertrophy group (HH group], pulmonary stenosis [n = 25, hypertrophy group (H group], or small isolated ventricular septal defect [n = 25, control group (C group] during open-heart surgery. Paraffin sections of tissues were stained with 3,3′-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate to measure cardiomyocyte size. Expression levels of Ca2+-regulatory proteins [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a, ryanodine receptor (RyR2, sodiumcalcium exchanger (NCX, sarcolipin (SLN and phospholamban (PLN] were analysed by means of real-time PCR, western blot, or immunofluorescence. Additionally, phosphorylation level of RyR and PLN and activity of protein phosphatase (PP1 were evaluated using western blot. Results Mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy of the right ventricle in H and HH groups was confirmed by comparing cardiomyocyte size. A significant reduction of SERCA2a in mRNA (P16-phosphorylated PLN was down-regulated (PP Conclusions The decreased SERCA2a mRNA may be a biomarker of the pathological process in the early stage of cyanotic CHD with the hypertrophic right ventricle. A combination of hypoxia and hypertrophy can induce the adverse effect of PLN-Ser16 dephosphorylation. Increased PP1 could result in the decreased PLN-Ser16 and inhibition of PP1 is a potential therapeutic target for heart dysfunction in pediatrics.

  7. Computational modeling and analysis for left ventricle motion using CT/Echo image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Nahyup; Lee, Hyoung-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2014-03-01

    In order to diagnose heart disease such as myocardial infarction, 2D strain through the speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) or the tagged MRI is often used. However out-of-plane strain measurement using STE or tagged MRI is inaccurate. Therefore, strain for whole organ which are analyzed by simulation of 3D cardiac model can be applied in clinical diagnosis. To simulate cardiac contraction in a cycle, cardiac physical properties should be reflected in cardiac model. The myocardial wall in left ventricle is represented as a transversely orthotropic hyperelastic material, with the fiber orientation varying sequentially from the epicardial surface, through about 0° at the midwall, to the endocardial surface. A time-varying elastance model is simulated to contract myocardial fiber, and physiological intraventricular systolic pressure curves are employed for the cardiac dynamics simulation in a cycle. And an exact description of the cardiac motion should be acquired in order that essential boundary conditions for cardiac simulation are obtained effectively. Real time cardiac motion can be acquired by using echocardiography and exact cardiac geometrical 3D model can be reconstructed using 3D CT data. In this research, image fusion technology from CT and echocardiography is employed in order to consider patient-specific left ventricle movement. Finally, longitudinal strain from speckle tracking echocardiography which is known to fit actual left ventricle deformation relatively well is used to verify these results.

  8. Cannula implantation into the lateral ventricle does not adversely affect recognition or spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Benjamin; Pham, Vi; Albiston, Anthony L; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2016-08-15

    Indwelling cannulas are often used to deliver pharmacological agents into the lateral ventricles of the brain to study their effects on memory and learning, yet little is known about the possible adverse effects of the cannulation itself. In this study, the effect of implanting an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle was examined with respect to cognitive function and tissue damage in rats. Specifically, the cannula passed through sections of the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory hind limb (S1HL) cortices. One week following implantation, rats were impaired on the rotarod task, implying a deficit in fine motor control, likely caused by the passage of the cannula through the aforementioned cortical regions. Importantly, neither spatial working nor recognition memory was adversely affected. Histological examination showed immune cell activation only in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site and not spreading to other brain regions. Both GFAP and CD-11b mRNA expression was elevated in the area immediately surrounding the cannulation site, but not in the contralateral hemisphere or the hippocampus. Neither of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α or IL-6, were upregulated in any region. These results show that cannulation into the lateral ventricle does not impair cognition and indicates that nootropic agents delivered via this method are enhancing normal memory rather than rescuing deficits caused by the surgery procedure. PMID:27345383

  9. COMPARISON OF ENALAPRIL AND PERINDOPRIL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Grinshtein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare efficacy of enalapril and perindopril in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction.Material and methods. Patients (n=51 with HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction<45% were included in the prospective open randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of therapy with enalapril 10-20 mg BID (n=25 or with perindopril 4-8 mg OD (n=26. Hydrochlorothiazide (12,5-25 mg OD was added in case of ineffective therapy. Routine clinical examination, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring, an electrocardiogram, an echocardiography were performed in all patients.Results. The 24-hour and night antihypertensive effect of enalapril was more prominent than this of perindopril. Target BP level was reached in 21 patients (84% of enalapril group and in 20 patients (76,9% of perindopril group. 8 (30,8% patients of perindopril group did not reach night target BP level vs 3 (12% patients of enalapril group. Similar improvement of the left ventricle systolic function was observed in both groups.Conclusion. Enalapril and perindopril demonstrated comparable antihypertensive and cardioprotective effect.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid flow in patients with dilated ventricles studied with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkkola, R.K.; Komu, M.E.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Turku (Finland); Kotilainen, E.M.; Valtonen, S.O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Turku (Finland); Thomsen, C. [Department of Radiology, National Danish University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gideon, P. [Danish Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) velocity and flow in the aqueduct in patients with wide ventricles with or without signs of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after shunt surgery. We studied 18 patients with wide ventricles with MRI and measured the CSF velocity values in the aqueducts. Twelve patients with the clinical triad of NPH were examined. Six patients were studied only before shunt surgery and 6 patients were studied both before and after shunt surgery. Three patients with wide ventricles without clinical triad of NPH, and 3 patients with hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage were also examined. Seven NPH patients with hyperdynamic CSF flow and three NPH patients with normal CSF velocity and flow values showed a positive clinical response to shunt surgery. Two of the three patients with hydrocephalus and hyperdynamic CSF flow values in the aqueduct secondary to subarachnoid bleeding responded to shunt surgery. One patient with same disease and low CSF velocity and flow values did not respond. No change was detected in the CSF flow values of the aqueduct when measurements before and after shunt surgery were compared. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting does not change the CSF dynamics in the aqueduct. (orig.)

  11. [Research of Left Ventricle Function Analysis Using Real-time Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; He, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Real-time free breathing cardiac cine imaging is a reproducible method with shorter acquisition time and without breath-hold for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. However, the detection of end-diastole and end-systole frames of real-time free breathing cardiac cine imaging for left ventricle function analysis is commonly completed by visual identification, which is time-consuming and laborious. In order to save processing time, we propose a method for semi-automatic identification of end-diastole and end-systole frames. The method fits respiratory motion signal and acquires the expiration phase, end-diastole and end-systole frames by cross correlation coefficient. The procedure successfully worked on ten healthy volunteers and validated by the analysis of left ventricle function compared to the standard breath-hold steady-state free precession cardiac cine imaging without any significant statistical differences. The results demonstrated that the present method could correctly detect end-diastole and end-systole frames. In the future, this technique may be used for rapid left ventricle function analysis in clinic. PMID:27079101

  12. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  13. Techniques in cerebral protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization

  14. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  15. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  16. Cerebral Hemorrhage and APOE genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun xiaojiang; Wu ping; Zhang jing; Lu shanqing; Li bing

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Current evidence Suggests that the apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε 4 allele predisposes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) whereas ε 2 is associated with CAA-zelated hemorrhage. In this study we examined potential clinical risk factors inpatients with cerebral hemorrhage and assessed these with respect to APOE genotype. Methoeds: 146 patinas with cerebral hemorrhage and 70 normal controls were investigated. APOE genotypes were determined with use of polymerase Chain reaction techniques.Results: The frequency of allele gene ( 0.180 ) and the percentage of the APOE ε 4 genotype in the cerebral hemorrhage group were Significantly higher as compared with the e 4 prequency ( O.O72 ) in the control group respectively ( p=O.O389 ) .Conelusious: APOE ε 4 :allele is a risk gene for cerebral hemorrhage.

  17. [Blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, with intrapericardial rupture of the diaphragm. Successful surgical repair (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Y P; Herve, L; Boutboul, R; Cardon, J M; Bricot, R

    1980-12-01

    The authors report a case of blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, diagnosed during a laparotomy. Similar cases were seldom met: too short a time of spontaneous survival, and difficult challenging diagnosis explain it. PMID:7462357

  18. Prolactinoma associated with an ependymoma in the fourth ventricle: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jinlu; YANG, HONGFA; Qu, Limei; Li, Yunqian

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenoma associated with ependymoma in the fourth ventricle is a rare condition. In the present study, a 46-year-old man diagnosed with prolactinoma, who previously underwent two surgical procedures (one for the removal of a primary tumor and a second following its recurrence) developed a complication of ependymoma in the fourth ventricle. The presence of the ependymoma was confirmed by pathological analysis and the patient recovered well following two-phase surgical resection of the...

  19. Developed pressure data may provide misinformation when used alone to evaluate systolic function in isovolumetric left ventricle preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Murad N.; Tucci P.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We report data showing that developed pressure (DPmax) may lead to opposite conclusion with respect to maximal developed circumferential wall stress (smax) when used to assess contractile function in left ventricle isovolumic preparations. Isovolumetric left ventricle preparations of rats with cardiac hypertrophy (H; N = 10) induced by isoproterenol administration showed higher DPmax (174 ± 14 mmHg) than control (C; N = 8) animals (155 ± 12 mmHg) or rats with regression (R; N = 8) of hypertro...

  20. Large Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Third Ventricle in Infancy: A Case Report and Review of Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Byeong Jin; Kim, Young Soo; Cheong, Jin Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas of the central nervous system are rare and are frequently found in children and young adults. Cystic teratomas found in infancy is a well-recognized but infrequent entity. Intracranial teratomas,like teratomas in general, tend to arise from midline structures such as the pineal gland, but has rarely been found in the third ventricle. We report a rare case of a 6-month-old infant with a mature cystic teratoma of the third ventricle with a review of literatures

  1. Association of Digoxin With Interstage Mortality: Results From the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Use Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Oster, Matthew E.; Kelleman, Michael; McCracken, Courtney; Ohye, Richard G.; Mahle, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality for infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease remains as high as 8% to 12% during the interstage period, the time between discharge after the Norwood procedure and before the stage II palliation. The objective of our study was to determine the association between digoxin use and interstage mortality in these infants. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial public use...

  2. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I. [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  3. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  4. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  5. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  6. Obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from cerebral venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare form of stroke in childhood. Increased intracranial pressure is a well-defined complication of cerebral venous thrombosis but obstructive hydrocephalus as a presentation finding of cerebral venous thrombosis is rarely described. A child case of cerebral sinus thrombosis presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and management of clinical condition is presented with discussion of reported cases and treatment recommendations.

  7. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  8. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  9. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  10. Cerebral infarction following intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric Moyamoya disease - A case report and brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Patra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a clinical entity characterized by progressive cerebrovascular occlusion with spontaneous development of a collateral vascular network called Moyamoya vessels. This disease mainly manifests as cerebral ischemia. Intracranial bleeding is another major presentation of patients with Moyamoya disease. We report here a 12-year-old male child who presented with severe headache, vomiting and meningismus. Initial neuroimaging study with noncontrast computed tomography scan revealed fresh intraventricular hemorrhage in right-sided lateral ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging with angiography of brain was done 5 days later when the child developed right-sided hemiparesis, and the diagnosis of Moyamoya disease was confirmed along with lacunar infarction of right posterior peri and paraventricular area and in the left paraventricular area and centrum semiovale. Simultaneous presence of cerebral infarction along with intraventricular hemorrhage in adult with bleeding-type Moyamoya disease is reported in literature, but it is a rare entity in a child.

  11. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ; EMINOVIKJ Fadilj N.; NIKIKJ Radmila M.; Gordana I. ACHIKJ; Sanela R. PACIKJ

    2015-01-01

    Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral pal...

  12. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.)

  13. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  14. Radiological evaluation of double-outlet right ventricle - An analysis of cinecardioangiography in 44 cases -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Double-outlet right ventricle is defined as follows: both great arteries arise completely or nearly completely from the right ventricle; neither semilunar valve is in fibrous continuity with either atrioventricular valve; and usually a ventricular septal defect is present and the only outlet from the left ventricle. A total of 44 cases of double-outlet right ventricle is analyzed, in which cineangiocardiographies were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital in recent 4 year and 6 months, with specific reference to the segmental combinations, the height of conus, the relationship of great arteries, the location of ventricular septal defects, and associated anomalies. The results were as follows; 1. Among 44 cases, 36 cases had normal cardiac position, 4 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus 2 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus, 1 case had levocardia with situs inversus, and another 1 case had mesocardia with situs ambiguus. 2. Segmental sets were [S,D,D] in 36 cases, [I,L,L] in 3 cases, [I,D,D] in 2 cases, [S,D,L], [S,L,L] and [A,D,D] in 1 case respectively. 3. All cases had bilateral conus. Aortic valve rings were same level as pulmonary valve rings in 25 cases, lower than pulmonary valve rings in 17 cases in which 15 cases were type A., and higher than pulmonary valve rings in 2 cases. 4. The relation of the great arteries were normal in 15 cases, side-by-side in 13 cases, dextromalposition in 13 cases, and levomal position in 3 cases. 5. The position of the ventricular septal defects with respect to the origins of the great arteries is subaortic (type A and type B) in 23 cases, subpulmonary (type C) in 13 cases, doubly committed (type D) in 3 cases, and uncommitted (type E) in 5 cases. 6. Associated cardiac malformations are pulmonary stenosis in 24 which had all cases of type A and type E, aortic stenosis in 6 which were only in type C, left SVC in 6, abnormality of atrioventricular valve in 5, single coronary artery

  15. Quantification of carbonic anhydrase gene expression in ventricle of hypertrophic and failing human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Bernardo V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase enzymes (CA catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate in mammalian cells. Trans-membrane transport of CA-produced bicarbonate contributes significantly to cellular pH regulation. A body of evidence implicates pH-regulatory processes in the hypertrophic growth pathway characteristic of hearts as they fail. In particular, Na+/H+ exchange (NHE activation is pro-hypertrophic and CA activity activates NHE. Recently Cardrase (6-ethoxyzolamide, a CA inhibitor, was found to prevent and revert agonist-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy (CH in cultured cardiomyocytes. Our goal thus was to determine whether hypertrophied human hearts have altered expression of CA isoforms. Methods We measured CA expression in hypertrophied human hearts to begin to examine the role of carbonic anhydrase in progression of human heart failure. Ventricular biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery (CS, n = 14, or heart transplantation (HT, n = 13. CS patients presented mild/moderate concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and normal right ventricles, with preserved ventricular function; ejection fractions were ~60%. Conversely, HT patients with failing hearts presented CH or ventricular dilation accompanied by ventricular dysfunction and EF values of 20%. Non-hypertrophic, non-dilated ventricular samples served as controls. Results Expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP were markers of CH. Hypertrophic ventricles presented increased expression of CAII, CAIV, ANP, and BNP, mRNA levels, which increased in failing hearts, measured by quantitative real-time PCR. CAII, CAIV, and ANP protein expression also increased approximately two-fold in hypertrophic/dilated ventricles. Conclusions These results, combined with in vitro data that CA inhibition prevents and reverts CH, suggest that increased carbonic anhydrase expression is a prognostic molecular marker of cardiac

  16. Three-dimensional structure of the flow inside the left ventricle of the human heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, S.; Querzoli, G.; Espa, S.; Cenedese, A.

    2013-11-01

    The laboratory models of the human heart left ventricle developed in the last decades gave a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the role of the fluid dynamics in the cardiac function and to support the interpretation of the data obtained in vivo. Nevertheless, some questions are still opened and new ones stem from the continuous improvements in the diagnostic imaging techniques. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the three-dimensional structure of the left ventricular flow during the cardiac cycle. In this paper, we investigated in detail this aspect using a laboratory model. The ventricle was simulated by a flexible sack varying its volume in time according to a physiologically shaped law. Velocities measured during several cycles on series of parallel planes, taken from two orthogonal points of view, were combined together in order to reconstruct the phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity field. During the diastole, three main steps are recognized in the evolution of the vortical structures: (1) straight propagation in the direction of the long axis of a vortex ring originated from the mitral orifice; (2) asymmetric development of the vortex ring on an inclined plane; and (3) single vortex formation. The analysis of three-dimensional data gives the experimental evidence of the reorganization of the flow in a single vortex persisting until the end of the diastole. This flow pattern seems to optimize the cardiac function since it directs velocity towards the aortic valve just before the systole and minimizes the fraction of blood residing within the ventricle for more cycles.

  17. In vivo MRI measurement of fetal blood oxygen saturation in cardiac ventricles of fetal sheep: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegärtner, Ulrike; Kooijman, Hendrik; Yamamura, Jin; Frisch, Michael; Weber, Christoph; Buchert, Ralph; Huff, Anna; Hecher, Kurt; Adam, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility to determine fetal blood oxygen saturation (sO(2)) with T(2)-weighted MR sequences using a fetal sheep model. T(2) measurements were performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a T(2) preparation pulse in combination with a three-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession sequence repeated at different echo times. Eight sheep fetuses were examined during a control, hypoxic, and recovery phase to perform T(2)-weighted scans of the fetal blood in the heart. Signal intensities in the left and right ventricle were measured to calculate the MR blood sO(2). During each phase, fetal carotid artery sO(2) was directly measured and correlated with MR sO(2). A Bland-Altman plot was performed. Fetal carotid artery sO(2) was 69% sO(2) during control, 16% sO(2) during hypoxemia, and 67% sO(2) during recovery. Mean values of the MR sO(2) were 49% sO(2) and 40% sO(2) for control, 6% sO(2) and 3% sO(2) for hypoxemia, and 51% sO(2) and 43% sO(2) for recovery in left ventricle and right ventricle, respectively. Mean values of fetal carotid artery sO(2) and MR sO(2) were highly correlated (left ventricle: r = 0.87, right ventricle: r = 0.89). According to the Bland-Altman plot, MR sO(2) was lower compared to fetal carotid artery sO(2) (left ventricle: 15%, right ventricle: 20%). Based on our preliminary results, it seems to be possible to assess fetal sO(2) with MR oximetry. PMID:20572133

  18. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  19. Diagnostic Assessment of Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society have developed practice parameters for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP).

  20. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  1. Diagnostic Assessment of Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society have developed practice parameters for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP.

  2. Significance of blood-pool scintigraphy and echocardiography in the investigation of left heart ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular ejection (LVEF) was assessed by both radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography. The correlation coefficient of 0.74 revealed a just good agreement. It was better in the range of normal than of pathological values. The analysis of regional wall motion performed by echocardiography was not as reliable as by radionuclide ventriculography. The main advantage of echocardiography is its good spatial resolution. Its domain is the diagnostics of pathomorphological changes including valvular disorders. Advantages of radionuclide ventriculography are good temporal resolution, registration of the third dimension, practicability during exercise and as bed side method (nuclear stethoscope). Functional disturbances of both ventricles are its field of application. (orig.)

  3. Significance of blood pool scintigraphy and echocardiography in the investigation of left heart ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular ejection (LVEF) was assessed by both radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography. The correlation coefficient of 0.74 revealed a just good agreement. It was better in the range of normal than of pathological values. The analysis of regional wall motion performed by echocardiography was not as reliable as by radionuclide ventriculography. The main advantage of echocardiography is its good spatial resolution. Its domain is the diagnosis of pathomorphological changes including valvular disorders. Advantages of radionuclide ventriculography are good temporal resolution, registration of the third dimension practicability during exercise and as bedside method (nuclear stethoscope). Functional disturbances of both ventricles are its field of application. (author)

  4. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle in an Arabian foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, M U; Wünschmann, A; Ward, C; Stauthammer, C D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, rudimentary tricuspid valve, hypoplastic right ventricle, and right-to-left atrial shunting were identified in a four-day-old, male Arabian foal with clinical signs of cyanotic heart disease. Pulmonary blood flow was apparently derived from a ductus arteriosus. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed the majority of cardiac abnormalities and also findings compatible with right-sided congestive heart failure. Congenital cardiac defects have a high incidence in this breed, and this is the first description of this combination of congenital cardiac defects. PMID:27283083

  5. Living with half a heart - experiences of young adults with single ventricle physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; King, Catriona; Christensen, Rie F;

    2013-01-01

    have a 90% survival rate. Several studies have described the somatic status of SVP patients using clinical parameters; however, only a few studies have researched the life perspectives and coping skills in this patient group. The aim of this study was to investigate how young adults with an SVP......BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:: Approximately 3% of children with congenital heart disease born in Denmark have single ventricle physiology (SVP). In previous decades, these children did not survive into adulthood. However, because of new surgical techniques and improved medical care, they now...

  6. Response to a single dose of sildenafil in single-ventricle patients: an echocardiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kimberly W; Butts, Ryan J; Svenson, Amy J; McQuinn, Tim C; Atz, Andrew M

    2013-10-01

    New evidence of increased phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) in hypertrophied human myocardium suggests that sildenafil, a selective PDE-5 inhibitor, may improve muscle contraction and therefore improve ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to compare ventricular function as assessed by echocardiography in 10 surgically palliated single-ventricle patients at baseline and again after a single dose of sildenafil. The velocity time integral of the ventricular outflow tract was increased 2 h after sildenafil administration (p = 0.01), thus suggesting an improvement in cardiac output. PMID:22806713

  7. Differential Regulation of PDE5 Expression in Left and Right Ventricles of Feline Hypertrophy Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiaoyin; Margulies, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though long known to affect smooth muscle biology, recent studies indicate that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is also expressed in myocardium. Recognizing that the regulation of PDE5 in hypertrophy is not well understood, we assessed the response of PDE5 expression and the level of cGMP-dependent kinase I (cGKI) in the left and right ventricles of feline hypertrophy models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a cDNA library of feline aortic smooth muscle cells, we identified and clon...

  8. Oxidative stress and microcirculatory flow abnormalities in the ventricles during atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreasGoette

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF often present with typical angina pectoris and mildly elevated levels of cardiac troponin (non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI during an acute episode of AF. However, in a large proportion of these patients significant coronary artery disease is excluded by coronary angiography, which suggests that AF itself influences myocardial blood flow. The present review summarizes the effect of AF on the occurrence of ventricular oxidative stress, redox-sensitive signalling pathways & gene expression, and microcirculatory flow abnormalities in the left ventricle.

  9. Phase quadrature shift between left and right ventricles during a ventricular tachycardia attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, L.; Itti, R.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1984-08-01

    Equilibrium gated nuclear angiography was performed on a patient during an attack of ventricular tachycardia and then after conversion to sinus rhythm. Global and regional wall motion was assessed by means of isocontours. Fourier phase analysis and factor analysis. Ventricular phase histograms showed a 100/sup 0/ difference between ventricles: left ventricular filling time occurred during right ventricular contraction. The earliest phase was located in the septum and the sequence of activation showed a large delay of left ventricular activation. After conversion to sinus rhythm, a right bundle branch block was observed, being almost the inverse of the latter situation.

  10. Phase quadrature shift between left and right ventricles during a ventricular tachycardia attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium gated nuclear angiography was performed on a patient during an attack of ventricular tachycardia and then after conversion to sinus rhythm. Global and regional wall motion was assessed by means of isocontours. Fourier phase analysis and factor analysis. Ventricular phase histograms showed a 1000 difference between ventricles: left ventricular filling time occurred during right ventricular contraction. The earliest phase was located in the septum and the sequence of activation showed a large delay of left ventricular activation. After conversion to sinus rhythm, a right bundle branch block was observed, being almost the inverse of the latter situation. (orig.)

  11. Atypical rhabdoid tumor of lateral ventricle: Report of an unusual tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasmit; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh; Velho, Vernon; Survashe, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) of infancy and childhood are rare, highly malignant neoplasms, most common in the first 2 years of life. In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and multi-agent chemotherapy, the prognosis is very poor. The majority of these tumors are located in the cerebellum, cerebellopontine angle, pineal gland, spinal cord, and the suprasellar region; supratentorial location is relatively uncommon, and the intraventricular location is extremely rare. We report a rare case of AT/RT arising in the lateral ventricle in a 4-year-old patient. PMID:27195038

  12. Delayed presentation of right and left ventricle perforation due to suicidal nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuladhar Sampurna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of delayed presentation of attempted suicide with a nail gun that penetrated both the right and left ventricle. Nearly invisible entry point of the nail did not reflect the gravity of the injury. A prompt and accurate history along with chest X-ray and bedside transthoracic echocardiography facilitated localization of the nails and helped assess the damage. Despite cardiac arrest after induction of general anesthesia, the patient had a successful outcome. Issues related to the injury site, modalities of investigation and management strategies in a patient with cardiac tamponade are discussed.

  13. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging moda...

  14. Cerebral involvement in Whipple's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple's disease is a rare protean disease. Cerebral involvement occurs in ten percent of the cases. CCT findings in two patients with cerebral symptoms are presented. There was an unspecific atrophy in one patient. Patient two had hydrocephalus occlusus and a temporal lesion enhanced by contrast agent. A specific diagnosis on the sole basis of the CCT without additional clinical data does not seem possible. (orig.)

  15. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern seve...

  16. NEYROPSYCHOLOGICAL CONSECUENCES OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    ANA MARÍA NAVARRO MELENDRO; ANDREA PATRICIA RESTREPO IBIZA

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy is defined as a movement alteration result of a non progressive damage witch is permanent in anencephalon that has not acquired its final maturation. Patients that suffer cerebral palsy present learning disabilities,that varies between being completely normal to severe as a consequence of memory, gnosis, praxis, perceptive andlanguage impairments. Nevertheless the consequences of this disease are not always predictable. This paper pretendsto make a description of the cognitive ...

  17. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  19. Cerebral palsy: classification and etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bialik, Gad M.; Givon, Uri

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), a common condition of abnormalities in the brain, arises early in life. Since the term was first introduced in 1843, many authors have tried to define and classify CP. The most recent definition was released by the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) in 2005. This article summarizes the latest and familiar classifications of, and etiologies associated with CP.

  20. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O;

    1987-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 56 patients before and one to four times after uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy. The findings were related to the ratio between internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) mean pressures. Within the 1st...... ratio suggests a temporary impairment of autoregulation. Special care should be taken to avoid postoperative hypertension in such patients, who typically have preoperative hypoperfusion, to avoid the occurrence of cerebral edema or hemorrhage....

  1. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  2. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  3. Absorbed dose evaluation based on a computational voxel model incorporating distinct cerebral structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com; bmtrindade@yahoo.com; campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    Brain tumors are quite difficult to treat due to the collateral radiation damages produced on the patients. Despite of the improvements in the therapeutics protocols for this kind of tumor, involving surgery and radiotherapy, the failure rate is still extremely high. This fact occurs because tumors can not often be totally removed by surgery since it may produce some type of deficit in the cerebral functions. Radiotherapy is applied after the surgery, and both are palliative treatments. During radiotherapy the brain does not absorb the radiation dose in homogeneous way, because the various density and chemical composition of tissues involved. With the intention of evaluating better the harmful effects caused by radiotherapy it was developed an elaborated cerebral voxel model to be used in computational simulation of the irradiation protocols of brain tumors. This paper presents some structures function of the central nervous system and a detailed cerebral voxel model, created in the SISCODES program, considering meninges, cortex, gray matter, white matter, corpus callosum, limbic system, ventricles, hypophysis, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. The irradiation protocol simulation was running in the MCNP5 code. The model was irradiated with photons beam whose spectrum simulates a linear accelerator of 6 MV. The dosimetric results were exported to SISCODES, which generated the isodose curves for the protocol. The percentage isodose curves in the brain are present in this paper. (author)

  4. Positron emission tomography in aging and dementia: effect of cerebral atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial resolution of current positron emission tomography (PET) scanners does not allow a distinction between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing spaces and contiguous brain tissue. Data analysis strategies which therefore purport to quantify cerebral metabolism per unit mass brain tissue are in fact measuring a value which may be artifactually reduced due to contamination by CSF. We studied cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in 17 healthy elderly individuals and 24 patients with Alzheimer's dementia using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and PET. All subjects underwent x-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanning at the time of their PET study. The XCT scans were analyzed volumetrically, in order to determine relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue. Global CMRglc was calculated before and after correction for contamination by CSF (cerebral atrophy). A greater increase in global CMRglc after atrophy correction was seen in demented individuals compared with elderly controls (16.9% versus 9.0%, p less than 0.0005). Additional preliminary data suggest that volumetric analysis of proton-NMR images may prove superior to analysis of XCT data in quantifying the degree of atrophy. Appropriate corrections for atrophy should be employed if current PET scanners are to accurately measure actual brain tissue metabolism in various pathologic states

  5. An intra-cerebral abscess in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome: An unusual case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allan; White, Mark A.J.; Gallo, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present an unusual case where a large intra-cerebral abscess with severe complications was treated successfully with medical management alone in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome. Presentation of case A 40 year old patient with Eisenmenger syndrome presented with a seven day history of headache, neck pain and intermittent vomiting and fever. The only neurological examination finding was blurred vision. MRI revealed a large left occipital lobe abscess, which subsequently ruptured into the lateral ventricle with associated ventriculitis and hydrocephalus. This complicated abscess was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics alone, with complete resolution of the abscess and hydrocephalus on MRI at 13 months post-diagnosis. Discussion Patients with congenital cyanotic heart conditions, like Eisenmenger syndrome, are at increased risk of developing intra-cerebral abscesses. Effectively managing large abscesses with associated intra-ventricular rupture and hydrocephalus in these patients without any form of surgical intervention, including aspiration, is extremely rare. Conclusion Patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease who develop large intra-cerebral abscesses with severe complications, which would normally warrant surgical intervention, have the potential to be successfully treated with antibiotics alone with excellent outcome. PMID:26859871

  6. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of Beclin1 attenuates cerebral ischemic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-qiu ZHENG; Jian-xun LIU; Xin-zhi LI; Li XU; Yong-gang XU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To test the role of the Beclin 1-dependent autophagy pathway in brain damage during cerebral ischemia.Methods:Focal cerebral ischemia was established in rats using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model.A lentiviral vectorassociated RNA interference (RNAi) system was stereotaxically injected into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle to reduce Beclinl expression.We measured the ipsilateral infarct volume,autophagosome formation,neurogenesis and apoptosis,all of which could be modulated by Beclinl RNAi.Results:On the 14th day after MCAO,Beclin1 downregulation by RNAi increased the population of neural progenitor cells (BrdU+-DCX+),newborn immature cells (BrdU+-Tuj-1+) and mature neurons (BrdU+-MAP-2+),and reduced the apoptosis of immature neurons (caspase3+-DCX+ and caspase-3+-Tuj-1+) surrounding the ischemic core of the ipsilateral hemisphere.Furthermore,RNAi-mediated downregulation of Beclin1 decreased infarct volume and inhibited histological injury and neurological deficits.Conclusion:RNAi-mediated downregulation of Beclinl improves outcomes after transient MCAO.

  7. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable for....... Using it even without knowing the exact level of CBF and CBV, it is possible to aim to keep CBF and CBV stable. Futureresearch should focus on development of monitoring tools, gaining more insight in neonatal cerebral autoregulation, and demonstrating clinical benefits of a 'cerebral perfusion...

  8. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cerebral Malaria (CM) is the most severe complication of malaria and a major cause of death. The mechanisms underlying human CM pathogenesis might be due to mechanical cause, as demonstrated by cytoadherence of parasitised erythrocytes pRB, or to excessive cytokine production by the host in response to Plasmodium falciparum, or a combination of the two together with neuronal injury by malaria toxins. Antibody response, genetic traits and other factors have been proposed to explain why only some episodes have life-threatening complications. The microvascular endothelial cell is a major target of inflammatory cytokines overproduced in infectious diseases. Fatal CM is associated with widespread induction of endothelial activation markers, with significant higher levels of ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expression on vessels in the brain. 199 patients were admitted at the hospital and were classified with malaria-based neurological disfunctions, such as acute psychosis, ataxia, hallucinations, fever and convulsions, prostration or coma. On a flow chart, 65 of those patients with the most acute syndromes mentioned above, were found to have negative BSN (blood slide), compared to 124 where the BSN showed to be positive. Identically to the 10 other patients from the severe form group, also presented positive BSN. The condition of some of these two subgroup patients (15), will later evolve into a more severe form with acute neurological disfunctions attributed to the cerebral malaria. The interesting aspect in regards to the 65 patients considered as having CM, upon severe manifestations of the disease, show no or little peripheral parasitemia. This fact confirms our experimental conclusion that, in the process of pRB adhesion to the microvessels of the brain, they are sequestered by monocytes and platelets, leading to vessel rupture. This fact could be an explanation of the lower % of circulating pRB and low peripheral parasitemia. There is a relationship between

  9. Effects of Hyperglycemia and Effects of Ketosis on Cerebral Perfusion, Cerebral Water Distribution, and Cerebral Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O’Donnell, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], ...

  10. Multiple cavities in myocardium of left ventricle after irradiation therapy for breast cancer. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure. She had been diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12 years ago in another hospital. She had received irradiation therapy for left breast cancer 33 years ago after resection of her left breast. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and wall motion hypokinesis, and multiple cavities in the myocardium of the left ventricle, interventricular septum, and anterior wall. Some cavities were observed to connect to the left ventricular cavity and Doppler echocardiography showed slow velocity flows in them different from that of the coronary artery. The pathologic diagnosis was severe sclerosis of the left coronary artery, especially the left descending artery and its branch, which was the area with irradiation. Histopathology revealed sclerotic changes of the coronary artery causing acute and chronic myocardial infarction, and incomplete regeneration and hypertrophy of cardiac cells. There was no sign of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Myocardial degeneration and deciduation were present next to the cavities connected to left ventricle-like fistulas. (author)

  11. Focal atrophy of the hypothalamus associated with third ventricle enlargement in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Farah H; Auzias, Guillaume; Deruelle, Christine; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamus is a brain structure containing multiple nuclei that mediate essential behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine functions including oxytocin synthesis. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide linked to complex social cognition and behaviors necessary for an effective social interaction. Oxytocinergic system dysfunction has been linked to social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Limited studies have been carried out on the hypothalamus because of its small size and methodological constraints in current technologies. This neuroimaging study examines hypothalamic atrophy in ASD in comparison with a typically developing population (a) by directly measuring gray matter (GM) density with a region-of-interest analysis using voxel-based morphometry in a homogenous sample of participants controlled for age and intelligence quotient; (b) for generalization, by measuring third ventricular volume, on the basis of its position bilaterally surrounded by the hypothalamus, using Freesurfer in a heterogeneous sample of participants. A voxel-based morphometry analysis of cerebrospinal fluid density on the first sample provides a link between GM density and third ventricle volume. Our results show decreased hypothalamic GM density and increased third ventricle volume in ASD compared with typically developing patients. Our findings provide neuroanatomical insights into social deficits in ASD within the hypothalamus that might be relevant for other psychiatric conditions. PMID:26445284

  12. Diagnostic value of transient dilatation of the left ventricle in negative dipyridamole-thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a transient dilatation of the left ventricle during dipyridamole-thallium imaging (DTI) for detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with negative DTI results, 81 consecutive patients were studied. Twenty one patients (26%) had CAD and 60 patients had normal coronary anatomy (NCA). The initial/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension, which was measured as the distance between the 2 peaks of a count profile curve on a 45deg left anterior oblique planar image, was defined as the dilatation ratio (DR) of the left ventricle. Patients with CAD had a higher incidence of chest pain after dipyridamole infusion (35 vs 13%; p1.03) when it was greater than the mean +2 standard deviations of the DR in NCA patients. Seventy-six percent of CAD patients had an abnormal DR. A stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that an abnormal DR alone had the same ability to predict CAD (sensitivity 76%, specificity 98%, chi-square 80.9, p1.03) is a highly specific marker for detecting CAD, even in patients with negative dipyridamole-thallium imaging. (author)

  13. Greater ATP dependence than sodium dependence of radiocalcium efflux in bullfrog ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    45Ca efflux was studied in intact bullfrog ventricles following a 2-h period of loading with radiocalcium-containing Ringer solution. The cannulated ventricle was placed in a closed air-filled container to which were applied rhythmic, electronically timed, positive- and negative-pressure pulsations, which induced ventricular volume excursions. The mechanical arrangement and timing circuitry made it possible for each period to be as short in duration as 15 s. By use of this technique, penetration of the extracellular space by [14C]inulin was found to be complete within 30 s, and recovery of the inulin proceeded with a time constant of 17-24 s, indicating a completeness of recovery of 98% within 90 s. Washout of added 45Ca was quantitatively quite close to that of inulin, and in addition the estimated rate of sequestration of the isotope was slow enough to introduce only a small error into the experimental results. 45Ca efflux was only slightly (15%) sensitive to replacement of extracellular sodium but was profoundly sensitive to the inhibitors of ATP synthesis, cyanide and 2-deoxy-glucose

  14. Beyond right ventricular size and function: the importance of evaluating the right ventricle's capacity for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addetia, Karima; Patel, Amit R

    2014-11-01

    Historically, the right ventricle (RV) has received less attention than the left probably because morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular disease is clinically more apparent. Right heart disease, in contrast, tends to have a more prolonged and, in the early stages, often subclinical course. Furthermore, the left ventricle is easier to image, model and quantify, so that research has been successful at amassing a great deal of clinically useful information about the left heart while the right heart still remains, in many ways, a mystery. In this perspective, the authors sought to explore the topic of RV recovery potential that has important clinical implications in the evaluation and treatment of advanced right-sided valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, pulmonary arterial disease and even lung disease which impacts the RV. We see a clear need for a better understanding of RV viability given our increasing appreciation that RV failure is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in many disease states and the fact that newer imaging modalities and innovative changes to older modalities make more comprehensive evaluation of the RV feasible. PMID:25264241

  15. Epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuma Sakaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or asymmetrical conjoined twins are extremely rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle. The cystic legion of the epigastrium was detected in our patient by an ultrasound scan at 28 weeks' gestation. He was born at 37 weeks' gestation by scheduled caesarean section. A parasite with an incomplete head and lower limb was attached to the epigastrium of the autosite. Surgical separation of the parasite and silo placement for an omphalocele was successfully performed on the 4th day of life. He underwent secondary surgical closure of the omphalocele on the 10th day. For treatment of the cardiac anomaly, he underwent an operation of Blalock–Taussig shunt because of pulmonary artery stenosis at the age of 3 months and correction of double outlet right ventricle at the age of 10 months. At the 20-month follow-up, he was alive and showed a normal growth pattern.

  16. Total Cavopulmonary Connection for Complex Cardiac Anomalies with the Functional Single Ventricle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From Aug. 1999 to Feb. 2001, 8 patients with complex congenital heart diseases, including 5 cases accompanied by hypoplastic left ventricle and 3 by hypoplastic right ventricle, were subjected to total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Eight cases underwent the operation under cardiopulmonary bypass and 7 of whom under no cardiac clamp. Seven cases received cavopulmoanry anastomosis by flaring method and one case by end-side anastomosis. All the patients underwent the intracardiac tunnels to drain inferior vena cava and plus 4 mm fenestration except one. The results showed that 6 patients had postoperative oxygen saturation more than 90 %, sinus rhythm, no anastomostic stoma obstruction, no flow reguigitation and CVP<16 cmH2O. Two (25 %) patients died postoperatively from high venous pressure of 18—20 cmH2O, finally from cardiac failure and anoxima. It was concluded that TCPC was an effective treatment for complex congenital cardiac diseases, especially with ventricular maldevelopment. Intracardiac tunnel plus 4 mm fenestration and flaring cavopulmonary anastomosis could prevent the postoperative complications. Larger anastomotic stoma, venous pressure less than 16 cmH2O and artery saturation more than 90 % might indicate excellent TCPC procedures in our experience.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of the flow inside the left ventricle of the human heart

    CERN Document Server

    Fortini, S; Espa, S; Cenedese, A

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory models of the human heart left ventricle developed in the last decades gave a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the role of the fluid dynamics in the cardiac function and to support the interpretation of the data obtained in vivo. Nevertheless, some questions are still open and new ones stem from the continuous improvements in the diagnostic imaging techniques. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the three-dimensional structure of the left-ventricular flow during the cardiac cycle. In this paper we investigated in detail this aspect using a laboratory model. The ventricle was simulated by a flexible sack varying its volume in time according to a physiologically shaped law. Velocities measured during several cycles on series of parallel planes, taken from two orthogonal points of view, were combined together in order to reconstruct the phase averaged, three-dimensional velocity field. During the diastole, three main steps are recognized in the evolution of the vortical str...

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis and Outcome of Fetuses with Double-Inlet Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha Gidvani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the in utero presentation of the subtype of double-inlet left ventricle (DILV, a rare congenital heart disease, and assess the postnatal outcome. We retrospectively studied fetuses diagnosed prenatally with DILV between 2007 and 2011. We reviewed the prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms, clinical presentations, karyotypes, and the postnatal outcomes. There were eight fetuses diagnosed with DILV with L-transposition of the great vessels (S, L, L. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 24.7 weeks. Of these, four fetuses (50% had pulmonary atresia. One fetus (12.5% also had tricuspid atresia and coarctation of the aorta and died at 17 months of age. Complete heart block and long QT syndrome was present in one fetus (12.5%, who died shortly after birth. There were no extracardiac or karyotypic abnormalities. Six (75% infants are alive and doing well. Double-inlet left ventricle with varied presentation can be accurately diagnosed prenatally. The outcome of fetuses is good in the absence of associated rhythm abnormalities with surgically staged procedures leading to a Fontan circulation.

  19. Evaluation of a multiple disk centrifugal pump as an artificial ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G E; Sidhu, A; Fink, R; Etter, B D

    1993-07-01

    A multiple-disk centrifugal pump based on the Tesla Turbine design has been modified for potential use as an artificial ventricle or ventricular assist device. The pump consists of a series of interconnected parallel disks placed within a spiral volute housing. This pump normally operates as a continuous flow device; however, a controller circuit has been developed to also allow for pulsatile operation. Frequency, systolic duration, systolic rise time, and diastolic decay time can be independently controlled to produce a wide range of pulsatile pressures and flows. This pumping system was tested in vitro on a mock circulatory system using a blood analogue. Inlet and outlet pressures, outlet flow, and motor rotations per minute were continually monitored over a wide range of physiologic operating conditions. The disk pump output was compared with that of other artificial ventricles and produced favorable results. Direct experimental comparisons were made with a Harvard Apparatus pulsatile piston pump. Unlike the Harvard pump, the disk pump does not use valves. Rather, a slight forward rotation of the disks is used to offset the adverse diastolic pressure gradient, which avoids backflow through the device. PMID:8338431

  20. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan, T; Aker, F V

    2016-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is one of the newly described primary tumours of the central nervous system. These tumours have two components of both neurocytic and glial areas but usually the glial component of the tumour predominates. They have biphasic cytoarchitecture with two elements; neurocytic rosettes resembling Homer-Wright rosettes, and astrocytic component resembling a pilocytic astrocytoma. They are low-grade tumours with lack of histopathological signs of malignancy. Here, clinical, magnetic resonance, computed tomography (CT) and pathological features of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of posterior fossa are presented. A 29-year-man was admitted with an acute neurological deterioration. A three ventricular hydrocephalus and a hypo-density around vermis in the posterior fossa were seen in his CT scans. He did well after an emergency external ventricular drainage. He had an elective operation and a mass that was reported to be a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle was excised. PMID:27179225

  1. Magnetic resonance in the dilation of terminal ventricle; Resonancia magnetica en la dilatacion del ventriculo terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulatem d, R. G.; Martinez, M. E.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2001-07-01

    Describe de Magnetic Resonance (MR) findings in four cases of terminal ventricle dilation. We have studied four patients, all of them women, whose mean age range was 39 years. The studies were performed with a 1 Tesla magnet and the sequences used were sagittal and axial T1 and T2 weighted and sagittal and axial T1 weighted after the administration of gadolinium. the follow-up was clinical and by MRI. The four patients studied came due to low back pain. The MRI images demonstrated the presence of a cystic lesion located in the medullary cone, with a well defined contour and one that presented no type of enhancement in the study performed with gadolinium. In three cases, we had a MRI control at two years and the images had not varied. We have no control for the fourth cases of more recent diagnosis. The terminal ventricle is an ependymoma cavity located in the medullary cone. It can present a dilation and it is necessary to know its existence, typical location and signal characteristics to be able to diagnose and differentiate it from cystic tumors in this localization, that can present a similar appearance in the MRI. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  3. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  4. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  5. Study of the subarachnoid space in cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 135 cases of cerebral cysticercosis are analysed, whereby the cisternoscintillographic and neuroradiological methods are combined. For this, in the first case a Searle model H.P. gamma camera was used; the investigation was performed 2, 6, 24, 48 and in some cases 72 h after intrathecal injection of 131I human seroalbumin by lumbar puncture. All these patients were subjected to cliniconeurological and neuroradiological examinations, routine laboratory tests (blood, seriate coproparasitological examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis) and special tests of intradermal reactions and histopathology. The results from the 135 patients examined were as follows: 58 were normal, while blockage was indicated in 77. The sites of obstruction were identified as being in the foramina of Luschka and Magendie in most cases and also, in order of frequency, in convexities, the aqueduct of Sylvius, the fourth ventricle and the foramen of Monro. The correlation between the clinical and radiological findings was higher than that between radiological investigations and cisternography. With cisternoscintillography a total of four false negatives and seven positives was found. (author)

  6. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  7. An MR study on widening of the anterior cerebral longitudinal fissure in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred and four schizophrenics and 27 normal controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The angles of the anterior cerebral longitudial (ACL) fissure on T1 weighted images were measured on the axial slices at the level of the third ventricle. The schizophrenics had significantly larger angles of ACL fissure than controls. However, the effect of aging might be associated with this phenomenon. There was no correlation between subtype of schizophrenia and the augment of the fissure angle, nor correlation between the duration of schizophrenia and that augment. From this study, it can be concluded that if the fissure angle is larger than 12 degree the finding is regarded as abnormal, because 95% confidence region of the control group was at 11.1 degree. Twenty two schizophrenics revealed the findings and great majority of these patients were suffering from emotional withdrawal and blunted affect. (author)

  8. Dandy Walker variant mimicking as cerebral palsy with severe neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Ramchandra Ghane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dandy Walker Variant (DWV is a less severe form of the spectrum of Dandy Walker Malformation (DWM. The DWM is a rare congenital intracranial posterior fossa malformation comprising cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and an enlarged posterior fossa. Clinically it presents with variable degrees of neurological impairment. Definitive diagnosis of DWM or DWV depends on neuroimaging as most of the clinical signs are not conclusive. This child was clinically suspected as spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy had incidental finding of DWV on neuroimaging. Hence a definitive diagnosis of DWV was made by MRI in this case. Here we discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this case with DWV without other associated anomalies yet presenting with clinically significant neurological impairment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1191-1193

  9. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa. (orig.)

  10. Impact of Intra-Extracranial Hemodynamics on Cerebral Ischemia by Arterial Hypertension (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov, PhD, ScD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between hemodynamic and biochemical parameters of cerebral blood flow have been studied in man, using mathematical methods of statistics. The values have been obtained through catheterization using a probe jammed at the level of the bulb of the superior jugular vein. Relationships with central hemodynamic parameters have been evaluated, including the right atrium, the right ventricle, and the left ventricle, as well as with pressure and biochemical values of the arterial bed. Data have been acquired in patients with stable arterial hypertension. Analysis of all relationship between hemodynamic and biochemical parameters has shown that the uniform hemodynamic zone: Sin.P. – SJV – SEV – the right atrium, normally participates in regulation of gaseous exchange in the human brain depending on the minimum pressure on the way of outflow from the brain. In stable arterial hypertension, this type of regulation is lost. On the basis of the results of this study, it has been concluded that blood viscosity is normally a primary controlled parameter of homeostasis. In stable arterial hypertension, homeostatic control of factors determining rheological and thrombogenic properties of blood, as well as participating in the development of brain ischemic conditions is lost. This increases risk of disturbances in central hemodynamics.

  11. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, H.; Grau, H.; Adelmann, M.; Schleiffer, R.

    1985-07-01

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa.

  12. Ventricular configuration and cerebral growth in infants born to drug-dependent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial ultrasound examinations were performed during the first 3 days of life and at age 1 month on 22 infants with the neonatal abstinence syndrome. The results were compared to those obtained in 15 control infants who were not exposed to narcotic drugs in utero. The ultrasound images were examined for ventricular configuration, intracranial hemidiameters, area of thalami, and width of temporal lobes. At 24 to 72 h and at 1 month of age, significantly more drug-exposed than control infants had a slit-like ventricular configuration. The intracranial hemidiameter was significantly smaller in the drug-exposed than in the control infants. All cerebral measurements except the right temporal lobe demonstrated significant growth over the first month of life in both groups of infants. By means of ancillary examinations (computerized tomography and transfontanel pressure measurements) the pathogenesis of the slit-like ventricles was found not to be related to edema or to increased intracranial pressure. Whether or not the ventricles remain small and brain growth remains parallel after the period of abstinence awaits further investigation. (orig.)

  13. Ventricular configuration and cerebral growth in infants born to drug-dependent mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, M.E.; Deiling, J.M.; Kurtz, A.B.; Goldberg, B.; Graziani, L.J.; Tunis, S.L.; Finnegan, L.P.

    1985-02-01

    Cranial ultrasound examinations were performed during the first 3 days of life and at age 1 month on 22 infants with the neonatal abstinence syndrome. The results were compared to those obtained in 15 control infants who were not exposed to narcotic drugs in utero. The ultrasound images were examined for ventricular configuration, intracranial hemidiameters, area of thalami, and width of temporal lobes. At 24 to 72 h and at 1 month of age, significantly more drug-exposed than control infants had a slit-like ventricular configuration. The intracranial hemidiameter was significantly smaller in the drug-exposed than in the control infants. All cerebral measurements except the right temporal lobe demonstrated significant growth over the first month of life in both groups of infants. By means of ancillary examinations (computerized tomography and transfontanel pressure measurements) the pathogenesis of the slit-like ventricles was found not to be related to edema or to increased intracranial pressure. Whether or not the ventricles remain small and brain growth remains parallel after the period of abstinence awaits further investigation.

  14. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates MicroRNA-155-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Ischemic Cerebral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya; Zhang, Xiangjian; Dong, Lipeng; Zhao, Jingru; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses play a critical role in ischemic brain injury. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and acetylbritannilactone (ABL) exerts potent antiinflammatory actions by inhibiting expression of inflammation-related genes. However, the functions of miR-155 and the actual relationship between ABL and miR-155 in ischemia-induced cerebral inflammation remain unclear. In this study, cerebral ischemia of wild-type (WT) and miR-155(-/-) mice was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). pAd-miR-155 was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle 24 h before MCAO to induce miR-155 overexpression. MCAO mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated BV2 cells were used to examine the effects of ABL and miR-155 overexpression or deletion on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We demonstrated that ABL treatment significantly reduced neurological deficits and cerebral infarct volume by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression in ischemic cerebral tissue and OGD-treated BV2 cells. Mechanistic studies suggested that the observed decrease in TNF-α and IL-1β expression was attributable to the ABL-induced suppression of the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We further found that miR-155 promoted TNF-α and IL-1β expression by upregulating TLR4 and downregulating the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), while ABL exerted an inhibitory effect on miR-155-mediated gene expression. In conclusion, miR-155 mediates inflammatory responses in ischemic cerebral tissue by modulating TLR4/MyD88 and SOCS1 expression, and ABL exerts its antiinflammatory action by suppressing miR-155 expression, suggesting a novel miR-155-based therapy for ischemic stroke. PMID:25811992

  15. Large Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Third Ventricle in Infancy: A Case Report and Review of Literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byeong Jin; Kim, Young Soo; Cheong, Jin Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Teratomas of the central nervous system are rare and are frequently found in children and young adults. Cystic teratomas found in infancy is a well-recognized but infrequent entity. Intracranial teratomas,like teratomas in general, tend to arise from midline structures such as the pineal gland, but has rarely been found in the third ventricle. We report a rare case of a 6-month-old infant with a mature cystic teratoma of the third ventricle with a review of literatures. PMID:27195263

  16. [Mathematical Modelling of the Dependence of the Performance of the Left Ventricle of the Heart on Preload and Afterload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomin, F A; Zberia, M V; Koubassova, N A; Tsaturyan, A K

    2015-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes of the left ventricle of the heart are presented. The simulation was based on a published simple kinetic model of cardiac muscle and approximation of the ventricle geometry with thick-wall cylinder where the fibre orientation varied linearly from sub-epicardium towards sub-endocardium. Blood flow was modelled with a liner compartment model. This simplified approach provides correct dependencies of the stroke volume on the pre- and afterload, namely end-diastolic pressure and peripheral resistance. The calculations show that the stroke volume is independent of arterial compliance and blood inertia. PMID:26841514

  17. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun ... Damage Treatments Click image to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a ...

  18. Cerebral abscess in the recently born

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual case of cerebral abscess in a newborn is reported. Emphasis is made in the paramount importance of its early diagnosis; mainly with imaging modalities like cerebral ultrasound and CT, in order to establisher the most appropriate therapy

  19. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  20. Primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare the survival of the patients treated with radiotherapy alone vs. patients treated with a combined schedule of radio-chemotherapy. Our results will be compared with currently published data and main prognostic factors will be briefly discussed. Patients and methods: Between 1974 and 1990, 27 cases of primary cerebral lymphoma were diagnosed at our institution. All patients had biopsy-proven disease, the pathology of which was reviewed for this study. Results: The overall median survival time was 24 months and one-, two- and three-year overall survival was 59, 46 and 29% respectively. The median radiation dose was 46 Gy, ranging from 19.5 to 60 Gy. The median dose per fraction was 2 Gy (ranging from 1.61 to 3 Gy). The median elapsed treatment time was 32 days (ranging from three to 45 days). We were not able to demonstrate any statistically significant difference between patients who received radiotherapy alone (n = 14, median survival time = 24 months) and those who received a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 11, median survival time = 30 months), (p = 0.4). Prognostic factors of survival were tested using a univariate analysis (Wilcoxon test). Parameters such as mass appearance (unilobular, p = 0.048), performance status at the time of the diagnosis (0 to 1, p = 0.014), and CT imaging (hypodense, p = 0.043) influenced positively survival. Centroblastic histology (Kiel) was found associated with a negative prognosis (p = 0.043). (orig./MG)

  1. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Wójcik

    Full Text Available The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS-known as proteasome inhibitors-have been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia. Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132

  2. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe,Akiharu; Yamauchi,Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi,Toshihiro; Nagashima,Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  3. Cerebritis: an unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes, David C; Prabha, Ramesh D

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  4. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes1, David C.; Prabha1, Ramesh D.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an e...

  5. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes1, David C.; Prabha1, Ramesh D.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  6. Mechanisms of cerebral radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ability of exogenous succinate to prevent the postradiation violations in neuronal respiration and to correct the manifestations of cerebral radiation syndrome is studied. Rats-males were used for experiments. RUM-17 X-ray therapeutic apparatus was applied for irradiation at the dose rate of 25 Gy/min. It is established that the neurological violations in rats following X-ray exposure at 150 Gy dose depend on cerebral energy deficiency connected with NAD neuronal pool depletion. Efficiency is demonstrated of two approaches to the prevention of cerebral radiation syndrome providing: a) retroinhibition of adenosine diphosphoribosyltransferase, b) administration of NAD - independently oxidated bioenergetic substrate. It is marked that the application of sodium succinate may be of special interest in the cases when the dose for forthcoming irradiation is unknown

  7. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  9. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  10. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  11. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis

  12. MR findings of cerebral palsy: comparison between preterm patients and fullterm patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Dong Ik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Pyoung; Ryu, Young Hoon; Hwang, Geum Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Hee [Pundang Cha General Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    To observe the MR findings of cerebral palsy by evaluating cerebral damage resulting from hypoxic ischemic injury and other variable causes and to compare the findings between preterm and full-term patients. We reviewed the MR findings of 102 cerebral palsy patients (71 full-term and 31 preterm). These were analysed with regard to deep and peripheral white matter, gray matter, basal ganglia, the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, corpus callosum and ventricles, according to the pattern of injury such as hypoxic ischemic injury, migration anomaly and early intrauterine injury, the findings of full-term and preterm patients were then compared. MR findings of preterm patients(n=3D31) were as follows;hypoxic ischemic injury(n=3D26),normal(n=3D2), and migration anomaly(n=3D3), while those of full-term patients(n=3D71) were hypoxic ischemic injury(n=3D41), normal(n=3D24), migration anomaly(n=3D4), early uterine injury(n=3D2), and perirolandic ischemic injury(n=3D6);in 5 patients, this latter condition was combined with status marmoratus. Periventricular leukomalacia was the most common finding in both preterm patients and full-term patients;selective neuronal necrosis, parasagittal injury and perirolandic injury were observed only in full-term patients. On MRI, variable findings of cerebral palsy were clearly observed;periventricular leukomalacia was the most common finding in both preterm and full-term patients.=20.

  13. SPECTCT cerebral perfusion scintigraphy; is the low-dose CT component of diagnostic value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the potential diagnostic value of the low-dose computed tomography (CT) component of dual-examination single photon emission CT and CT (SPECTCT) cerebral perfusion studies. Method and materials: Two hundred and forty consecutive 99 mTc hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) SPECTCT studies were considered for inclusion. The images were acquired on a hybrid dual-head gamma camera/low-dose CT system. The CT component had a fixed tube current of 2.5 mA. The CT section thickness was 5 mm and total acquisition time approximately 7.5 min. Studies in which no CT images were acquired, or those excessively degraded by movement artefact were excluded. The CT images of each of the remaining studies were retrospectively reviewed and categorized as normal or abnormal. Details of the abnormalities were recorded. Results: Fifteen of the 240 studies were excluded as no CT images were obtained. A further 14 were excluded as they were considered excessively degraded by movement artefact. A single abnormality was demonstrated on 48 (23%), and two abnormalities on four (2%) of the remaining 211 studies. The most common abnormal findings were low attenuation in the deep cortical white matter (n = 22), infarcts (n = 12), cerebral atrophy (n = 7), dilated ventricles (n = 5), basal ganglia calcification (n = 4), and post-surgical change (n = 3). Other findings included a chronic subdural haematoma, a meningioma, and a posterior fossa cyst. Previous cerebral imaging was available for comparison in 31% of cases. There was 85% concordance between previous imaging and the low-dose CT images. Conclusion: Twenty-five percent of the low-dose CT images in this study demonstrated abnormalities. Therefore the CT component of cerebral perfusion SPECTCT investigations should be routinely reported in their own right

  14. MR findings of cerebral palsy: comparison between preterm patients and fullterm patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the MR findings of cerebral palsy by evaluating cerebral damage resulting from hypoxic ischemic injury and other variable causes and to compare the findings between preterm and full-term patients. We reviewed the MR findings of 102 cerebral palsy patients (71 full-term and 31 preterm). These were analysed with regard to deep and peripheral white matter, gray matter, basal ganglia, the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, corpus callosum and ventricles, according to the pattern of injury such as hypoxic ischemic injury, migration anomaly and early intrauterine injury, the findings of full-term and preterm patients were then compared. MR findings of preterm patients(n=3D31) were as follows;hypoxic ischemic injury(n=3D26),normal(n=3D2), and migration anomaly(n=3D3), while those of full-term patients(n=3D71) were hypoxic ischemic injury(n=3D41), normal(n=3D24), migration anomaly(n=3D4), early uterine injury(n=3D2), and perirolandic ischemic injury(n=3D6);in 5 patients, this latter condition was combined with status marmoratus. Periventricular leukomalacia was the most common finding in both preterm patients and full-term patients;selective neuronal necrosis, parasagittal injury and perirolandic injury were observed only in full-term patients. On MRI, variable findings of cerebral palsy were clearly observed;periventricular leukomalacia was the most common finding in both preterm and full-term patients.=20

  15. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... The population analyzed was retrieved from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, which covers the eastern part of the country and has registered about half of the Danish population of individuals with CP since 1950. For this study we analyzed 2367 individuals with CP, who were born in 1930 to 2000 and...

  16. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  17. Vortex Dynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in phase space as fixed points undergo saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines. We illustrate how saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines also govern the formation and evolution of embedded vortices in cerebral aneurysms under variable inflow rates during the cardiac cycle.

  18. Double-chambered right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 4-month-old female mongrel puppy was presented with an anophthalmos. On physical examination, systolic murmur was heard at the 4th left intercostal space near the sternum. However the dog appeared healthy without cyanosis and had no history of exercise intolerance. The phonocardiogram revealed a pansystolic murmur and a continuous murmur on the mitral area. A systolic ejection murmur was also recorded on the pulmonic area. The electrocardiogram indicated bi-ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular enlargement was seen on chest radiographs. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were diagnosed from these findings. PDA closure was performed at 2 years of age. After 2 months from the operation, the dog died during an attempted repair of the VSD. At necropsy, it was found that the double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) was formed by an anomalous septal band. The VSD was localized on the proximal conus and was 8 mm in diameter. (author)

  19. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adult Survivors with Single-Ventricle Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Data on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SVP) are scarce. We sought (1) to describe the perceived health status, quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sense of coherence in adult survivors with SVP, (2) to compare PROs...... across functional classes, and (3) to compare PROs between patients and controls. Methods: A case-control study in two adult congenital heart programmes with 62 adult survivors with SVP were matched to 172 healthy controls. A wide range of PROs were measured using validated questionnaires. The treating...... physician classified patients according to the Ability Index. Results: Patients with SVP have a good functional status. Patients in Ability Index class I consistently reported the best scores, similar to those of healthy controls. Negative associations were found between functional class and outcomes...

  20. Patient-reported outcomes in adult survivors with single-ventricle physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen H;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Data on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SVP) are scarce. We sought (1) to describe the perceived health status, quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sense of coherence in adult survivors with SVP, (2) to compare PROs...... across functional classes, and (3) to compare PROs between patients and controls. Methods: A case-control study in two adult congenital heart programmes with 62 adult survivors with SVP were matched to 172 healthy controls. A wide range of PROs were measured using validated questionnaires. The treating...... physician classified patients according to the Ability Index. Results: Patients with SVP have a good functional status. Patients in Ability Index class I consistently reported the best scores, similar to those of healthy controls. Negative associations were found between functional class and outcomes...

  1. Distance regularized two level sets for segmentation of left and right ventricles from cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Captur, Gabriella; Moon, James C; Guo, Shuxu; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new level set method for segmentation of cardiac left and right ventricles. We extend the edge based distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE) model in Li et al. (2010) to a two-level-set formulation, with the 0-level set and k-level set representing the endocardium and epicardium, respectively. The extraction of endocardium and epicardium is obtained as a result of the interactive curve evolution of the 0 and k level sets derived from the proposed variational level set formulation. The initialization of the level set function in the proposed two-level-set DRLSE model is generated from roughly located endocardium, which can be performed by applying the original DRLSE model. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed two-level-set DRLSE model. PMID:26740057

  2. Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Miyake, Hidenori; Aoki, Michio; Takeuchi, Juji

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally.

  3. Cardiac pacing in pediatrics: Is still the right ventricle the optimal pacing site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabrera Ortega

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent cardiac pacing is frequently indicated in pediatric patients due to atrioventricular block. Traditionally, the right ventricle has been the pacing site because it is readily accessible, and provides lead stability and optimal chronic pacing thresholds. However, it is associated with a dyssynchrony pattern of ventricular activation, that may cause remodeling and impairment of left ventricular function. In pediatric patients, paced from an early age and with a long life expectancy, the preservation of cardiac function is a premise. Therefore, the prevention of dyssynchrony, using possible alternative sites, is not just a priority, is a challenge. The aim of the article is to show the effects of chronic right ventricular pacing as well as the evidence of benefits provided by alternatives pacing sites in pediatric population and their clinical and practical implications.

  4. Automatic fuzzy contouring and parameter extraction of the left ventricle from multi-slice MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac MR Imaging is a non invasive technique that allows the acquisition of a series of short-axis slices of the heart. These images encompass the entire left ventricle in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. The principal physiological parameters extracted from this series are the ejection fraction and the wall thickness. To this end, the determination of both the endocardial and the epicardial contour is required. Following the extraction of three parameters for each pixel, the fuzzy set of the cardiac contour points is defined. The first parameter depends on the pixel grey level value, the second on the presence of an edge and the third on the information retrieved on the previous slice. The calculation of the membership degree to the fuzzy set of the cardiac contour points for each pixel involves the creation of a matrix of membership degrees. The cardiac contours are determined on this matrix with the aid of a dynamic programming technique, graph searching. (authors)

  5. Decreased expression of natriuretic peptides associated with lipid accumulation in cardiac ventricle of obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E.D.; Nielsen, J.M.; Bisgaard, L.S.;

    2010-01-01

    cultured cardiomyocytes and three different mouse models to examine the impact of obesity and cardiac lipid accumulation on cardiac natriuretic peptide expression. The cardiac ventricular expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and BNP mRNA and ANP peptide was decreased 36-72% in obese ob/ob, db......% (P <0.005) depression of ANP mRNA expression in cultured HL-1 atrial myocytes. The data suggest that obesity and altered cardiac lipid metabolism are associated with reduced production of ANP and BNP in the cardiac ventricles in the setting of normal as well as impaired cardiac function.......Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and proBNP are established markers of cardiac dysfunction. Even though obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, obese individuals have reduced plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides. The underlying mechanism is not established. We used...

  6. Determination of Three-Dimensional Left Ventricle Motion to Analyze Ventricular Dyssyncrony in SPECT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to compute three-dimension (3D left ventricle (LV motion and its color coded visualization scheme for the qualitative analysis in SPECT images is proposed. It is used to investigate some aspects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT. The method was applied to 3D gated-SPECT images sets from normal subjects and patients with severe Idiopathic Heart Failure, before and after CRT. Color coded visualization maps representing the LV regional motion showed significant difference between patients and normal subjects. Moreover, they indicated a difference between the two groups. Numerical results of regional mean values representing the intensity and direction of movement in radial direction are presented. A difference of one order of magnitude in the intensity of the movement on patients in relation to the normal subjects was observed. Quantitative and qualitative parameters gave good indications of potential application of the technique to diagnosis and follow up of patients submitted to CRT.

  7. MECHANICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF BLOOD CIRCULATION IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LEFT VENTRICLE POSTINFARCTION ANEURISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vitsukaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all successes of a modern heart surgery, anesthesiology and resuscitation till now actual there is a ques- tion of improvement of results of surgical treatment of patients with chronic left ventricle postinfarction aneu- risms. Аfter left ventricular reconstructive surgery preoperative risk factors of development heavy myocardial dysfunctions in the postoperative period aren’t defined accurately now. We have made the analysis of 168 similar operations and have defined preoperative risk factors of development of severe heart failure in the intraoperative and early postoperative period. We have suggested methods to improve the results of operations in these patients using mechanical and pharmacological support of blood circulation. Use our suggested methods of preoperative preparation (Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (VABK and VABK + levosimendan had significantly impro- ved results and significantly reduce mortality in patients with high risk of surgical treatment. 

  8. A guide to modelling cardiac electrical activity in anatomically detailed ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R H; Panfilov, A V

    2008-01-01

    One of the most recent trends in cardiac electrophysiology is the development of integrative anatomically accurate models of the heart, which include description of cardiac activity from sub-cellular and cellular level to the level of the whole organ. In order to construct this type of model, a researcher needs to collect a wide range of information from books and journal articles on various aspects of biology, physiology, electrophysiology, numerical mathematics and computer programming. The aim of this methodological article is to survey recent developments in integrative modelling of electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart, and to provide a practical guide to the resources and tools that are available for work in this exciting and challenging area. PMID:17825362

  9. Automatic localization of the left ventricle in cardiac MRI images using deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Omar; Yassine, Inas A; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2015-08-01

    Automatic localization of the left ventricle (LV) in cardiac MRI images is an essential step for automatic segmentation, functional analysis, and content based retrieval of cardiac images. In this paper, we introduce a new approach based on deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to localize the LV in cardiac MRI in short axis views. A six-layer CNN with different kernel sizes was employed for feature extraction, followed by Softmax fully connected layer for classification. The pyramids of scales analysis was introduced in order to take account of the different sizes of the heart. A publically-available database of 33 patients was used for learning and testing. The proposed method was able it localize the LV with 98.66%, 83.91% and 99.07% for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity respectively. PMID:26736354

  10. Various tumors in the 4th ventricle in adults: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Keon Ha; Choi, Ja Young; Kwon, Bae Joo; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    Primary fourth ventricular neoplasms are common in children but rare in adults, and the disease categories encountered differ according to the patient's age. This study reviewed the records of patients aged 16 years or over, who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and were found to have fourth ventricular lesions. Most patients then underwent surgical resection, leading to specific pathologic diagnosis. The various fourth ventricular tumors encountered were ependymoma (n=8), subependymoma (n=1), choroid plexus papilloma (n=3), astrocytoma (n=3), medulloblastoma (n=1), lymphoma (n=2), epidermoid cyst (n=2), meningioma (n=1), melanoma (n=1), cavernous hemangioma (n=1) and metastasis (n=1). We describe the various tumors located mainly in the fourth ventricle and review their clinical presentation and the radiological findings, the majority of which were nonspecific. In some cases, however, specific signal intensity or the growth pattern of the tumors was useful for differential diagnosis.

  11. Double chamber right ventricle in Williams syndrome: a rare cardiac anomaly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Jayitri; Sarkar, Rakesh; Badveli, Anusha; Majumder, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormality is the most consistent finding and occur in almost 80 % of all Williams syndrome (WS). Although a number of cardiovascular defects are common to WS, the majority presents in some form of arterial stenosis whereas supravalvular aortic stenosis is the most common one. Here we describe a 12 year old boy with elfin facies, presenting with urinary incontinence and a systolic murmur in right upper parasternal region. Echocardiography showed presence of double chambered right ventricle (DCRV) along with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and coronary artery aneurysms, left pulmonary artery stenosis and multiple bladder diverticula in CT abdomen. With the clinical suspicion the diagnosis of WS was made and confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) study showing deletion in 7q11.23. Though different forms of arterial stenosis at multiple sites have been demonstrated in WS, DCRV in Williams syndrome is not reported till date in medical literature. PMID:27006883

  12. Apoptosis of endothelial cells of cerebral basilar arteries in symptomatic cerebral vasospasm rabbit models Electron microscopic observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent researchers report that vasospasm is caused by that, on one hand, damage of endothelial cells reduces synthesis and liberation of vessel dilator; on the other hand, defluxion of endothelial cells directly exposure vascular smooth muscles in active materials of vasoconstriction in blood.OBJECTIVE: To study whether apoptosis of cerebrovascular cells occurs in symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (CVS) rabbit models by using transmission electron microscope.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTINGS: The Fifth Endemic Area, the 89 Hospital of Chinese PLA; Minimally Invasive Neurosurgical Center, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits, of either sex, weighing 2.4 - 3.0 kg, of clear grade, were selected from the Experimental Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.JEM-2000EX transmission electron microscope was made in Japan.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Anatomy (National Key Laboratory), the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from April 2001 to April 2002. ① Preparation of symptomatic CVS models: Eighteen animals which were successfully modeled were randomly divided into experimental group (n =13) and control group (n =5). Animals in the experimental group were poured with blood into cavitas subarachnoidealis; while, animals in the control group were poured with the same volume of saline into cavitas subarachnoidealis. At the 5th day injection, three rabbits selected from the experimental group were anesthetized and perfused into left ventricle. And then, aorta pectoralis and caval vein were blocked by using ring clamp. Cranium was rapidly cut open to obtain cerebral basilar artery and a few of brain tissues. Both of them were fixed for 8 hours. Two rabbits selected from the control group were perfused with the same method to obtain basilar artery and brain tissues and fix. ② After fixation by using optic

  13. [Renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to choroid plexus of lateral ventricle; a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M; Asakura, K; Nakajima, S; Sampei, T; Sayama, I; Kawamura, S; Yasui, N; Fukazawa, H

    1992-04-01

    A rare case of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle is reported. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our institution on November 26, 1987 complaining of left-half headache for one month. She had a past history of right nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma 4 years before admission, and of right radical mastectomy due to breast cancer 10 years before admission. She had no abnormal neurological findings and laboratory results were normal. CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed, apparently homogeneously enhancing mass in the left lateral ventricle with mild ventricular dilatation. Left vertebral angiogram showed a tumor stain fed by the left posterior choroidal artery. The most likely diagnosis was thought to be metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent the operation for tumor removal via the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach 14 days after admission. A histological examination of the tumor determined the diagnosis of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma. The operation was uneventful and the patient was discharged 20 days after operation without neurological deficit. But she had recent-memory disturbance, low activity, and gait disturbance in May 1989. CT scan revealed ventricular dilatation and tumor recurrence at the same site. She also suffered from diabetes due to the regrowth and invasion of primary tumor to the pancreas. She was discharged free of neurological defects after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In December 1989, she gradually deteriorated due to the regrowth of the intraventricular metastatic lesion, and now she is bedridden. Choroid plexus metastasis is quite rare, and, to our knowledge, only three cases have been described. PMID:1570073

  14. Measurement of Strain in the Left Ventricle during Diastole withcine-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2005-07-20

    The assessment of regional heart wall motion (local strain) can localize ischemic myocardial disease, evaluate myocardial viability and identify impaired cardiac function due to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. The objectives of this research were to develop and validate a technique known as Hyperelastic Warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle from clinical cine-MRI image datasets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image datasets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target image. To validate the technique, MRI image datasets representing two deformation states of a left ventricle were created such that the deformation map between the states represented in the images was known. A beginning diastoliccine-MRI image dataset from a normal human subject was defined as the template. A second image dataset (target) was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a forward FE model of diastolic filling. Fiber stretch and strain predictions from Hyperelastic Warping showed good agreement with those of the forward solution. The technique had low sensitivity to changes in material parameters, with the exception of changes in bulk modulus of the material. The use of an isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model in the Warping analyses degraded the predictions of fiber stretch. Results were unaffected by simulated noise down to an SNR of 4.0. This study demonstrates that Warping in conjunction with cine-MRI imaging can be used to determine local ventricular strains during diastole.

  15. Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osztie, Eva [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: osztie@oiti.hu; Hanzely, Zoltan [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: han_zol@yahoo.com; Afra, Denes [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: afraden@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data. CT and MRI imaging characteristics of the two tumour types are rather different, both in reported cases as well as in our material. In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake. Thirteen subependymomas were hypodense, mostly without enhancement, but occasionally mild or moderate enhancement was noted. Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement. Nineteen central neurocytomas showed hypo- or mixed density, but mostly mild to moderate enhancement. Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones. In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK. WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007] were hypodense without contrast uptake. Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas. However, it is of note that for the verification of an intraventricular tumour CT is also satisfactory. Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma. Survival of patients with other types of glial tumour was similar to that of patients with a similar tumour, but in an extraventricular localisation.

  16. Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data. CT and MRI imaging characteristics of the two tumour types are rather different, both in reported cases as well as in our material. In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake. Thirteen subependymomas were hypodense, mostly without enhancement, but occasionally mild or moderate enhancement was noted. Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement. Nineteen central neurocytomas showed hypo- or mixed density, but mostly mild to moderate enhancement. Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones. In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK. WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007] were hypodense without contrast uptake. Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas. However, it is of note that for the verification of an intraventricular tumour CT is also satisfactory. Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma. Survival of patients with other types of glial tumour was similar to that of patients with a similar tumour, but in an extraventricular localisation

  17. Radiosurgery for cerebral cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, G; Kemeny, A A

    2015-09-01

    The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of cerebral cavernomas (CCMs) remains controversial. However, during the last decade the increasing knowledge on natural history and numerous publications from SRS centers using modern treatment protocols has been changing the initial resistance of the neurosurgical community. Unfortunately, the quality of publications on CCM SRS remains heterogeneous. Controversies arise from the lack of control groups, the different definition of hemorrhage, heterogeneous patient populations, and poor definition of treatment protocols. The key for proper interpretation of results is the understanding of the natural history of CCMs, which is varied both according to anatomical location and the presence or absence of previous hemorrhage. Hemispheric lesions appear to be more benign with lower annual bleed rate and risk of persisting disability, whereas those found in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brainstem typically have higher rebleed risk resulting in higher cumulative morbidity following subsequent hemorrhages. However, we are still unable at presentation to predict the future behavior of an individual lesion. In the present paper we critically review and analyze the modern SRS literature on CCMs. The expanding number of available data with current treatment protocols strongly supports the initial intuition that SRS is an effective treatment alternative for deep-seated CCMs with multiple hemorrhages reducing pretreatment annual rebleed rates from 32% pre-treatment to 1.5% within 2 years after treatment (N.=197). Moreover, it appears to stabilize lesions with no more than one bleed, and it is also effective for CCMs causing therapy resistant epilepsy especially if applied within 3 years after presentation. In modern SRS series the rate of persisting adverse radiation effects is low, resulting only in mild morbidity even in deep-seated lesions (4.16%, N.=376), and morbidity caused by post-treatment hemorrhages is also

  18. Lactate clearance for initiating and weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a child with regressed left ventricle after arterial switch operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Chauhan, Sandeep; Bisoi, A. K.; Sahoo, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We hereby report a child with transposition of great arteries and regressed ventricle who underwent arterial switch operation (ASO) with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and “integrated” extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit. The significance of lactate clearance as a guide to initiate and terminate veno-arterial ECMO in a post ASO child with regressed left ventricle is discussed. PMID:26750700

  19. Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS

  20. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  1. Dynamic model of the left ventricle for use in simulation of myocardial perfusion SPECT and gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation is a useful tool in cardiac SPECT to assess quantification algorithms. However, simple equation-based models are limited in their ability to simulate realistic heart motion and perfusion. We present a numerical dynamic model of the left ventricle, which allows us to simulate normal and anomalous cardiac cycles, as well as perfusion defects. Bicubic splines were fitted to a number of control points to represent endocardial and epicardial surfaces of the left ventricle. A transformation from each point on the surface to a template of activity was made to represent the myocardial perfusion. Geometry-based and patient-based simulations were performed to illustrate this model. Geometry-based simulations modeled (1) a normal patient, (2) a well-perfused patient with abnormal regional function, (3) an ischaemic patient with abnormal regional function, and (4) a patient study including tracer kinetics. Patient-based simulation consisted of a left ventricle including a realistic shape and motion obtained from a magnetic resonance study. We conclude that this model has the potential to study the influence of several physical parameters and the left ventricle contraction in myocardial perfusion SPECT and gated-SPECT studies

  2. A case of single atrium and single ventricle physiology with bilateral cleft lip and palate for lip repair surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhee Goyal; Ravinder Kumar Batra; Avinash Jangde; Gaurav Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip and palate may occasionally be associated with complex congenital cyanotic heart disease. An infant with common atrium and single ventricle with infundibular pulmonary stenosis (Blalock-Taussig shunt done recently) presented for lip repair surgery. Balanced general anesthesia was administered using sevoflurane along with a regional nerve block to maintain optimal pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance.

  3. Quarto ventrículo isolado: relato de dois casos Isolated fourth ventricle: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ALBERTO GONÇALVES DA SILVA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos dois casos de quarto ventrículo isolado sendo o primeiro decorrente de hemorragia cerebelar e o segundo de hidrocefalia congênita com múltiplas revisões de válvula e cisto de Dandy-Walker. O tratamento cirúrgico é revisado na literatura. A abordagem direta à fossa posterior acha-se indicada nos casos de cisto no interior do quarto ventrículo. Naqueles sem a presença de cisto, deve-se empregar sistema de drenagem do quarto ventrículo, independente da drenagem supratentorial.Two cases of isolated fourth ventricle are reported, the first due to cerebellar haemorrhage, and the second due to congenital hydrocephalus with multiple shunt revisions and Dandy-Walker cyst. In our opinion, there are two basic treatment for isolated forth ventricle. The direct approach to the fourth ventricle is indicated when there is presence of an intraventricular cyst. The fourth ventricular shunting, independent of the supratentorial shunt, is the best treatments for patients with an isolated fourth ventricle without the presence of a cyst.

  4. Relation of physical activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Groenink, M.; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Plas, MN van der; Sieswerda, G.T.; Konings, T.C.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  5. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic R

  6. Heart rate variability and hear left ventricle hypertrophy in clean-up workers after Chernobyl accident with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) and hear left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH) in clean-up workers of Chernobyl accident with essential hypertension was estimated. Lowering of total HRV, parasympathetic and sympathetic activity associated with increased range of LVH was discovered

  7. Caffeine induced changes in cerebral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differences between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values

  8. Contraceptives and cerebral thrombosis: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis......Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis...

  9. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA

  10. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

  11. Cerebral Palsy and Neonatal Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The type and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and pattern of associated disability in children with or without preceding neonatal encephalopathy (NE) were compared in a population-based case-control study of patients followed for 6 years at the Children’s Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

  12. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Katoch Sabita; Devi Anjana; Kulkarni Prajakta

    2007-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP) patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  13. [Cerebral ischemia in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlit, P; Endemann, B; Vetter, P

    1991-08-01

    An overview is given over etiology and prognosis of cerebral ischemias until the age of 40. In a time period of 19 years, 168 patients were diagnosed with cerebral ischemia until the age of 40 (91 females, 77 males). The most frequent etiology is premature atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors (up to 50%). Cardiogenic embolism is responsible for 1 to 34% of the cases: cardiac valve diseases and endocarditis being the most frequent sources. In 2 to 19% a vasculitis is diagnosed. While infectious arteritis is especially frequent in countries of the third world, immunovasculitides are common in Europe and the USA. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include spontaneous or traumatic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and vascular malformations. A migrainous stroke is especially frequent in female smokers with intake of oral contraceptives. During pregnancy both sinus thrombosis and arterial ischemia occur. Hematologic causes for ischemia are polycythemia, thrombocytosis and genetic diseases (sickle cell anemia, AT3-deficiency). Cerebral ischemia may occur in connection with the ingestion of ergot-derivates. The prognosis of cerebral ischemia in young adults is better than in older stroke-patients. PMID:1937340

  14. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases. (orig.)

  15. [Should cerebral autoregulation be reassessed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Maintained cardiac output (CO) and cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) are of importance for a reduction in perioperative complications. Normovolaemia is defined as a central blood volume that does not limit CO for the supine patient and is maintained by individualized goal directed fluid therapy. Thereby...

  16. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  17. Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Povlsen, G K

    2011-01-01

    Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) carries high morbidity and mortality because of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and subsequent cerebral ischaemia. This is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in cerebral artery smooth muscles via the activation of...... intracellular signalling. In addition, delayed cerebral ischaemia after SAH is associated with inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This article reviews recent evidence concerning the roles of vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation, inflammation and BBB breakdown in delayed cerebral...... ischaemia after SAH. In addition, recent studies investigating the role of various intracellular signalling pathways in these processes and the possibilities of targeting signalling components in SAH treatment are discussed. Studies using a rat SAH model have demonstrated that cerebral arteries increase...

  18. Influence of the lateral ventricles and irregular skull base on brain kinematics due to sagittal plane head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, J; Viano, D C; Lövsund, P

    2002-08-01

    Two-dimensional physical models of the human head were used to investigate how the lateral ventricles and irregular skull base influence kinematics in the medial brain during sagittal angular head dynamics. Silicone gel simulated the brain and was separatedfrom the surrounding skull vessel by paraffin that provided a slip interface between the gel and vessel. A humanlike skull base model (HSB) included a surrogate skull base mimicking the irregular geometry of the human. An HSBV model added an elliptical inclusion filled with liquid paraffin simulating the lateral ventricles to the HSB model. A simplified skull base model (SSBV) included ventricle substitute but approximated the anterior and middle cranial fossae by a flat and slightly angled surface. The models were exposed to 7600 rad/s2 peak angular acceleration with 6 ms pulse duration and 5 deg forced rotation. After 90 deg free rotation, the models were decelerated during 30 ms. Rigid body displacement, shear strain and principal strains were determined from high-speed video recorded trajectories of grid markers in the surrogate brains. Peak values of inferior brain surface displacement and strains were up to 10.9X (times) and 3.3X higher in SSBV than in HSBV. Peak strain was up to 2.7X higher in HSB than in HSBV. The results indicate that the irregular skull base protects nerves and vessels passing through the cranial floor by reducing brain displacement and that the intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid relieves strain in regions inferior and superior to the ventricles. The ventricles and irregular skull base are necessary in modeling head impact and understanding brain injury mechanisms. PMID:12188208

  19. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório neste tipo de paciente. CONTEÚDO: O artigo aborda aspectos da paralisia cerebral como etiologia, classificação, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, terapêuticas utilizadas bem como avaliação pré-operatória, medicação pré-anestésica, manuseio intra e pós-operatório, analgesia pós-operatória e dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O anestesiologista desempenha um papel importante na diminuição da morbidade e mortalidade anestésico-cirúrgica em pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral. O conhecimento da fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de paralisia cerebral bem como das doenças associadas e suas terapêuticas é imprescindível, pois permite ao anestesiologista antecipar e prevenir complicações intra e pós-operatórias neste tipo de paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La parálisis cerebral (PC es una enfermedad no progresiva consecuente de una lesión en el sistema nervioso central, llevando a un comprometimiento motor del paciente. El portador de PC, frecuentemente es sometido a procedimientos quirúrgicos debido a enfermedades usuales y situaciones particulares consecuentes de la parálisis cerebral. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar aspectos de la parálisis cerebral de interés para el anestesista, permitiendo un adecuado manoseo pre, intra y posoperatorio en este tipo de paciente. CONTENIDO: El artículo aborda aspectos de la parálisis cerebral como etiología, clasificación, factores de

  20. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered

  1. Validation and absolute quantification of MR perfusion compared with CT perfusion in patients with unilateral cerebral arterial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess absolute quantification of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) comparing with computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in patients with unilateral stenosis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively post-processed MRP in 20 patients with unilateral occlusion or stenosis of >79% at the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Absolute quantification of MRP was performed after applying the following techniques: cerebrospinal fluid removal, vessel removal, and automatic segmentation of brain to calculate the scaling factors to convert relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values to absolute values. For comparison between MRP and CTP, we manually deposited regions of interest in bilateral MCA territories at the level containing the body of the lateral ventricle. Results: The correlation between MRP and CTP was best for mean transit time (MTT) (r = 0.83), followed by cerebral blood flow (CBF) (r = 0.52) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) (r = 0.43). There was no significant difference between CTP and MRP for CBV, CBF, and MTT on the lesion side, the contralateral side, the lesion-contralateral differences, or the lesion-to-contralateral ratios (P > 0.05). The mean differences between MRP and CTP were as follows: CBV −0.57 mL/100 g, CBF 2.50 mL/100 g/min, and MTT −0.90 s. Conclusion: Absolute quantification of MRP is possible. Using the proposed method, measured values of MRP and CTP had acceptable linear correlation and quantitative agreement.

  2. Validation and absolute quantification of MR perfusion compared with CT perfusion in patients with unilateral cerebral arterial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Fang-Ying, E-mail: fychiou@hotmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Kao, Yi-Hsuan, E-mail: yhkao@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Teng, Michael Mu Huo, E-mail: mhteng@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen, E-mail: chung@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Feng-Chi, E-mail: fcchang374@gmail.com [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cho, I-Chieh, E-mail: jessie8030@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Chun, E-mail: sky7408695@hotmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess absolute quantification of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) comparing with computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in patients with unilateral stenosis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively post-processed MRP in 20 patients with unilateral occlusion or stenosis of >79% at the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Absolute quantification of MRP was performed after applying the following techniques: cerebrospinal fluid removal, vessel removal, and automatic segmentation of brain to calculate the scaling factors to convert relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values to absolute values. For comparison between MRP and CTP, we manually deposited regions of interest in bilateral MCA territories at the level containing the body of the lateral ventricle. Results: The correlation between MRP and CTP was best for mean transit time (MTT) (r = 0.83), followed by cerebral blood flow (CBF) (r = 0.52) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) (r = 0.43). There was no significant difference between CTP and MRP for CBV, CBF, and MTT on the lesion side, the contralateral side, the lesion-contralateral differences, or the lesion-to-contralateral ratios (P > 0.05). The mean differences between MRP and CTP were as follows: CBV −0.57 mL/100 g, CBF 2.50 mL/100 g/min, and MTT −0.90 s. Conclusion: Absolute quantification of MRP is possible. Using the proposed method, measured values of MRP and CTP had acceptable linear correlation and quantitative agreement.

  3. 18F-FDG SPECT myocardial imaging of right ventricle in patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18F-FDG SPECT myocardial imaging in evaluating haemodynamic change, treatment outcome and prognosis for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Methods: All 24 patients with IPAH underwent 18F-FDG SPECT myocardial imaging. Right ventricle/left ventricle (RV/LV)-FDG uptake was calculated by ROI method drawing over the central areas of left and right ventricular free walls. All patients underwent right heart catheterization within 3 days after imaging studies. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were recorded. After six month pharmaceutical treatment, 15 IPAH patients were re-examined with 18F-FDG SPECT myocardial imaging followed by repeated right heart catheterization within 3 days. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain naturetic peptide (NT-proBNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured in 17 patients using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and enzyme immunoassay respectively. All patients were followed up for 12 months at least. Correlations between RV/LV-FDG uptake and mPAP and PVR were determined by simple linear regression analysis. Change of RV/LV-FDG before and after treatment was calculated using Student's t-test. Survival in groups with RV/LV FDG uptake ≥ 1.15 and RV/LV-FDG uptake<1.15 were compared using Log-rank test. Results: Significant correlations were found between RV/LV-FDG uptake and mPAP (r=0.562, P<0.01), and between RV/LV-FDG uptake and PVR (r=0.574, P<0.01). There were no significant correlation between RV/LV-FDG uptake and NT-proBNP (r=0.181, P>0.05), but a significant correlation between RV/LV-FDG and ET-1 was observed (r=0.669, P<0.01). The RV/LV-FDG uptake in patients with positive treatment outcome (n=6) decreased from 1.38 ± 0.52 to 0.92 ±0.26 (t=4.018, P<0.05) after 6 months treatment. In contrast, no significant change of RV/LV-FDG uptake was seen in those patients (n=9) with negative treatment outcome (t=1.861, P>0.05). The mean follow-up time

  4. Focal cerebral ischemia induces the neurogenic potential of mouse Dach1-expressing cells in the dorsal part of the lateral ventricles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honsa, Pavel; Pivoňková, Helena; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 240, June (2013), s. 39-53. ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0855; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : mouse Dach1 gene * adult neurogenesis /gliogenesis * MCAo Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2013

  5. Cerebral aterial spasm. I. Adrenergic mechanism in experimental cerebral vasospasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morooka,Hiroshi

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that an adrenergic mechanism plays an important role in producing the delayed cerebral vasospasm which follows subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results were as follows: 1. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was produced by injection of fresh arterial blood into the cisterna magna in cats. The cerebral vasospasm was shown angiographically to be biphasic in nature: immediate constriction lasting 1 h and marked prolonged spasm occurring between the 3rd and 5th day after SAH. The amount of noradrenaline (NA and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH activity decreased over a period of 24 h both within the wall of the basilar artery and in the locus ceruleus and then gradually increased, reaching a maximum on the 3rd day after SAH. 2. Topical application of spasmogenic substances (NA and blood produced a marked constriction of the hypersensitive basilar artery on the 3rd day after SAH. 3. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the cisterna magna produced prolonged vasocilatation. The dilated vessel responded with mild transient constriction after the topical application of NA or fresh blood. DBH activity and NA concentration in the vessels, locus ceruleus and medial hypothalamus decreased markedly on the 3rd day after the cisternal injection of 6-OHDA. 4. Various spasmogenic substances (i.e. serotonin, NA, prostaglandins and methemoglobin were measured in a mixture of equal volume of CSF and blood in cats. ONly the serotonin in the mixed fluid produced vasoconstriction. Spasmogenic substances decreased markedly in the mixed fluid incubated for 3 days at 37 degrees C, and none of these substances apart from methemoglobin was present in a concentration sufficient to produce constriction of vessels. 5. These results suggest that early spasm is induced by serotonin around the arteries of the cranial base, and delayed spasm might be caused by hyperreaction of cerebral vessels to spasmogenic substances such as methemoglobin, during the

  6. What's new in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M H

    1953-11-01

    Among new researches bearing on cerebral palsy are the growth of brain cells in tissue cultures for experimentation; the use of polysaccharides to prevent the formation of a glial barrier to nerve growth after injury; observation of changes in reactions of neurons at various stages of development; the finding of hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in lesions of the frontal lobe and the thalamus; stimulation of cerebral blood flow by injection of sodium bicarbonate and retardation with ammonium chloride; and studies of serial sections of brains of palsied children who died. Study of development in the early months of life has made possible the detection of significant abnormalities in behavior early in life. Loss of hearing may be tested in very young children by measuring minute variations in electrical resistance of the skin upon auditory stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Conditions which have been described as having been confused with cerebral palsy are dislocation of a cervical vertebra, hereditary spastic paraplegia, transverse myelopathy, injury to the spinal cord or cauda equina by anomalous growths of the spine, and also encephalitis and meningitis. Sedation has proved a valuable adjunct to electroencephalographic study of cerebral palsy. Better criteria for abnormality in the young child should be determined and the application of them more clearly standardized. Simple exercises are useful for early training of palsied children to stimulate development. "Crossed laterality"-the dominant eye being contralateral to the preferred hand-has been counteracted by special training with great success in eliminating emotional and behavior problems and accelerating development.Recent studies indicate that only 50 per cent of cerebral palsy patients have normal or better intelligence. Subluxation of the hip joint, a common deformity associated with cerebral palsy, can sometimes be corrected by operation if detected at an early stage. Radical ablation of

  7. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  8. Simulated Microgravity and Recovery-Induced Remodeling of the Left and Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guohui; Li, Yuheng; Li, Hongxing; Sun, Weijia; Cao, Dengchao; Li, Jianwei; Zhao, Dingsheng; Song, Jinping; Jin, Xiaoyan; Song, Hailin; Yuan, Xinxin; Wu, Xiaorui; Li, Qi; Xu, Qing; Kan, Guanghan; Cao, Hongqing; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Physiological adaptations to microgravity involve alterations in cardiovascular systems. These adaptations result in cardiac remodeling and orthostatic hypotension. However, the response of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) following hindlimb unloading (HU) and hindlimb reloading (HR) is not clear and the underlying mechanism remains to be understood. In this study, three groups of mice were subjected to HU by tail suspension for 28 days. Following this, two groups were allowed to recover for 7 or 14 days. The control group was treated equally, with the exception of tail suspension. Echocardiography was performed to detect the structure and function changes of heart. Compared with the control, the HU group of mice showed reduced LV-EF (ejection fraction), and LV-FS (fractional shortening). However, mice that were allowed to recover for 7 days after HU (HR-7d) showed increased LVIDs (systolic LV internal diameter) and LV Vols (systolic LV volume). Mice that recovered for 14 days (HR-14d) returned to the normal state. In comparison, RV-EF and RV-FS didn't recover to the normal conditions till being reloaded for 14 days. Compared with the control, RVIDd (diastolic RV internal diameter), and RV Vold (diastolic RV volume) were reduced in HU group and recovered to the normal conditions in HR-7d and HR-14d groups, in which groups RVIDs (systolic RV internal diameter) and RV Vols (systolic RV volume) were increased. Histological analysis and cardiac remodeling gene expression results indicated that HU induces left and right ventricular remodeling. Western blot demonstrated that the phosphorylation of HDAC4 and ERK1/2 and the ratio of LC3-II / LC3-I, were increased following HU and recovered following HR in both LV and RV, and the phosphorylation of AMPK was inhibited in both LV and RV following HU, but only restored in LV following HR for 14 days. These results indicate that simulated microgravity leads to cardiac remodeling, and the remodeling changes can

  9. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF

  10. Comparison of cerebral blood flow using the noninvasive microsphere method and autoradiography with iodine-123 IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the significance of measurement of cerebral blood flow by the noninvasive microsphere method (NIMS) using 123I-IMP in 11 patients (nine men and two women) with cerebral vascular disease. Their ages at the time of study ranged from 35 to 69 years (mean, 52 years). Evaluation was done by comparison of cardiac output using ultrasonography and rCBF obtained by IMP-autoradiography (ARG). Simultaneous acquisition of images was carried out in all patients using both NIMS and IMP-ARG. Cardiac output (CO) was obtained using color Doppler ultrasonography on the same day. The values of CBF obtained by NIMS and ARG were compared, and a statistically significant difference (r=0.74) was found in the region of interest (ROI) determined to be the pulmonary artery (PA) compared with that of the right ventricle (RV). There was a significant difference (r=0.815) between the CBF values obtained from ARG and NIMS. Of interest, there was no problem with regard to the time activity curve in patients with tricuspid regurgitation (TR) 1-degree. In conclusion, our data emphasize that the NIMS technique is more useful than ARG technique. (author)

  11. Effect of naloxone on regional cerebral blood flow during endotoxin shock in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, W.R.; Ferguson, J.L. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1987-09-01

    Maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital during cardiovascular shock. Since opioids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of endotoxin shock and have been shown to alter cerebral perfusion patterns, the authors determined whether opioids were responsible for any of the changes in regional CBF observed during endotoxin shock and whether the use of naloxone might impair or aid in the maintenance of CBF. When blood flow (BF) is studied with radioactively-labeled microspheres in rats, the left ventricle of the heart is often cannulated via the right carotid artery. Questions have arisen concerning the potential adverse effects of this method on CBF in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated artery. They measured right and left regional CBF by use of this route of cannulation. Twenty-four hours after cannulations were performed, flow measurements were made using radiolabeled microspheres in conscious unrestrained male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after challenging with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (etx) or saline. Naloxone (2 mg/kg) or saline was given as a treatment 25 min post-etx. They found no significant differences between right and left cortical, midbrain, or cerebellar BF at any time in any treatment group. Therefore naloxone treatment of endotoxin shock may be beneficial in preventing decreases in regional CBF.

  12. CEREBRAL PALSY. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANCE, BURTON, JR.; MCDONALD, EUGENE T.

    THIS INTRODUCTORY TEXT ON CEREBRAL PALSY IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS. THE FIRST SECTION OF THE BOOK CONTAINS INFORMATION ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF CEREBRAL PALSY, PROGRAMS FOR THOSE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, THE NEUROLOGICAL BASES, ETIOLOGY, AND DIAGNOSIS, AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL PALSY. PROBLEMS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH CEREBRAL PALSY…

  13. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  14. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  15. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.

  16. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  17. Clinical studies on cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemorrhagic infarction (HI) is termed as the infarction in which a large part of the necrotic tissue is stippled with small hemorrhage. The pathogenetic mechanism of this disease still remains controversial. Cerebral infarction has long been divided into two subtypes-thrombosis and embolism-according to the pathogenetic mechanisms. Clinical studies were carried out in 31 cases of HI with cerebral thrombosis. CT findings of these cases were classified into five groups according to both size of low density area which indicates regions of infarction and distribution of arterial supply. The low density area of Type I-Type III were observed in the area of the middle cerebral artery. That of Type IV was observed in the area of the internal capsule and basal ganglia. That of Type V was observed in the area of the posterior cerebral artery. CT reveals two patterns of HI -pattern A and pattern B-. The CT finding of pattern A is appearance of high density area in the low density area. The CT finding of pattern B is appearance of iso density area in the low density area. rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation technique in 21 patients with CT type I, II and III. Thereafter, with regard to the various findings in CT, the clinical findings and CBF findings, a comparative study was carried out on these ten groups. From the results of present studies, it is concluded that sequential changes of CBF in cases with pattern A are different from those with pattern B, and that CBF measurement does not permit an estimation of a patient's chance for functionary recovery after a stroke in acute and subacute stage but permits estimation of functional outcome in chronic stage. (J.P.N.)

  18. Cerebral palsy and neonatal encephalopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, G; Flavell, V; Johnson, A; Squier, M.; Sellers, S

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that children born at term with cerebral palsy with signs of neurological dysfunction preceded by depression at birth (termed neonatal encephalopathy) differ from those without such signs in the frequency of antenatal and perinatal factors, and in the severity and characteristics of their impairment and disability. The study was carried out in the area covered by Oxford Regional Health Authority. Antenatal, intrapartum, neona...

  19. Visual disorders in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Amita; Lamba P

    1988-01-01

    Seventy children with cere-bral palsy were examined for aetiological factors responsible, type of disorder and ocular abnormalities. The overall inci-dence of ocular abnormalities was 68.69%, the highest frequency being of squint (35.7%). Other anomalies detected inclu-ded refractive errors (28.5%), optic atrophy (10%) and coloboma (2.9%). Most children were spastic quadriplegics with asphyxia as the major aetiological factor. The study created an awareness ...

  20. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  1. Baclofen in Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhundian

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral baclofen in spastic cerebral palsy (cp), we studied 40 children with different clinical types of spastic cp. Half of these children served as control group and the others received oral baclofen. All of them were treated with physiotherapy under equal conditions for 6 weeks. We used two methods, modified Ashworth scale and range of motion for evaluation. At the end of therapy we found a significant improvement in the baclofen group compared to control group. As a...

  2. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Demeši-Drljan Čila; Mikov Aleksandra; Filipović Karmela; Tomašević-Todorović Snežana; Knežević Aleksandar; Krasnik Rastislava

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size w...

  3. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal ...

  4. Measurement of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle with the isotope stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marving, J.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Jensen, G. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Glostrup (Denmark))

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction was performed in 21 patients by two observers with the Nuclear Stethoscope, a new, mobile, non-imaging single probe equipment. sup 99mTc was used for erythrocyte-labelling. Measurements were carried out in two different ways: beat-to-beat mode (i.e. for individual beats or a few beats at a time) and by ventricular function mode (i.e. for a composite beat, registered over a preselected period of time). There was good correlation between the two Nuclear Stethoscope modes (r=0.97) and between these and a simultaneous measurement made by gammacamera (r=0.90 and r=0.88). Despite uncertainties in the determination of correct background-level and centering over the left ventricle, there was no difference between the accuracy of the results of the two observers, compared with gammacamera measurements. The Nuclear Stethoscope is considerably cheaper than a gammacamera with computer-system, it is simple to operate, and can easily be used at the bedside, even in severely ill patients. A special feature is its capability of measuring sudden alterations in heart contractility on a beat-to-beat basis. Clinically it can be employed for both diagnostic purposes and for the monitoring of spontaneous courses and the effect of therapeutic interventions.

  5. Measurement of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle with the isotope stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction was performed in 21 patients by two observers with the Nuclear Stethoscope, a new, mobile, non-imaging single probe equipment. sup 99mTc was used for erythrocyte-labelling. Measurements were carried out in two different ways: beat-to-beat mode (i.e. for individual beats or a few beats at a time) and by ventricular function mode (i.e. for a composite beat, registered over a preselected period of time). There was good correlation between the two Nuclear Stethoscope modes (r=0.97) and between these and a simultaneous measurement made by gammacamera (r=0.90 and r=0.88). Despite uncertainties in the determination of correct background-level and centering over the left ventricle, there was no difference between the accuracy of the results of the two observers, compared with gammacamera measurements. The Nuclear Stethoscope is considerably cheaper than a gammacamera with computer-system, it is simple to operate, and can easily be used at the bedside, even in severely ill patients. A special feature is its capability of measuring sudden alterations in heart contractility on a beat-to-beat basis. Clinically it can be employed for both diagnostic purposes and for the monitoring of spontaneous courses and the effect of therapeutic interventions. (authors)

  6. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: the forgotten right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubberink Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure, right ventricular (RV dysfunction is associated with death, shock and arrhythmias. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, structural and functional alterations of the left ventricle (LV are highly prevalent, however, little is known about the impact of diabetes on RV characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether LV changes are paralleled by RV alterations in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and control (ZL rats underwent echocardiography and positron emission tomography (PET scanning using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides and fatty acids were assessed from trunk blood. Another group of rats received an insulin or saline injection to study RV insulin signaling. Results ZDF rats developed hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia (all p M-value (r = 0.91, p M-value (r = 0.77, p Conclusions LV changes were paralleled by RV alterations in insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation and RV systolic function in a rat model of diabetes, which may be attributed to ventricular interdependence as well as to the uniform effect of diabetes. Since diabetic patients are prone to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischaemia, it might be suggested that RV dysfunction plays a central role in cardiac abnormalities in this population.

  7. In-vivo characterization of left-ventricle pressure-volume telemetry system in swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Kyle; Konecny, Filip; El-Warrak, Alexander; Hodgson, Chad; Cadieux-Pitre, Heather; Hill, Tracy; Sobot, Robert

    2016-10-01

    We present in-vivo study related to the use of our implantable RF telemetry system for pressure-volume (PV) cardiac monitoring in a animal subject. We implant a commercial MEMS PV sensor into the subject's heart left-ventricle (LV), while the telemetry system is implanted outside of the heart and connected to the sensor with a 7-microwires tether. The RF telemetry system is suitable for commercial application in medium sized subjects, its total volume of 2.475cm(3) and a weight of 4.0g. Our designed system is 58 % smaller in volume, 44 % in weight and has a 55 % reduction in sampling power over the last reported research in PV telemetry. In-vivo data was captured in both an acute and a freely moving setting over a 24 hour period. We experimentally demonstrated viability of the methodology that includes the surgical procedure and real-time monitoring of the in-vivo data in a freely moving subject. Further improvements in catheter design will improve the data quality and safety of the subject. This real-time implantable technology allows for researchers to quantify cardiac pathologies by extracting real-time pressure-volume loops, wirelessly from within freely moving subjects. PMID:27492638

  8. Accurate segmentation framework for the left ventricle wall from cardiac cine MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliman, H.; Khalifa, F.; Elnakib, A.; Soliman, A.; Beache, G. M.; Gimel'farb, G.; Emam, A.; Elmaghraby, A.; El-Baz, A.

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel, fast, robust, bi-directional coupled parametric deformable model to segment the left ventricle (LV) wall borders using first- and second-order visual appearance features. These features are embedded in a new stochastic external force that preserves the topology of LV wall to track the evolution of the parametric deformable models control points. To accurately estimate the marginal density of each deformable model control point, the empirical marginal grey level distributions (first-order appearance) inside and outside the boundary of the deformable model are modeled with adaptive linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG). The second order visual appearance of the LV wall is accurately modeled with a new rotationally invariant second-order Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF). We tested the proposed segmentation approach on 15 data sets in 6 infarction patients using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the average distance (AD) between the ground truth and automated segmentation contours. Our approach achieves a mean DSC value of 0.926±0.022 and AD value of 2.16±0.60 compared to two other level set methods that achieve 0.904±0.033 and 0.885±0.02 for DSC; and 2.86±1.35 and 5.72±4.70 for AD, respectively.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit implantation in experimental pulmonic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) valved conduit (RPVC) implantation decreases RV systolic pressure in pulmonic stenosis (PS) by forming a bypass route between the RV and the PA. The present study evaluates valved conduits derived from canine aortae in a canine model of PS produced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Pulmonary stenosis was elicited using PAB in 10 conditioned beagles aged 8 months. Twelve weeks after PAB, the dogs were assigned to one group that did not undergo surgical intervention and another that underwent RPVC using denacol-treated canine aortic valved grafts (PAB+RPVC). Twelve weeks later, the rate of change in the RV-PA systolic pressure gradient was significantly decreased in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (60.5+-16.7% vs. 108.9+-22.9%; p0.01). In addition, the end-diastolic RV free wall thickness (RVFWd) was significantly reduced in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (8.2+-0.2 vs. 9.4+-0.7 mm; p0.05). Thereafter, regurgitation was not evident beyond the conduit valve and the decrease in RV pressure overload induced by RPVC was confirmed. The present results indicate that RPVC can be performed under a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass and adapted to dogs with various types of PS, including 'supra valvular' PS or PS accompanied by dysplasia of the pulmonary valve. Therefore, we consider that this method is useful for treating PS in small animals

  10. Histochemical changes in plexus chorioideus of lateral ventricles of rat brain after irradiation with 500 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes are described in the activity of some enzymes in the plexus chorioideus of lateral ventricles of the rat brain at an early interval (5 min) following gamma irradiation with a dose of 500 Gy and a dose rate of 6.9 Gy per min. Using optimal histochemical methods demonstrated were on cryostate sections the activity of the following enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, acid non-specific esterase, ATP-splitting enzyme, thiamine-pyrophosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, acetyl-cholinesterase, butyryl-cholinesterase, and betaglucuronidase. The obtained results suggest high radioresistance of the plexus chorioideus. The oedematic dilatation of the plexus was observed which corresponds to oedematic alterations of the whole brain. The enzymatic apparatus of epithelial cells of the plexus chorioideus was not substantially altered after irradiation. Certain cells showed an increased activity in acid phosphatase and of non-specific esterase. The increased activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases (SDH, GPDH) was observed in all the studied cells. The enzymatic apparatus of plexus capillaries of irradiated rats did not differ from that of control animals. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs

  11. In vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy of right ventricle in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G G; Steinman, S K; Weiner, M W; Matson, G B

    1992-06-01

    The energy metabolism of the right ventricle (RV) in vivo has been largely unexplored. The goal of this study was to develop and implement techniques for in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the RV free wall. A two-turn, crossover-design elliptical surface coil was constructed to provide high sensitivity across the thin RV wall but minimal sensitivity in the blood-filled RV cavity. In 36 open-chest, anesthetized pigs, 31P spectroscopy of the RV free wall was performed with this coil at a field strength of 2 Tesla. Spectra were obtained from 800 acquisitions in 24 min with an average signal-to-noise ratio of 13.2 for phosphocreatine (PCr). The PCr-to-ATP (PCr/ATP) ratio of porcine RV was 1.42 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SE), uncorrected for saturation at a repetition time of 1.8 s. With the use of literature values of the time constant of longitudinal relaxation (T1) to correct for partial saturation, the RV PCr/ATP was estimated to lie between 1.7 and 2.3. Decreased RV PCr/ATP was observed during RV ischemia and pressure overload. Thus in vivo 31P spectroscopy of the RV is readily accomplished with an appropriate surface coil and can provide new information about RV energy metabolism. PMID:1621852

  12. 3D Reconstruction of the Vortex in a Human Right Ventricle Model using High Speed PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradvar, Arash; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    This work aims to characterize the formation process and translation of the vortex, which forms along with the trans-tricuspid jet in a realistic model of a human right ventricle (RV). A clear model of the RV made of silicone rubber was carefully casted in real size from echocardiographic data of an adult human heart. The RV model was used in our heart pulsed-flow simulator at KLAB at UCI to perform experiments. Bioprosthetic heart valves in appropriate sizes were used at tricuspid and pulmonary positions. Multi-planar high-speed PIV was performed to capture and reconstruct the 3D flow field with a 1-millisecond time gap between each two velocity frames. λ2 iso-surfaces were used to illustrate the evolution of vortex cores. The highly asymmetric shape of the RV chamber results in a complex 3D trans-tricuspid vortex that forms and translates toward right ventricular outflow tract, and finally departs RV from pulmonary valve. Through this study, -for the first time- the formation, evolution and pathway of the RV vortex have been characterized in vitro.

  13. Uncertainty quantification in virtual surgery hemodynamics predictions for single ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavazzi, D E; Arbia, G; Baker, C; Hlavacek, A M; Hsia, T Y; Marsden, A L; Vignon-Clementel, I E; Of Congenital Hearts Alliance Mocha Investigators, The Modeling

    2016-03-01

    The adoption of simulation tools to predict surgical outcomes is increasingly leading to questions about the variability of these predictions in the presence of uncertainty associated with the input clinical data. In the present study, we propose a methodology for full propagation of uncertainty from clinical data to model results that, unlike deterministic simulation, enables estimation of the confidence associated with model predictions. We illustrate this problem in a virtual stage II single ventricle palliation surgery example. First, probability density functions (PDFs) of right pulmonary artery (PA) flow split ratio and average pulmonary pressure are determined from clinical measurements, complemented by literature data. Starting from a zero-dimensional semi-empirical approximation, Bayesian parameter estimation is used to find the distributions of boundary conditions that produce the expected PA flow split and average pressure PDFs as pre-operative model results. To reduce computational cost, this inverse problem is solved using a Kriging approximant. Second, uncertainties in the boundary conditions are propagated to simulation predictions. Sparse grid stochastic collocation is employed to statistically characterize model predictions of post-operative hemodynamics in models with and without PA stenosis. The results quantify the statistical variability in virtual surgery predictions, allowing for placement of confidence intervals on simulation outputs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26217878

  14. Motion tracking in MRI by Harmonic State Model: Case of heart left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lionel Evina Ekmobo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new method for tracking the closed contour which is based on a harmonic state model (HSM. It tracks the heart’s left ventricle (LV throughout cardiac cycle. This method provides trajectories of points about the contour of the LV, crucial information in cardiac motion analysis. The state vector associated with HSM provides a robust and accurate modeling of contour closed. We rely on the state vector and we use it as local descriptor of region of the LV. This local description enables us to obtain the characteristic points of the contour. Owing the fact that, only light movements between cycle’s instants exists. The mapping of these points by the LCSS is relevant. The repetition of this process allows us to build LV trajectories, but also, for further information on its movement, bull eye graphs. The application of the simulation method gives the best results. The same is true on 2D plans sequences extracted from real cine-MRI volume. The trajectories calculated, the generated graphics, allow us to easily observe the difference between a healthy and a sick heart.

  15. Imaging of programmed cell death in arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathy/dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campian, Maria E. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Heart Failure Research Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tan, Hanno L. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Heart Failure Research Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Moerkerken, Astrid F. van; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Verberne, Hein J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PO box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tukkie, Raymond [Department of Cardiology, Kennemer Gasthuis, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a myocardial disease that predominantly affects the right ventricle (RV). Its hallmark feature is fibrofatty replacement of the RV myocardium. Apoptosis in ARVC/D has been proposed as an important process that mediates the slow, ongoing loss of heart muscle cells which is followed by ventricular dysfunction. We aimed to establish whether cardiac apoptosis can be assessed noninvasively in patients with ARVC/D. Six patients fulfilling the ARVC/D criteria were studied. Regional myocardial apoptosis was assessed with {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V scintigraphy. Overall, the RV wall showed a higher {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V signal than the left ventricular wall (p = 0.049) and the interventricular septum (p = 0.026). However, significantly increased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V in the RV was present in only three of the six ARVC/D patients (p = 0.001, compared to {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V uptake in the RV wall of the other three patients). Our results are suggestive of a chamber-specific apoptotic process. Although the role of apoptosis in ARVC/D is unsolved, the ability to assess apoptosis noninvasively may aid in the diagnostic course. In addition, the ability to detect apoptosis in vivo with {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V scintigraphy might allow individual monitoring of disease progression and response to diverse treatments aimed at counteracting ARVC/D progression. (orig.)

  16. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in the acute infarction of the right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligić Branko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Predilection site for the acute myocardial infarction of the right ventricle, (AMI-RV is the upper third of the right coronary artery and for this reason such an infarction is followed by numerous complications, primarily by conduction disorders and very often by sudden and rapid cardiogenic shock development. Methods. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PPTCA was performed on three patients in whom the acute infarction of the right ventricular was diagnosed and who had been hospitalized six hours after the beginning of chest pain. In all three patients intracoronary stent was implanted. On the admission patients had been in the threatening cardiogenic shock, with the prominent chest pain and with the elevation of ST-segment in V4R>2 mV. In the course of intervention patients were administered low-molecular intracoronary heparin with direct platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, according to the established procedure applied in such cases. Results. The complete dilatation of the infarcted artery was established with the signs of reperfusion and the further clinical course was completely normal, there was no heart failure and patients had no subjective difficulties. Conclusion. Invasive approach in the treatment of AMI-RV is justifiable, and possibly the therapy of choice of these patients, providing well trained and equipped team is available.

  17. Accelerated circumferential strain quantification of the left ventricle using CIRCOME: simulation and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Finn, J. Paul

    2008-03-01

    Circumferential strain of the left ventricle reflects myocardial contractility and is considered a key index of cardiac function. It is also an important parameter in the quantitative evaluation of heart failure. Circumferential compression encoding, CIRCOME, is a novel method in cardiac MRI to evaluate this strain non-invasively and quickly. This strain encoding technique avoids the explicit measurement of the displacement field and does not require calculation of strain through spatial differentiation. CIRCOME bypasses these two time-consuming and noise sensitive steps by directly using the frequency domain (k-space) information from radially tagged myocardium, before and after deformation. It uses the ring-shaped crown region of the k-space, generated by the taglines, to reconstruct circumferentially compression-weighted images of the heart before and after deformation. CIRCOME then calculates the circumferential strain through relative changes in the compression level of corresponding regions before and after deformation. This technique can be implemented in 3D as well as 2D and may be employed to estimate the overall global or regional circumferential strain. The main parameters that affect the accuracy of this method are spatial resolution, signal to noise ratio, eccentricity of the center of radial taglines their fading and their density. Also, a variety of possible image reconstruction and filtering options may influence the accuracy of the method. This study describes the pulse sequence, algorithm, influencing factors and limiting criteria for CIRCOME and provides the simulated results.

  18. Harnessing Teams and Technology to Improve Outcomes in Infants With Single Ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Girish; Erickson, Lori; Apperson, Jonathan; Goggin, Kathy; Williams, David; Reid, Kimberly; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Tucker, Dawn; Bingler, Michael; Spertus, John; Rabbitt, Leslie; Stroup, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Infants with single ventricle require staged cardiac surgery, with stage I typically performed shortly after birth, stage II at 4 to 6 months of age, and stage III at 3 to 5 years of age. There is a high risk of interstage mortality and morbidity after infants are discharged from the hospital between stages I and II. Traditional home monitoring requires caregivers to record measurements of weight and oxygen saturation into a binder and requires families to assume a surveillance role. We have developed a tablet PC-based solution that provides secure and nearly instantaneous transfer of patient information to a cloud-based server, with the capacity for instant alerts to be sent to the caregiver team. The cloud-based IT infrastructure lends itself well to being able to be scaled to multiple sites while maintaining strict control over the privacy of each site. All transmitted data are transferred to the electronic medical record daily. The system conforms to recently released Food and Drug Administration regulation that pertains to mobile health technologies and devices. Since this platform was developed in March 2014, 30 patients have been monitored. There have been no interstage deaths. The experience of care providers has been unanimously positive. The addition of video has added to the use of the monitoring program. Of 30 families, 23 expressed a preference for the tablet PC over the notebook, 3 had no preference, and 4 preferred the notebook to the tablet PC. PMID:27166202

  19. Distinct right ventricle remodeling in response to pressure overload in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, P; Santos-Ribeiro, D; Adão, R; Maia-Rocha, C; Mendes-Ferreira, M; Sousa-Mendes, C; Leite-Moreira, A F; Brás-Silva, C

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the most serious chronic disorder of the pulmonary circulation, is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction and remodeling, resulting in increased afterload on the right ventricle (RV). In fact, RV function is the main determinant of prognosis in PAH. The most frequently used experimental models of PAH include monocrotaline- and chronic hypoxia-induced PAH, which primarily affect the pulmonary circulation. Alternatively, pulmonary artery banding (PAB) can be performed to achieve RV overload without affecting the pulmonary vasculature, allowing researchers to determine the RV-specific effects of their drugs/interventions. In this work, using two different degrees of pulmonary artery constriction, we characterize, in full detail, PAB-induced adaptive and maladaptive remodeling of the RV at 3 wk after PAB surgery. Our results show that application of a mild constriction resulted in adaptive hypertrophy of the RV, with preserved systolic and diastolic function, while application of a severe constriction resulted in maladaptive hypertrophy, with chamber dilation and systolic and diastolic dysfunction up to the isolated cardiomyocyte level. By applying two different degrees of constriction, we describe, for the first time, a reliable and short-duration PAB model in which RV adaptation can be distinguished at 3 wk after surgery. We characterize, in full detail, structural and functional changes of the RV in its response to moderate and severe constriction, allowing researchers to better study RV physiology and transition to dysfunction and failure, as well as to determine the effects of new therapies. PMID:27199115

  20. Double chambered left ventricle: Unusual presentation with an apical defect in Tl-201 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and result: A left ventricular apical filling defect was found in a whole body Tl-201 scan performed for routine follow-up for surgically cured thyroid cancer in a 51 year old woman .This defect was confirmed in a myocardial SPET after physical exercise and at rest and, thus, an additional ischemic reaction was excluded. The patient had no cardiovascular symptoms, and her ECG at rest and during exercise was unremarkable. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a double chambered left ventricle (DCLV). A prominent fibrovascular ridge distal to the papillary muscles was seen dividing the left ventricular cavity into a small apical and a large basal part. There was no significant intra-ventricular gradient. The filling defect in the thallium scan in our patient is unusual and suggests that the myocardium within the left ventricular apex - despite its normal wall thickness - showed diminished perfusion at rest. No treatment was necessary and the patient has remained asymptomatic in a three-year follow-up. Conclusion: The etiology of DCLV is unknown. Some of the published cases showed histologically an endocardial fibroelastosis rendering the main chamber non-contractile. This is the first description of an asymptomatic elderly woman with normal ECG in whom a left ventricular apical defect in the thallium scan let to the diagnosis of DCLV

  1. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  2. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  3. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  4. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  5. Parental age, genetic mutation, and cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, N A; Foley, J

    1993-01-01

    Parental age and birth order were studied in 251 patients with cerebral palsy. No parental age or birth order effects were observed in spastic quadriplegia or diplegia, but a paternal age effect was detected in those with athetoid/dystonic cerebral palsy and congenital hemiplegia. These observations indicate that some cases of athetoid/dystonic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy might arise by fresh dominant genetic mutation.

  6. Cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, R W

    1990-01-01

    Eighty one very low birthweight survivors with cerebral palsy were matched with controls by sex, gestational age, and place of birth. Using discriminant analysis, the perinatal profiles for infants with cerebral palsy and their controls were shown to differ significantly. When infants with various types of cerebral palsy were analysed with their controls the discriminating variables differed. Diplegic infants could be differentiated from controls on antenatal variables alone, but significant ...

  7. Evaluation measures for children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sršen, Katja Groleger

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cerebral palsy is a well-recognized neurodevelopmental condition. The most recentdefinition describes cerebral palsy as a group of disorders of movement andposture, causing activity limitation. An important step in the process of(re)habilitation is evaluation of functional abilities of an individual. To beas accurate as possible in the evaluation of functioning, proper measurementinstruments have to be used. There are many different measurement tools forchildren with cerebral palsy,...

  8. Dental characteristics of children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Radoje; Jovičić Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is one of the commonest children's physical handicaps with frequency of 1.5-3/1000. Beside many other disturbances, these children may have serious disorders caused by dental diseases. Concerning this fact, the objective of our study was to examine children with cerebral palsy in our country and determine condition of dental health and suggest adequate protective measures. A total of 116 children, 3-18 years old, with cerebral palsy were examined and the results were compared t...

  9. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhundian

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy occurs in 15-60% of children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its clinical course is not well defined. This retrospective study reviews the prevalence, nature and prognosis of epilepsy in cerebral palsy. 53 of 133 children with cerebral palsy seen in the neuropediatric clinic in Mashhad emam Reza hospital between 1999 and 2001 had epilepsy. A control group of 70 epileptic children with normal neurodevelopment status was seen during the same period. Epilepsy most commonly affected p...

  10. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruck Isac; Antoniuk Sérgio Antônio; Spessatto Adriane; Bem Ricardo Schmitt de; Hausberger Romeu; Pacheco Carlos Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy in a tertiary center. METHODS: a total of 100 consecutive patients with cerebral palsy were retrospectively studied. Criteria for inclusion were follow-up period for at least 2 years. Types and incidence of epilepsy were correlated with the different forms of cerebral palsy. Other factors associated with epilepsy such as age of first seizure, neonatal seizures and family history of epilepsy w...

  11. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M;

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes in...... brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  12. Assessment of the hand in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Bhardwaj; S Raja Sabapathy

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the musculoskeletal manifestation of a nonprogressive central nervous system lesion that usually occurs due to a perinatal insult to the brain. Though the cerebral insult is static the musculoskeletal pathology is progressive. Some patients with cerebral palsy whose hands are affected can be made better by surgery. The surgical procedures as such are not very technically demanding but the assessment, decision-making, and selecting the procedures for the given patient make th...

  13. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Spreads along the Rostral Migratory Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Pfeil, Johannes; Alfonso, Julieta; Kurz, Felix T; Sahm, Felix; Heiland, Sabine; Monyer, Hannah; Bendszus, Martin; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    It is poorly understood how progressive brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) evolves in space and over time, and whether mechanisms of inflammation or microvascular sequestration/obstruction dominate the underlying pathophysiology. We therefore monitored in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA-C57BL/6 murine ECM model, disease manifestation and progression clinically, assessed by the Rapid-Murine-Coma-and-Behavioral-Scale (RMCBS), and by high-resolution in vivo MRI, including sensitive assessment of early blood-brain-barrier-disruption (BBBD), brain edema and microvascular pathology. For histological correlation HE and immunohistochemical staining for microglia and neuroblasts were obtained. Our results demonstrate that BBBD and edema initiated in the olfactory bulb (OB) and spread along the rostral-migratory-stream (RMS) to the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dorsal-migratory-stream (DMS), and finally to the external capsule (EC) and brainstem (BS). Before clinical symptoms (mean RMCBS = 18.5±1) became evident, a slight, non-significant increase of quantitative T2 and ADC values was observed in OB+RMS. With clinical manifestation (mean RMCBS = 14.2±0.4), T2 and ADC values significantly increased along the OB+RMS (p = 0.049/p = 0.01). Severe ECM (mean RMCBS = 5±2.9) was defined by further spread into more posterior and deeper brain structures until reaching the BS (significant T2 elevation in DMS+EC+BS (p = 0.034)). Quantitative automated histological analyses confirmed microglial activation in areas of BBBD and edema. Activated microglia were closely associated with the RMS and neuroblasts within the RMS were severely misaligned with respect to their physiological linear migration pattern. Microvascular pathology and ischemic brain injury occurred only secondarily, after vasogenic edema formation and were both associated less with clinical severity and the temporal course of ECM. Altogether, we identified a distinct spatiotemporal

  14. Effect of wall thickness of left ventricle on {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT images. Myocardial phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koto, Masanobu; Kawase, Osami [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Namura, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Kono, Michio

    1996-07-01

    {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT is known for better sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than planar images in detecting coronary artery disease and diagnosing myocardial viability. SPECT images arc also superior to planar images in diagnostic sensitivity and anatomical orientation. However, as limitation of the spatial resolution of the machine, we often encounter poor SPECT plower image quality in patients with decreased wall thickness. To test the accuracy of SPECT images in patients with marked thinning of the left ventricular wall, as occurs in dilated cardiomyopathy, we performed a experimental study using myocardial phantom with 7 mm wall thickness. Tomographic image of the phantom images were rather heterogeneous, though no artificial defect was located Dilated cardiomyopathy is thought to be characterized by patchy defects in the left ventricle. Careful attention should be given to elucidating myocardial perfusion in patients with a thin left ventricle wall, as there are technical limitations in addition to clinical features. (author)

  15. CFC1 Mutations in Patients with Transposition of the Great Arteries and Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bamford, Richard; Karkera, Jayaprakash D.; dela Cruz, June; Roessler, Erich; Muenke, Maximilian

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations identified heterozygous CFC1 mutations in subjects with heterotaxy syndrome, all of whom had congenital cardiac malformations, including malposition of the great arteries. We hypothesized that a subset of patients with similar types of congenital heart disease—namely, transposition of the great arteries and double-outlet right ventricle, in the absence of laterality defects—would also have CFC1 mutations. Our analysis of the CFC1 gene in patients with these cardiac disorders identified two disease-related mutations in 86 patients. The present study identifies the first autosomal single-gene defect for these cardiac malformations and indicates that some cases of transposition of the great arteries and double-outlet right ventricle can share a common genetic etiology with heterotaxy syndrome. In addition, these results demonstrate that the molecular pathway involving CFC1 plays a critical role in normal and abnormal cardiovascular development. PMID:11799476

  16. Usage of echocardiography with physical loads for diagnosis of myocardial contractile reserve of the left ventricle in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekhanevich O.B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work purpose was studying of myocardial contractile reserve of the left ventricle and cardiohemodynamics infringements character under the influence of physical loads in athletes with functional insufficiency of mitral valve according to stress-echocardiography. We examined 72 athletes the aged 9 to 40 years with functional mitral valve insufficiency and normal systolic function of the heart at rest by echo ECG data. Possibility of stress echocardiography with physical loads usage to diagnose decrease of myocardial contractile reserve of the heart left ventricle was proved. It was found that increase in hemodynamic load during physical exercise leads to the disruption of adaptation and manifestation of systolic dysfunction in athletes with I and II degrees of mitral valve regurgitation. This should be considered when constructing training-competitive loads among athletes in terms of prevention of acute physical overloading.

  17. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERACTION OF THE IMPLANTABLE ROTARY BLOOD PUMP AND THE LEFT VENTRICLE ON THE MOCK CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Konysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the dynamics of the interaction of rotary pump, connected to the scheme «the left ventricle – aor- ta», and left ventricle in norms and heart failure, using data obtained on the mock circulatory system. Adverse pumping states such as suction and regurgitation can be detected. These limits depend on the degree of cardiac failure, which confirms the need to control the speed of rotation of the impeller in the range of the cardiac failure from pathology to normal. It has been shown that the pulsating pressure at the inlet of the pump modulates the flow of the pump, making it a pulsating, what positively affects on the dynamics of cardiac output. 

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of right ventricle to pulmonary artery shunts following Norwood 1 palliation in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic Norwood I palliation for the treatment of hypoplastic left-heart disease includes an atrial septectomy, neoaorta creation, and a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt. The Norwood I palliation has been modified by the use of a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt instead of a traditional systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt. Right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunts were non-invasively imaged in four infants using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Diagnostic MR angiograms were performed in all infants throughout the length of the shunt and were useful in the detection of shunt patency, stenosis, and aneurysm. Associated surgical conduits and shunts were also evaluated. All findings were verified by subsequent conventional angiography or surgery. (orig.)

  19. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  20. A study on the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria and cerebral babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Aikawa

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral complications are important, but poorly understood pathological features of infections caused by some species of Plasmodium and Babesia. Patients dying from P. falciparum were classified as cerebral or non-cerebral cases according to the cerebral malaria coma scale. Light microscopy revealed that cerebral microvessels of cerebral malaria patients were field with a mixture of parazited and unparazited erythrocytes, with 94% of the vessels showing parasitized red blood cell (PRBC sequestration. Some degree of PRBC sequestration was also found in non-cerebral malaria patients, but the percentage of microvessls with sequestered PRBC was only 13% Electron microscopy demonstrated knobs on the membrane of PRBC that formed focal junctions with the capillary endothelium. A number of host cell molecules such as CD36, thrombospondim (TSP and intracellular adhesion molecule I (ICAM-1 may function as endothelial cell surfacereports for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Affinity labeling of CD36 and TSP to the PRBC surface showed these molecules specifically bind to the knobs. Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes procedure projections of the erythrocyte membrane that are similar to knobs. When brain tissue from B. bovis-infected cattle was examined, cerebral capillaries were packed with PRBC. Infected erythrocytes formed focal attachments with cerebral endothelial cells at the site of these knob-like projections. These findings indicate that cerebral pathology caused by B. bovis is similar to human cerebral malaria. A search for cytoadherence proteins in the endothelial cells may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenisis of cerebral babesiosis.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-five patients with cerebral infarction were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative CT scans. MRI was more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral infarction, and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) pulse sequence was most sensitive for detecting cerebral infarction except for some subcortical infarction. The size of infarcted areas on MRI was larger than that on CT in 29 of 51 infarcted areas, equal in 22. The pulse sequence using long repetition time (TR) and double echo delay time (TE), such as SE (2000/30, 90), improved the detectability of cerebral infarction. (author)

  2. Acute cerebral vascular accident associated with hyperperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral radionuclide angiography can demonstrate decreased or normal radioactivity in the affected region during the arterial phase in patients who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident and thus enhances the diagnostic specificity of the static brain image. In an occasional patient, however, a seemingly paradoxical pattern of regional hyperperfusion with a return to normal or subnormal perfusion following the acute phase has been observed. This phenomenon, called luxury perfusion, has been defined using intra-arterial 133Xe for semiquantitative cerebral blood flow measurements and should be kept in mind as a potentially misleading cerebral imaging pattern

  3. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Mainak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven.

  4. Evaluation of state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms for left ventricle infarct from late Gadolinium enhancement MR images

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Rashed; Bhagirath, Pranav; Claus, Piet; James Housden, R; Chen, Zhong; Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Lara Rodríguez, Laura; Vera, Sergio; Albà, Xènia; Hennemuth, Anja; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Arbel, Tal; Gonzàlez Ballester, Miguel A; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for guiding the management of patients with sequelae to myocardial infarction, such as ventricular tachycardia and heart failure. Clinical implementation of these developments necessitates a reproducible and reliable segmentation of the infarcted regions. It is challenging to compare new algorithms for infarct segmentation in the left ventricle (LV) with existing algo...

  5. Data assimilation and modelling of patient-specific single-ventricle physiology with and without valve regurgitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Sanjay; Corsini, Chiara; Baker, Catriona; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Pennati, Giancarlo; Vignon-Clementel, Irene

    2015-01-01

    A closed-loop lumped parameter model of blood circulation is considered for single-ventricle shunt physiology. Its parameters are estimated by an inverse problem based on patient-specific haemodynamics measurements. As opposed to a black-box approach, maximizing the number of parameters that are related to physically measurable quantities motivates the present model. Heart chambers are described by a single-fibre mechanics model, and valve function is modelled with smooth opening and closure....

  6. Schwann cells transplanted in the lateral ventricles prevent the functional and anatomical effects of monocular deprivation in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzorusso, T.; Fagiolini, M.; Fabris, M; G. Ferrari; L Maffei

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether the transplant of Schwann cells prevents the physiological and morphological effects of monocular deprivation in the rat. On the day of eye opening in rats (postnatal day 14), we transplanted Schwann cells in the lateral ventricles and sutured the eyelids of one eye. After 20-30 days, at the end of the critical period for the visual system development, we analyzed the functional properties of visual cortical neurons. Spontaneous discharge, orientation selectivity, and ...

  7. CFC1 Mutations in Patients with Transposition of the Great Arteries and Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bamford, Richard; Karkera, Jayaprakash D.; dela Cruz, June; Roessler, Erich; Muenke, Maximilian

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations identified heterozygous CFC1 mutations in subjects with heterotaxy syndrome, all of whom had congenital cardiac malformations, including malposition of the great arteries. We hypothesized that a subset of patients with similar types of congenital heart disease—namely, transposition of the great arteries and double-outlet right ventricle, in the absence of laterality defects—would also have CFC1 mutations. Our analysis of the CFC1 gene in patients with these cardiac disor...

  8. Quasi-static image-based immersed boundary-finite element model of left ventricle under diastolic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Huiming; Berry, Colin; Luo, Xiaoyu; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2014-01-01

    Finite stress and strain analyses of the heart provide insight into the biomechanics of myocardial function and dysfunction. Herein, we describe progress toward dynamic patient-specific models of the left ventricle using an immersed boundary (IB) method with a finite element (FE) structural mechanics model. We use a structure-based hyperelastic strain-energy function to describe the passive mechanics of the ventricular myocardium, a realistic anatomical geometry reconstructed from clinical ma...

  9. Structural-functional State and feature remodeling of left ventricle in patients with coronary artery disease after revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    ALYAVI ANIS LUTFULLAEVICH; KAMILOVA UMIDA KABIROVNA; TULAGANOVA DILDORA KARIMOVNA; RADJABOVA DIYORA ISKANDAROVNA; SHODIEV JASUR DAVLATOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article estimated the dynamics of systolic and diastolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction after myocardial revascularization. The study involved 42 patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation up to 6 hours of onset. Primary stenting of the infarct-related artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation allows most early as possible to prevent the development of pathological remodeling of the left ventricle compared...

  10. In Utero Electroporation: Assay System for Migration of Cerebral Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori

    During the development of the cerebral cortex, the majority of cortical neurons are generated in the ventricular zone (VZ) facing the lateral ventricle and then migrate toward the pial surface to form the highly organized 6-layered cerebral cortex. Detailed profiles of these processes and their molecular mechanisms had been largely unknown because of the absence of an efficient assay system. The in vivo electroporation system was initially devised for use within chick embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999; Itasaki et al., 1999; Momose et al., 1999; Muramatsu et al., 1997), and we and other groups have used that system as a basis for developing an in utero electroporation system, which allows plasmid DNA to be introduced into cortical progenitor cells in developing mouse embryos in the uterus (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001; Takahashi et al., 2002). In utero electroporation of other sites in the brain, including the hippocampus (Navarro-Quiroga et al., 2007), cerebral basal ganglia (Borrell et al., 2005; Nakahira et al., 2006), cortical hem (Takiguchi-Hayashi et al., 2004), and dorsal thalamus (Bonnin et al., 2007), has recently been reported. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) enables the entire processes of migration and layer formation to be visualized (Ajioka and Nakajima, 2005; Sasaki et al., 2008; Tabata and Nakajima, 2002, 2003), and the role of any gene involved in these processes can be easily assessed by overexpressing the proteins or their mutants (Ohshima et al., 2007), or by knocking down the genes by the RNA interference technique (Bai et al., 2003). Furthermore, the Tet-On/Off system and/or other plasmid- vector-based technologies will expand the potential of the analyses. In this section we review the principles and methods of gene transfer into the cortical wall of mouse embryos by means of the in utero electroporation system.

  11. [An infected partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the azygos anterior cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, K; Watanabe, T; Sasaki, T; Saito, I; Takakura, K

    1990-05-01

    The authors report a case of partially thrombosed giant aneurysm which was secondarily infected with purulent meningitis. The relationship between the infection of the aneurysm, the rapid growth of the aneurysm and the development of severe cerebral edema was discussed. A 53 year-old man was admitted on September 1, 1986, with a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. On his admission, his body temperature was 39 degrees C, and he showed mental confusion but no neurological deficits. Laboratory data revealed signs of infection in white blood cell count, CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Computerized tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a massive round mass with perifocal edema measuring 40mm in the maximum diameter in the left paramedian frontal region. T1 weighted MR image also showed the presence of pus accumulation in the left ventricle. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a giant aneurysm at the distal portion of the azygos anterior cerebral artery, and irregular narrowing of both the supraclinoid segment of the carotid artery and its main branches indicating arteritis due to purulent meningitis. The patient was treated with ventricular drainage and administration of antibiotics. Culture of the purulent CSF was negative. The patient's lab data, CSF finding and neurological status improved progressively. However, follow-up CT scan and angiogram a month later showed enlargement of the aneurysm, dilatation of the patent lumen and perifocal edema. On October 8, the patient suddenly became comatose with anisocoria. A CT scan showed massive edema with marked midline shift. Emergency bifrontal craniotomy was carried out, and clipping was completed after removal of the thrombosed portion of the aneurysm, and thromboendarterectomy of the aneurysmal neck.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2385324

  12. Surface-length index: a novel index for rapid detection of right ventricles with abnormal ejection fraction using cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemains, Laurent; Mandry, Damien; Felblinger, Jacques; Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU Nancy, Departments of Cardiology and Medical Imaging and INSERM (IADI U947, CICIT 801 and U684), Vandoeuvre les nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les nancy (France); Menini, Anne; Vuissoz, Pierre-Andre [CHU Nancy, Departments of Cardiology and Medical Imaging and INSERM (IADI U947, CICIT 801 and U684), Vandoeuvre les nancy (France); Stos, Bertrand [Marie Lannelongue Chirurgical Centre, Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2013-09-15

    To validate a new index, the surface-length index (SLI) based on area change in a short-axis view and length reduction in the horizontal long-axis view, which is used to quickly (<1 min) detect right ventricles with an abnormal ejection fraction (EF) during a cardiac MRI examination. SLI can be used to avoid a complete delineation of the endocardial contours of normal right ventricles. Sixty patients (group A) were retrospectively included to calibrate the SLI formula by optimisation of the area under the ROC curves and SLI thresholds were chosen to obtain 100 % sensitivity. Another 340 patients (group B) were prospectively recruited to test SLI's capacity to detect right ventricles (RVs) with an abnormal EF (<0.5). The appropriate threshold to obtain 100 % sensitivity in group A was 0.58. In group B, with the 0.58 threshold, SLI yielded a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 51 %. SLI would have saved 35 % of the RV studies in our population, without inducing any diagnostic error. SLI and EF correlation was good (r {sup 2} = 0.64). SLI combines two simple RV measures, and brings significant improvement in post-processing efficiency by preselecting RVs that require a complete study. (orig.)

  13. Greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy in sinoaortic-denervated Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao CY; Cai GJ; Tao X; Xie HH; Su DF

    2005-01-01

    1. Biventricular hypertrophy has been described in a high blood pressure variability (BPV) model of sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats without systemic hypertension. To explore the possible involvement of the lung in SAD-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), we examined lung morphology, in addition to systemic haemodynamics and ventricle morphology, in Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD. 2. In Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD, there existed a substantial elevation in BPV, with no change in the average level of arterial pressure. Biventricular hypertrophy following SAD was characterized by a greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles; both absolute and normalized right ventricular weights were significantly increased by 22 and 27%, respectively, and only normalized left ventricular weight was significantly increased by 12%. No infarcts were found in any ventricles examined. 3. In the lung, the most prominent change following SAD was pulmonary vasculopathy, including wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis and cell infiltration. In pulmonary arteries with an internal diameter of 70-130 microm, the external diameter, wall thickness and wall thickness to internal diameter ratio were increased in SAD compared with control rats. 4. There was no correlation between right and left ventricular weights. In contrast with BPV-correlated left ventricular weight, right ventricular weight was correlated with the wall thickness of the pulmonary artery, but not with BPV. 5. These findings suggest that greater RVH following SAD is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy, but is not secondary to the left ventricular problems or high BPV.

  14. SURGERY FOR TUMORS OF THE FOURTH VENTRICLE: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCESSES AND THE ROLE OF ENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Karakhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of current accesses to the tumors of the fourth ventricle, which fill and compress from the outside its cavity, was assessed in 28 patients. Original associated endomicrosurgical techniques were used. Two groups and five topographic types of fourth ventricle tumors are identified. Basic accesses — telovelar and supracerebellar — eliminate the necessity of dissecting the vermis cerebelli. The key endoscopic technique is to provide a simultaneous survey of the lower and upper poles of a tumor during its removal. The technique of trochlear removal of metastatic nodes from the fourth ventricle is shown. The benefits of endoscopic techniques are to early examine the vulnerable vascular and neural structures blocked by a tumor at the access step; to reduce the volume of an access itself and the traction of cerebellar and truncal structures; to completely survey the Sylvian aqueduct without additionally displacing or dissecting the vermis cerebelli; to maintain optical sharpness within sight of differently remote microstructures. Overall, incorporation of the endoscopic method realizes the principle of mini-invasive neurosurgery. 

  15. Research data supporting "Altered Oxygen Utilisation in Rat Left Ventricle and Soleus after 14 Days, but not 2 Days, of Environmental Hypoxia"

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Horscroft; Burgess, Sarah L.; Hu, Yaqi; Murray, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Full dataset from paper "Altered Oxygen Utilisation in Rat Left Ventricle and Soleus after 14 Days, but not 2 Days, of Environmental Hypoxia", including respirometry, gene and protein expression data and enzyme activity assays.

  16. In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle models incorporating electromechanical coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HengguiZhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarisation, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favourable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle models to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and results: The Rice et al. mechanical model was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell model. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were incorporated. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch activated channel current (Isac. Without Isac, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was incorporated, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell models were then incorporated into 3D human ventricular tissue models. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The incorporation of Isac appears to be an important consideration in modelling functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole.

  17. The numerical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in human patient-specific left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various non-invasive tools such as the magnetic resonance image (MRI), ultrasound imaging (USI), computed tomography (CT), and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been widely utilized to enhance our current understanding of the physiological parameters that affect the initiation and the progression of the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with heart failure (HF). In particular, the hemodynamics of left ventricle (LV) has attracted the attention of the researchers due to its significant role in the heart functionality. In this study, CFD owing its capability of predicting detailed flow field was adopted to model the blood flow in images-based patient-specific LV over cardiac cycle. In most published studies, the blood is modeled as Newtonian that is not entirely accurate as the blood viscosity varies with the shear rate in non-linear manner. In this paper, we studied the effect of Newtonian assumption on the degree of accuracy of intraventricular hemodynamics. In doing so, various non-Newtonian models and Newtonian model are used in the analysis of the intraventricular flow and the viscosity of the blood. Initially, we used the cardiac MRI images to reconstruct the time-resolved geometry of the patient-specific LV. After the unstructured mesh generation, the simulations were conducted in the CFD commercial solver FLUENT to analyze the intraventricular hemodynamic parameters. The findings indicate that the Newtonian assumption cannot adequately simulate the flow dynamic within the LV over the cardiac cycle, which can be attributed to the pulsatile and recirculation nature of the flow and the low blood shear rate. PMID:26849955

  18. Left Ventricle Segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Images with Modified Active Contour Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghai Amirkhizi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Desired segmentation of the image is a pivotal problem in image processing. Segmenting the left ventricle (LV in magnetic resonance images (MRIs is essential for evaluation of cardiac function. For the segmentation of cardiac MRI several methods have been proposed and implemented. Each of them has advantages and restrictions. A modified region-based active contour model was applied for segmentation of LV chamber. A new semi-automatic algorithm was suggested calculating the appropriate Balloon force according to mean intensity of the region of interest for each image. The database is included of 2,039 MR images collected from 18 children under 18. The results were compared with previous literatures according to two standards: Dice Metric (DM and Point to Curve (P2C. The obtained segmentation results are better than previously reported values in several literatures. In this study different points were used in cardiac cycle and several slice levels and classified into three levels: Base, Mid. and Apex. The best results were obtained at end diastole (ED in comparison with end systole (ES, and on base slice than other slices, because of LV bigger size in ED phase and base slice. With segmentation of LV MRI based on novel active contour and application of the suggested algorithm for balloon force calculation, the mean improvement of DM compared to Grosgeorge et al. is 19.6% in ED and 49.5% in ES phase. The mean improvement of P2C compared with the same literature respectively for ED and ES phase is 43.8% and 39.6%.

  19. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases. PMID:27281159

  20. Modification of three-dimensional variable graphic model of the thalamus for cases with dilated ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To aid in the determination of a tentative target of stereotactic thalamotomy for Parkinson disease instead of pneumoencephalogram, we developed a 3-D graphic system of the thalamus, including the target nuclei. This system is based on the Schaltenbrand and Bailey atlas, and consists of seven coronal contours of the thalamus and substructures. Even though the graph can be magnified or reduced to adjust to the parameters: intercommisural distance and width of the thalamus, there were still significant errors in cases with ventricular dilatation. To correct for these errors we introduced a new variable, width of the third ventricle, in the calculations. In this report we evaluate accuracy of the system by three ways. First, each graphic image was compared to the coincident coronal MR images of 13 normal subjects. Second, the graphic images were compared to coincident slices of two cadaver thalami. Furthermore, the location of electro-coagulation scars on horizontal MR images of seven patients who underwent stereotactic thalamotomy without using the system was also compared to retrospectively drawn graphic images. The mean errors of the graphics of normal subject were significantly reduced in the medial margin, while there was no error reduction in the upper and lateral margins. The contour of the thalamus was obliquely distorted in the cadavers with ventricular dilatation. The operative scars were located at the infero-lateral portion of the VL nucleus adjacent to the Vim nucleus of the graphic images in five patients, and in the neighboring VL nucleus in two. These results suggest that the present graphic system may be a useful tool for determining the target in stereotactic thalamotomy, as well as in gamma thalamotomy, after obtaining the effective correction for the distortion caused by ventricular dilatation. (author)

  1. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases. PMID:27281159

  2. Failing Left Ventricles Have an Enhanced Post-Stimulation Potentiation Despite Their Impaired Force Frequency Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tohru; Kashimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Komei; Fujiki, Shinya; Hayashi, Yuka; Obata, Hiroaki; Hanawa, Haruo; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-05-25

    The left ventricular contractile force (LV dP/dtmax) of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction does not increase effectively with an increase in heart rate. In other words, their force-frequency relationship (FFR) is impaired. However, it is unknown whether a longer coupling interval subsequent to tachycardia causes a stronger contraction (poststimulation potentiation, PSP) in a rate-dependent manner.In 16 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (48 ± 2 years old, LVEF 30 ± 10%) and 6 control patients (58 ± 4 years old, LVEF 70 ± 7%), FFR was assessed by right atrial pacing using a micro-manometer-tipped catheter. At each pacing rate, the increase of LV dP/dtmax over basal LV dP/dt (ΔFFR) and the increase of LV dP/dtmax of the first beat after pacing cessation over LV dP/dtmax during pacing (ΔPSP) were evaluated.Patients with DCM had smaller LV dP/dtmax at baseline (872 ± 251 versus 1370 ± 123 mmHg/second, P = 0.0002) and developed smaller ΔFFR (eg, at 120/minute, 77 ± 143 versus 331 ± 131 mmHg/second, P = 0.0011). In contrast, they showed a rate-dependent increase of LV dP/dtmax of PSP and had greater ΔPSP (eg, at 120/minute, 294 ± 173 versus -152 ± 131 mmHg/second, P < 0.0001).Failing left ventricles develop little contractile force during tachycardia despite their rate-dependent enhancement in post-stimulation potentiation, suggesting that refractoriness of contractile force underlies impaired FFR. PMID:27181036

  3. Echocardiographic detection of free-floating thrombus in left ventricle during coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh N Vaggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an incident of detection of a free-floating thrombus in the left ventricle (LV using intraoperative two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE during proximal coronary artery bypass graft anastomosis. A 58-year-old man presented to us with a 6-month history of chest pain without any history suggestive of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attacks. His preoperative echocardiography revealed the systolic dysfunction of LV, mild hypokinesia of basal and mid-anterior wall, and the absence of an aneurysm. He was scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. On intraoperative TEE before establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, a small immobile mass was found attached to LV apical area. After completion of distal coronary artery grafting, when the aortic cross-clamp was removed, the heart was filled partially and beating spontaneously. TEE examination using 2D mode revealed a free-floating mass in the LV, which was suspected to be a thrombus. Additional navigation using biplane and 3D modes confirmed the presence of the thrombus and distinguished it from papillary muscles and artifact. The surgeon opened the left atrium after re-establishing electromechanical quiescence and removed a thrombus measuring 1.5 cm Χ 1 cm from the LV. The LV mass in the apical region was no longer seen after discontinuation of CPB. Accurate TEE-detection and timely removal of the thrombus averted disastrous embolic complications. Intraoperative 2D and recent biplane and 3D echocardiography modes are useful monitoring tools during the conduct of CPB.

  4. Management of pediatric colloid cysts of anterior third ventricle: A review of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranath Kapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: Colloid cysts are congenital benign lesions, associated with more aggressive clinical and radiological picture in children than in adults. We present our experience in management of five pediatric patients with colloid cyst of the anterior third ventricle. They have an excellent chance of surgical cure, or they can be devastating and even fatal, if not recognized on time and treated. Materials and Methods: Five pediatric patients (aged 16 years or less who were surgically treated for a colloid cyst, between 1987 and 2011 were analyzed. The clinical features included raised intracranial pressure in all five cases, of which one patient was brought unconscious with decerebrate posturing. Computed Tomography (CT scan of the brain was done in all patients. The density of the lesion, enhancement with contrast and the presence of hydrocephalus were analyzed. Four patients underwent a detailed postoperative neurological assessment. Results: Three patients underwent the transcallosal-transforaminal approach and total excision of the lesion. One patient underwent revision of the pre-existing ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient who was brought in an unconscious state, an external ventricular drain was inserted and she was ventilated. She died 4 hours after the admission. On follow-up, none of the three patients who underwent the transcallosal-transforaminal approach had disconnection syndromes or behavioral disturbances. Conclusion: Colloid cysts in children are rarer and more aggressive than their adult counterparts. It is surgically curable. Early detection and total excision of the lesion is a permanent cure with minimum morbidity, when compared with the natural history of the disease. The limited anterior callosotomy does not result in disconnection syndromes or behavioral disturbance.

  5. Integration of electro-anatomical and imaging data of the left ventricle: An evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Iglesias, David; Butakoff, Constantine; Andreu, David; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Berruezo, Antonio; Camara, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    Integration of electrical and structural information for scar characterization in the left ventricle (LV) is a crucial step to better guide radio-frequency ablation therapies, which are usually performed in complex ventricular tachycardia (VT) cases. This integration requires finding a common representation where to map the electrical information from the electro-anatomical map (EAM) surfaces and tissue viability information from delay-enhancement magnetic resonance images (DE-MRI). However, the development of a consistent integration method is still an open problem due to the lack of a proper evaluation framework to assess its accuracy. In this paper we present both: (i) an evaluation framework to assess the accuracy of EAM and imaging integration strategies with simulated EAM data and a set of global and local measures; and (ii) a new integration methodology based on a planar disk representation where the LV surface meshes are quasi-conformally mapped (QCM) by flattening, allowing for simultaneous visualization and joint analysis of the multi-modal data. The developed evaluation framework was applied to estimate the accuracy of the QCM-based integration strategy on a benchmark dataset of 128 synthetically generated ground-truth cases presenting different scar configurations and EAM characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate a significant reduction in global overlap errors (50-100%) with respect to state-of-the-art integration techniques, also better preserving the local topology of small structures such as conduction channels in scars. Data from seventeen VT patients were also used to study the feasibility of the QCM technique in a clinical setting, consistently outperforming the alternative integration techniques in the presence of sparse and noisy clinical data. The proposed evaluation framework has allowed a rigorous comparison of different EAM and imaging data integration strategies, providing useful information to better guide clinical practice in

  6. Age and SPARC Change the Extracellular Matrix Composition of the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra E. de Castro Brás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM. We studied 6 groups of mice (n=4/group: young (4-5 months old, middle-aged (11-12 m.o., and old (18–29 m.o. C57BL/6J wild type (WT and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold, while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P<0.05. These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.

  7. Application of a PExSim for modeling a POLVAD artificial heart and the human circulatory system with left ventricle assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewnicka, Alicja; Fajdek, Bartlomiej; Janiszowski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the human circulatory system with the possible addition of a parallel assist device, which was developed for the purpose of artificial heart monitoring. Information about an identification experiment of an extracorporeal ventricle assist device POLVAD is included. The modelling methods applied and the corresponding functional blocks in a PExSim package are presented. The results of the simulation for physiological conditions, left ventricle failure and pathological conditions with parallel assistance are included.

  8. Right Ventricle-Sparing Left Ventricular Resection and Replacement with a Continuous-Flow Rotary Blood Pump: An In Vivo Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, O H; Tuzun, Egemen; Narin, Cuneyt; Cohn, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in left ventricular assist device and total artificial heart technologies, these devices are still so large that they pose a significant problem in small patients with refractory heart failure. Excising the left ventricle while preserving the right ventricle—and then replacing the left ventricle with a mechanical pump—has been proposed as an alternative approach to this problem. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate possible surgical techniques and the hemodynamic eff...

  9. Ipsilateral Cerebral and Contralateral Cerebellar Hyperperfusion in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Infarction; SPM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortical reorganization has an important role in the recovery of stroke. We analyzed the compensatory cerebral and cerebellar perfusion change in patients with unilateral cerebral infarction using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Fifty seven 99mTc-Ethylene Cystein Diethylester (ECD) cerebral perfusion SPECT images of 57 patients (male/female=38/19, mean age=56±17 years) with unilateral cerebral infarction were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the location (left, right) and the onset (acute, chronic) of infarction. Each subgroup was compared with normal controls (male/female=11/1, mean age =36±10 years) in a voxel-by-voxel manner (two sample t-test, p99mTc-ECD SPECT, we observed ipsilateral cerebral and contralateral cerebeller hyperperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction. However, whether these findings are related to the recovery of cerebral functions should be further evaluated

  10. Clinicopathological features of cerebral lipoastrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang WEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinicopathological features, immune phenotype, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral lipoastrocytoma. Methods Retrospective analysis of the clinical manifestations, histopathological and immunohistochemical features were conducted in one case of cerebral lipoastrocytoma. Results A 48-year-old male presented with numbness and inflexibility of the fourth and little fingers of his left hand over the previous 2 weeks. Cranial MRI revealed a space-occupying lesion with cystic degeneration in the right parietal lobe that showed obvious enhancement after contrast administration. The patient subsequently underwent craniotomy with stereotactic gross total excision of the lesion. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were not administered. Histologically the tumor showed classical features of low-grade astrocytoma, including a few scattered medium-large neuron-like cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Most notably, the glial cells contained fat droplets or vacuoles giving an appearance of mature adipocytes. Focally microcystic change was evident resulting from adipocyte-like cells fusion with each other. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S-100 protein (S-100, focally positive for WT-1, weakly positive for oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Olig-2, and negative for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1. Meanwhile, the tumor cells also expressed several neuronal markers including synaptophysin (Syn, microtube-associated protein-2 (MAP-2, neurofilament (NF, neuron specific enolase (NSE and CD34. P53 protein was weakly expressed in 5% of tumor cells. Ki-67 labeling index was low (1% . The patient remained well without recurrence 20 months after surgery. Conclusions Cerebral lipoastrocytoma is an extremely rare tumor. Histologically, the tumor showed classical features of low-grade astrocytoma and extensive

  11. MRI of sickle cell cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients with sickle cell disease and neurological symptoms underwent MRI examination. Cerebral infarcts of two types were found, those in the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery and those in the deep white matter. In the patient whose hydration and whose oxygenation of erythrocytes has been treated, MRI offers diagnostic advantages over arteriography and CT. (orig.)

  12. Mobility Experiences of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…

  13. Ataxic cerebral palsy and genetic predisposition.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G.

    1988-01-01

    It was calculated that in the 962 family members of 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy there were 75 (8%) with a history of neurodevelopmental disorder and 31 (3%) with a major congenital malformation. This was not significantly greater than expected, and does not support the hypothesis of a genetic non-Mendelian role in the aetiology of ataxic cerebral palsy.

  14. Fatal cerebral oedema in adult diabetic ketoacidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringhuizen, A.; Tjan, D.H.; Grool, A.; Vugt, R. van; Zante, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    In this report, a case of adult onset fatal cerebral oedema as a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is described and confirmed at post-mortem pathological examination. The pathogenesis of cerebral oedema due to DKA is still unknown. Potential mechanisms include the administration of so

  15. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T;

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA...

  16. Assistive technology for people with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Anton; Jenko, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Assistive technology includes equipment, devicesand software solutions that increase functional capabilities of people withdisabilities and improve the quality of their lives. The article presentsassistive technology for people with cerebral palsy. These are mobility aidsthat enable people with cerebral palsy independent walking. For those whocannot walk, proper seating is very important. People, who cannot propel manualwheelchair, can control electric wheelchair with various contro...

  17. Mechanical Impedance of Cerebral Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hédi Ben Ghozlen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tentative variation of the mechanical impedance, of a cylindrical sample of cerebral material, has been achieved by Vibrometer Laser according to the frequency. The studied matter is supposed homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. A multilayered mechanical model has been associated to the studied sample to simulate its vibration. The theoretical expression of mechanical impedance has been determined while taking the mechanical/electric analogy as a basis. A good adjustment of theoretical model parameters permitted us to have a good agreement theory/experience of the mechanical impedance variation according to the sample vibration frequency.

  18. Cerebral blood-flow tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L; Holm, S;

    1983-01-01

    Tomographic maps of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained with xenon-133 and with isopropyl-amphetamine-iodine-123 (IMP) in 11 subjects: one normal, two tumor cases, and eight cerebrovascular cases. A highly sensitive four-face, rapidly rotating, single-photon emission tomograph was used...... sampling, and with low radiation exposure to patient and personnel. On the other hand, IMP gives an image of slightly higher resolution. It also introduces a new class of iodinated brain-seeking compounds allowing, perhaps, imaging of other functions more important than mere blood flow....

  19. ECG changes during cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Itoh, K.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, J.; Nakamura, K.; Imai, M.; Ono, T.; Morikawa, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have analyzed HR changes greater than 20% among 334 patients and 942 cerebral angiographies. A tachycardial effect was seen in 14.9% of patients, while a bradycardial effect was seen in 7.1% including two patients having cardiac standstill (0.5%). These two patients were examined without atropine premedication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients under 19 years of age, unpremedicated with atropine sulfate and suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation showed a significantly high incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, patients with the neoplastic disease and having an initial sinus bradycardia showed a significantly high incidence of a tachycardial effect.

  20. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases.