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Sample records for cerebral ventricle neoplasms

  1. Inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumor with hemorrhage masquerading high grade cerebral neoplasm

    Amit Agrawal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demyelinating pseudotumors are rare, benign, solitary intracranial space occupying lesions which masquerade cerebral neoplasms. Contrast MRI shows open ring enhancement which is fairly specific for this entity. Advanced MRI techniques like MR spectroscopy and magnetizing transfer techniques can help differentiating these lesions. NAA/Cr ratio is significantly elevated in central regions of demyelinating pseudotumors than in gliomas and other lesions. Presence of abundant foamy macrophages, lymphoid inflammatory infiltrates around blood vessels, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes with well-developed processes, well defined border of the lesion absence of neovascularity and necrosis should help us diagnose demyelinating pseudotumor fairly confidently on histopathology.

  2. Effect of skull type on the relative size of cerebral cortex and lateral ventricles in dogs

    Pilegaard, Anders M.; Berendt, Mette; Holst, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Volume measurements of the brain are of interest in the diagnosis of brain pathology. This is particularly so in the investigation hydrocephalus and canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD), both of which result in thinning of the cerebral cortex and enlarged ventricles. Volume assessment can be made...

  3. Neurological Injury and Cerebral Blood Flow in Single Ventricles Throughout Staged Surgical Reconstruction.

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Elci, Okan U; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J; Wilson, Felice; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Diaz, Laura; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Mascio, Christopher; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2017-02-14

    Patients with a single ventricle experience a high rate of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome; however, the incidence of brain abnormalities throughout surgical reconstruction and their relationship with cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, and carbon dioxide reactivity remain unknown. Patients with a single ventricle were studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans immediately prior to bidirectional Glenn (pre-BDG), before Fontan (BDG), and then 3 to 9 months after Fontan reconstruction. One hundred sixty-eight consecutive subjects recruited into the project underwent 235 scans: 63 pre-BDG (mean age, 4.8±1.7 months), 118 BDG (2.9±1.4 years), and 54 after Fontan (2.4±1.0 years). Nonacute ischemic white matter changes on T2-weighted imaging, focal tissue loss, and ventriculomegaly were all more commonly detected in BDG and Fontan compared with pre-BDG patients ( P <0.05). BDG patients had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients. The odds of discovering brain injury with adjustment for surgical stage as well as ≥2 coexisting lesions within a patient decreased (63%-75% and 44%, respectively) with increasing amount of cerebral blood flow ( P <0.05). In general, there was no association of oxygen delivery (except for ventriculomegaly in the BDG group) or carbon dioxide reactivity with neurological injury. Significant brain abnormalities are commonly present in patients with a single ventricle, and detection of these lesions increases as children progress through staged surgical reconstruction, with multiple coexisting lesions more common earlier than later. In addition, this study demonstrated that BDG patients had greater cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients and that an inverse association exists of various indexes of cerebral blood flow with these brain lesions. However, CO 2 reactivity and oxygen delivery (with 1 exception) were not associated with brain lesion development. URL: http

  4. Remote and chronic access to the third cerebral ventricle of the unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkey.

    Gay, V L; Mikuma, N; Plant, T M

    1993-03-01

    One channel of a commercially available standard-size three-channel fluid swivel was modified to permit continuous access to the brain of unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkeys via a continuous length of small-bore Teflon tube originating from a swivel device on top of the animal's cage and terminating in the third cerebral ventricle. This system was employed to achieve continuous access to the third cerebroventricle in four monkeys for periods of up to 12 mo. The value of the system for studies of the neurochemical control of hypothalamic-releasing factor secretion was established by monitoring adenohypophysial responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists infused into the third ventricle. Specifically, repetitive infusions of morphine (30 micrograms/infusion) elicited a robust train of prolactin discharges, and third ventricular administration of N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMA; 20 micrograms) resulted in striking discharges of LH.

  5. Neurologic Injury and Cerebral Blood Flow In Single Ventricles Throughout Staged Surgical Reconstruction

    Fogel, Mark A.; Li, Christine; Elci, Okan U.; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J.; Wilson, Felice; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Diaz, Laura; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Mascio, Christopher; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Single ventricle patients experience a high rate of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, however, the incidence of brain abnormalities throughout surgical reconstruction and its relationship with cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide reactivity remains unknown. Methods Single ventricle patients were studied with MRI scans immediately prior to bidirectional Glenn (pre-BDG), prior to Fontan and then 3–9 months after Fontan reconstruction. Results One hundred and sixty eight consecutive subjects recruited into the project underwent 235 scans: 63 pre-BDG (mean age 4.8+1.7 months), 118 BDG (2.9+1.4 years) and 54 after Fontan (2.4+1.0 years). Non-acute ischemic white matter changes on T2 weighted imaging, focal tissue loss, and ventriculomegaly were all more commonly detected in BDG and Fontans compared to pre-BDG (P<0.05). BDG patients has significantly higher CBF than Fontan patients. The odds of discovering brain injury adjusting for surgical stage as well as 2 or more co-existing lesions within a patient all decreased (63–75% and 44% respectively) with increasing amount of cerebral blood flow (P<0.05). In general, there was no association of oxygen delivery (with the exception of ventriculomegaly in the BDG group) or carbon dioxide reactivity with neurological injury. Conclusion Significant brain abnormalities are commonly present in single ventricle patients and detection of these lesions increase as children progress through staged surgical reconstruction with multiple co-existing lesions more common earlier than later. In addition, this study demonstrated that BDG patients had greater CBF than Fontan patients and that there exists an inverse association of various indices of CBF with these brain lesions, however, CO2 reactivity, oxygen delivery (with one exception) were not associated with brain lesion development. PMID:28031423

  6. Evaluation of fetal brain development by magnetic resonance imaging. Subependymal germinal matrix layer and cerebral ventricle

    Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Yokota, Akira; Okudera, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    Three dimensional data of brain from the formalin-fixed fetuses were collected without isolation, by the 4.7 tesla super high magnetic field MRI and the developmental process of the cerebral parenchyma was studied by 3D images. Subjects were 13 fetal brain and MRI was performed using 3D-steady-state free precession sequence. The isolated brain is very soft and fragile and is deformed by its weight at the imaging. However 3D-MRI can be obtained without isolation, and the deformation is remarkably small. The subependymal germinal matrix layer did not be observed in 7 weeks-old fetus, appeared at 9 weeks-old and increased gradually. Then it rapidly reduced from 28 weeks-old. The volume calculated, from 3D-MRI, increased rapidly from 9 weeks-old to 23 weeks-old, and reached the maximum (2.346 mm 3 ) at 23 weeks-old. The relation between fetal ages and volume of cerebral ventricle also showed similar pattern. This method will be useful to examine the development of the fetal brain without any damage. (K.H.)

  7. Suprachiasmic and infundibular parts of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep following chronic irradiation

    Rajtova, V.; Stanikova, A.; Arendarcik, J.; Lustik, J.; Briancin, J.

    1983-01-01

    The suprachiasmic and infundibular regions of the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle were studied in Merino sheep in the anoestral phase of their sexual cycle. Test ewes were irradiated in the gamma field with 60 Co for seven days with a total exposure to 6.7 Gy (700 R). After sacrificing the brains of the test and control ewes were perfused with 2% to 4% paraformaldehyde and the samples were placed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M cacodyl buffer (the pH of.all solutions was 7.4 and temperature 4 degC). The samples were further treated by the methods after Murakami et al. and Kelly et al., which require no subsequent metallization. After dehydration in alcohol the samples were dried in a desiccator and under vacuum. For viewing and imaging the TESLA BS 300 scanning electron microscope at 14 kV was used. The microscopic study after chronic irradiation showed a reduction in cilia deposits and an increase in the nubers of characteristic specific formations which were not present in the control ewes, or were only present in small numbers. ''Open spaces'' of different size were left from the released nuclei and the cell contents of ependymal cells in the infundibulum region over the hypophysis. A weakening or total disappearance of ''blebbing phenomenon'' in the typical infundibular region of tanycytes can be observed after chronic irradiation. On the other hand, in the regions with less damaged tanycytes chronic irradiation caused local hypersecretion, as indicated by the multiplication of ''miniblebs''. (author)

  8. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. Methods 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3–9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was p<0.05. Results A strong inverse correlation was noted between CBF and APC/shunt both on room air and with hypercarbia whether CBF was indexed to aortic flow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=−0.67–−0.70 for all patients on room air, p<0.01 and R=−0.49–−0.90 in hypercarbia, p<0.01). Correlations were not different between surgical stages. CBF was lower, and APCs/shunt flow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. Conclusions There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. Trial Registration Number NCT02135081. PMID:26048877

  9. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles.

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Diaz Berenstein, Laura; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3-9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was pflow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=-0.67--0.70 for all patients on room air, pflow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. NCT02135081. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Characterization of neonatal patients with intraventricular hemorrhage using 3D ultrasound cerebral ventricle volumes

    Kishimoto, Jessica; Fenster, Aaron; Lee, David S. C.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2015-03-01

    One of the major non-congenital cause of neurological impairment among neonates born very preterm is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) - bleeding within the lateral ventricles. Most IVH patients will have a transient period of ventricle dilation that resolves spontaneously. However, those patients most at risk of long-term impairment are those who have progressive ventricle dilation as this causes macrocephaly, an abnormally enlarged head, then later causes increases intracranial pressure (ICP). 2D ultrasound (US) images through the fontanelles of the patients are serially acquired to monitor the progression of the ventricle dilation. These images are used to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up CSF might be indicated for a patient. Initial therapies usually begin during the third week of life. Such interventions have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in IVH patients; however, this comes with risks of further hemorrhage or infection; therefore only patients requiring it should be treated. Previously we have developed and validated a 3D US system to monitor the progression of ventricle volumes (VV) in IVH patients. This system has been validated using phantoms and a small set of patient images. The aim of this work is to determine the ability of 3D US generated VV to categorize patients into those who will require interventional therapies, and those who will have spontaneous resolution. Patients with higher risks could therefore be monitored better, by re-allocating some of the resources as the low risks infants would need less monitoring.

  11. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4...

  12. Measurements of the normal ventricles and cerebral cisterns of 100 adults with computed tomography

    Miyamoto, Kyoji

    1979-01-01

    The computed tomographical examinations of 100 patients with normal neurological findings including some volunteers between the ages of 20 to 68 years were evaluated. Measurements of various parts of the ventricular system on the polaroid pictures showed an increase with age and sexual difference. The lateral ventricles were found to be larger in the male in the female. Inverse cella media index, bifrontal cerebroventricular index and bicaudate cerebroventricular index were found to be reliable indicators of ventricular size, when the age and the sex is known. (author)

  13. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    Valenti Vitor E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS. Methods We evaluated males Wistar rats (320-370 g, which were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, 5 days/week (CO: 100-300 ppm. Baroreflex was tested with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus to induce bradycardic reflex and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus to induce tachycardic reflex. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001 g/100 μL injection into the 4th V. Results Central catalase inhibition increased basal HR in the control group during the first 5 minutes. SSCS exposure increased basal HR and attenuated bradycardic peak during the first 15 minutes. Conclusion We suggest that SSCS exposure affects cardiovascular regulation through its influence on catalase activity.

  14. Measurement of the angle formed between the thalamostriate vein and internal cerebral vein in anteroposterior projection: A method of estimating the size of the lateral ventricle

    Choi, Il Soon; Yoo, Ho Joon; Kim, Myung Sung; Park, Kwang Joo

    1974-01-01

    The size and shape of the lateral ventricle are frequently altered by intracranial lesions, and this may be reflected on cerebral angiogram. The size and dilatation of the lateral ventricle may be estimate by the course of the thalamostirate vein (TSV) and the distance between the midline and the TSV in frontal projection, the course of the pericallosal artery and the distance between the venous angle and subependymal veins in lateral projection. However, little description can be found in the literature about the method of expressing the size and degree of dilatation of the lateral ventricle on cerebral angiogram. The authors have attempted to find out an easy way of precisely estimating the size of the lateral ventricle and to observe how it can be applied in the patients with various expanding intracranial lesions. We measured the angle formed between the internal cerebral vein (ICV) and the TSV in the anteroposterior roentgenograms of venous phase in normal group composed of 61 patients in whom no significant abnormality could be detected neurologically or by other methods, and in 18 patients with expanding intracranial lesions. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In the normal group, the average angle formed between the ICV and TSV on the anteroposterior angiogram obtained with the central beam projected making an angle of 10 to 15 .deg with the orbitomeatal line was 25.7 ± 3.9 .deg, ranging from 19 to 34 .deg. The angle measured from 20 to 30 in 85% of the normal group. There was no significant difference between the male and the female as well as between the children and adults. 2. The measurement of the angle was found to reflect faithfully the size of the lateral ventricle on the side examined, increasing as the lateral ventricle dilated. When the angle measures more than 33.deg. the lateral ventricle would certainly be dilated. The lateral ventricle can be taken as moderately dilated when the measurement exceeds 40.deg and as severely dilated when

  15. Karyometric changes of neurons of hypothalamus and ependyma nuclei of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep following administration of Gn-RH and subsequent irradiation

    Stanikova, A.; Arendarcik, J.; Tokos, M.; Balun, J.; Chlebovsky, O.

    1983-01-01

    A karyometric analysis was used for the study of changes in the cell nucleus volume of the neurons of nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus arcuatus, and the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep after the administration of Gn-RH, followed by exposure to X rays. The test animals included 12 ewes in physiological anoestrus and two rams. The trials were conducted in spring. The first group of four ewes and two rams were left as controls; in the ewes of the second group the hypothalamo-hypophysial region was irradiated with 516.5 mC/kg (200 R);in the four ewes of the third group, ovaries were directly irradiated at laparotomy with 64.4 mC/kg (250 R). The ewes of the second and third groups were treated with i.m. administration of 400 μg Gn-RH per head before irradiation. The excisions were collected and processed the tenth day from irradiation. The karyometric analysis was performed at 3000-fold magnification, 200 cells being measured in each sample. Changes in neurosecretory cells were described in the regions of nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus arcuatus and in the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle. The results of the karyometric analysis of nucleus paraventricularis and nucleus arcuatus suggest that the administration of Gn-RH and irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region, and direct irradiation of the ovaries stimulated the studied cerebral structures. The changes observed in the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle after the administration of Gn-RH and subsequent irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region were insignificant; it was only after direct irradiation of the ovaries that these cells were inhibited indirectly through the feedback mechanism. (author)

  16. Colloid cyst of the third cerebral ventricle with an embryological remnant consistent with paraphysis cerebri in an adult human.

    Nagaraju, S; O'Donovan, D G; Cross, J; Fernandes, H

    2010-01-01

    The histogenesis of colloid cysts of the third ventricle remains unsettled. Initial theories favored a neuroepithelial (paraphysis, ependyma, choroid plexus) origin and some investigators based on morphologic analysis have offered an alternative endodermal source. We report a case of colloid cyst of the third ventricle arising in association with a remnant which we believe corresponds to the paraphysis cerebri in man.

  17. Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

    Lisbeth Regeur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome on computed tomographic (CT scannings using unbiased stereological principles and to compare that volume with a control group. We found a significantly reduced ventricular volume in 24 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS compared with 28 controls.

  18. Morphological changes in the neurons of hypothalamus and ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep after irradiation

    Stanikova, A.; Pastorova, B.; Maracek, I.; Sopkova, D.; Halagan, J.

    2004-01-01

    We focused on changes in the hypothalamic neuro-secretion, morphology of brain ventricle ependyma of sheep after irradiation and hormonal stimulation. We observed sheep in anoestrus. Synchronization was ensured with Agelin for 10 days. On day 5 after the instillation of sponges, we started with irradiation lasting for 5 days (2.5 Gy) and on day 10 we stimulated the sheep with SG and FSH. The samples from hypothalamus intended for REM, were processed according to Murakami et al. (1977). Hormonal treatment in combination with irradiation produced qualitative changes, more marked in the ependyma than in the hypothalamus. (authors)

  19. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Pivoňková, Helena; Honsa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S125-S126 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cerebral ischemia * neuroscience * MDACH1 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  20. Sodium bicarbonate causes dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow in infants and children with single ventricle physiology

    Buckley, Erin M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Diaz, Laura K.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Lavin, Natasha A.; Durduran, Turgut; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J. William; Putt, Mary E.; Yodh, A.G.; Fogel, Mark A.; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a common treatment for metabolic acidemia, however little definitive information exists regarding its treatment efficacy and cerebral hemodynamic effects. This pilot observational study quantifies relative changes in cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations (ΔHbO2 and ΔHb) due to bolus administration of NaHCO3 in patients with mild base deficits. Methods Infants and children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) were recruited prior to cardiac surgery. NaHCO3 was given as needed for treatment of base deficit. Diffuse optical spectroscopies were employed for 15 minutes post-injection to non-invasively monitor ΔHb, ΔHbO2 and rCBF relative to baseline prior to NaHCO3 administration. Results Twenty-two anesthetized and mechanically ventilated HLHS patients (1 day to 4 years old) received a median (interquartile range) dose of 1.1 (0.8, 1.8) mEq/kg NaHCO3 administered intravenously over 10–20 seconds to treat a base deficit of −4 (−6, −3) mEq/l. NaHCO3 caused significant dose-dependent increases in rCBF, however population averaged ΔHb or Δ4HbO2 compared to controls were not significant. Conclusions Dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by bolus NaHCO3 are an important consideration in vulnerable populations wherein risk of rapid CBF fluctuations does not outweigh the benefit of treating a base deficit. PMID:23403802

  1. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.

    Valenti, Vitor E; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V). The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm). The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus) and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL) into the 4th V. Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (peffect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (pcatalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  2. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH (16 weeks old were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm. The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL into the 4th V. RESULTS: Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (p<0.05 to a greater extent in WKY rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke than in WKY rats exposed to fresh air. However, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, the effect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Administration of a catalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  3. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  4. Colon neoplasm

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  5. Single Ventricle Defects

    ... and right ventricle are more normal in size, open-heart surgery may help the heart work better. If ... and right ventricle are more normal in size, open-heart surgery may help the heart work better. If ...

  6. Adrenal neoplasms

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  7. Myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Roaldsnes, Christina; Holst, René; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF) are clonal disorders collectively named as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published data on epidemiology of MPN after the discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the 2008 WHO classifications are scarce. We...

  8. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  9. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle.

    Preusser, Matthias; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Czech, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2003-11-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle has been reported recently as a novel type of primary CNS neoplasm. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with RGNT of the fourth ventricle. The tumor was found incidentally; the patient did not suffer from any neurological symptoms. The tumor mass involved the caudal cerebellar vermis, filled the fourth ventricle and protruded into the caudal part of the mesencephalic aquaeduct. Smaller tumor nodules were visible in the adjacent right cerebellar hemisphere. Histologically, prominent neurocytic rosettes with synaptophysin expression were embedded in a glial tumor component resembling pilocytic astrocytoma. Clinicopathological features of our case closely resemble those reported in the original description. Thus, our case confirms RGNT as a new distinct type of primary CNS neoplasm. Due to its distinct features, adoption of RGNT as a new entity into the WHO classification of tumors should be considered.

  10. Double chambered right ventricle

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  11. Double chambered right ventricle

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  12. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Morphological analysis of enlarged ventricle on CT image, using multivariate analysis

    Iwasaki, Satoru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Otsuji, Hideyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Kobayashi, Yasuo.

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of enlarged cerebral ventricle on CT was undertaken to study the characteristics of ventricular morphology. Several ventricular segments of enlarged ventricle, defined on the basis of the study of normal group, were linearly measured on CT image. Then the discriminant analysis with the increase and decrease of variable was applied. The following are the results obtained. The error ratio of discrimination between pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy was 8.4 %, and between obstructive hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus was 11.3 %. Ventricular segments were divided into three groups according to their character of enlargement: (1) the temporal horn and trigone are large in pressure hydrocephalus; (2) the hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle and the body of lateral ventricle are larger in obstructive hydrocephalus than in communicating hydrocephalus; (3) the anterior horn, cellae mediae at the level of the head of caudate nuclei and thalamic segment of the third ventricle are relatively large in cerebral atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus. The hypothalamic segment of the third ventricle assumes a round or oval shape in pressure hydrocephalus but a rectangular or teardrop shape in cerebral atrophy. These findings are contributory to pathological evaluation of ventricular enlargement. (author)

  14. Dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle evaluated by cine MRI

    Abe, Toshi

    1990-01-01

    CSF pulsation suggests variation in the size of the cerebral ventricle during the cardiac cycle. CINE MRI, which is a useful technique for observation of the pulsatile CSF flow, demonstrates a dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle. CINE MRI was performed on a 0.5 tesla MR imaging system (SMT-50, SHIMADZU). Sixteen different phased images during cardiac cycle were made by a gradient acho technique (STAGE: Short Tip Angle Gradient Echo, TE=14 msec, Flip Angle=30deg). From the measurement of the lateral ventricular areas of two different phases of CINE MRI during cadiac cycle, variation rate of cerebral ventricular area (VRCVA) was calculated. Twenty-five normal volunteers (14 younger adults aged 27-44 years, 11 older adults aged 56-73 years) and six cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy were studied. The results included: The mean VRCVA of younger adults was 14.4% (at right body of lateral ventricle) ∼ 30.0% (at left anterior horn of lateral ventricle). The mean VRCVA of younger adults is higher than the mean VRCVA of older adults. In the cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy, the mean VRCVA was very lower than the mean VRCVA of older adults. VRCVA of lateral ventricle calculated from CINE MRI seemed to have a good relationship to the brain elasticity. This noninvasive method would be used as an indication of the elastic response of the ventricles and the surrounding brain. (J.P.N.)

  15. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  16. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  17. A roentgenographical study of the morphology of ventricles of the brain using computed tomography (CT)

    Inugami, Atsushi

    1981-01-01

    A basic experiment using an experimental model for the ventricles of the brain was made of the reproductivity of CT images using a whole body CT scanner, and the dimensions of the ventricles of 450 children on CT images were measured, to study changes in dimensions of the ventricles with the method for providing the sectional planes, or with the type of the CT scanner used, and the children with ventricular abnormalities were further studied. The sectional plane at OM-0 0 clinically gave a better reproductivity of the ventricles than at OM-15 0 . The measurements of the ventricles proved to vary with the mean value and also with the window width. In measuring the dimensions of the ventricles on the CT image, the ratio of widths of the anterior horn, third ventricle, corpus and posterior horn to that of the cerebral parenchyma was found to be correlated to the dimensions of the ventricles. No particular changes with the age structure of each cerebroventricular index (CVI) were noted. Apparent differences in the measurement were noted between each CVI of the abnormal group and the normal. CT scanning is a safe, easy non-invasive method for screening and observing the couse of ventricular diseases, accompanied by less risk. (author)

  18. The neoplasms imagery

    Giger, M.; Pilizzari, CH.

    1996-01-01

    New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

  19. Risk factors for neoplasms

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  20. 3D MR ventricle segmentation in pre-term infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation

    Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Kishimoto, Jessica; Chen, Yimin; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or bleed within the brain is a common condition among pre-term infants that occurs in very low birth weight preterm neonates. The prognosis is further worsened by the development of progressive ventricular dilatation, i.e., post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD), which occurs in 10-30% of IVH patients. In practice, predicting PHVD accurately and determining if that specific patient with ventricular dilatation requires the ability to measure accurately ventricular volume. While monitoring of PHVD in infants is typically done by repeated US and not MRI, once the patient has been treated, the follow-up over the lifetime of the patient is done by MRI. While manual segmentation is still seen as a gold standard, it is extremely time consuming, and therefore not feasible in a clinical context, and it also has a large inter- and intra-observer variability. This paper proposes a segmentation algorithm to extract the cerebral ventricles from 3D T1- weighted MR images of pre-term infants with PHVD. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of the convex optimization technique combined with the learned priors of image intensities and label probabilistic map, which is built from a multi-atlas registration scheme. The leave-one-out cross validation using 7 PHVD patient T1 weighted MR images showed that the proposed method yielded a mean DSC of 89.7% +/- 4.2%, a MAD of 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm, a MAXD of 17.8 +/- 6.2 mm, and a VD of 11.6% +/- 5.9%, suggesting a good agreement with manual segmentations.

  1. Isolated pseudohypoplasia of the right ventricle.

    Pastor, Esteban; Aramendi, José I; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Galdeano, José M

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with severe cyanosis due to abnormal moderator band producing a hidden trabecular component of the right ventricle, mimicking isolated hypoplasia of the right ventricle. A marked hypoplasia was confirmed by echocardiography and catheterization. At operation an anomalously thickened moderator band obstructing the apical infundibulum was found. Repair consisted of a section of the moderator band and closure of the atrial septal defect. Postoperatively the right ventricle showed normal dimension and function.

  2. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  3. Colloid cysts of the third ventricle

    Pina, J.I.; Medrano, J.; Benito, J.L. de; Lasierra, R.; Lopez, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Colloid cysts (CC) are uncommon cystic endo dermal tumors located in the roof of the third ventricle. The clinical features depend on their capacity for obstructing the foramen of Monro, which results in univentricular or biventricular hydrocephalus. We present three cases of colloid cysts of the third ventricle, diagnosed by CT, reviewing their diagnostic, clinical and pathological features

  4. Transtentorial herniation of the fourth ventricle

    Rosenfeld, D.L.; Lis, E.; DeMarco, K.

    1995-01-01

    Transtentorial herniation (TTH) of the fourth ventricle is the result of a progressive enlargement of an isolated fourth ventricle which herniates through the tentorial incisure into the middle cranial fossa. The characteristic CT-MR and neurosonographic findings are described. (orig.)

  5. Cephalometric Assessment of the Fourth Ventricles Using ...

    brain. To provide baseline data for measurements of normal fourth ventricle using ... (2001) normally the left ventricle was larger than the right one and both were larger in males among .... Kennedy, D.N., Caviness, Jr, V.S. and Tsuang,.

  6. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  7. The Right Ventricle in ARDS.

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    ARDS is associated with poor clinical outcomes, with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based on improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated, and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), is commonly encountered in moderate to severe ARDS and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident RVD in ARDS varies across studies, ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between RVD and mortality, severe RVD is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect RV function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of RVD would be of benefit; however, echocardiographic markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in ARDS have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review, we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of RVD in ARDS and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  8. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle, hypothalamus, and heart: a dangerous link for sudden death

    Turillazzi Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloid cysts are rare congenital, intracranial neoplasms, commonly located in the third ventricle. Colloid cysts are endodermal congenital malformations. The cysts commonly range in size from 1–2 cm in diameter, although large cysts >3 cm in size have been reported. The components of the cyst include an outer fibrous capsule over an inner epithelium. The epithelium is usually a single layer of mucin-producing or ciliated cells. Such cysts contain mucoid and gelatinous material, which is positive for both Periodic acid Schiff (PAS and mucicarmen staining. Although colloid cysts usually represent histopathologically benign neoplasms, they can result in sudden, unexpected and potentially lethal complications. The mechanism(s of death is still a controversial subject and several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the sudden onset of severe symptoms and of fatal rapid deterioration in patients with colloid cysts. In this case, macroscopic and histological findings addressed the diagnosis of colloid cyst of the third ventricle with diffuse myocardial injury (coagulative myocytolysis or contraction band necrosis, CBN and led us to conclude that acute cardiac arrest due to hypothalamus stimulation in the context of colloid cyst of the third ventricle was the cause of death. As the hypothalamic structures which are involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic regulation playing a key role in cardiovascular control are located close to the walls of the third ventricle which is the most frequent anatomical site of colloid cyst, this may suggest that reflex cardiac effects due to the compression of the hypothalamic cardiovascular regulatory centers by the cyst explain the sudden death in patients harboring a colloid cyst when signs of hydrocephalus or brain herniation are lacking. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915842848034158

  9. Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear

    Amita Radhakrishnan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT is a recently recognized and extremely rare glioneuronal tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of this entity as it can be easily mistaken for more common neoplasms occurring at this site. We present here the cytology of such a rare case of RGNT that was misdiagnosed as ependymoma. The varying cytological features of this entity, as well as the common diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology, are highlighted in this report.

  10. Anorexia: an early sign of fourth ventricle astrocytoma in children.

    Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Baroncini, Marc; Delestret, Isabelle; Florent, Vincent; Vinchon, Matthieu

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle are rare tumours, generally revealed by hydrocephalus. However, some patients present with a history of severe anorexia. It might be a harbinger, which if recognized, could lead to earlier diagnosis. We decided to examine our database in order to evaluate the incidence and signification of anorexia in this context. Retrospective monocentric study of cases of low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle operated between 1991 and 2012 in our paediatric neurosurgery department. We particularly observed the clinical presentation and long-term clinical, oncological and radiological evolution. Non-parametrical tests were used (Mann-Whitney, Fisher). We reviewed 34 cases, 31 pilocytic astrocytomas and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, 16 boys and 18 girls, (M/F ratio 0.89). Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old. Seven presented with notable anorexia, the average BMI in this group was ≤2 standard deviation (SD); with clinical signs evolving for 11.5 months. Twenty-seven children had no anorexia; average BMI in this group was +1 SD, with clinical evolution for 6 months on an average of p anorexia, body mass index improved markedly in the postoperative follow-up, which lasted, on average, for 6 years. Anorexia with stunted body weight curve is a non-exceptional presentation in children with low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle. Unexplained or atypical anorexia with negative etiologic assessment should prompt cerebral imaging. Clinical improvement after surgical resection, could suggest a possible interaction between tumour tissue and appetite-suppressing peptide secretion.

  11. Cerebral computed tomography in newborn children with large retinal hemmorrhage

    Skalpe, I.O.; Egge, K.; Maltau, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography was performed in 10 neonates with large retinal hemorrhage compared with a control group of 10 full-term neonates without such hemorrhage. No signs of intracranial hemorrhage were found. The cerebral ventricles were poorly visualized in both groups. Periventricular low attenuation areas was a frequent finding in both groups. (orig.)

  12. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Double-outlet right ventricle revisited.

    Ebadi, Ameneh; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Fricker, F Jay; Anderson, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Double-outlet right ventricle is a form of ventriculoarterial connection. The definition formulated by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease is based on hearts with both arterial trunks supported in their greater part by a morphologically right ventricle. Bilateral infundibula and ventricular septal defects are highly debated criteria. This study examines the anatomic controversies surrounding double-outlet right ventricle. We show that hearts with double-outlet right ventricle can have atrioventricular-to-arterial valvular continuity. We emphasize the difference between the interventricular communication and the zone of deficient ventricular septation. The hearts examined were from the University of Florida in Gainesville; Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Fla; and Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Ill. Each specimen had at least 75% of both arterial roots supported by the morphologically right ventricle, with a total of 100 hearts examined. The morphologic method was used to assess anatomic features, including arterial-atrioventricular valvular continuity, subarterial infundibular musculature, and the location of the hole between the ventricles. Most hearts had fibrous continuity between one of the arterial valves and an atrioventricular valve, with bilateral infundibula in 23%, and intact ventricular septum in 5%. Bilateral infundibula are not a defining feature of double-outlet right ventricle, representing only 23% of the specimens in our sample. The interventricular communication can have a posteroinferior muscular rim or extend to become perimembranous (58%). Double-outlet right ventricle can exist with an intact ventricular septum. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  15. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  16. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  17. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  19. Septum formation of the lateral ventricles

    Celik, Hakan H.; Aldur, Mustafa M.; Tatar, I.; Tascioglu, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-months-old-baby. In this study, we evaluate 505 (242 males and 263 females) patients referred to the Emaray Imaging Center, Ankara, Turkey with various prediagnoses. We specially selected all the cases from a non-psychotic population. We obtained MRI scans on a 1-Tesla imager (Picker International, Highland Heights, Ohio, USA), with slices of 5 and 6 mm thickness. In the axial and coronal sections, we observed septum formation laterally between the anterior horn and the ventricular body of the lateral ventricles. Radio opaque septum formations started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the genu of the corpus callosum. There was a second septum formation between the posterior horn and the ventricular body of the right lateral ventricle. It started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the cavum vergae. (author)

  20. Ventricle morphology in pelagic elasmobranch fishes.

    Emery, S H; Mangano, C; Randazzo, V

    1985-01-01

    Ventricle weights of the warm-bodied great white shark, Atlantic shortfin mako, and the common thresher shark (the latter presumed to be warm-bodied) are similar to those of ectothermic blue sharks, sandbar sharks, dusky sharks, tiger sharks and scalloped hammerhead sharks. Ventricle muscularity, as estimated by the ratio of cortical to spongy layer thickness, is almost twice as great in the former three species than in the latter elasmobranchs. Measurements of ventricular volumes suggest that the ventricles of the great white, Atlantic shortfin mako and common thresher sharks are better adapted to respond to demands for increases in cardiac output via increased heartbeat frequency in comparison with ectothermic species of shark.

  1. Radiographic studies of the ventricles in syringomyelia

    West, R.J.; Williams, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic investigations of 171 patients with communicating syringomyelia have been reviewed. Hydrocephalus was found in one third of the cases and has occasionally progressed after operation on the posterior fossa, sometimes with accompanying clinical deterioration. The outlets of the fourth ventricle were usually abnormal; tonsillar descent, arachnoiditis and both together were seen. Arachnoiditis correlated strongly with a history of difficult birth. The foramen of Magendie was sometimes patent and sometimes blocked. There was no consistent level of occulusion corresponding to a persistent roof of the fourth ventricle. The cisterna magna was usually small or obliterated but some examples of large cisterns or subarachnoid pouches were found. Radiological demonstration of a communication from the fourth ventricle to the syrinx occurred in only seven patients by positive contrast material and not by air. It is suggested that a sizable communication is rare at the time when patients seek treatment. (orig.)

  2. Exercises in anatomy: holes between the ventricles.

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Holes between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. As yet, however, there is no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorized. In this, our third exercise in cardiac anatomy, we address the issue of classification of ventricular septal defects. We begin our demonstration by analysing the normal heart. We show that the larger part of the ventricular septum is made up of its muscular component. The membranous part accounts for only a small portion, which is located centrally within the cardiac base. This small membranous part forms a boundary between the right-sided chambers and the aortic root. Holes at this site, therefore, which account for the commonest defects closed surgically, will open centrally in the cardiac base, being located postero-inferiorly relative to the supraventricular crest. We then show that the larger part of the crest itself is a free-standing muscular sleeve, which lifts the leaflets of the pulmonary valve away from the cardiac base. Only a very small part of the muscle forming the right ventricular outlet is located in the septal position. Turning our attention to malformed hearts, we show how holes between the ventricles can open centrally at the cardiac base, open to the inlet or outlet of the right ventricle or open within the substance of the apical muscular septum. We demonstrate, however, that description of such geographical location of the defects does not paint the full picture, since lesions with markedly different phenotypic features can open in comparable geographic locations. We illustrate how it is the phenotypic features, as seen from the right ventricle, which convey the crucial information for the surgeon with regard to the location of the atrioventricular conduction axis, using hearts with holes opening to the inlet of the right ventricle with muscular as opposed to partially fibrous borders to emphasize this point. We continue by showing how holes with different phenotypes can

  3. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  4. Reversible transinsular herniation of the lateral ventricle

    Holodny, Andrei I. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gor, Devang M.; Thaver, Hussain; Millian, Brian R. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2004-11-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy, with a history of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, leading to hydrocephalus with multiple shunt revisions. The current presentation of shunt failure and resultant hydrocephalus was complicated by herniation of the trigone of the lateral ventricle into the posterior fossa. Despite the dramatic radiological appearance, this herniation of the lateral ventricle was not accompanied by any additional clinical signs or symptoms other than those usually attributed to hydrocephalus. Following successful shunt revision, the patient returned to his baseline clinically with the trigone reverting back to its normal position. We also present a second companion case. (orig.)

  5. A comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Kitai, Akiko; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Yukio

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with children palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissurem, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. (author)

  6. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet That Migrated to the Third Ventricle Causing Hydrocephalus.

    Aydoseli, Aydın; Unal, Tugrul Cem; Aras, Yavuz; Sabanci, Pulat Akın; Altunrende, Emre; Izgi, Nail

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocephalus caused by an intraventricular bullet is a rare event. We report a case of endoscopic removal of an intraventricular bullet. A 66-year-old man was admitted with a gunshot wound to the head after a suicide attempt. The bullet migrated from the frontal parenchyma to the third ventricle day 4 of admission. On day 21 of admission, the patient developed hydrocephalus with obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. The bullet was accessed through an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and removed using an endoscope. Hydrocephalus may develop in patients with intraventricular foreign objects. When such objects must be removed, the endoscopic approach is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of foreign object removal from the ventricle via a transcortical endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references

  8. Evidence of ventricular contamination of the optical signal in preterm neonates with post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation

    Kishimoto, J.; Diop, M.; McLachlan, P.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Dilation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Interventions, such as ventricular tapping to remove cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are used to prevent injury, but determining the optimal time for treatment is difficult as clinical signs of increased ICP lack sensitivity. There is a growing interest in using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) because of its ability to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation (StO2) at the bedside. However, the accuracy of NIRS may be affected by signal contamination from enlarged ventricles, especially if there are blood breakdown products (bbp) in CSF following IVH. To investigate this, serial NIR spectra from the head and from CSF samples were acquired over a month from seven IVH patients undergoing treatment for PHVD. Over time, the visual appearance of the CSF samples progressed from dark brown ("tea color") to clear yellow, reflecting the reduction in bbp concentration as confirmed by the stronger absorption around 760 nm at the earlier time points. All CSF samples contained strong absorption at 960 nm due to water. More importantly the same trend in these absorption features was observed in the in vivo spectra, and Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the potential for signal contamination from enlarged ventricles. These findings highlight the challenges of accurately measuring StO2 in this patient population and the necessity of using a hyperspectral NIRS system to resolve the additional chromophores.

  9. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  10. Penetrating Stab Wound of the Right Ventricle

    Onursal Buğra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 years old male patient was admitted to our emergency unit with a penetrating stab wound to the right ventricle. A stab wound to the right ventricle was found to be 3 cm in diameter. The bleeding was controlled by insertion of a Foley catheter and inflation of the balloon. The stab wound had transected distal acute marginal side ofthe right coronary artery. A successful repair was performed with the use of a foley catheter and application of the Medtronic Octopus Tissue Stabilization System. The wound was closed with pledgeted mattress sutures. The distal acute marginal side of the right coronary artery was ligated. In this presentation, the surgical intervention method was reported and followed by a discussion of emergency surgical procedures of the heart.

  11. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Tamaddonfard, Sina; Pourbaba, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl) into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat) and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat) and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each) suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat), was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  12. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c. injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Results: Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat, was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  13. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Priya Jagia; Arun Sharma; Saurabh K Gupta; Munish Guleria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best ...

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of double-chambered right ventricle

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei

    1987-01-01

    A double-chambered right ventricle is often clinically misdiagnosed and may be missed even during cardiac catheterization. We encountered a 56-year-old male who had abnormal right ventricular thallium-201 uptake and a photon deficient area in the right ventricle by radionuclide cardioangiography. These findings strongly suggested the existence of anomalous muscle band in the right ventricle. It was demonstrated by contrast angiography that the right ventricle was divided into two chambers by a hypertrophic muscular band; the pressure gradient in the right ventricle was 98 mmHg. (author)

  15. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  16. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  17. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  18. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  19. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  20. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the right ventricle

    Datrice, Nicole; Milliken, Jeffrey; Kirsh, M.; Abolhoda, Amir; Saremi, Farhood; Sender, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a round cell neoplasm derived from neural crest cells that is part of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family. It is a rare, aggressive malignancy that affects young people, most commonly in the second decade of life. The treatment of localized disease has improved greatly over the past four decades, but the prognosis for metastatic disease remains poor. Cardiac metastases of Ewing's sarcoma are exceedingly rare, with only a few reported cases. This...

  1. Cerebral Palsy

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  2. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  3. Ganglioglioma in the Third Ventricle: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Higa, Nayuta; Yonezawa, Hajime; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Gangliogliomas typically arise in the cerebral hemispheres, but may occur rarely in the ventricles. Herein, we report a 38-year-old woman who was treated for hydrocephalus caused by a ganglioglioma of the third ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a heterogeneously enhanced tumor occupying the anterior part of the third ventricle. A left trans-lateral ventricular trans-foramen of Monroi approach was effective in achieving subtotal resection of the tumor, which had arisen from the medial part of left thalamus to the hypothalamus. Follow-up MRI showed no recurrence of the tumor 5-years after surgery. On pathological examination, the tumor was composed of a glial component that presented features mimicking pilocytic astrocytoma with proliferations of large gangliocytic cells that stained positive for neuronal markers. A review of six similar cases in the literature, including our own, revealed hydrocephalus to be the main symptom of gangliogliomas, with pituitary insufficiencies and visual disturbances having also been reported. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of gangliogliomas in the differential diagnosis of third ventricular tumors presenting with hydrocephalus. PMID:28664007

  4. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  5. Cerebral microangiopathies

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  6. Antenatal and postnatal sonographic imaging findings of a single ventricle presenting as double outlet right ventricle with rudimentary left ventricle and single atrium

    Donboklang Lynser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Single ventricle is a rare finding and usually of left ventricular morphology. We present here interesting antenatal and postnatal echocardiographic findings of a baby having a rare single ventricle of right ventricular morphology with double outlet. Antenatally we saw a large ventricular septal defect indistinguishable from a single ventricle with left to right ventricular ratio of 1:1. Postnatally we saw a single ventricle having the outlets for both the main pulmonary artery and aortic root. The left ventricle is collapse with a rudimentary morphology possibly due to changes in hemodynamics after birth and absent of outlet from it.

  7. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES

    V. V. Vlasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistency of the current classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages is discussed in the article. The author explains divergence of including of the subependymal (1st stage and intracerebral (4th stage hemorrhages into this classification. A new classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages including their origin, phases and stages is offered. The most common origin of intraventricular hemorrhages is subependymal hemorrhage (82,2%. Two phases of hemorrhage were distinguished: bleeding phase and resorption phase. Stages of intraventricular hemorrhages reflecting the blood movement after the onset of bleeding are the following: 1 — infill of the up to ½ of the lateral ventricles without their enlargement; 2 — infill of more than ½ of the lateral ventricles with their enlargement; 3 — infill of the IV ventricle, of the cerebellomedullary cistern and its dislocation into the subarachnoid space of the cerebellum, pons varolii, medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

  8. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  9. ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION- AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF A MASS IN LEFT VENTRICLE AND RIGHT VENTRICLE

    Sunil Pisharadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Myocardial infarction is not a rare finding in patients with a history of carcinoma with second aries. We report a case of a 38-year old man who presented with symptoms of acute MI. The echocardiography showed a rare finding of a mass in both right and left ventricle

  10. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  11. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  12. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  13. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  14. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  16. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...

  17. Craniopharyngioma in the third ventricle: necropsy findings and histogenesis.

    Kunishio, K; Yamamoto, Y; Sunami, N; Asari, S; Akagi, T; Ohtsuki, Y

    1987-01-01

    A case of craniopharyngioma confined within the third ventricle with necropsy is reported. A stalk-like structure in this tumour was present in the wall of the third ventricle at its base. It is suggested that this tumour might have arisen from the remnants of Rathke's pouch persisting in the tuber cinereum. Images PMID:3655812

  18. Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle | El Kouache ...

    The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal highpressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ...

  19. COMPUTER MODELING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL VENTRICLES OF HEART

    L. V. Belyaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article modern researches of processes of development of artificial ventricles of heart are described. Advanta- ges of application computer (CAD/CAE technologies are shown by development of artificial ventricles of heart. The systems developed with application of the given technologies are submitted. 

  20. Report of an adult with double-outlet right ventricle

    Munera E, Ana G; Florez C, Marina; Delgado de B, Jorge A and others

    2001-01-01

    The case of a 22 -year- old woman with a diagnosis of congenital heart disease, N Y H A class I, who complaints palpitations. By echocardiography, angiography and magnetic resonance imaging a diagnosis of double-outlet right ventricle was done. She was intervened for correction, creating an interventricular tunnel connecting the left ventricle to the aorta through the ventricular septal defect

  1. Cerebral vasculitis

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  2. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  3. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  4. Computed tomographic findings in cerebral palsy: Analysis of hemisphere and lateral ventricular volume

    Cho, Seoung Hwan; Kim, Hak Jin; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1989-01-01

    Authors analysed the CT findings of 28 cerebral palsy patients at Pusan National University Hospital from January, 1984 to December, 1987. Volumes of hemispheres, lateral ventricles and paranchymes were measured in patients who showed no remarkable abnormality on CT film, and compared with those of normal control group. 1. Among the 28 cerebral palsy patients, there were 6 cases of diffuse atrophy in CT findings, and unilateral atrophy in 2 cases and encephalomalacia and diffuse white matter low density in 1 case and generalized symmetrical white matter low density in 1 case, but remaining 18 cases had no specific abnormal finding on CT. 2. Difference in volumes of brain parenchyma and lateral ventricles of each hemisphere was greater than that of control group. 3. There were more enlarged lateral ventricles and prominent unilateral brain atrophy in 18 cases of cerebral palsy who showed no specific abnormality on CT as compared with normal control group

  5. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  6. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  7. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  8. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    Estanol, B.; Kleriga, E.; Loyo, M.; Mateos, H.; Lombardo, L.; Gordon, F.; Saguchi, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested

  9. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy

    Estanol, B.; Kleriga, E.; Loyo, M.; Mateos, H.; Lombardo, L.; Gordon, F.; Saguchi, A.F.

    1983-08-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis are a highly heterogeneous group. The mechanisms of hydrocephalus in these patients are multiple. Intraventricular cysts may be found in the 3rd and 4th ventricles, the sylvian aqueduct, and the foramen of Monro. Intraventricular cysts can be suspected when the 3rd and 4th ventricles or aqueduct remain enlarged despite shunting. Intraventricular contrast medium demonstrates the presence of the parasites. The intraventricular cysts should be removed surgically. Hydrocephalus due to cisternal cysticercosis can be diagnosed by isotope cisternography. These patients should receive shunts, but the long term prognosis is probably poor. Guidelines for the management of hydrocephalus due to cysticercosis are suggested.

  10. Exploring Deep Space - Uncovering the Anatomy of Periventricular Structures to Reveal the Lateral Ventricles of the Human Brain.

    Colibaba, Alexandru S; Calma, Aicee Dawn B; Webb, Alexandra L; Valter, Krisztina

    2017-10-22

    Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles. Thus, using 2D sections alone requires students to compute their own mental image of the 3D ventricular spaces. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible method for dissecting the human brain to create an educational resource to enhance student understanding of the intricate relationships between the ventricles and periventricular structures. To achieve this, we created a video resource that features a step-by-step guide using a fiber dissection method to reveal the lateral and third ventricles together with the closely related limbic system and basal ganglia structures. One of the advantages of this method is that it enables delineation of the white matter tracts that are difficult to distinguish using other dissection techniques. This video is accompanied by a written protocol that provides a systematic description of the process to aid in the reproduction of the brain dissection. This package offers a valuable anatomy teaching resource for educators and students alike. By following these instructions educators can create teaching resources and students can be guided to produce their own brain dissection as a hands-on practical activity. We recommend that this video guide be incorporated into neuroanatomy teaching to enhance student understanding of the morphology and clinical relevance of the ventricles.

  11. Nonthrombotic artificial mass in right ventricle and pulmonary circulation as a sequence of vertebroplasty

    Monovska, T.; Kirova, G.; Bojinov, D.; Kichukov, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for the treatment of the vertebral body fractures is considered to be relatively safe therapeutic procedure. Nevertheless there is a potential risk of spread of emboli from artificial material through external vertebral venous plexus. What you will learn: This is a 60 -year-old patient with primary diagnosis of multiple myeloma and conducted vertebroplasty due to the vertebral bodies fractures. Accompanying symptoms are: coughing up blood and pain in the right the chest with medication for micro thromboembolism form of Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). There are echocardiographic data on hospitalization for a formation in the right ventricle. Based on additionally performed CT study, a ‘foreign body’ - artificial material in right ventricle and subsegmentary branches of the pulmonary arteries as a complication of previous vertebroplasty has been recorded. Paravertebral venous vessels in the area of the thoracic section filled with cement have been noticed. Discussion: non-thrombotic embolism of artificial material prior vertebroplasty can be asymptomatic, or condition may be associated with life-threatening symptoms - compression of the spinal cord resulting in paraplegia, emboli in the cerebral vessels, right ventricle, kidney arteries. The frequency of the topical flowing of the used material is relatively high (80-90 %) to the para-vertebral vein (over 24%), with subsequent pulmonary emboli (4.6 to 6.8 %). The path of the embolization material dissemination is in the course of the para-vertebral veins, v. azygos and v. cafa inf., with the end goal pulmonary circulation. Conclusion: Follow-up of patients after the therapeutic vertebroplasty and integrated diagnostic approach with appropriate imaging methods allow timely diagnosis and treatment of this unusual form of non-thrombotic embolism

  12. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  13. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  14. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  15. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  16. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  17. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  18. Benign neoplasms of the trachea : case reports

    Kim, Hak Hee; Mun, Kyung Mi; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Benign tumors of the trachea are rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all primary tracheal neoplasms. They are frequently misdiagnosed and managed as bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis. We report a lipoma and a leiomyoma of the trachea with emphasis on the clinical, radiographic and CT findings, and review the literature.

  19. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  20. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  1. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  2. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumour predominantly affecting young women. We present two cases in young female patients. Both tumours were surgically removed as abdominal masses, one from the pancreatic tail and the other posterior to the stomach with an unclear organ of origin. On gross ...

  3. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  4. [Cerebral protection].

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  5. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  6. Flat-panel detector volumetric CT for visualization of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ventricles: preliminary results compared to conventional CT

    Doelken, M.; Struffert, T.; Richter, G.; Engelhorn, T.; Doerfler, A.; Nimsky, C.; Ganslandt, O.; Hammen, T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare flat-panel volumetric CT (VCT) to conventional CT (cCT) in the visualization of the extent of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the width of the ventricles in patients with acute SAH. Included in the study were 22 patients with an acutely ruptured cerebral aneurysm who received VCT during coil embolization. VCT image quality, the extent of SAH (using a modified Fisher score and total slice number with SAH visible) and the width of the ventricles (Evans index) were evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists (RAD1 and RAD2) and compared to the findings on cCT. Ten patients undergoing VCT for reasons other than SAH served as negative controls. Interobserver agreement in rating image quality was excellent for cCT (Kendall W value 0.94) and good for VCT (0.74). SAH was identified by RAD1 and RAD2 on VCT images in all patients. The modified Fisher scores underestimated the extent of SAH on VCT images in comparison with cCT images. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) regarding the number of image slices with SAH visible on cCT images compared with the number on VCT images was 0.85 for RAD1 and 0.84 for RAD2. The r value for the degree of interobserver agreement for the number of slices with SAH visible was 0.99 for cCT, and 0.95 for VCT images (n 19), respectively. The width of the ventricles measured in terms of the Evans Index showed excellent concordance between the modalities (r = 0.81 vs. 0.82). Our preliminary results indicate that VCT is helpful in evaluating SAH in the angiography suite. Additionally, reliable evaluation of ventricle width is feasible. However, there are limitations with regard to the visibility of SAH on VCT images in comparison to cCT images. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Wada, Fumio; Andoh, Tadashi; Une, Koji; Takamatsu, Tsurukichi

    1981-01-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  8. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  9. Diagnosis of masses presenting within the ventricles on computed tomography

    Kendall, B.; Reider-Grosswasser, I.; Valentine, A.

    1983-04-01

    The radiological and clinical features of 90 histologically verified intraventricular masses were reviewed. Computed tomography (CT) and plain X-rays were available in all and angiograms in over half the cases. The localisation, effects on the adjacent brain substance and the presence and degree of hydrocephalus was evident on CT. Two-thirds of colloid cysts presented as pathognomonic anterior third ventricular hyperdense masses and the other third were isodense; an alternative diagnosis should be considered for low density masses in this situation. Plexus papillomas and carcinomas mainly involved the trigone nd body of a lateal ventricle of young children and caused asymmetrical hydrocephalus; the third ventricle was occasionally affected also in children and the fourth ventricle more frequently and usually in adults. Two-thirds were hyper and one-third of mixed or lower density. The meningiomas were dense trigonal tumours of adults generally arising in the choroid plexus, but two tentorial meningiomas passed through the choroidal fissure and caused a predominantly intraventricular mass. Gliomas frequently thickened the septum and generally involved the frontal segments of the lateral ventricles. They may be supplied by perforating as well as by the choroidal arteries, which supply most other vascularised masses within the ventricles. Only 10% of our cases did not fall into one of the former categories; these included low density non-enhancing dermoid or epidermoid tumours and higher density enhancing metastatic or angiomatous masses.

  10. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    Sakamoto, Zenji

    1987-01-01

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor. (author)

  11. A comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    1983-01-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses. (J.P.N.)

  12. Comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    Ishii, Tomoyuki (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1983-02-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses.

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  14. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  15. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  16. The neoplasms of the operated stomach

    Ositrova, L.I.; Golubovich, I.A.; Mashevskaya, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that operation and rexction in case of primary and recurrent neoplasm of operated stomach remains low. However radical operation is the only method permitting to hope for healing of shuch patients. A thorough medical examination is necessary at first 3 years following operation. Surgical treatment is accompanied by preoperational irradiation in such patients. Au 198 in 1.48 GBq is intravenously injected to some patients. 10 refs

  17. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  18. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    Lombardo, K.; Sosa, A.; Krygier, G.; Muse, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  19. P16.30 4th ventricle glioblastoma

    Unal, E.; Isik, S.; Gurbuz, M.; Kilic, K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We present the 2nd case ever known in English literature describing a glioblastoma of the fourth ventricle originating from cerebellar peduncle. CASE DESCIPTION: A 66 years old woman was admitted to hospital with dizziness and nausea for four months. An MRI scan showed fourth ventricle mass. First impression was an ependymoma due to MRI scan characteristics. Results: A surgery was performed and histopathology revealed Grade IV glial tumor. Radiotherapy was done. CONCLUSION: This report suggests that GBM can mimic every tumor in the CNS. Surgery is the best option for these tumors not only for aggressive behaviour of glioblastoma but also to prevent hydrocephalus and associated symptoms.

  20. Ventricular assist device use in single ventricle congenital heart disease.

    Carlo, Waldemar F; Villa, Chet R; Lal, Ashwin K; Morales, David L

    2017-11-01

    As VAD have become an effective therapy for end-stage heart failure, their application in congenital heart disease has increased. Single ventricle congenital heart disease introduces unique physiologic challenges for VAD use. However, with regard to the mixed clinical results presented within this review, we suggest that patient selection, timing of implant, and center experience are all important contributors to outcome. This review focuses on the published experience of VAD use in single ventricle patients and details physiologic challenges and novel approaches in this growing pediatric and adult population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fibrosis-Related Gene Expression in Single Ventricle Heart Disease.

    Nakano, Stephanie J; Siomos, Austine K; Garcia, Anastacia M; Nguyen, Hieu; SooHoo, Megan; Galambos, Csaba; Nunley, Karin; Stauffer, Brian L; Sucharov, Carmen C; Miyamoto, Shelley D

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate fibrosis and fibrosis-related gene expression in the myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle with right ventricular failure. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on explanted right ventricular myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle disease and controls with nonfailing heart disease. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: single ventricle failing (right ventricular failure before or after stage I palliation), single ventricle nonfailing (infants listed for primary transplantation with normal right ventricular function), and stage III (Fontan or right ventricular failure after stage III). To evaluate subjects of similar age and right ventricular volume loading, single ventricle disease with failure was compared with single ventricle without failure and stage III was compared with nonfailing right ventricular disease. Histologic fibrosis was assessed in all hearts. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to identify differences in gene expression. Collagen (Col1α, Col3) expression is decreased in single ventricle congenital heart disease with failure compared with nonfailing single ventricle congenital heart disease (P = .019 and P = .035, respectively), and is equivalent in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4) are downregulated in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease (P = .0047, P = .013 and P = .013, respectively). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) are similar between nonfailing single ventricular heart disease and failing single ventricular heart disease, and between stage III heart disease and nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. There is no difference in the prevalence of right ventricular fibrosis by histology in subjects with single ventricular failure heart disease with right ventricular failure (18%) compared with those with normal right

  2. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  3. Neoplasm carcinoid: Description of a case

    Carrillo, Luis; Abarca, Jaysoom; Penaherrera, Vicente; Legarda, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of small bowel obstruction associated with a carcinoid neoplasm of the ileum in a 78 year old man who was presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a mass in right lower quadrant. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasm originating in multiple locations throughout the body human. About 75% of such neoplasm are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are capable of rpoducing various peptides. Their clinical course is often indolent but can also be aggressive and resistant to therapy. The incidence of these tumours is approximately 2.5 in 100.000 people per year. The former classification system of fore gut, midgut and hind gut tumors is still used in clinical routine. Determination of the histopathology of carcinoid tumors is of utmost importance and involves specific immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and gastrin. New localization procedures include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the only chance of a cure. Other cytoreductive procedures include radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemo embolization. New therapies, such as ling acting somatostatin analogs, together with further development of tumor targeted treatments, will come into clinical use in the near future. (The author)

  4. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  5. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Richardson, M.L.; Lough, L.R.; Shuman, W.P.; Lazerte, G.D.; Conrad, E.U.

    1994-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  6. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy leading to external hydrocephalus and the cerebral atrophy: mechanism and differential diagnosis

    Huang Zhenglin; Mo Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It is a study of the mechanism and differential diagnosis of the infant external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy. Methods: In total 84 cases of neonatal hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy followed by infant external hydrocephalus were investigated, among which 26 patients gradually were found having developed cerebral atrophy in follow up. Results: Characteristic dilation of the frontal-parietal subarachnoid space and the adjacent cistern was noted on the CT images of the external hydrocephalus. CT revealed the enlarged ventricle besides the dilated subarachnoid space in the cases of cerebral atrophy, while these two entities were indistinguishable on CT in the early stage. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations make a major differential diagnosis of the external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy: tic and mild delayed development of locomotion over major presentation of external hydrocephalus, while cerebral atrophy is featured by remarkable dysnoesia and severe delayed development of locomotion. In addition, hemiplegia and increased muscular tension are presented in a few cases of cerebral atrophy

  8. Parvalbumin-expressing ependymal cells in rostral lateral ventricle wall adhesions contribute to aging-related ventricle stenosis in mice.

    Filice, Federica; Celio, Marco R; Babalian, Alexandre; Blum, Walter; Szabolcsi, Viktoria

    2017-10-15

    Aging-associated ependymal-cell pathologies can manifest as ventricular gliosis, ventricle enlargement, or ventricle stenosis. Ventricle stenosis and fusion of the lateral ventricle (LV) walls is associated with a massive decline of the proliferative capacities of the stem cell niche in the affected subventricular zone (SVZ) in aging mice. We examined the brains of adult C57BL/6 mice and found that ependymal cells located in the adhesions of the medial and lateral walls of the rostral LVs upregulated parvalbumin (PV) and displayed reactive phenotype, similarly to injury-reactive ependymal cells. However, PV+ ependymal cells in the LV-wall adhesions, unlike injury-reactive ones, did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. S100B+/PV+ ependymal cells found in younger mice diminished in the LV-wall adhesions throughout aging. We found that periventricular PV-immunofluorescence showed positive correlation to the grade of LV stenosis in nonaged mice (wall adhesions and LV stenosis was significantly lower in mid-aged (>10-month-old) PV-knock out (PV-KO) mice. This suggests an involvement of PV+ ependymal cells in aging-associated ventricle stenosis. Additionally, we observed a time-shift in microglial activation in the LV-wall adhesions between age-grouped PV-KO and wild-type mice, suggesting a delay in microglial activation when PV is absent from ependymal cells. Our findings implicate that compromised ependymal cells of the adhering ependymal layers upregulate PV and display phenotype shift to "reactive" ependymal cells in aging-related ventricle stenosis; moreover, they also contribute to the progression of LV-wall fusion associated with a decline of the affected SVZ-stem cell niche in aged mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Coronal MRI in the diagnosis of corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the lateral ventricles

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kanaya, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Hideki; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    To clarify pathophysiology of vascular lesions in corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle (CRILV), 17 patients with CRILV were studied by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on the coronal MR images obtained between the anterior and posterior commissures, the patients were divided into two groups: (I) the group having infarcts below a line extending from the upper edge of the insular cistern to the external angle of the lateral ventricle adjacent to the corpus callosum (n=11); and (II) the group having lesions above the line towards the centrum semiovale (n=6). Most of the patients in both groups were male and had hypertension. Symptoms were gradually deteriorated and stroke in the morning was frequent in both groups, althrough the time from onset to completion was longer in Group II than Group I. In comparing clinical manifestations in Groups I and II, pure motor hemiparesis was found in 5 and 3 patients, and sensorimotor stroke in 2 and one patients, respectively. Drowsiness was found in 2 for Group I, while aphasia occurred in 2 for Group II. In addition, pseudobular and asymptomatic palsy occurred in each one patient for Group I. Prognosis was favorable in both groups, except for 2 who died of aspiration pneumonia. In Group I, 11 infarcts were well-defined, less than 15 mm in diameter on CT scans and were sclerotic in the main arteries without obstruction on angiograms. In contrast, Group II had ill-defined, larger low-density areas on CT scans and trunk obstruction of the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries on angiograms. SPECT scans showed diffuse defect in Group II, in contrast to normal to diffuse or multiple defects in Group I. In Group I, lacunar lesions seemed to be caused by ischemia of the perforators, and in Group II, terminal zone infarcts in the territory of the cortical branches or watershed infarcts seemd to be caused by main trunk obstruction. (N.K.).

  10. [Endomyocardial fibrosis with massive calcification of the left ventricle].

    Trigo, Joana; Camacho, Ana; Gago, Paula; Candeias, Rui; Santos, Walter; Marques, Nuno; Matos, Pedro; Brandão, Victor; Gomes, Veloso

    2010-03-01

    Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease, endemic in tropical countries. It is characterized by fibrosis of the endocardium that can extend to myocardium. Important calcification of the endocardium is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of endomyocardial fibrosis in a european caucasian patient, associated with massive calcification of left ventricle.

  11. United Cerebral Palsy

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  12. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  13. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  14. The radiological and histopathological differential diagnosis of chordoid neoplasms in skull base

    PAN Bin-cai

    2013-07-01

    -called physaliferous cells within myxoid matrix. Areas of cartilage presented in individual cases. The tumor cells of chordoma were diffusely immuno-positive for PCK and EMA. Chordoid meningioma is characterized by a homogeneous contrast-enhancing mass with dural tail sign. The epithelioid cells were arranged in cords and clusters within a myxoid matrix, which was highly reminiscent of chordoma. The ratio of myxoid component and conventional meningioma was different in tumors. EMA was detectable in all chordoid meningiomas, and 4/5 cases were positive for D2-40. That was a finding which was helpful in distinguishing chordoid meningioma from chordoma. Chordoid gliomas were localized in the third ventricle with homogeneous enhancement on MRI examination. The tumors were composed of clusters and cords of epithelioid tumor cells within a variably mucinous stroma containing lymphoplasmacytic infiltratation. The most distinctive immunohistochemical feature of chordoid gliomas is their strong diffuse reactivity for GFAP. EMA and PCK positive expression can also be seen focally in individual cases. Although extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas share the similar radiological and histological appearance with chordoma, all chondrosarcomas in the present study are completely negative for epithelial markers except for immuno-positivity of S-100 focally. In addition, Galectin-3 can be detected in most of chordoid neoplasms in skull base. Conclusion The specific localization and MRI features of tumors are useful diagnostic clues for the differential diagnosis of chordoid neoplasms in skull base. However, combining with histological features, a panel of selected immunostains, including PCK, EMA, GFAP, S-100 and D2-40, is helpful in making an accurate diagnosis for those diagnostically challenging cases which usually appear to have atypical radiological features or in an unusual site. Ki-67 index and Galectin-3 are not recommended to use as diagnostic markers for chordoid neoplasms of skull base

  15. Meningoencephalitis and Compartmentalization of the Cerebral Ventricles Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Kleiman, Martin B.; Allen, Stephen D.; Neal, Patricia; Reynolds, Janet

    1981-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. A detailed description of the isolate is presented. This communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. PMID:7287892

  16. CT study of infantile cerebral vitamin B1 deficiency (analysis of 22 cases)

    Liu Bin; Xi Meifang; Wang Mengding; Wang Chaoxiu

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT features of infantile cerebral vitamin B 1 deficiency. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations and CT findings of 22 cases of infantile vitamin B 1 deficiency. Results: The main clinical signs were seizure malaise dullness and vomiting. CT scans showed bilateral symmetrical hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus (20/22), head of caudate nucleus (15/22), thalamus (3/22), anterior limb of internal capsule (4/22), external capsule (1/22) and para-ventricle white matter (2/22), and in many cases, signs of cerebral atrophy. 22 cases received thiamine treatment and were fully recovered. Conclusion: The authors concluded that bilateral symmetric hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior limb of internal capsule, external capsule and para-ventricle white matter were important CT signs suggestive of infantile cerebral vitamin B 1 deficiency

  17. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  18. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  19. Cerebral palsy

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  20. Metastases in cranean of differential neoplasm tyroids

    Lopez Chapuis, D.; Garrido Vazquez, P.; Vallverdu Carbajal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of matastases are presented in cranial calota of differentiated neoplasm of tyroids, one of them without other distance lesions ,in which the cranial tumours was the element that it take was to the diagnose. For the local control the surgical resection of the metastasis is recommended in calota, associated to external radiotherapy , while that the total thyroidectomy allows the detection and treatment of other metastasis with Iodine. In this situation the prediction it is unfavourable, with a half survive of 4,5 year(AU) [es

  1. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  2. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  3. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  4. Unusual cystic pancreatic neoplasms -image-pathological correlations

    Hilendarov, A.; Simova, E.; Petrova, A.; Traikova, N.; Deenichin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to present the variety of signs and symptoms from the diagnostic imaging methods of atypical neoplasms of the pancreas, presented as a type of cystic lesions. This often leads to unnecessary surgery or inappropriate tracking. In 115 patients (85 men and 30 women) with cystic lesions of the pancreas ultrasonic (US),computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and verified through histological and macroscopic pathology preparations. The ultrasound machines equipped with linear and convex transducers, MDCT and MRI imaging systems were used. In 14 of 115 patients atypical neoplasms of the pancreas were diagnosed: two cases with macroscopic serous cystic neoplasms, two nonmucinous cystic neoplasms, two hemorrhagic mucinous neoplasms, two ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic changes, one islet cell cystic tumor, two lymphoepithetial cysts, one lymphangioma, one solid papillary epithelial neoplasm and one mucinous adenocarcinoma. The authors take into consideration and overlapping of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. Although much of the imaging features and morphological characteristics of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are well known, should be known about the atypical unusual images in so-called 'typical' cystic neoplasms, cystic images in solid neoplasms and various atypical tumors with cystic lesions. (authors)

  5. Management of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a comparison with standard pancreatic neoplasms

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Singhal, D.; Aronson, D. C.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are increasingly diagnosed, but the exact surgical management in terms of extent of the resection is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients operated on in our hospital between January 1993 and March 2005 formed the study

  6. Recovery of activity of daily living in cases of cerebral infarction

    Yoneyama, Kimihiro (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    In 96 patients with supratentorial cerebral infarction, the recovery of activity of daily living (ADL) was studied in relation to computerized tomography (CT) findings in the acute stage. The average age was 64 and 78 out of 96 were first attack cases. The cases were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the CT findings. The N group had no low density area on CT. The S group had a small deep infarct around the basal ganglia and the L group showed a large infarct with a damaged cerebral cortex. Dilatation of the ventricles was measured by the methods of Meese and Huckman. Cortical atrophy estimated by summation of width of Sylvian fissures or parietal cortical sulci, expressed in percentages. Measurements for CT were performed in the subacute stage to exclude the effects of cerebral edema. ADL was categorized in five stages using Rankin's criteria in the first week and after the eighth week. Among the 3 groups, the L group had the worst ADL when examined eight weeks later. On the contrary, the N group showed the greatest improvement. Patients under 60 years old showed better recovery at the eight week, while in most patients aged 70 or more the improvement was less evident. Dilatation of ventricles and severity of cortical atrophy increased in proportion to age, especially in cases of cerebral infarcts. In patients with ventricular dilatation or severe cerebral atrophy. ADL improvement was lower. Recovery was low in cases with narrow cortical sulci. Recovery of ADL in reattack patients was lowest and larger dilatation of the ventricles than first attack cases was recognized. The size of cerebral infarction, ADL in the first week, the dilatation of lateral ventricles, the severity of cortical atrophy and age were found to be important factors in functional recovery.

  7. Unusual right ventricle aneurysm and dysplastic pulmonary valve with mitral valve hypoplasia

    Ozge Pamukcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a newborn with an unusual combination of aneurysmally dilated thin-walled right ventricle with hypertrophy of the apical muscles of the right ventricle. There was narrow pulmonary annulus, pulmonary regurgitation, and hypoplasia of the mitral valve and left ventricle. We propose that this heart represents a partial form of Uhl`s anomaly.

  8. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  9. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  11. Magnetic resonance findings in arrhythmogenic dysplasia of right ventricle

    Ramiro, E.; Villacastin, B. P.; Farre, J.

    1999-01-01

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) findings in patients with arrhythmogenic dysplasia of right ventricle (ADRV) with the images of right ventricle (RV) presenting normal morphology. Three groups of patients were studied by MR: a) a group of 20 healthy volunteers; b) 22 patients with ADRV diagnosed by other methods; and c) 11 patients presenting right ventricular tachycardia (VT) with no evidence of ADRV. When compared with the other two groups, the patients with ADRV were found to have an enlarged right atrium and RV, one wall of RV abnormally thin, changes in the myocardial signal and significant left ventricular involvement. MR is a noninvasive method that is useful in the assessment of RV dilation, ventricular wall thinning, deformities and sacculations and in the detection of changes in the myocardial MR signal produced by the replacement. It aids in the localization, characterization and quantification of morphological changes in RV. (Author) 36 refs

  12. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  13. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Purely Intrathird Ventricle Craniopharyngioma.

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo

    2016-07-01

    Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is a safe and effective treatment for many suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, including those with third-ventricle involvement. Craniopharyngioma entirely within the third ventricle (purely intraventricular type), however, is generally regarded unsuitable for treatment with EETS. Three patients underwent total removal of a purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma with inferior extension via EETS by direct incision of the bulging, stretched ventricular floor and fine dissection from the ventricular wall. In 2 patients with an anteriorly displaced chiasm, the space between the chiasm and pituitary stalk created a wide corridor to the ventricle, whereas in the third case, in which the infrachiasmal space was somewhat narrowed, partial sacrifice of the pituitary gland was necessary to obtain sufficient space. Despite preservation of the stalk in 2 patients, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus developed after surgery. There was no other complication including obesity. Selected patients with purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma can be treated effectively and safely with EETS. Those with inferior extension in the interpeduncular fossa and anterior displacement of the chiasm may be suitable candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle

    Canesin Manoel Fernandes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a rare case of endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle in a male patient with dyspnea on great exertion, which began 5 years earlier and rapidly evolved. Due to lack of information and the absence of clinical signs that could characterize impairment of other organs, the case was initially managed as a disease with a pulmonary origin. With the evolution of the disease and in the presence of radiological images of heterogeneous opacification in the projection of the left ventricle, the diagnostic hypothesis of endomyocardial disease was established. This hypothesis was later confirmed on chest computed tomography. The patient died on the 16th day of the hospital stay, probably because of lack of myocardial reserve, with clinical findings of refractory heart failure, possibly aggravated by pulmonary infection. This shows that a rare disease such as endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle may be suspected on a simple chest X-ray and confirmed by computed tomography.

  16. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Start here to find information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  17. [Closed needle-biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplasms].

    Sforza, M; Perelli Ercolini, M; Beani, G

    1979-04-01

    The AA. demonstrate with this communication the validity of the needle biopsie for the diagnosis of neoplasms. They had used it for the breast, thyroid, flg and some other superficial tumefactions. In the mass-screening for the feminine neoplasms the clinical examination and the needle biopsy are very good method for a careful diagnosis.

  18. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  19. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  20. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm

    Bari, A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)

  1. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  2. Rectal neoplasms. Postoperative follow-up

    Galano Urgelles, Rolando; Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Casaus Prieto, Arbelio

    1997-01-01

    A study of 31 patients operated on for rectal neoplasms between September, 1989 and September, 1995 in SantiAug de Cuba was performed. Patients Webre followed-up during this period for the purpose of the study. There was a frank predominance of males and ages between 45 and 64, of the stage II and the groups BI and BII according to Dukes' classification. Most patients received 5-fluoracil, without tumor relapses. The current survival rate of the series was 76 % at the end of the investigation. It is recommended that all patients operated on for this segment be followed-up after the operation; to continue with cytostatic treatment using 5-fluoracil, and to emphasize the importance of the use of tumor markers during the follow-up, in addition to transrectal ultrasound, as well as to make an early diagnosis through mass screening methods

  3. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  4. Prognostic factors in childhood intracranial neoplasms

    Ampil, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six cases of primary intracranial neoplasm in children (over 1 year but under 13 years of age) seen at the university medical center between 1951 and 1982 were reviewed because of concern as to the results and after-effects of applied therapy. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 17 %. Several factors of possible prognostic relevance, such as patient's age, intracranial location of the tumor, application or nonapplication of therapy, single or multiple modes of therapy, and extent of surgery, were analyzed. Completeness of surgical removal of the tumor proved to be the only statistically significant factor that correlated with survival. There was only one recorded case of severe learning disability and abnormal neuropsychologic development among the 12 living patients. The influence of patient's age (and technical factors) at the time of irradiation in correlation with the child's subsequent posttreatment functional performance, as reported in the literature, is reviewed. (author)

  5. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  6. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  7. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  8. Successful surgical treatment of intractable hemifacial spasm: A case report and review of cerebellar hamartomas of the floor of the fourth ventricle

    Joseph H. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hamartomas involving the floor of the fourth ventricle and cerebellum are rare, but can be associated with medically recalcitrant hemifacial spasm. These lesions present early in the neonatal or infantile period and respond well to surgical excision. Case Report: A 3-month-old white male presented with recurrent left hemifacial spasm, left eye deviation, and absent movement of the extremities. The patient was found to have a left eccentric lesion in the floor of the fourth ventricle and cerebellum. The patient showed no improvement with medical therapy by 6 months of age. He was taken to the operating room for suboccipital craniotomy and removal of the posterior arch of C1 followed by intralesional recording of epileptogenic activity and gross total resection of the lesion. After histologic analysis, the lesion was determined to be ectopic cerebral tissue consistent with a hamartoma. Postoperative MRI showed complete removal of the lesion, and the patient exhibited complete remission of his hemifacial spasm and associated symptoms. Conclusions: Hamartomas involving the floor of the fourth ventricle can present with hemifacial spasm and respond well to surgical excision. Keywords: Cerebellar, Seizure, Epilepsy, Hamartoma

  9. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  10. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Two Pseudoaneurysms Originating From the Left Ventricle

    Cwikiel, Wojciech, E-mail: wcwikiel@gmail.com; Keussen, Inger [Skane University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Sweden); Gustafsson, Ronny; Mokhtari, Arash [Skane University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    A 67-year-old woman resented with an acute type A aortic dissection, which was treated surgically with aortic valve replacement as a composite graft with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. At the end of surgery, a left-ventricular venting catheter was placed through the apex and closed with a buffered suture. Consecutive computed tomography (CT) examinations verified a growing apex pseudoaneurysm. Communication between the ventricle and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully closed with an Amplatz septal plug by the transfemoral route. Follow-up CT showed an additional pseudoaneurysm, which also was successfully closed using the same method.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Two Pseudoaneurysms Originating From the Left Ventricle

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Keussen, Inger; Gustafsson, Ronny; Mokhtari, Arash

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman resented with an acute type A aortic dissection, which was treated surgically with aortic valve replacement as a composite graft with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. At the end of surgery, a left-ventricular venting catheter was placed through the apex and closed with a buffered suture. Consecutive computed tomography (CT) examinations verified a growing apex pseudoaneurysm. Communication between the ventricle and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully closed with an Amplatz septal plug by the transfemoral route. Follow-up CT showed an additional pseudoaneurysm, which also was successfully closed using the same method

  13. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  14. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms of mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Levine, Ross L

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, a series of studies have provided genetic insight into the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). It is now known that JAK2V617F mutations are present in 90% of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV), 60% of patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50% of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Despite the high prevalence of JAK2V617F mutations in these three myeloid malignancies, several questions remain. For example, how does one mutation contribute to the pathogenesis of three clinically distinct diseases, and how do some patients develop these diseases in the absence of a JAK2V617F mutation? Single nucleotide polymorphisms at various loci and somatic mutations, such as those in MPLW515L/K, TET2 and in exon 12 of JAK2, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of these MPNs. There are likely additional germline and somatic genetic factors important to the MPN phenotype. Additional studies of large MPN and control cohorts with new techniques will help identify these factors.

  17. Dynamic digitized cerebral parenchymography

    Theron, J.; Alachkar, F.; Nelson, M.; Mazia, D.

    1992-01-01

    Aortic arch injections centred on the head have been performed routinely in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Digital angiograms with modified windowing (low and narrow) have been used. This 'cerebral' arch injection allows much improved analysis of the cerebral parenchymal vascularization, giving better understanding of hemispheric ischaemia and making the decision about revascularization more rational. (orig.)

  18. Ectopic craniopharyngioma of the fourth ventricle in a patient with Gardner syndrome.

    Pena, Andres H; Chaudhry, Ammar; Seidman, Roberta J; Peyster, Robert; Bangiyev, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic craniopharyngioma is uncommon and a craniopharyngioma confined purely within the fourth ventricle is extremely rare. We report a craniopharyngioma of the fourth ventricle in a 20-year-old man with Gardner syndrome. Imaging characteristics of craniopharyngiomas and fourth ventricle lesions are discussed with a review of the literature regarding the pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas and the possible association with Gardner syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A calcified epidermoid cyst within right lateral ventricle: A report of a rare case

    Ranjan Kumar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young patient reported to neurosurgery outdoor department with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Noncontrast computed tomography examination showed a single calcified mass within right lateral ventricle with mild hydrocephalus. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed nonenhancing single mass within right lateral ventricle with mild hydrocephalus. Intraventricular calcified choroid papilloma/calcified epidermoid were radiological differentials. The mass was excised, removed from the lateral ventricles and found to be calcified epidermoid on gross and microscopic examination, which is rare.

  20. Transmural distribution of myocardial infarction: difference between the right and left ventricles in a canine model

    Ohzono, K.; Koyanagi, S.; Urabe, Y.; Harasawa, Y.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial infarction 24 hours after ligating both the right coronary artery and the obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery was examined in 33 anesthetized dogs. Postmortem coronary angiography and a tracer microsphere technique were used to determine risk areas and their collateral blood flows, respectively. The mean weight of the risk areas was 11.3 +/- 0.5 g (mean +/- SEM) in the right ventricle and 10.5 +/- 0.9 g in the left ventricle (NS). The weight of infarcted tissue was 5.7 +/- 0.7 g in the right ventricle and 5.2 +/- 0.9 g in the left ventricle (NS). In both ventricles, infarct weight was linearly related to risk area size, and the percent of risk area necrosis was inversely correlated with the extent of collateral flow at 24 hours of coronary ligation, defined as the mean myocardial blood flow inside the central risk area. Ratios of infarct to risk area between the subendocardial and subepicardial layers were 0.76 +/- 0.06 and 0.28 +/- 0.05 in the right and left ventricles, respectively (p less than 0.01, between ventricles, n = 31), which coincided well with subendocardial-to-subepicardial-flow ratios at 24 hours, ie, 0.86 +/- 0.04 in the right ventricle and 0.32 +/- 0.06 in the left ventricle (p less than 0.01). The regional distribution of myocardial infarction correlated well with flow distribution inside the risk area; the slope of these relations was similar between the subendocardium and subepicardium in the right ventricle, whereas in the left ventricle it was larger in the subendocardium than in the subepicardium. Thus, in the dog, the inherent change in the regional distribution of coronary collateral blood flow is an important modifier in the evolution of myocardial infarction, especially in the left ventricle

  1. Magnetic resonance in the dilation of terminal ventricle

    Eulatem d, R. G.; Martinez, M. E.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2001-01-01

    Describe de Magnetic Resonance (MR) findings in four cases of terminal ventricle dilation. We have studied four patients, all of them women, whose mean age range was 39 years. The studies were performed with a 1 Tesla magnet and the sequences used were sagittal and axial T1 and T2 weighted and sagittal and axial T1 weighted after the administration of gadolinium. the follow-up was clinical and by MRI. The four patients studied came due to low back pain. The MRI images demonstrated the presence of a cystic lesion located in the medullary cone, with a well defined contour and one that presented no type of enhancement in the study performed with gadolinium. In three cases, we had a MRI control at two years and the images had not varied. We have no control for the fourth cases of more recent diagnosis. The terminal ventricle is an ependymoma cavity located in the medullary cone. It can present a dilation and it is necessary to know its existence, typical location and signal characteristics to be able to diagnose and differentiate it from cystic tumors in this localization, that can present a similar appearance in the MRI. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Factors Associated with Neurodevelopment for Children with Single Ventricle Lesions

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Lu, Minmin; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Mahle, William T.; Gaynor, J. William; Williams, Ismee A.; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Ohye, Richard G.; Graham, Eric M.; Frank, Deborah U.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Krawczeski, Catherine; Lambert, Linda; Lewis, Alan; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Sananes, Renee; Sood, Erica; Wechsler, Stephanie B.; Bellinger, David C.; Newburger, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure neurodevelopment at 3 years in children with single right ventricle anomalies and to assess its relationship to Norwood shunt type, neurodevelopment at 14 months, and patient and medical factors. Study design All subjects in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial who were alive without cardiac transplant were eligible for inclusion. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, n=203) and other measures of behavior, and quality of life (QOL) were completed at age 3 years. Medical history, including measures of growth, feeding, and complications, was assessed through annual record review and phone interview. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) scores from age 14 months were also evaluated as predictors. Results Scores on each ASQ domain were significantly lower than normal (p<0.001). ASQ domain scores at 3 years varied nonlinearly with 14-month BSID-II. More complications, abnormal growth, and evidence of feeding, vision, or hearing problems, were independently associated with lower ASQ scores, although models explained < 30% of variation. Shunt type was not associated with any ASQ domain score, or with behavior or QOL measures. Conclusion Children with SV have impaired neurodevelopment at 3 years. Lower ASQ scores are associated with medical morbidity, and lower BSID-II scores, but not with shunt type. However, because only a modest percentage of variation in 3-year neurodevelopmental outcome could be predicted from early measures, all children with SV should be followed longitudinally to improve recognition of delays. PMID:24952712

  3. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.

  4. Colloid cysts of the third ventricle exhibit heterogeneous clinical picture

    Janez Ravnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colloid cysts are rare benign intracranial tumours generally occurring in the front part of the third ventricle. Clinical picture may be non-specific. Various problems are usually associated with hydrocephalus that these cysts may cause.Methods: Five patients with colloid cyst of the third ventricle were consecutively operated on at our department. All had different clinical pictures. Two patients suffered from acute hydrocephalus, one of them also from rapid deterioration of consciousness. In two patients, the cyst was discovered accidentally owing to non-specific problems. One patient experienced progressive deterioration due to chronic hydrocephalus.Results: All patients had a colloid cyst removed via the right anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach. One patient had surgical complication with transient left-sided haemiparesis, followed by osteomyelitis. Postoperative course in all other patients was unremarkable.Conclusions: Due to a high risk of potential sudden deterioration the colloid cysts may cause, a rapid surgical intervention is generally needed. The anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach is a well accepted and safe surgical option.

  5. INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA B.J. OLASODE ...

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Results: Two hundred and ten intracronial neoplasms comprising 172 ... accounted for the largest group of tumours followed by metastases to the brain. ..... Percentage .... astrocytomas may be attributed to the increasing use.

  6. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  7. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  8. Preoperation diagnosis of stomach neoplasm metases in the liver

    Fisher, M.E.; Zholnerovich, E.M.; Zelenkevich, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that application of ultrasonography and computerized tomography in examining the upper part of abdomen in patients with stomach neoplasm permits to judge on metastases into the liver. Application of invasive methods of examination is indicated only in case of indefinite data of ultrasonography and computerized tomography. It is shown that application of invasive methods isn't advisable in patients with stomach neoplasm to which palliative operations are indicated. 4 refs

  9. Respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophagus and stomach neoplasms

    Evelyn Aline Boscolo Ruivo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In cancer patients, the reduced food intake causes weight loss and promotes protein-calorie malnutrition. This results in loss of lean body mass, which affects both skeletal muscles and respiratory muscles. Objective: Evaluate and compare the respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasia during the preoperative period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 24 patients of both genders hospitalized in a teaching hospital. They underwent a physical therapy evaluation composed of anthropometric data and measurement of respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the values obtained with the predicted equations. Results: Regarding the disease prevalence, 66.66%(16 of the individuals had stomach neoplasm and 33.33%(8 esophageal neoplasm. Of the patients with esophageal neoplasm, 100% were men with a mean age of 63 ± 9.16 years. Of those with stomach neoplasm, 68.75% were men with a mean age of 69.36 ± 10.92 years. Female patients with stomach neoplasm had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.01 than male patients, and they were classified as overweight. Both neoplasms had significantly lower real values (p ≤ 0.05 than predicted values at the maximal expiratory pressure. Conclusion: Patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasms in the preoperative period present reduction in the expiratory muscle strength. There were no statistically significant differences, when we compared the maximum respiratory pressures between the two types of neoplasms investigated.

  10. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. [Approach to diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative neoplasm variants].

    Mitsumori, Toru; Kirito, Keita

    2015-08-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) variants are defined as relatively uncommon myeloid neoplasms which do not meet the criteria for either classical MPN or myelodysplastic syndrome. Due to the lack of specific markers, it has been challenging to accurately diagnose these malignant diseases. Recent studies have revealed new genetic abnormalities in MPN variants. These research advances are anticipated to open new approaches to not only achieving accurate diagnosis but also novel therapeutic options for these diseases.

  12. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms. (orig.)

  13. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms.

  14. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  15. Effects of Milrinone continuous intravenous infusion on global cerebral oxygenation and cerebral vasospasm after cerebral aneurysm surgical clipping

    Mohamed A. Ghanem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Milrinone improved significantly the global cerebral oxygenation and reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during the dangerous period of cerebral spasm after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  16. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  17. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin

    2010-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  18. Outcomes following splenectomy in patients with myeloid neoplasms.

    Rialon, Kristy L; Speicher, Paul J; Ceppa, Eugene P; Rendell, Victoria R; Vaslef, Steven N; Beaven, Anne; Tyler, Douglas S; Blazer, Dan G

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid neoplasms are classified into five major categories. These patients may develop splenomegaly and require splenectomy to alleviate mechanical symptoms, to ameliorate transfusion-dependent cytopenias, or to enhance stem cell transplantation. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical variables significantly impacted morbidity, mortality, and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy, and to determine if operative outcomes have improved over time. The records of all patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy from 1993 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients (n = 89) underwent splenectomy for myeloid neoplasms. Over half of patients who had symptoms preoperatively had resolution of their symptoms post-splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 38%, with the most common complications being bleeding (14%) or infection (20%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 18% and median survival after splenectomy was 278 days. Decreased survival was associated with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, anemia, abnormal white blood cell count, and hypoalbuminemia. Patients who underwent stem cell transplantation did not show an increased risk for morbidity or mortality. Patients with myeloid neoplasms have a poor prognosis after splenectomy and the decision to operate is a difficult one, associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Radiological and clinical evaluation of the delayed outcomes of the cranio-cerebral injuries

    Boguslawska-Staniaszczyk

    1995-01-01

    The CT images in 100 patients with recent cranio-cerebral injuries were compared to their clinical pictures, including EEG, neurological and psychological examinations, after one year. Mixed changes in the initial CT predicted to more frequent brain tissue scars, posthemorrhagic cavities, cortex atrophy and ventricle system dilatation. EEG appeared more useful method than CT for detection if brain focal lesion only in the patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. (author)

  20. Microembolism after cerebral angiography

    Manaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Nagata, Izumi

    2000-01-01

    Acute microemboli are detected more precisely with the recently developed diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). We happened to obtain 24 DWIs after 350 diagnostic cerebral angiographies in 1999. DWIs after cerebral angiographies showed bright lesions in 7 patients (28%), of whom 6 had no neurological symptoms after cerebral angiography. Seven of the 24 patients had risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Only one patient had embolic events due to angiography. Microemboli related to cerebral angiographies are inevitable in some patients. Most are silent, however, we should investigate the cause of microemboli and should make cerebral angiography safer. (author)

  1. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  2. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  3. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  4. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition in patient with acute leukaemia: unusual involvement of caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex on MRI

    D' Aprile, P.; Tarantino, A.; Carella, A. [Division of Neuroradiology, Policlinico, Univ. of Bari (Italy); Santoro, N. [Inst. of Paediatric Clinic I, Policlinico, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with leukaemia and Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition. MRI showed unusual bilateral lesions of the caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, as well as typical lesions surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct. After intravenous thiamine, the patient improved, and the abnormalities on MRI disappeared. (orig.)

  6. Fetal cerebral imaging - ultrasound vs. MRI: an update.

    Blondiaux, Eléonore; Garel, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the advantages and limitations of prenatal ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. These imaging modalities should not be seen as competitive but rather as complementary. There are wide variations in the world regarding screening policies, technology, skills, and legislation about termination of pregnancy, and these variations markedly impact on the way of using prenatal imaging. According to the contribution expected from each technique and to local working conditions, one should choose the most appropriate imaging modality on a case-by-case basis. The advantages and limitations of US and MRI in the setting of fetal brain imaging are displayed. Different anatomical regions (midline, ventricles, subependymal area, cerebral parenchyma, pericerebral space, posterior fossa) and pathological conditions are analyzed and illustrated in order to compare the respective contribution of each technique. An accurate prenatal diagnosis of cerebral abnormalities is of utmost importance for prenatal counseling.

  7. Magendie and Luschka: Holes in the 4th ventricle

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is a complex liquid formed mainly by the choroid plexuses. After filling the ventricular system where it circulates, CSF flows out to the subarachnoid spaces through openings in the 4th ventricle. Following numerous studies on CSF pathways, these openings were first discovered in the 19th century by two notable researchers, François Magendie and Hubert von Luschka, who described the median and lateral openings subsequently named after them. Even after the studies of Axel Key and Gustav Magnus Retzius confirming these openings, their existence was questioned by many anatomists, yet acknowledged by others. Finally gaining the acceptance of all, recognition of the holes endures to the present day. Interest in these openings may be attributed to the several congenital or acquired pathological conditions that may affect them, usually associated with hydrocephalus. We report some historical aspects of these apertures and their discoverers.

  8. Parasitic lesion of the insula suggesting cerebral sparganosis: case report

    Cummings, T.J.; Madden, J.F.; McLendon, R.E.; Gray, L.; Friedman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral sparganosis, a parasitic disease, rarely produces a chronic active inflammatory response in the brain. Clinically and radiographically the process may mimic a neoplasm. We report a 30-year-old man who underwent surgical exploration for a mass in the insular cortex. Histology revealed a densely fibrotic mass heavily infiltrated with plasma cells and lymphocytes, in which were embedded parasitic forms consistent with sparganosis. We describe the MRI appearances and pathologic features. Intracranial mass lesions secondary to sparganosis must be considered in patients with a history of travel to endemic areas, especially Asia. (orig.)

  9. Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle

    Ng Eddie YK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep and active (Ea elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling.

  10. A calcified epidermoid cyst within right lateral ventricle: A report of a rare case

    Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Debahuti Mohapatra; Pradipta Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    A young patient reported to neurosurgery outdoor department with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Noncontrast computed tomography examination showed a single calcified mass within right lateral ventricle with mild hydrocephalus. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed nonenhancing single mass within right lateral ventricle with mild hydrocephalus. Intraventricular calcified choroid papilloma/calcified epidermoid were radiological differentials. The mass was excised, ...

  11. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  12. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756))

    Goscicka, D; Stankiewicz, W; Szpinda, M [Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, this ins and outs of the mink`s anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if ``before our eyes``. For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs.

  13. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  14. Study on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of multiple cerebral infarction

    Miyashita, Kotaro

    1991-01-01

    The clinical significance of MRI in thrombotic multiple cerebral infarction was examined in 9 patients having recent lacunar stroke. Recent infarct was identified on Gd-enhanced MRI in 4 patients. For patients multiple small infarction, Gd-enhanced MRI made it possible to differentiate recent from other lesions. To clarify the significance of periventricular high intensity lesion (PVH) on T2-weighted MRI, hemodynamic and neuropsychologic examinations were carried out in 41 patients with multiple cerebral infarction. All the patients had PVH, which was classified into three grades as follows: grade I (n=16) showing only a thin high intensity band along the body of lateral ventricles; grade 2 (n=15) showing a definite high intensity area around the lateral ventricles; grade 3 (n=10) showing diffuse thick and irregular foci around the whole ventricle. In these patients, rCBF was measured by 133 Xe inhalation methods. Initial slope index was significantly higher in patients with grade 3 than those with grade I. Mini-mental state test score was significantly higher in patients with grade l than those with grade 2 and 3. Progression of PVH may be related with the reduction of the cerebral circulation and mental function in cases of multiple cerebral infarction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions can be distinguished by MRI, because old intracerebral hemorrhage appear as hypointensity areas with or without hyperintensity area on T2w images. In 92 patients with multiple infarction, MRI was used to evaluate the incidence and distribution of coexisting old intracerebral hemorrhage. Old hemorrhage were found in 15 patients (16.3%). locating the site where hypertensive hemorrhage commonly occurred. High-field MRI is useful for assessing the coexistence of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with multiple cerebral infarction. (N.K.)

  15. Incidence and significance of Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Moon June; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Bang, Young Ju; Kim, Noe Kyung

    1986-01-01

    To know the three questions about multiple primary cancers: 1) what are the characteristics of persons having multiple primary cancer? 2) Dose presence of a single primary concern after the susceptibility to multiple primary cancers? 3) Dose the location of one multiple primary cancer influence the site of others?, we analysed 121 cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms registered in Seoul National University Hospital during 8years from July 1978 to August 1986. Of 121 cases, double primary malignant neoplasms were 119 cases and triple were 2 cases. The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms was 0.7%. The metachronous tumor(> 6 months) was found in 70 cases and the median time between the first and the second was 32 months. The most commonly associated tumors were stomach and primary liver carcinoma. Cervix and Lung cancer, Stomach and Rectal cancer, Stomach and Esophagus cancer were also commonly associated

  16. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency......, clinical presentation, diagnostic/therapeutic work-up, and endoscopic appearance of small-bowel tumors in a large population of patients undergoing VCE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Identification by a questionnaire of patients with VCE findings suggesting small-bowel tumors and histological confirmation...... of the neoplasm seen in 29 centers of 10 European Countries. RESULTS: Of 5129 patients undergoing VCE, 124 (2.4%) had small-bowel tumors (112 primary, 12 metastatic). Among these patients, indications for VCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (108 patients), abdominal pain (9), search for primary neoplasm...

  17. Interdisciplinary Management of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    Linda S. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the frequent use of abdominal imaging. It is reported that up to 20% of abdominal cross-sectional scans identify incidental asymptomatic pancreatic cysts. Proper characterization of pancreatic cystic neoplasms is important not only to recognize premalignant lesions that will require surgical resection, but also to allow nonoperative management of many cystic lesions that will not require resection with its inherent morbidity. Though reliable biomarkers are lacking, a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities are available to evaluate pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including radiologic, endoscopic, laboratory, and pathologic analysis. An interdisciplinary approach to management of these lesions which incorporates recent, specialty-specific advances in the medical literature is herein suggested.

  18. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  20. The evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial tumors by stable xenon CT; The effect of glycerol administration on regional cerebral blood flow

    Shimoda, Masami; Kawamata, Fumio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Mitsuru; Oda, Shinri; Shibuya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Isao; Sato, Osamu (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    In evaluating cerebral regional blood flow (rCBF), stable xenon-enhanced tomography (XeCT) study associated with simultaneous blood sampling was applied in 15 cases of intracranial neoplasms. The effect of intravenous glycerol infusion on rCBF was also investigated. The results indicated that intratumoral rCBF values were not only variable and unrelated to their histological types and grades, but also were not correlated with the vascularity of the lesion as demonstrated by angiography. When a tumor mass was enhanced after the injection of iodinated contrast media, it proved to be useful in distinguishing tumor mass and its associated edema that the rCBF of the peritumoral edematous region was predominantly low (10{plus minus}5 ml/100 g/min). The regional cerebral blood flow in remote areas, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion, was low in value, and there was no statistical significance between affected and sound sides. Following glycerol administration, rCBF was increased in the whole intracranial region, but not inside of the neoplasm, particularly when the intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased. It was assumed that the elevated rCBF after glycerol administration was due to the increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from the ICP reduction, the hemodilution effect, cerebral vessel dilatation after metabolic acidosis, and/or mechanically rectified microcirculation after edema reduction. (author).

  1. Assessing the occupational nature of malignant lung neoplasms

    Sevc, J.; Klener, V.; Plank, V.

    1989-01-01

    The development of lung carcinoma in uranium miners is discussed. In spite of the decreasing radiation risks in mines, the absolute number of neoplasms has increased since the 1960's; this is due to the increasing number of miners, improved diagnostic methods and the aging of miners who thus enter higher age groups where a higher incidence of neoplasms can be expected. The probabilistic method was shown to be of help in deciding whether individual cases of lung carcinoma should be considered an occupational disease; new possible improvements of the method are suggested. (J.J.). 12 refs

  2. Postoperative meningeal enhancement on MRI in children with brain neoplasms

    Lee, Min Hee; Han, Bokyung Kim; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Shin, Hyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    The meninges composed of the dura, the arachnoid and the pia are significant sites of blood-brain barrier. Physical disruption of the integrity of the meninges from a variety of causes including surgery results in various patterns of meningeal enhancement on contrast enhanced MR images. It is important to distinguish normal reactive or benign postoperative enhancement from more serious leptomeningeal metastasis or infection, particularly in children with intracranial neoplasms. We present various patterns of meningeal enhancement on MRI in children following surgery for brain neoplasms. (author)

  3. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease Masquerading Pancreatic Neoplasm

    Saurabh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman’s disease is a rare nonclonal proliferative disorder of the lymph nodes with an unknown etiology. Common locations of Castleman’s disease are mediastinum, neck, axilla, and abdomen. Castleman’s disease of a peripancreatic location masquerading as pancreatic neoplasm is an even rarer entity. On search of published data, we came across about 17 cases published on peripancreatic Castleman’s disease until now. Here we are reporting a case of retropancreatic Castleman's disease masquerading as retroperitoneal neoplasm in a 46-year-old male patient.

  4. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  5. Characterizing the angiogenic activity of patients with single ventricle physiology and aortopulmonary collateral vessels.

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Uchida, Yutaka; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; McCarter, Robert; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Bangoura, Aminata; Zhao, Zhen; Oliver-Danna, Jacqueline; Leatherbury, Linda; Kanter, Joshua; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2016-04-01

    Patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease often form aortopulmonary collateral vessels via an unclear mechanism. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of aortopulmonary collateral vessels, we correlated angiogenic factor levels with in vitro activity and angiographic aortopulmonary collateral assessment and examined whether patients with single ventricle physiology have increased angiogenic factors that can stimulate endothelial cell sprouting in vitro. In patients with single ventricle physiology (n = 27) and biventricular acyanotic control patients (n = 21), hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor levels were measured in femoral venous and arterial plasma at cardiac catheterization. To assess plasma angiogenic activity, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro cell sprouting assay that recapitulates angiogenic sprouting. Aortopulmonary collateral angiograms were graded using a 4-point scale. Compared with controls, patients with single ventricle physiology had increased vascular endothelial growth factor (artery: 58.7 ± 1.2 pg/mL vs 35.3 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P collateral severity. We are the first to correlate plasma angiogenic factor levels with angiography and in vitro angiogenic activity in patients with single ventricle disease with aortopulmonary collaterals. Patients with single ventricle disease have increased stromal-derived factor 1-alpha and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and their roles in aortopulmonary collateral formation require further investigation. Plasma factors and angiogenic activity correlate poorly with aortopulmonary collateral severity in patients with single ventricles, suggesting complex mechanisms of angiogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Myocardial Response to Milrinone in Single Right Ventricle Heart Disease.

    Nakano, Stephanie J; Nelson, Penny; Sucharov, Carmen C; Miyamoto, Shelley D

    2016-07-01

    Empiric treatment with milrinone, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor, has become increasingly common in patients with single ventricle heart disease of right ventricular (RV) morphology (SRV); our objective was to characterize the myocardial response to PDE3 inhibition (PDE3i) in the pediatric population with SRV. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, PDE activity, and phosphorylated phospholamban (PLN) were determined in explanted human ventricular myocardium from nonfailing pediatric donors (n = 10) and pediatric patients transplanted secondary to SRV. Subjects with SRV were further classified by PDE3i treatment (n = 13 with PDE3i and n = 12 without PDE3i). In comparison with nonfailing RV myocardium (n = 8), cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels are lower in patients with SRV treated with PDE3i (n = 12, P = .021). Chronic PDE3i does not alter total PDE or PDE3 activity in SRV myocardium. Compared with nonfailing RV myocardium, SRV myocardium (both with and without PDE3i) demonstrates equivalent phosphorylated PLN at the protein kinase A phosphorylation site. As evidenced by preserved phosphorylated PLN, the molecular adaptation associated with SRV differs significantly from that demonstrated in pediatric heart failure because of dilated cardiomyopathy. These alterations support a pathophysiologically distinct mechanism of heart failure in pediatric patients with SRV, which has direct implications regarding the presumed response to PDE3i treatment in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stem cell therapy for the systemic right ventricle.

    Si, Ming-Sing; Ohye, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    In specific forms of congenital heart defects and pulmonary hypertension, the right ventricle (RV) is exposed to systemic levels of pressure overload. The RV is prone to failure in these patients because of its vulnerability to chronic pressure overload. As patients with a systemic RV reach adulthood, an emerging epidemic of RV failure has become evident. Medical therapies proven for LV failure are ineffective in treating RV failure. Areas covered: In this review, the pathophysiology of the failing RV under pressure overload is discussed, with specific emphasis on the pivotal roles of angiogenesis and oxidative stress. Studies investigating the ability of stem cell therapy to improve angiogenesis and mitigate oxidative stress in the setting of pressure overload are then reviewed. Finally, clinical trials utilizing stem cell therapy to prevent RV failure under pressure overload in congenital heart disease will be discussed. Expert commentary: Although considerable hurdles remain before their mainstream clinical implementation, stem cell therapy possesses revolutionary potential in the treatment of patients with failing systemic RVs who currently have very limited long-term treatment options. Rigorous clinical trials of stem cell therapy for RV failure that target well-defined mechanisms will ensure success adoption of this therapeutic strategy.

  8. Cardiac microvascular rarefaction in hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle dysfunction.

    Freitas, Felipe; Estato, Vanessa; Carvalho, Vinícius Frias; Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophy directly involves the heart and indirectly involves the neuroendocrine systems. The effects of hyperthyroidism on the microcirculation are still controversial in experimental models. We investigated the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiac function and microcirculation of an experimental rat model. Male Wistar rats (170-250 g) were divided into two groups: the euthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with 0.9% saline solution, and the hyperthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with l-thyroxine (600 μg/kg/day, i.p.) during 14 days. An echocardiographic study was performed to evaluate the alterations in cardiac function, structure and geometry. The structural capillary density and the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the LV were analyzed using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hyperthyroidism was found to induce profound cardiovascular alterations, such as systolic hypertension, tachycardia, LV dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. This study demonstrates the existence of structural capillary rarefaction and the down-regulation of the cardiac angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the myocardium of hyperthyroid rats in comparison with euthyroid rats. Microvascular rarefaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular alterations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cerebral venous angioma

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. A case report of congenital coronary artery fistula to the left ventricle

    Lee, Byung Hee; Yu, Shi Joon; Moon, Eon Soo; Kim, Sam Hyun; Choi, Young Hi

    1987-01-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula is a rare malformation with an incidence of 0.4% of congenital heart disease. Among the various subtypes, fistula to the left ventricle is extremely rare with 6 reported cases till 1983. We present a case of coronary artery fistula between the right coronary artery and the left ventricle. The dilated right coronary artery formed a mass like bulging the right lower heart border in the plain chest PA, we think this is first case with a coronary artery fistula to the left ventricle, reported in Korea

  11. Visualization of Fiber Structure in the Left and Right Ventricle of a Human Heart

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-01-01

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of muscle fibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber tracking techniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration was visualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visual perception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performed using the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shown within the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similar fiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right and left ventricles on the posterior region of the heart

  12. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Health Professional Version

    There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. Find evidence-based information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  13. A flexible endoscope-assisted interhemispheric transcallosal approach through the contralateral ventricle for the removal of a third ventricle craniopharyngioma: A technical report.

    Yano, Shigetoshi; Hide, Takuichiro; Shinojima, Naoki; Ueda, Yutaka; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Intraventricular craniopharyngiomas are difficult to remove. We combined an interhemispheric transcallosal approach with a flexible endoscope (videoscope) for successful tumor removal. A 52-year-old male complained of general fatigue and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhanced third ventricle mass with dilatation of lateral ventricles. During removal with the interhemispheric transcallosal approach, a videoscope that was inserted into the left lateral ventricle revealed the interface of the tumor and the ventricular wall. The tumor was pushed to the right using forceps and removed totally through the right foramen of Monro without any fornix injury. This procedure is a safe option for removing third ventricular tumors especially in the case with hydrocephalus.

  14. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  15. Neoplasms radiosensitivity: how to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy

    Calais, G.

    1991-01-01

    The hypoxia in the neoplasms is a radioresistance factor. This article is about the methods able to reduce the hypoxia in tumors: use of hyperbaric oxygen, radiosensitizers (as metronidazole), hyperthermia and modification of oxygen release in the tissues in modifying the blood flow and in reducing the hemoglobin affinity for oxygen [fr

  16. The radiotherapy value in recurrence control mammary neoplasm

    Torres Lopez, M.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1996-01-01

    In base on the retrospective analysis of 250 patient carrying of mammals neoplasms recurrence, their general characteristics are determined and the results are emphasized obtained by the radiotherapy, as well as the list that the indicative predict. It culminates in the necessity of indicating the adyuvance postoperative radiotherapy when factors unfavorable presage of recurrence(AU ) [es

  17. Childhood neoplasms presenting at autopsy: A 20-year experience.

    Bryant, Victoria A; Booth, John; Palm, Liina; Ashworth, Michael; Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised. Thirteen previously undiagnosed neoplasms were identified, including five haematological malignancies, two medulloblastomas, two neuroblastomas, two cardiac tumours and two malignancies of renal origin. Eight cases met the criteria for SUDNIC (0.33% of autopsies), the commonest group of which were haematological malignancies (n = 3). Neoplasms presenting as unexpected death in infancy and childhood and diagnosed at autopsy are rare. The findings suggest that haematological malignancies are the commonest cause of SUDNIC and highlight the importance of specialist autopsy in cases of sudden unexpected death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Diagnostic molecular pathology of lymphatic and myeloid neoplasms].

    Klapper, W; Kreipe, H

    2015-03-01

    Molecular pathology has been an integral part of the diagnostics of tumors of the hematopoietic system substantially longer than for solid neoplasms. In contrast to solid tumors, the primary objective of molecular pathology in hematopoietic neoplasms is not the prediction of drug efficacy but the diagnosis itself by excluding reactive proliferation and by using molecular features for tumor classification. In the case of malignant lymphomas, the most commonly applied molecular tests are those for gene rearrangements for immunoglobulin heavy chains and T-cell receptors. However, this article puts the focus on new and diagnostically relevant assays in hematopathology. Among these are mutations of MYD88 codon 265 in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, B-raf V600E in hairy cell leukemia and Stat3 exon 21 in indolent T-cell lymphomas. In myeloproliferative neoplasms, MPL W515, calreticulin exon 9 and the BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F junctions are the most frequently analyzed differentiation series. In myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms, SRSF2, SETBP1 and CSF3R mutations provide important differential diagnostic information. Genes mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are particularly diverse but their analysis significantly improves the differential diagnostics between reactive conditions and MDS. The most frequent changes in MDS include mutations of TET2 and various genes encoding splicing factors.

  19. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  20. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  1. Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review ...

    Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review. ... Most of the patients presented with abdominal mass with a unilaterally enlarged kidney, abdominal pain, haematuria and weight loss. All of them had nephrectomy as initial treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nigerian Quarterly Journal ...

  2. A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For ...

    A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For Cultural Festivals In Borno State, Nigeria. ... Histologically, the papillomas were deeply subdivided into epithelial lobules with the outer and inner aspects of the epithelium running approximately parallel to each other. Irregular sub-dermal masses or cords of ...

  3. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are treated with chemotherapy or other drugs, stem cell transplant, supportive care, and targeted therapy. They include chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Learn about the clinical features and treatment options for these leukemias.

  4. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or

  5. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R.; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  7. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. Age-related changes in volumes of the ventricles, sulci and periventricular hyperintensity area

    Yamada, Kenji; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Matsui, Hiroshige; Yamada, Susumu; Hishinuma, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Brain atrophy in 47 subjects without neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 46 to 82 years, was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, the association of the periventricular hyperintensity area (PVH) recognized with MRI, was also investigated. The volume percentages of the brain, the ventricles and sulci to cranial cavity were calculated as indicators of brain atrophy. The brain volume index decreased and the indeces of the ventricles and sulci linearly increased with age, significantly. The volume ratio of the ventricles to sulci significantly increased with increasing age (p < 0.01) and the correlation coefficient was 0.38. This ratio showed negative correlation to the brain volume index. The volume percentage of PVH to the cranial cavity started to increase in the sixties and negatively correlated with the brain volume index. There was positive correlation between the ratio of the ventricles to sulci and the index of PVH. (author)

  11. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  12. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  13. Exercise and the right ventricle: a potential Achilles' heel.

    La Gerche, Andre; Rakhit, Dhrubo J; Claessen, Guido

    2017-10-01

    Exercise is associated with unequivocal health benefits and results in many structural and functional changes of the myocardium that enhance performance and prevent heart failure. However, intense exercise also presents a significant hemodynamic challenge in which the right-sided heart chambers are exposed to a disproportionate increase in afterload and wall stress that can manifest as myocardial fatigue or even damage if intense exercise is sustained for prolonged periods. This review focuses on the physiological factors that result in a disproportionate load on the right ventricle during exercise and the long-term consequences. The changes in cardiac structure and function that define 'athlete's heart' disproportionately affect the right-sided heart chambers and this can raise important diagnostic overlap with some cardiac pathologies, particularly some inherited cardiomyopathies. The interaction between exercise and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) will be highlighted as an important example of how hemodynamic stressors can combine with deficiencies in cardiac structural elements to cause cardiac dysfunction predisposing to arrhythmias. The extent to which extreme exercise can cause adverse remodelling in the absence of a genetic predisposition remains controversial. In the athlete with profound changes in heart structure, it can be extremely challenging to determine whether common symptoms such as palpitations may be a marker of more sinister arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the techniques that have recently been proposed to identify pathology in these circumstances. Finally, we will discuss recent evidence defining the role of exercise restriction as a therapeutic intervention in individuals predisposed to arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. MR imaging of a mature teratoma in third ventricle: case report

    Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Joon; Cho, Mee Yon

    1994-01-01

    Teratoma is very rarely developed in the third ventricle. We report a case of third ventricular mature teratoma in 12-year old boy with headache and precocious puberty. In T1WI and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI, the mass in the third ventricle showed mixed signal intensities with signal void and partial contrast enhancement. The tumor was confirmed as a mature teratoma including teeth and fatty tissue

  15. MR imaging of a mature teratoma in third ventricle: case report

    Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Joon; Cho, Mee Yon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    Teratoma is very rarely developed in the third ventricle. We report a case of third ventricular mature teratoma in 12-year old boy with headache and precocious puberty. In T1WI and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI, the mass in the third ventricle showed mixed signal intensities with signal void and partial contrast enhancement. The tumor was confirmed as a mature teratoma including teeth and fatty tissue.

  16. A solution to meningiomas at the trigone of the lateral ventricle using a contralateral transfalcine approach.

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Ma, Bingbing; Wang, Xuejian; Gu, Ye; Ge, Junqi; Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Li, Qiuping; Yu, Yong; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Yinchuan; Li, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    Access to the trigone of the lateral ventricle is challenging because of the deep location and the intimate relationships to eloquent areas. A novel posterior interhemispheric transfalx transprecuneus approach for two meningiomas at the trigone of the lateral ventricle is described. The meningiomas were resected completely with good neurologic outcomes and no operative mortality. The feasibilities and advantages of this novel approach are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation delay-induced mechanical dyssynchrony in single-ventricle heart disease

    Forsha, Daniel; Risum, Niels; Barker, Piers

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of an infant with a single functional ventricle who developed ventricular dysfunction and heart failure due to an electrical activation delay and dyssynchrony. Earlier recognition of this potentially reversible aetiology may have changed her poor outcome.......We present the case of an infant with a single functional ventricle who developed ventricular dysfunction and heart failure due to an electrical activation delay and dyssynchrony. Earlier recognition of this potentially reversible aetiology may have changed her poor outcome....

  18. The estimation diastolic properties of the right and left heart's ventricles by a magnetic resonance imaging

    Myagkov, A.P.; Cherepok, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of comparison of data heart's catheterization nd magnetic resonance imaging the technique of determination initial and enddiastolic pressure in heart's ventricles is developed. It has allowed to determine a diastolic extensibility, hardness, initial and enddiastolic pressure gradients for right and left ventricle. All necessary formulas and calculations techniques, control data of the models, received at the research of healthy subjects are described

  19. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Wang-shu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  20. Two-chambered right ventricle resulting from aberrant muscle bundles: a case report

    Lim, T. H.; Ko, K. H.; Im, C. K.; Han, M. C.; Chi, J. G [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the {sup T}wo-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.

  1. Two-chambered right ventricle resulting from aberrant muscle bundles: a case report

    Lim, T. H.; Ko, K. H.; Im, C. K.; Han, M. C.; Chi, J. G

    1979-01-01

    The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the T wo-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.

  2. Selection of permanent pacing position of cardiac ventricle in patients with complete right bundle branch block

    Yang Minquan; Zhou Jun; Zhu Yan; Wang Jin; Rong Xin; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To find out the optimal pacing localization by comparing different pacing positions of the right ventricle in brady-cardiacarrhythmia patients with complete right bundle branch block. Methods: DDD type of double lumen permanent pacemaker was implanted in each of the 8 cases of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and/or III degree atrioventricular block (III degree AVB) with complete right bundle branch block in normal heart function or class I. For each patient, four pacing positions in right ventricle were compared and the QRS pacing durations were recorded. The position with the shortest the QRS duration was chosen as the permanent pacing position. Heart function, chest X-rays and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were followed up after the operation. Results: In all the 8 cases, the posterior septum of the right ventricle were chosen as the permanent pacing position, with the shorter pacing QRS duration than that of pre-operation (P<0.05) and other pacing positions of the right ventricle. All parameters of this permanent pacing position were within the normal range. During the follow-up of 6-36 months, no abnormity was found in cardiac functions. Conclusion: In brady-cardiacarrhythmia patients with complete right bundle branch block, the implantation of permanent pacemaker should be at the junction region of inlet and outlet tracts, of the posterior septum of the right ventricle with ideal physiological function. (authors)

  3. Patient-Specific Modeling of Interventricular Hemodynamics in Single Ventricle Physiology

    Vedula, Vijay; Feinstein, Jeffrey; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Single ventricle (SV) congenital heart defects, in which babies are born with only functional ventricle, lead to significant morbidity and mortality with over 30% of patients developing heart failure prior to adulthood. Newborns with SV physiology typically undergo three palliative surgeries, in which the SV becomes the systemic pumping chamber. Depending on which ventricle performs the systemic function, patients are classified as having either a single left ventricle (SLV) or a single right ventricle (SRV), with SRV patients at higher risk of failure. As the native right ventricles are not designed to meet systemic demands, they undergo remodeling leading to abnormal hemodynamics. The hemodynamic characteristics of SLVs compared with SRVs is not well established. We present a validated computational framework for performing patient-specific modeling of ventricular flows, and apply it across 6 SV patients (3SLV + 3SRV), comparing hemodynamic conditions between the two subgroups. Simulations are performed with a stabilized finite element method coupled with an immersed boundary method for modeling heart valves. We discuss identification of hemodynamic biomarkers of ventricular remodeling for early risk assessment of failure. This research is supported in part by the Stanford Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford NIH-NCATS-CTSA through Grant UL1 TR001085 and due to U.S. National Institute of Health through NIH NHLBI R01 Grants 5R01HL129727-02 and 5R01HL121754-03.

  4. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in heart failure for left and right ventricles.

    Li, Mengmeng; Rao, Man; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Jianye; Song, Jiangping

    2017-07-15

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a feasible tool for determining gene expression profiles, but the accuracy and reliability of the results depends on the stable expression of selected housekeeping genes in different samples. By far, researches on stable housekeeping genes in human heart failure samples are rare. Moreover the effect of heart failure on the expression of housekeeping genes in right and left ventricles is yet to be studied. Therefore we aim to provide stable housekeeping genes for both ventricles in heart failure and normal heart samples. In this study, we selected seven commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. By using the qRT-PCR, the expression levels of ACTB, RAB7A, GAPDH, REEP5, RPL5, PSMB4 and VCP in eight heart failure and four normal heart samples were assessed. The stability of candidate housekeeping genes was evaluated by geNorm and Normfinder softwares. GAPDH showed the least variation in all heart samples. Results also indicated the difference of gene expression existed in heart failure left and right ventricles. GAPDH had the highest expression stability in both heart failure and normal heart samples. We also propose using different sets of housekeeping genes for left and right ventricles respectively. The combination of RPL5, GAPDH and PSMB4 is suitable for the right ventricle and the combination of GAPDH, REEP5 and RAB7A is suitable for the left ventricle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of captopril on cerebral blood flow in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Barry, D.I.; Paulson, O.B.; Jarden, J.O.; Juhler, M.; Graham, D.I.; Strandgaard, S.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebrovascular effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril were examined in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Cerebral blood flow was measured with the intracarotid 133 xenon injection method in halothane-anesthetized animals. The blood-brain barrier permeability of captopril (determined with an integral-uptake method) was negligible, the permeability-surface area product in most brain regions being 1 X 10(-5) cm3/g per second, that is, three to four times lower than that of sodium ion. When administered into the cerebral ventricles to bypass the blood-brain barrier, captopril had no effect on cerebral blood flow: furthermore, cerebral blood flow autoregulation (studied by raising and lowering blood pressure) was identical to that in controls. In contrast, when given intravenously, captopril had a marked effect on cerebral blood flow autoregulation--both the lower and upper limits of autoregulation being shifted to a lower pressure (by about 20 to 30 and 50 to 60 mm Hg, respectively), and the autoregulatory range was shortened by about 40 mm Hg. This effect may be ascribed to inhibition of converting enzyme in the cerebral blood vessels rather than within the brain

  6. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    ... Going to an Occupational Therapist Scoliosis In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  7. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  8. Neuroendoscopic management of posterior third ventricle ependymoma with intraaqueductal and fourth ventricle extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    Prat-Acín, Ricardo; Evangelista, Rocío; Conde, Rebeca; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel; Galeano, Inma

    2017-11-01

    Posterior third ventricle ependymomas with intraaqueductal extension are relatively infrequent lesions. Its surgical management represents a formidable technical challenge and includes a wide variety of approaches. Minimally invasive surgery including the endoscopic management can play a crucial role to obtain an optimal clinical outcome. We report the clinical outcome of an 11-year-old female patient with a 6-year history of recurrent episodes of headache and vomiting. On brain MRI a posterior third ventricle lesion with extension to the aqueduct of Sylvius and fourth ventricle, and associated hydrocephalus was observed. Our management of the lesion included a two-step endoscopic surgery: first an anterior third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the lesion that was reported to be a low-grade ependymoma, and posteriorly an endoscopic-assisted resection of the lesion. Clinical outcome was optimal without neurological sequelae. The postoperative MRI showed a thickened ependymal area on the tumor base of implantation. It was considered to be a remnant of the lesion and subsequently treated with radiotherapy. Posterior third ventricle ependymomas with intraaqueductal extension can be endoscopically managed to obtain a successful outcome.

  9. Cerebral venous angiomas

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  10. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  11. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  12. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Butenko, Olena; Benešová, Jana; Mikešová, M.; Honsa, Pavel; Džamba, Dávid; Kriška, Ján; Rusňáková, Vendula; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S207-S207 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : neuroscience * astrocyte Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. Kinetics of 137cesium in cerebral structures and blood

    Ribas, B.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Rio, J. del; Reus, M.I.S.; Gonzalez-Baron, M.

    1987-01-01

    The old clinical use of cesium in epilepsy expresses a relation of this metal with the central nervous system. Two groups of male Wistar rats of 200 g were administered single doses of 50μCi intravenously for blood kinetics and 2μCi 137 CsCl in each lateral ventricle of the brain for the kinetics in the cerebral structures, respectively. In both cases under ether anesthesia. Blood samples of IV gouts were weighed, and cerebral structure hypothalamus, hypocampus, striatum, cortex, cerebellum, mesencephalon and medulla oblongata dissected, cleaned, washed, dried, weighed, and in both cases cpm of the samples evaluated submitting it to the gamma radiations detector. In both experimental values of the 137 CsCl kinetics are expressed and applying the retroprojection method; parameters and constants are obtained. tsub(1/2) alpha = 0.0358 h and tsub(1/2) beta = 6.7159 h. In tables the equations of the alpha and beta phases are expressed. In blood after the rapid diminution of the radioactivity in the first 5 min the equilibrium phase is reached in 30 min afterwards, and the values remain almost the same 4 h after the injection and cesium is slowly eliminated by the rat. Cerebral structures after its intracerebroventricular application show that cesium has a great uptake velocity, it is rapidly incorporated by hypothalamus and after by cortex, hypocampus, striatum, mesencephalon and medulla oblongata, the two last showing the slower incorporation. After 24 h the cesium radioactivity declines slowly and progressively. (author)

  14. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  16. Myeloid Neoplasms in the Guise of Nutritional Deficiency

    Parthasarathy, Veda

    2012-01-01

    The classic BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) which include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are among the most frequent hematologic neoplasms. Because of their relatively smooth clinical course, it is likely that many of these MPNs actually go undetected. Considering the high prevalence of iron, folic-acid, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in developing countries, their coexistence with MPN can be expected frequently. In such situations where both disorders coexist, MPN is often overlooked. This causes considerable diagnostic delay. In this paper, two cases of PMF and one case of PV where the diagnosis of MPN was delayed for about 3 years are discussed. Presence of concomitant vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiencies perhaps camouflaged the underlying MPN. Bearing in mind the possibility of MPN, even in the setting of apparent nutritional deficiency and performing a bone marrow evaluation, is the crucial step in unveiling the hidden MPN. PMID:23227377

  17. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: a case report.

    Peeters, Karen; Delvaux, Peter; Huysentruyt, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors, characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. The Western experience, however, remains limited. In this article, we report a 56-year-old man, referred to our hospital because of deranged liver function tests. Further imaging modalities showed a cystic lesion of 9 cm diameter, arising from the left hepatic duct. Inlying was a heterogeneous, lobulated mass. The patient underwent a left hemihepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.

  18. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: report of two pediatric cases.

    Dharmani, Preeti Ashok; Mittal, Neha Manish; Subramanian, P G; Galani, Komal; Badrinath, Yajamanam; Amare, Pratibha; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults, whereas experience in children with this disease is very limited. We report cases of two children in whom bone marrow showed infiltration by large atypical monocytoid 'blast-like' cells which on immunophenotyping expressed CD4, CD56, HLA-DR and CD33 while were negative for CD34 other T-cell, B-cell and myeloid markers. The differential diagnoses considered were AML, T/NK-cell leukemia and acute undifferentiated leukemia. Additional markers CD303/BDCA-2 and CD123 which are recently validated plasmacytoid dendritic cell markers were done which helped us clinch the diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of BPDCN is essential in order to provide prompt treatment. Due to its rarity and only recent recognition as a distinct clinicopathological entity, no standardized therapeutic approach has been established for BPDCN.

  20. A broad survey of cathepsin K immunoreactivity in human neoplasms.

    Zheng, Gang; Martignoni, Guido; Antonescu, Cristina; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Eberhart, Charles; Netto, George; Taube, Janis; Westra, William; Epstein, Jonathan I; Lotan, Tamara; Maitra, Anirban; Gabrielson, Edward; Torbenson, Michael; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Demarzo, Angelo; Shih, Ie Ming; Illei, Peter; Wu, T C; Argani, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Cathepsin K is consistently and diffusely expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and a subset of translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, cathepsin K expression in human neoplasms has not been systematically analyzed. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMA) from a wide variety of human neoplasms, and performed cathepsin K immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only 2.7% of 1,140 carcinomas from various sites exhibited cathepsin K labeling, thus suggesting that among carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling is highly specific for translocation RCC. In contrast to carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling was relatively common (54.6%) in the 414 mesenchymal lesions studied, including granular cell tumor, melanoma, and histiocytic lesions, but not paraganglioma, all of which are in the morphologic differential diagnosis of ASPS. Cathepsin K IHC can be helpful in distinguishing ASPS and translocation RCC from some but not all of the lesions in their differential diagnosis.

  1. The cranial MRI in severe cerebral palsy

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Itoh, Masahiro; Fueki, Noboru; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Kurata, Kiyoko; Sato, Junichi; Morimatsu, Yoshio; Yagishita, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic resonance examination was performed in 38 patients with severe cerebral palsy (CP; 15 males and 23 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move anywhere) and mental retardation (I.Q. or D.Q. below 30). Neuroimaging findings were compared with the CP type, etiology, and grade of understanding of language. Cranial magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) in CP were divided into five types. In type 1, nine predominantly showed cyst-liked ventricles and periventricular hyperintensity on T 2 -weighted imaging (PVH) and only scarred basal ganglia and thalamus were visible. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was rigospastic tetraplegia (RST). In type 2, eleven predominantly showed PVH and hyperintensity on T 2 -weighted (HT2) in basal ganglia and thalamus. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was RST or rigospastic diplegia. In type 3, five showed PVH and three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was spastic diplegia. In type 4, four predominantly showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia. The clinical type was athetotic CP (ATH). In type 5, nine predominantly showed HT2 in globus pallidus. Four had cortical atrophy and two had hippocampal atrophy. All suffered from neonatal jaundice and the clinical type was ATH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and spastic CP had MRI in PVH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and ATH showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Almost patients who suffered from neonatal jaundice and ATH showed HT2 in globus pallidus. With athetotic CP, cases with atrophy of the cerebral cortex and/or hippocampus were lower grade of understanding of language than no atrophy of both. The results of studies of MRI are in agreement with neuropathological findings. (author)

  2. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  3. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  4. Rectum neoplasms treatment advanced with radio and chemotherapy before - surgery

    Luongo Cespedes, A.; Aguiar Vitacca, S.

    1993-01-01

    In Uruguay the colorectal neoplasms has a can rate of mobility. The surgery has 13-26% local recurrence. The irradiation before surgery has demonstrated to improve the resect and the local control.The objective of this protocol it is to decrease the percentage of local relapse , using radiotherapy(RT) before surgery and concomitant chemotherapy that potencies the effect of the RT, improvement this way the therapeutic quotient (AU) [es

  5. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Tan, Huangying

    2016-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors arising from the endocrine cells of stomach. Most g-NENs progresses slowly and have a long disease course; however, some other g-NENs grow rapidly, similar to the progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. g-NENs have complex and diverse clinical manifestations and their prognosis and treatment strategies depend highly on clinical subtype, pathological grade, tumour stage, and other factors. Due to their low prevalence,...

  6. Technology insight: endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastrointestinal neoplasms.

    Yamamoto, Hironori

    2007-09-01

    Gastrointestinal neoplasms can be cured by local resection as long as the lesions are in the early stage and have not metastasized. Endoscopic resection is a minimally invasive treatment for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasms, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is one type of endoscopic resection that has been developed in the past 10 years. For ESD to be a reliable, curative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms, it is necessary for the endoscopist to detect the lesion early, make a precise pretreatment diagnosis, ensure that the patient has the correct indication for endoscopic resection, and have the skill to perform ESD. For early lesion detection, endoscopists should pay attention to subtle changes in the surface structure, the color of the mucosa and the visibility of underlying submucosal vessels. Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the margin of the lesions for pretreatment diagnosis, and endoscopic ultrasonography and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the depth of invasion. For ESD to be successful, local injection of sodium hyaluronate helps maintain mucosal elevation during dissection. Selecting the appropriate knife, using transparent hoods wisely, employing a good strategy that uses gravity, and having good control of bleeding are all needed to make ESD reliable.

  7. Appendiceal pathology at the time of oophorectomy for ovarian neoplasms.

    Timofeev, Julia; Galgano, Mary T; Stoler, Mark H; Lachance, Jason A; Modesitt, Susan C; Jazaeri, Amir A

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of appendiceal pathology in women undergoing surgery for a suspected ovarian neoplasm and the predictive value of intraoperative findings to determine the need for appendectomy at the time of surgery. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent oophorectomy and appendectomy during the same surgical procedures at the University of Virginia Health System from 1992 to 2007. Observations were stratified based on the nature (benign, borderline, or malignant) and histology (serous compared with mucinous) of the ovarian neoplasm, frozen compared with final pathological diagnosis, and the gross appearance of the appendix. Among the 191 patients identified, frozen section was consistent with seven mucinous and 35 serous carcinomas, 16 serous and 33 mucinous borderline tumors, 71 mucinous and serous cystadenomas, and 29 cases of suspected metastatic tumor from a gastrointestinal primary. The highest rates of coexisting appendiceal pathology were associated with serous ovarian cancers (94.4% of grossly abnormal and 35.3% of normal appendices) and ovarian tumors suspected to be of primary gastrointestinal origin (83.3% grossly abnormal and 60.0% normal appendices harbored coexisting mucinous neoplasms). Linear regression analysis revealed that appearance of the appendix and frozen section diagnosis of the ovarian pathology were statistically significant predictors of coexisting appendiceal pathology, but the latter was more important. The prevalence of coexisting, clinically significant appendiceal pathology is low with a frozen section diagnosis of serous or mucinous cystadenoma. Appendectomy is recommended when frozen section diagnosis is mucinous or serous ovarian carcinoma, borderline tumor or metastatic carcinoma of suspected gastrointestinal origin.

  8. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  9. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  10. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  11. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  12. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    Tschammler, A.; Middendorf, C.; Luedinghausen, M. v.; Wittenberg, G.; Krahe, T.

    1996-01-01

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Cerebral lymphoma - CT and MRI diagnostic

    Popovska, T.; Yanakiev, A.; Zashev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's) is a disease of the lymphatic system where the central neural system is affected in very rare cases. According to different authors the frequency of cases with lymphoma where the neural system is affected varies between 0, 2 % and 0, 5 %, and the primary cerebral lymphoma accounts for about 1-2% of ail brain neoplasms. The intracranial form of iymphoma is usually a late onset of the disease with serious and potentially fatal complications for the patient. These complications usually appear several years after diagnosing the disease, but the cerebral lymphoma may occur even in patients who are in remission which is the case with our patient. We present you a case with a 38 -year-old female, who was hospitalized in the Neuro ward with the following complaints -loss of speech for a few minutes, dizziness, weakness, tingling in her right leg as well as shuffling. This patient was diagnosed with histological B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 years ago. CT and MRI were carried out on that patient. Despite both clinical and radiographic suspicions for intracranial forms of lymphoma, the patient was still difficult to diagnose. A definitive diagnosis was given after a surgery and histological examination, i.e. non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - large B-cell lymphoma. This case is of interest because of its rare intracranial localization of the lymphoma. The knowledge of CT and MRI images of the intracranial form of lymphoma may help diagnosing, but images should be interpreted together with the clinical and paraclinical results Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's) is a disease of the lymphatic system where the central neural system is affected in very rare cases. According to different authors the frequency of cases with lymphoma where the neural system is affected varies between 0, 2 % and 0, 5 %, and the primary cerebral lymphoma accounts for about 1-2% of ail brain neoplasms. The intracranial form of iymphoma is usually a late onset of the disease

  14. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  15. Comparative evaluation of the ventricles in the Yorkshire Terrier and the German Shepherd dog using low-field MRI.

    Esteve-Ratsch, B; Kneissl, S; Gabler, C

    2001-01-01

    MR images provide for the exact assessment of the brain, including ventricular size. Still inter- and intrabreed comparison of ventricle size is difficult due to the varying anatomies in dogs. To compare the ventricle area of different sized breeds, 25 dogs (13 Yorkshire Terriers and 12 German Shepard dogs) were reviewed, retrospectively. Hemisphere and ventricle of each side were outlined manually three times. All measurements were averaged and their percentage (ventricle area by hemisphere area) was defined as the relative ventricle area. This value in Yorkshire Terriers (5.3) was significantly higher compared to German Shepard dogs (1.7). However, on the basis of the neurologically symptomatic sample (7 Yorkshire Terriers) in this study, threshold values of normal and abnormal relative ventricle areas could not be detected.

  16. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    Wu, M.-T.; Lee, L.-H.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Lin, L.-Y.; Cheng, B.-H.; Liu, C.-L.; Yang, C.-Y.; Tsai, H.-T.; Wu, T.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during

  17. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  18. First-trimester visualization of the fourth ventricle in fetuses with and without spina bifida.

    Solt, Ido; Acuna, Joann G; Adeniji, Beni A; Mirocha, James; Kim, Matthew J; Rotmensch, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of nonvisualization of the fourth ventricle for first-trimester detection of spina bifida. A total of 250 digitally stored sonographic examinations at gestational ages of 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days (245 normal and 5 randomly interspersed spina bifida cases) were retrospectively analyzed by 4 blinded reviewers for the presence or absence of the fourth ventricle followed by an anteroposterior ventricular dimension measurement. The ventricle size was related to the crown-rump length and gestational age by linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation. The fourth ventricle was identified in 971 of 1000 image readings (97.1%). False-negative and false-positive readings occurred in 11 of 20 (55.0%) and 20 of 980 (2.0%) cases, respectively (sensitivity, 0.45; specificity, 0.98.). False-negative and false-positive readings were evenly distributed throughout the gestational age range. When the ventricular size was measurable, its mean dimensions increased linearly with gestational age and were below the fifth percentile in 10 of 245 (4.0%) normal and 0 of 4 spina bifida cases, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimates were calculated based on the 2-way analysis of variance model and found to be 0.30 for a single rater and 0.64 for the mean of 4 raters. Nonvisualization of the first-trimester fourth ventricle is a less robust screening parameter for spina bifida than previously published.

  19. Origins and consequences of congenital heart defects affecting the right ventricle.

    Woudstra, Odilia I; Ahuja, Suchit; Bokma, Jouke P; Bouma, Berto J; Mulder, Barbara J M; Christoffels, Vincent M

    2017-10-01

    Congenital heart disease is a major health issue, accounting for a third of all congenital defects. Improved early surgical management has led to a growing population of adults with congenital heart disease, including patients with defects affecting the right ventricle, which are often classified as severe. Defects affecting the right ventricle often cause right ventricular volume or pressure overload and affected patients are at high risk for complications such as heart failure and sudden death. Recent insights into the developmental mechanisms and distinct developmental origins of the left ventricle, right ventricle, and the outflow tract have shed light on the common features and distinct problems arising in specific defects. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the development into the normal and congenitally malformed right heart and the clinical consequences of several congenital heart defects affecting the right ventricle. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Coronary reserve of the right ventricle evaluated by double dose Tl-201 scintigraphy

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Thallium-201 double dose scintigraphy was applied to exercise to estimate the coronary blood flow reserve of the left and right ventricles and this was compared with the degree of coronary artery stenosis. As an index of coronary reserve we measured the rate of change of blood flow distribution (ΔF) calculated from the change in myocardial radioactivity following thallium-201 injections, once at rest and once during exercise. With submaximal exercise the increases in ΔF of the left ventricle were less in patients with ischemic heart disease than in the control subjects, and were less as the number of diseased coronary vessels increased. The increases of ΔF of the right ventricle were less in patients with stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery than in patients without stenosis and in the control subjects. The more severe the stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery, the smaller the ΔF of the right ventricle. These results indicate that evaluation of the ΔF in the left and right ventricles is useful in estimating coronary artery stenosis. (author)

  1. Echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricle in the current era: Application in clinical practice.

    Venkatachalam, Sridhar; Wu, Geru; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-12-01

    The right ventricle has unique structural and functional characteristics. It is now well recognized that the so-called forgotten ventricle is a key player in cardiovascular physiology. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that demonstrates right ventricular dysfunction as an important marker of morbidity and mortality in several commonly encountered clinical situations such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, right ventricular myocardial infarction, and adult congenital heart disease. In contrast to the left ventricle, echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function is more challenging as volume estimations are not possible without the use of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. Guidelines on chamber quantification provide a standardized approach to assessment of the right ventricle. The technique and limitations of each of the parameters for RV size and function need to be fully understood. In this era of multimodality imaging, echocardiography continues to remain a useful tool for the initial assessment and follow-up of patients with right heart pathology. Several novel approaches such as 3D and strain imaging of the right ventricle have expanded the usefulness of this indispensable modality. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Exclusive double outlet right ventricle with atrioventricular concordance and pulmonary stenosis. Results of reconstructive surgery.

    Busquet, J; Fontan, F; Choussat, A; Caianiello, G; Fernandez, G

    1988-01-01

    Double outlet right ventricle associated with atrioventricular concordance, pulmonary stenosis and situs solitus of the atria is a subset of double outlet right ventricle related through the surgical treatment. From 1974 to 1985, 14 patients, 5 males, 9 females (mean age 8.9 years, range 13 months-22 years) were operated upon. All patients had infundibular stenosis and normal or large pulmonary arteries. The apex of the heart was to the right in 2 patients, the right and left ventricles were superior and inferior in 2 patients and 1 patient had both anomalies. The ventricular septal defect was subaortic in 11 patients (aorto-mitral discontinuity in 5) and non-committed in 3 patients. Three patients had 2 ventricular septal defects. The aorta was anterior in 3 patients and to the right of the pulmonary artery in 11 patients. All patients, through a transventricular and transatrial approach, had a reconstructive surgery. In 3 patients, an aortic homograft valved conduit was used. One patient had the ventricular septal defect enlarged. There was one early death (7.1%) from high residual right ventricle pressure and no late death. One patient had a transient atrioventricular block. One patient was reoperated upon for a residual ventricular septal defect. All survivors had a good clinical result. Re-evaluation in 8 patients confirmed excellent haemodynamics: the right ventricle to pulmonary artery pressure gradient decreased from 80 mm Hg (range 60-95) preoperatively to 24 mm Hg (range 3-32) postoperatively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. An Overview of Techniques for Cardiac Left Ventricle Segmentation on Short-Axis MRI

    Krasnobaev Arseny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, heart diseases are the leading cause of death. Left ventricle segmentation of a human heart in magnetic resonance images (MRI is a crucial step in both cardiac diseases diagnostics and heart internal structure reconstruction. It allows estimating such important parameters as ejection faction, left ventricle myocardium mass, stroke volume, etc. In addition, left ventricle segmentation helps to construct the personalized heart computational models in order to conduct the numerical simulations. At present, the fully automated cardiac segmentation methods still do not meet the accuracy requirements. We present an overview of left ventricle segmentation algorithms on short-axis MRI. A wide variety of completely different approaches are used for cardiac segmentation, including machine learning, graph-based methods, deformable models, and low-level heuristics. The current state-of-the-art technique is a combination of deformable models with advanced machine learning methods, such as deep learning or Markov random fields. We expect that approaches based on deep belief networks are the most promising ones because the main training process of networks with this architecture can be performed on the unlabelled data. In order to improve the quality of left ventricle segmentation algorithms, we need more datasets with labelled cardiac MRI data in open access.

  4. Serial right ventricle 201Tl imaging after exercise: relation to anatomy of the right coronary artery

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relation of the appearance of the right ventricle on serium 201 Tl myocardial imaging to coronary artery anatomy was examined in 88 consecutive patients undergoing exercise 201 Tl testing and coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Transient defects in the right ventricle were found in 8 patients. All had high grade (greater than or equal to 90%) stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery. Nonvisualization of right ventricular (RV) activity occurred in 10 patients. Nine of the 10 (90%) had significant (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) disease of the proximal right coronary artery and 7 (70%) had high grade stenosis. The right ventricle appeared normal in 70 patients. Twenty-nine (41%) of these patients had significant proximal right coronary artery disease. Right ventricular appearance was not affected by the presence or absence of disease of the left anterior descending or left circumflex artery or by the appearance of the left ventricle. Thus, with serial RV thallium-201 myocardial imaging after exercise, we found that (1) RV transient defects suggest the presence of high grade proximal right coronary artery stenosis, (2) non-visualization of RV activity also predicts significant proximal right coronary disease, and (3) the right ventricle frequently appears normal despite proximal right coronary artery disease and therefore this finding does not exclude such disease

  5. Objective Ventricle Segmentation in Brain CT with Ischemic Stroke Based on Anatomical Knowledge

    Xiaohua Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricle segmentation is a challenging technique for the development of detection system of ischemic stroke in computed tomography (CT, as ischemic stroke regions are adjacent to the brain ventricle with similar intensity. To address this problem, we developed an objective segmentation system of brain ventricle in CT. The intensity distribution of the ventricle was estimated based on clustering technique, connectivity, and domain knowledge, and the initial ventricle segmentation results were then obtained. To exclude the stroke regions from initial segmentation, a combined segmentation strategy was proposed, which is composed of three different schemes: (1 the largest three-dimensional (3D connected component was considered as the ventricular region; (2 the big stroke areas were removed by the image difference methods based on searching optimal threshold values; (3 the small stroke regions were excluded by the adaptive template algorithm. The proposed method was evaluated on 50 cases of patients with ischemic stroke. The mean Dice, sensitivity, specificity, and root mean squared error were 0.9447, 0.969, 0.998, and 0.219 mm, respectively. This system can offer a desirable performance. Therefore, the proposed system is expected to bring insights into clinic research and the development of detection system of ischemic stroke in CT.

  6. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Olias, P; Hammer, M; Klopfleisch, R

    2010-07-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis was diagnosed in a 4-year-old green iguana (Iguana iguana) with paroxysmal spastic paralysis of all limbs and circling motion. Formalin-fixed tissues were collected at necropsy examination and submitted for evaluation. The left cerebrum and the left ventricle were replaced by a solid brown coloured mass. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of necrotizing and granulomatous encephalitis affecting the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem, with severe vasculitis and intralesional dematiaceous fungal hyphae. No other lesions or fungi were found in other organs. Fungi were identified as Oidiodendron spp. by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region 1 extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded brain tissue. This case represents the first report of phaeohyphomycosis with tropism for the central nervous system in a reptile. In the absence of fresh tissue, the diagnosis in such cases may be assisted by molecular analysis of fixed tissue specimens. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cerebral spinal fluid suppression for diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    Yang, Alicia W; Jensen, Jens H; Hu, Caixia C; Tabesh, Ali; Falangola, Maria F; Helpern, Joseph A

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) partial volume effect on diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in white matter and cortical gray matter. Four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Standard DKI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DKI experiments were performed using a twice-refocused-spin-echo diffusion sequence. The conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, D[symbol in text], D[symbol in text] together with DKI metrics of mean, axial, and radial kurtosis (MK, K[symbol in text], K[symbol in text], were measured and compared. Single image slices located above the lateral ventricles, with similar anatomical features for each subject, were selected to minimize the effect of CSF from the ventricles. In white matter, differences of less than 10% were observed between diffusion metrics measured with standard DKI and FLAIR-DKI sequences, suggesting minimal CSF contamination. For gray matter, conventional DTI metrics differed by 19% to 52%, reflecting significant CSF partial volume effects. Kurtosis metrics, however, changed by 11% or less, indicating greater robustness with respect to CSF contamination. Kurtosis metrics are less sensitive to CSF partial voluming in cortical gray matter than conventional diffusion metrics. The kurtosis metrics may then be more specific indicators of changes in tissue microstructure, provided the effect sizes for the changes are comparable. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis

    Wengenroth, M.; Saam, T.; Haehnel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  9. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  10. Diaschisis with cerebral infarction

    Slater, R.; Reivich, M.; Goldberg, H.; Banka, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients admitted to Philadelphia General Hospital with acute strokes had repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow measured by the /sup 133/X inhalation method. A progressive decline in cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was observed during the first week after infarction in twelve of these patients. This decline could be partially explained by loss of autoregulation, but could not be correlated with level of consciousness, clinical status of PCO2. This progressive decline in flow in the non-ischemic hemisphere indicates a process more complex than a simple destruction of axonal afferants to neurons as implied by the term diaschisis. The flow changes in the non-ischemic hemisphere are likely caused by a combination of the immediate effects of decreased neuronal stimulation modified by loss of autoregulation, release of vasoactive substances, cerebral edema, and other factors.

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  12. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  13. SPECIFICS OF LEFT VENTRICLE REMODELLING IN CHILDREN WHO HAVE HAD DIPHTHERITIC CARDITIS

    U.K. Gadzhieva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carditis has a special place among diphtheritic complications determining a disease prognosis. The article provides results of studying a functional status of cardiac muscle in children who have had diphtheritic complications in the short-term (2–3 years; n = 35 and longterm (9–10 years; n = 15 follow-up. Echo cardiographic test showed there were three hemodynamic options available for diphtheritic carditis development: normal volumetric parameters of the left ventricle cavity; an enlarged left ventricle cavity and reduced myocardial contractility (dilated cardiomyopathy; a reduced left ventricle cavity with intact myocardial contractility (diastolic dysfunction. Including vitamin E and Carnitine chloride into the treatment for children who have had Diphtheritic Carditis results in improvements both to the cardiac systolic and diastolic functions.Key words: children, diphtheritic carditis, cardiac remodelling, cardiomyopathy, diastolic function.

  14. Small atrial septal defect associated with heart failure in an infant with a marginal left ventricle

    Sandra D.K. Kingma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atrial septal defect (ASD is usually asymptomatic in infancy, unless pulmonary hypertension or severe co-morbidity is present. We report a case of a 4-week-old infant with moderate- sized ASD, small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and a borderline sized left ventricle that developed heart failure. Despite the relatively small diameter of the ASD, this defect influenced the mechanism of heart failure significantly. After surgical closure of both PDA and ASD, the signs of pulmonary hypertension resolved and the patient developed a normal sized left ventricle. This report illustrates that the presence of a small ASD in combination with a marginal left ventricle may result in inadequate left ventricular filling, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

  15. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  16. Cerebral fat embolism

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  17. Functional assessment of the right ventricle with gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Abbati, D.; Carolan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Evaluation of right ventricular function can provide valuable information in a variety of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Functional assessment of the right ventricle is difficult owing to its anatomy and geometry. We describe a method of assessing right ventricular function using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. In 20 patients right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF, LVEF) were determined using gated blood pool (GBPS) and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GSPECT). To avoid contamination with right atrial activity the two frame method was adopted for gated blood pool data when measuring RVEF. In 9 patients with normal right ventricles, an index of wall thickening for the right ventricle was derived from the peak systolic and diastolic counts in the free wall. There was good linear correlation between the two methods adopted for calculation of LVEF and RVEF. Bland - Airman analysis demonstrated good agreement between the two methods with no specific bias. The mean LVEF was 47.9 +/-12% (GBPS) and 47.3 +/- 12.4 (GSPECT). The mean RVEF was 43.2 +/- 9.6% (GBPS) and 44.2 +/- 8.5% (GSPECT). In both cases the values were significantly different. The mean wall motion index was 35%. There was no correlation between the wall thickness index and ejection fraction however the index was greater in patients with normal right ventricle than in those with reduced RVER Gated SPECT offers an alternative to GBPS for the functional assessment of the right ventricle. Utilising GSPECT will allow the simultaneous assessment of both the right and left ventricles. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  19. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  20. One and a half ventricular repair as an alternative for hypoplastic right ventricle.

    Maluf, Miguel Angel; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Carvalho, Werther Brunow

    2010-01-01

    Patients with complex congenital heart disease, characterized by right ventricle hypoplasia, had a palliative surgical option with one and a half ventricular repair. From July 2001 to March 2009, nine patients (mean age 5.2 years, range 3 to 9 years) with hypoplastic right ventricle, underwent correction with one and a half ventricle technique. Preoperative diagnoses included: pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, in six and Ebstein's anomaly, in three cases. Six patients had bidirectional cavo-pulmonary shunt (Glenn operation) previously. The surgical approach was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass to correct intracardiac defects: atrial septal defect closure (nine cases); right ventricle outlet tract reconstruction with porcine pulmonary prosthesis (seven cases); tricuspid valvuloplasty (three cases). There was one (11.1%) hospital death. All the patients left the hospital in good clinical conditions. One patient presented pulmonary stenosis at distal prosthesis anastomosis and needed surgical correction. There was one (12.5%) late deaths after reoperation. At mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range 16 months to 8.4 years) seven patients are alive in functional class I (NYHA). Surgical treatment of congenital cardiac anomalies in the presence of a hypoplastic right ventricle by means of one and a half ventricle repair has the advantages of reducing the surgical risk of biventricular repair compared to the Fontan circulation; it maintains a low right atrium pressure, a pulsatile pulmonary blood flow and improves the systemic oxygen saturation with short and medium-term promising results. Longer follow-up is needed to prove the efficacy of such a repair in the long term.

  1. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  2. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  3. MRT measurements of the CSF spaces in HIV associated cerebral atrophy

    Handwerker, M.; Krahe, T.; Klinker, H.; Schindler, R.

    1992-01-01

    The CSF volume of 45 patients with HIV infection was measured at various clinical stages and the results compared with 24 normals. 60% of all patients showed increased CSF spaces as an indication of cerebral atrophy. Serial measurements were particularly valuable during the early stages of atrophy since there is marked variation in the normal CSF volume. Conventional measurements, with the exception of the width of the third ventricle, were much less sensitive than these quantitative measurements. Classification of HIF infection according to the clinical stage was useful since CSF volume and volume increase correlated with the stage of HIV infection. (orig.) [de

  4. Diagnosis of Non-compacted Myocardium of the Left Ventricle in Children

    I.B. Yershova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented a review of published literature data on rare congenital abnormalities in children — a non-compacted myocardium of the left ventricle, which refers to unclassified cardiomyopathy. This pathology by the American Heart Association classification relates to genetic cardiomyopathy. Non-compacted myocardium of the left ventricle in children develops due to violation of myocardial induration of the fetus in utero. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical signs. The authors also presented a clinical case of non-compacted left ventricular myocardium in 6-year-old girl.

  5. Clinico-morphological correlations in the categorization of holes between the ventricles

    Friedman Brad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists in the categorization of holes between the ventricles, although they are the most common congenital cardiac malformation. Advanced imaging techniques such as three-dimensional echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography offer superb anatomical details of these defects. In this review, we have sought to collate the features highlighted in different categorizations and identify their similarities, but also emphasize their differences. We hope that an analysis of this type, now achievable during life, using advanced imaging, might lead to the appearance of a unified system for diagnosis and description of holes between the ventricles.

  6. A double-chambered left ventricle in a patient with palpitation

    Stathaki, M.; Velidaki, A.; Koukouraki, S.; Koxiadakis, G.; Vardas, P.; Karkavitsas, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 28 years old male patient was admitted to the department of cardiology after an episode of atypical chest pain, exertional dyspnea and palpitation on exercise. He was a chronic smoker and was smoking about 15 cigarettes per day, but had no family history of early heart disease. The echocardiography demonstrated the presence of an abnormal chamber in close contact to the left ventricle that followed systole and diastole. The coronary angiography was normal and the left ventriculography showed a double-chambered left ventricle. Theradionuclide ventriculography confirmed the presence of two separate chambers that communicate with each other and the ejection fraction obtained was 43%. (author)

  7. Single-Ventricle Palliation in a 4-Year-Old With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    DeBoard, Zach M; Eckhauser, Aaron W; Griffiths, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old boy with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome undergoing single-ventricle palliation for an unbalanced atrioventricular canal defect. No reports of single-ventricle palliation in the setting of connective tissue disorders exist in the current literature. Unique findings on the patient's preoperative imaging included a disproportionately large neoaortic root and a regurgitant atrioventricular valve, which may foretell the need for future intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Echocardiograghy in Treating a Case of Double Chamber Right Ventricle with Delayed Presentation.

    Barik, Ramachandra

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of double chamber right ventricle (DCRV) is not straightforward. Clinical history, clinical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and Echocardiography (echo) contribute to morphological diagnosis. Cardiac catheterization is essential for hemodynamic evaluation. A thorough presurgical workup helps the cardiac surgeon to choose the appropriate surgical approach and timing of surgery in an individual case. We present a case of a DCRV who presented to us in the fifth decade of life. Echo confirmed the morphological diagnosis and cardiac catheterization complemented the exact pull back gradient across the obstruction in the right ventricle. This patient was suggested muscle bundle resection and ventricular septal defect closure using right atrial approach.

  9. Indentation in the Right Ventricle by an Incomplete Pericardium on 3-Dimensional Reconstructed Computed Tomography

    Hak Ju Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with an indentation in the right ventricle caused by an incomplete pericardium on preoperative 3-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography. She was to undergo surgery for a partial atrioventricular septal defect and secundum atrial septal defect. Preoperative electrocardiography revealed occasional premature ventricular beats. We found the absence of the left side of the pericardium intraoperatively, and this absence caused strangulation of the diaphragmatic surface of the right ventricle. After correcting the lesion, the patient’s rhythm disturbances improved.

  10. Massive symptomatic subependymoma of the lateral ventricles: case report and review of the literature

    Rath, T.J.; Sundgren, P.C.; Gebarski, S.S. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Brahma, B.; Chandler, W.F. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Neurosurgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lieberman, A.P. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Subependymomas are benign intraventricular tumors with an indolent growth pattern, which are usually asymptomatic, and most commonly occur in the fourth and lateral ventricles. When symptomatic, subependymomas often obstruct critical portions of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway, causing hydrocephalus, and range from 3 cm to 5 cm in size. We report a case of an unusually massive subependymoma of the lateral ventricles treated with subtotal resection, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and post-surgical radiation. The clinical course, radiographic and pathologic characteristics of this massive intraventricular subependymoma are discussed, as well as the differential diagnosis of lateral ventricular masses and a review of the literature concerning subependymomas. (orig.)

  11. Automatic determination of the regional ejection fraction of the left ventricle (gated bloodpool)

    Feser, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The left ventricular volume curve and the ejection fraction are calculated according to the ''sliding region of interest'' method in which the ventricle contour is redetermined for every single picture of the various phases of the heart beat. The original set of data, consisting of 32 pictures in 64 x 64 matrix resolution, is processed by a three-dimensional filtering process in space (x,y) and time (t). The ventricle contour is determined by convolution of the filtered images with a 7-point Laplacian operator in 4 independent directions. The atrial and ventricular phase histograms are then calculated on the basis of this contour. (WU) [de

  12. Imaging manifestation of cerebral gumma: report of 3 cases

    Wen Ming; Miao Tizong; Zheng Luping; Zhang Shilin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma. Methods: Three cases of surgically proved cerebral gumma were analyzed. All patients had history of ultra-marriage sexual life, and the laboratory tests, including the serums and/or the cerebrospinal fluid test, highly indicated the diagnosis of syphilis. Pathological results demonstrated cerebral gumma after operation. Results: On CT scan, case 1 showed a 5.0 cm x 3.5 cm hypo-density area at left temporal lobe with obvious mass effect, and post-contrast CT scan revealed a rim enhancement. MR scanning was not performed. In case 2, a mixture lesion was detected on right frontal lobe on pre-contrast CT scan, and spot-like central enhancement and mild mass effect were demonstrated on postcontrast CT scan. Pre-contrast T 1 WI showed 2 round lesions situated at right frontal lobe (1.5 cm in diameter) and right periventricular areas (1.0 cm in diameter), separately, which showed iso-signal on T 1 WI and hyper-signal on T 2 WI, and ring-like enhancement with slight compression of the right lateral ventricle. In case 3, CT plain scan demonstrated multiple hypo-dense lesions, most of the lesions located on both frontal lobe and left temporal lobe, and enhanced CT scan was not performed. MR imaging revealed many nodule and mass lesions with hypo-signal on T 1 WI and hyper-signal on T 2 WI, located on both hemispheres with nodular or circular enhancement after injection of contrast media. Conclusion: The imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma were nonspecific. Thus, the preoperational diagnosis should be made combining the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data

  13. Simultaneous and sequential hemorrhage of multiple cerebral cavernous malformations: a case report.

    Louis, Nundia; Marsh, Robert

    2016-02-09

    The etiology of cerebral cavernous malformation hemorrhage is not well understood. Causative physiologic parameters preceding hemorrhagic cavernous malformation events are often not reported. We present a case of an individual with sequential simultaneous hemorrhages in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations with a new onset diagnosis of hypertension. A 42-year-old white man was admitted to our facility with worsening headache, left facial and tongue numbness, dizziness, diplopia, and elevated blood pressure. His past medical history was significant for new onset diagnosis of hypertension and chronic seasonal allergies. Serial imaging over the ensuing 8 days revealed sequential hemorrhagic lesions. He underwent suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesions located in the fourth ventricle and right cerebellum. One month after surgery, he had near complete resolution of his symptoms with mild residual vertigo but symptomatic chronic hypertension. Many studies have focused on genetic and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture, but few have reported on the potential of hemodynamic changes contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture. Systemic blood pressure changes clearly have an effect on angioma pressures. When considering the histopathological features of cerebral cavernous malformation architecture, changes in arterial pressure could cause meaningful alterations in hemorrhage propensity and patterns.

  14. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable: clinical and pathological considerations.

    Gianelli, Umberto; Cattaneo, Daniele; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Boiocchi, Leonardo; Liu, Yen-Chun; Augello, Claudia; Bonometti, Arturo; Fiori, Stefano; Orofino, Nicola; Guidotti, Francesca; Orazi, Attilio; Iurlo, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate in detail the morphological, clinical and molecular features of 71 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable. We performed a meticulous morphological analysis and found that most of the cases displayed a hypercellular bone marrow (70%) with normal erythropoiesis without left-shifting (59%), increased granulopoiesis with left-shifting (73%) and increased megakaryocytes with loose clustering (96%). Megakaryocytes displayed frequent giant forms with hyperlobulated or bulbous nuclei and/or other maturation defects. Interestingly, more than half of the cases displayed severe bone marrow fibrosis (59%). Median values of hemoglobin level and white blood cells count were all within the normal range; in contrast, median platelets count and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. Little less than half of the patients (44%) showed splenomegaly. JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 72% of all patients. Among the JAK2-negative cases, MPLW515L mutation was found in 17% and CALR mutations in 67% of the investigated cases, respectively. Finally, by multiple correspondence analysis of the morphological profiles, we found that all but four of the cases could be grouped in three morphological clusters with some features similar to those of the classic BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Analysis of the clinical parameters in these three clusters revealed discrepancies with the morphological profile in about 55% of the patients. In conclusion, we found that the category of myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable is heterogeneous but identification of different subgroups is possible and should be recommended for a better management of these patients.

  15. Neoplasms in young dogs after irradiation during development

    Benjamin, S.A.; Williams, J.S.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the lifetime effects of irradiation during development, 1680 beagle dogs were given single, whole body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation at one of 6 pre- or postnatal ages. Four groups of 120 dogs each (480 or 29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at early prenatal times, 8 or 28 days postcoitus (dpc). Four groups of 120 dogs each (29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy in the perinatal period at 55 dpc or 2 days postpartum (dpp). Groups of 120 and 240 dogs (21%) received 0.83 Gy at later postnatal times, 70 or 365 dpp, respectively. A group of 360 dogs (21%) were sham-irradiated. The youngest dogs are now 12 years old. Through 4 years of age, 20 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed. Five malignancies and one benign tumor were seen in the first two years, including the only fatal malignancies which occurred in 4 perinatally irradiated dogs. Up to two years of age, the other non-fatal malignancy and benign tumor were found in dogs irradiated at 365 dpp and 55 dpc. The remaining 14 neoplasms, 12 benign and 2 non-fatal malignant, were diagnosed between two and four years of age. Respective numbers of these benign and non-fatal malignant tumors found in control, perinatally irradiated, and all other irradiated dogs were 2 and 0; 5 and 1; and 5 and 1. Eight of the benign lesions were minute papillomas of the eyelids which were more frequent in the perinatally irradiated dogs. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of the malignancies seen in the first four years of life occurred in the 29% of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. Sixty-seven percent (8 of 12) of all neoplasms, excluding eyelid papillomas, also occurred in perinatally irradiated dogs. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation

  16. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  18. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    Rajalakshmi V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare the child from the ill effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this communication we describe the gross and microscopic features of metanephric stromal tumor in a one-month-old child with good prognosis.

  19. Rupture of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the pancreas

    Barbara Rampersad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acute presentation of a spontaneously ruptured Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN in an 8 year old female is discussed with a review of the world literature. Our literature search revealed 15 other cases of ruptured SPN and with this case the total is now 16. Notably, 12 patients were 16 years of age or less at presentation as in our case. Although rupture of a SPN is rarely reported it appears to be more probable in the pediatric patient. Additionally, larger tumor size and trauma may be contributing factors.

  20. Cervical intraepitheial neoplasm with ichthyosis uteri- A case report

    Karishma Malla Vaidya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium is called Ichthyosis uteri. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium.Here we report a case of intraepithelial neoplasm III, with ichthyosis uteri. A 75-years-old female with hypetension, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo-ophorectomy for watery discharge per vaginal since four months.

  1. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  2. Hypothetical atopic dermatitis-myeloproliferative neoplasm (AD-MPN syndrome

    Toshiaki eKawakami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are hematopoietic malignancies caused by uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Recent studies have described several mutant mice exhibiting both AD-like skin inflammation and MPN. Common pathways for skin inflammation encompass overexpression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and reduced signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis, while overproduction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by keratinocytes and constitutive activation of Stat5 in hematopoietic stem cells are important for the development of MPN. The murine studies suggest the existence of a similar human disease tentatively termed the AD-MPN syndrome.

  3. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...

  4. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  5. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  6. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  7. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru

    1992-01-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  8. Evaluation of Radioactivity in the Bladder after Injection of 131I Hippurate into Lateral Ventricles of Hydrocephalic Patients

    DIJKSTRA, J.; H.W.M. Baars (Hennie)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractThis correlative study sought an explanation for the appearance in the bladder of 131I hippurate injected into the lateral ventricle. Part of the excretion seemed to depend upon a ventricular process. High disappearance constants and early onset times were related to small ventricles,

  9. Intra-cerebral ventricular infusion of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of a rat glioma

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when administered by continuous infusion into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral cerebral ventricle was evaluated in a 9L gliosarcoma rat brain tumor model. Stereotactic implantation of a 5 x 10(4) tumor cell suspension into the left caudate nucleus was carried out in four groups of 10 rats each. Control animals had a median survival of 16.9 days (range 16-21 days). IUDR, 8.4 mg over 7 days administered by continuous infusion into the left lateral ventricle produced a slight survival advantage (median survival 21.5 days, range 12-56). Irradiation of the entire brain, 8 Gy on days 4, 6 and 7 after tumor cell implantation also produced a slight improvement in survival (median 19.5 days, range 17-34). The combination of radiation and IUDR infusion into the CSF produced a marked survival advantage (median 30.5, range 22-54) compared to the control and single modality treatment groups. This is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of IUDR as a radiosensitizer when administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle in the treatment of an intraparenchymal brain tumor

  10. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  11. Pediatric liver neoplasms: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.; Ros, P.R.; Mergo, P.J.; Tomczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    Only 1-2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  12. Immunoglobulin therapy in hematologic neoplasms and after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Ueda, Masumi; Berger, Melvin; Gale, Robert Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer. We review immunoglobulin formulations and discuss efficacy and potential adverse effects in the context of preventing infections and in graft-versus-host disease. We suggest an algorithm for evaluating acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity in persons with hematologic neoplasms and recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  14. Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms

    Maley, Carlo C.; Aktipis, Athena; Graham, Trevor A.; Sottoriva, Andrea; Boddy, Amy M.; Janiszewska, Michalina; Silva, Ariosto S.; Gerlinger, Marco; Yuan, Yinyin; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Karen S.; Gatenby, Robert; Swanton, Charles; Posada, David; Wu, Chung-I; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Hwang, E. Shelley; Polyak, Kornelia; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Brown, Joel S.; Greaves, Mel; Shibata, Darryl

    2018-01-01

    Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components. These are the diversity of neoplastic cells (intratumoural heterogeneity) and changes over time in that diversity, which make up an evolutionary index (Evo-index), as well as the hazards to neoplastic cell survival and the resources available to neoplastic cells, which make up an ecological index (Eco-index). We review evidence demonstrating the importance of each of these factors and describe multiple methods that can be used to measure them. Development of this classification system holds promise for enabling clinicians to personalize optimal interventions based on the evolvability of the patient’s tumour. The Evo- and Eco-indices provide a common lexicon for communicating about how neoplasms change in response to interventions, with potential implications for clinical trials, personalized medicine and basic cancer research. PMID:28912577

  15. Dermal Squamomelanocytic Tumor: Neoplasm of Uncertain Biological Potential

    Mirsad Dorić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of exceedingly rare cutaneous neoplasm with histological features of malignancy and uncertain biological potential. The nodular, darkly pigmented facial tumor with central exulceration, size 12x10x7 mm, of the skin 61-year-old man preauricular left was completely exised.Histologically tumor consists of atypical squamous cells, which express signs of moderate to significant pleomorphism, mitotically active, with foci forming of parakeratotic horn cysts (“pearls”. Characteristically tumor also consists of large number of atypical melanocytes with multifocal pattern, inserted between atypical squamous cells, and which contain large amount of dark brown pigment melanin. Immunohistochemically, squamous cells stain positively with keratin (CK116, melanocytes were stained with S -100 protein, HMB 45, and vimentin, but failed to stain with CK 116.To our knowledge this is the sixth reported case in world literature. The follow-up time of four years no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, similar all reported cases, but it is too short period in estimation to guarantee a benign course. However, it appears that this group of neoplasm may have different prognosis from pure squamous carcinoma or malignant melanoma.

  16. Frequency of heterozygous TET2 deletions in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Joseph Tripodi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Tripodi1, Ronald Hoffman1, Vesna Najfeld2, Rona Weinberg31The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and 2Department of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Cellular Therapy Laboratory, The New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with overlapping clinical and cytogenetic features and a variable tendency to evolve into acute leukemia. These diseases not only share overlapping chromosomal abnormalities but also a number of acquired somatic mutations. Recently, mutations in a putative tumor suppressor gene, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2 on chromosome 4q24 have been identified in 12% of patients with MPN. Additionally 4q24 chromosomal rearrangements in MPN, including TET2 deletions, have also been observed using conventional cytogenetics. The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of genomic TET2 rearrangements in MPN using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a more sensitive method for screening and identifying genomic deletions. Among 146 MPN patients, we identified two patients (1.4% who showed a common 4q24 deletion, including TET2. Our observations also indicated that the frequency of TET2 deletion is increased in patients with an abnormal karyotype (5%.Keywords: TET2, myeloproliferative neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics

  17. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  18. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Right Ventricle Function in Children With Primary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Qiang Qin

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Right ventricle function was impaired in children with PNS. The characteristics were unrelated to blood pressure and IGF-1, but may be correlated with TNF-α and disease duration. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiology and clinical implications of this abnormality.

  20. Two different gene loci related to the spatial patterning of brain ventricle in vertebrate

    LUO Minna; LI Bingxia; TONG Ying; ZHAO Shufang; LUO Chen

    2007-01-01

    Observations on living embryonic brains and the microstructure of brain ventricle of goldfish revealed that there are two brain ventricle phenotypes in gynogenetic haploid embryos. One phenotype is as normal as that of the control inbreeding diploid embryos,which has normal differentiated forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Another phenotype is obviously abnormal, the brain patterning is irregular, and no distinct brain ventricle can be observed. The ratio of haploid embryos with normal brain pattern to that with abnormal brain pattern is 1:3. This ratio indicates that there are two gene loci involved in the spatial patterning of the brain ventricle. Since the possibility that deleterious recessive mutant alleles exist on both of the two gene loci had been excluded in this experiment, the phenotype represented the expressional state rather than the genotype of these two genes. Therefore, the ratio of 1∶ 3 suggests that the expressing probability for each copy of the two genes is 50%, and the regulatory mechanism of the expression is based on two sets of chromosomes, controlled by the rule of the diploid-dependent regulatory mechanism.

  1. Rationale and Description of Right Ventricle-Protective Ventilation in ARDS.

    Paternot, Alexis; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is associated with ARDS and leads to increased right-ventricular afterload and eventually right-ventricular failure, also called acute cor pulmonale. Interest in acute cor pulmonale and its negative impact on outcome in patients with ARDS has grown in recent years. Right-ventricular function in these patients should be closely monitored, and this is helped by the widespread use of echocardiography in intensive care units. Because mechanical ventilation may worsen right-ventricular failure, the interaction between the lungs and the right ventricle appears to be a key factor in the ventilation strategy. In this review, a rationale for a right ventricle-protective ventilation approach is provided, and such a strategy is described, including the reduction of lung stress (ie, the limitation of plateau pressure and driving pressure), the reduction of PaCO2 , and the improvement of oxygenation. Prone positioning seems to be a crucial part of this strategy by protecting both the lungs and the right ventricle, resulting in increased survival of patients with ARDS. Further studies are required to validate the positive impact on prognosis of right ventricle-protective mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Study of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI

    Wang Lianqing; Liu Lianxiang; Wu Jie; Wu Jing; Zhang Renshu; Wu Yujin

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle by CSF cinema MRI. Materials and methods: Nine patients with intraventricular cysticercosis in the fourth ventricle were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in all cases. All of these patients were examined systematically before the operation and studied with CSF cinema MRI in mid sagittal section and finger-gated scan technique. Results: (1) The path of CSF flow was directly displayed. All cysticercosis presented as a filling defect, and a cyst with a smooth wall. (2) The ventricular compliance was normal in cysticercosis. (3) The cysticercosis in active stage was free in the fourth ventricle and could be rolled over, its shape might change slightly within a cardiac cycle. In the degenerative stage, its wall could adhere to the ependyma and obstruct the CSF flow. Conclusion: CSF cinema MRI can demonstrate the degree of obstruction and pattern of CSF flow in cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle, thereby providing useful information for proper management

  3. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle.

  4. Long-term benefits of exercise training in patients with a systemic right ventricle

    van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Knaake, Jennifer L.; Cervi, Elena; de Vries, Leonie S. C.; Balducci, Anna; Meregalli, Paola G.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bonvicini, Marco; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the long-term effects of a ten-week exercise training program in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle. All patients who participated in a 2009 randomized controlled trial were approached. At approximately three years of follow-up from initial

  5. Long-term benefits of exercise training in patients with a systemic right ventricle

    van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Knaake, Jennifer L.; Cervi, Elena; de Vries, Leonie S. C.; Balducci, Anna; Meregalli, Paola G.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bonvicini, Marco; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study is to determine the long-term effects of a ten-week exercise training program in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle. Methods: All patients who participated in a 2009 randomized controlled trial were approached. At approximately three years of

  6. Statistical 3D shape analysis of gender differences in lateral ventricles

    He, Qing; Karpman, Dmitriy; Duan, Ye

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at analyzing gender differences in the 3D shapes of lateral ventricles, which will provide reference for the analysis of brain abnormalities related to neurological disorders. Previous studies mostly focused on volume analysis, and the main challenge in shape analysis is the required step of establishing shape correspondence among individual shapes. We developed a simple and efficient method based on anatomical landmarks. 14 females and 10 males with matching ages participated in this study. 3D ventricle models were segmented from MR images by a semiautomatic method. Six anatomically meaningful landmarks were identified by detecting the maximum curvature point in a small neighborhood of a manually clicked point on the 3D model. Thin-plate spline was used to transform a randomly selected template shape to each of the rest shape instances, and the point correspondence was established according to Euclidean distance and surface normal. All shapes were spatially aligned by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Hotelling T2 twosample metric was used to compare the ventricle shapes between males and females, and False Discovery Rate estimation was used to correct for the multiple comparison. The results revealed significant differences in the anterior horn of the right ventricle.

  7. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of a colloid cyst of the third ventricle

    Itoyama, Yohichi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yoshiki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1985-04-01

    A 58-year-old woman came to our hospital on July 19, 1984, with slowly progressive mental retardation, urinary incontinence, and gait disturbance of about six months' duration. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a low-density cyst in the third ventricle, a remarkable dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and P.V.L. The cyst was partially removed, and the V-P-shunt procedure was done. Her neurological complaints were completely relieved. The histological diagnosis was a colloid cyst. Although a colloid cyst is a relatively rare brain tumor, recently reports of the CT diagnosis of colloid cysts have been increasing in number; most of the cases have, though, been an iso- or high-density mass in the third ventricle. We here report an interesting case of a colloid cyst which appeared as a low-density mass in the third ventricle on CT. The colloid cysts, especially findings in the literature regarding the CT findings and the relationship between the density and the contents of the cyst, are reviewed.

  8. Automatic short axis orientation of the left ventricle in 3D ultrasound recordings

    Pedrosa, João.; Heyde, Brecht; Heeren, Laurens; Engvall, Jan; Zamorano, Jose; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Edvardsen, Thor; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The recent advent of three-dimensional echocardiography has led to an increased interest from the scientific community in left ventricle segmentation frameworks for cardiac volume and function assessment. An automatic orientation of the segmented left ventricular mesh is an important step to obtain a point-to-point correspondence between the mesh and the cardiac anatomy. Furthermore, this would allow for an automatic division of the left ventricle into the standard 17 segments and, thus, fully automatic per-segment analysis, e.g. regional strain assessment. In this work, a method for fully automatic short axis orientation of the segmented left ventricle is presented. The proposed framework aims at detecting the inferior right ventricular insertion point. 211 three-dimensional echocardiographic images were used to validate this framework by comparison to manual annotation of the inferior right ventricular insertion point. A mean unsigned error of 8, 05° +/- 18, 50° was found, whereas the mean signed error was 1, 09°. Large deviations between the manual and automatic annotations (> 30°) only occurred in 3, 79% of cases. The average computation time was 666ms in a non-optimized MATLAB environment, which potentiates real-time application. In conclusion, a successful automatic real-time method for orientation of the segmented left ventricle is proposed.

  9. Decreased expression of natriuretic peptides associated with lipid accumulation in cardiac ventricle of obese mice

    Bartels, E.D.; Nielsen, J.M.; Bisgaard, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    % (P depression of ANP mRNA expression in cultured HL-1 atrial myocytes. The data suggest that obesity and altered cardiac lipid metabolism are associated with reduced production of ANP and BNP in the cardiac ventricles in the setting of normal as well as impaired cardiac function....

  10. Differential effects of the transient outward K(+) current activator NS5806 in the canine left ventricle

    Calloe, Kirstine; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jespersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological and molecular properties of the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine left ventricle using a novel I(to) activator, NS5806, I(to) was measured in isolated epicardial (Epi), midmyocardial (Mid) and endocardial (Endo) cells using whole-cell patch-clamp tech...

  11. A comparative study of contractility of the heart ventricle in some ectothermic vertebrates

    Sergey Kharin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze contractility of the heart ventricle in selected reptilian and amphibian species having the same ventricular excitation pattern. Systolic time intervals and indices of contractility of the heart ventricle were measured in anaesthetized frogs, snakes, and tortoises by use of polycardiography. The electromechanical delay was significantly shorter in tortoises compared with the other two species. The isovolumetric contraction time in frogs was approximately twofold longer than in reptiles. The pre-ejection period was the longest in frogs and the shortest in tortoises, whereas snakes were intermediate. The ejection time was slightly longer in tortoises compared with the other two species. The greatest isovolumetric contraction index and the smallest myocardial tension index corresponded to the frog and tortoise heart ventricle, respectively. The intrasystolic index in tortoises was significantly greater than in frogs, whereas quite similar to that in snakes. The frog ventricle had lower contractility compared with the reptilian one. Although ventricular contractility tended to be lower in snakes compared with tortoises, this difference was not statistically significant. Possible causes for these differences are discussed. We suppose a large variety in ventricular contractility among amphibian and reptilian species having the same ventricular activation pattern. This variety may be conditioned by heart anatomy, intracardiac shunting, lifestyles, and habitats. It can only be hypothesized that on the average, ventricular contractility is higher in reptiles compared with amphibians and in chelonians compared with snakes.

  12. Preventing lower cranial nerve injuries during fourth ventricle tumor resection by utilizing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Minhas, Mazhar; Jane, John

    2012-12-01

    We present two cases illustrating the benefit of utilizing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) for prevention of injuries to the lower cranial nerves during fourth ventricle tumor resection surgeries. Multiple cranial nerve nuclei are located on the floor of the fourth ventricle with a high risk of permanent damage. Two male patients (ages 8 and 10 years) presented to the emergency department and had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showing brainstem/fourth ventricle tumors. During surgery, bilateral posterior tibial and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs); four-limb and cranial nerves transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs); brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs); and spontaneous electromyography (s-EMG) were recorded. Electromyography (EMG) was monitored bilaterally from cranial nerves V VII, IX, X, XI, and XII. Total intravenous anesthesia was used. Neuromuscular blockade was used only for initial intubation. Pre-incision baselines were obtained with good morphology of waveforms. After exposure the floor of the fourth ventricle was mapped by triggered-EMG (t-EMG) using 0.4 to 1.0 mA. In both patients the tumor was entangled with cranial nerves VII to XII on the floor of the fourth ventricle. The surgeon made the decision not to resect the tumor in one case and limited the resection to 70% of the tumor in the second case on the basis of neurophysiological monitoring. This decision was made to minimize any post-operative neurological deficits due to surgical manipulation of the tumor involving the lower cranial nerves. Intraoperative spontaneous and triggered EMG was effectively utilized in preventing injuries to cranial nerves during surgical procedures. All signals remained stable during the surgical procedure. Postoperatively both patients were well with no additional cranial nerve weakness. At three months follow-up, the patients continued to have no deficits.

  13. Evaluation of the cerebral ventricular system and cortical sulci associated with aging on CT

    Akimoto, Hiroshi; Maki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukio; Nose, Tadao; Yoshizawa, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    This study was attempted to establish a relationship between normal values and aging process of cerebral ventricular size and cortical sulci on computed tomography. A total of two hundred and fifty-eight cases of 126 males and 132 females was selected. The width of the fourth ventricle increased significantly in the fourth decade comparing with in the third decade. The width of the third ventricle increased significantly in the fourth decade compaing with in the third decade at the hypothalamic level and also in the sixth decade comparing with in the fifth decade at the thalamic level. The width of the anterior horn and the body of the lateral ventricles increased gradually with age, and showed a significant increase in the sixth decade comparing with in the fifth decade. The number of cortical sulci increased gradually with age, and increased significantly in the seventh decade comparing with in the sixth decade, especially in the occipital areas. The cortical sulci started to appear initially in the frontal areas during the second decade, subsequently in the central during the third decade and finally in both the parietal and occipital areas during the fourth decade. The width of the cortical sulci was less than 4.5 mm under the fifth decade. It did not exeed 6.2 mm in all of the cases, though widening gradually with age over the fifth decade. (J.P.N.)

  14. PET measurements of cerebral metabolism corrected for CSF contributions

    Chawluk, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.J.; Hurtig, H.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Reivich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-three subjects have been studied with PET and anatomic imaging (proton-NMR and/or CT) in order to determine the effect of cerebral atrophy on calculations of metabolic rates. Subgroups of neurologic disease investigated include stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, psychosis, and dementia. Anatomic images were digitized through a Vidicon camera and analyzed volumetrically. Relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue were calculated. Preliminary analysis suggests that ventricular volumes as determined by NMR and CT are similar, while sulcal volumes are larger on NMR scans. Metabolic rates (18F-FDG) were calculated before and after correction for CSF spaces, with initial focus upon dementia and normal aging. Correction for atrophy led to a greater increase (%) in global metabolic rates in demented individuals (18.2 +- 5.3) compared to elderly controls (8.3 +- 3.0,p < .05). A trend towards significantly lower glucose metabolism in demented subjects before CSF correction was not seen following correction for atrophy. These data suggest that volumetric analysis of NMR images may more accurately reflect the degree of cerebral atrophy, since NMR does not suffer from beam hardening artifact due to bone-parenchyma juxtapositions. Furthermore, appropriate correction for CSF spaces should be employed if current resolution PET scanners are to accurately measure residual brain tissue metabolism in various pathological states

  15. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    Karakullukcu, Baris; van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  16. [Incidence of haematological neoplasms in Castilla y León, Spain].

    Rodríguez-García, José Antonio; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ramos, Fernando; Cuevas, Beatriz; Martín, Alejandro; Smucler, Alicia; Guerola, Dulce Nombre; Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Alonso, José María; Fernández, Silvia; Díez, Eva; Rodríguez, María Jesús; Calmuntia, María José; Aguilar, Carlos; Sierra, Magdalena; Gracia, José Antonio; Cebeira, María José; Cantalejo, Rosa

    2015-06-08

    We aimed to assess the incidence of haematological neoplasms (HNs) in Castilla y León (2,5 million inhabitants) and its distribution by age, gender and histological type. The epidemiological profile based on the described variables of the 10,943 HNs diagnosed during a 10-years period was analyzed, compared with other studies. The overall age-adjusted incidence was 29.4 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with some geographical differences. The mean age was 67.3 years, with a turning point between the 6th-7th decades of life from which there was a very significant increase of incidence. Two relevant facts where simultaneous with advancing age: decreased lymphoid neoplasms incidence and increased low degree neoplasms incidence. Lymphoid low degree neoplasms accounted for half of the registered processes, showed the greatest preference for male and reached the mode before the rest of neoplasms. Myeloid neoplasms incidence (9.5) was higher than that reported in other European registries, specially compared to southern European countries, opposite to lymphoid neoplasms incidence (20.0). A higher myeloid neoplasms incidence and lower lymphoid one than expected was observed. The turning point of incidence is between the 6th-7th decades of life, with a preference for male that decreases with age. There is an increased incidence of HNs in the area where a higher density of potentially polluting facilities is concentrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-02-14

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  18. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prognosis, and treatment for these diseases.

  19. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch

    2011-01-01

    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F...

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  1. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  4. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  5. Ventrículo izquierdo no compacto/ventrículo izquierdo hipertrabeculado Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    Gustavo Restrepo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El ventrículo izquierdo no compacto/ventrículo izquierdo hipertrabeculado, es un tipo de miocardiopatía que se produce por el cese del proceso de compactación normal del ventrículo izquierdo durante la embriogénesis temprana. Se asocia con anormalidades cardiacas (cardiopatías congénitas y extracardiacas (alteraciones neurológicas, faciales, hematológicas, cutáneas, esqueléticas y endocrinológicas. Esta entidad con frecuencia pasa desapercibida y usualmente sólo se detecta en centros médicos con experiencia en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con miocardiopatías. Muchos casos de ventrículo izquierdo no compacto se han confundido inicialmente con diagnósticos de miocardiopatía hipertrófica, fibroelastosis endocárdica, miocardiopatía dilatada, miocardiopatía restrictiva y fibrosis endocárdica. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 74 años, con historia de hipertensión arterial crónica y diabetes mellitus, dolor precordial y disnea leve, a quien durante un examen ecocardiográfico se le encontraron signos de miocardiopatía del tipo ventrículo izquierdo no compacto. Además, se hace una revisión de la literatura que existe acerca de esta entidad.Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopathy produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies. This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopathy, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a

  6. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  7. Chemotherapy administration directly into the fourth ventricle in a nonhuman primate model.

    Sandberg, David I; Peet, M Melissa; Johnson, Mark D; Cole, Phaedra; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Luqman, Ali W

    2012-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that chemotherapy infusions directly into the fourth ventricle might potentially play a role in treating malignant fourth ventricular tumors. The study tested the safety and pharmacokinetics of short- and long-term infusions of methotrexate into the fourth ventricle in a new nonhuman primate model. Six rhesus monkeys underwent posterior fossa craniectomy and catheter insertion into the fourth ventricle. In Group I (3 animals), catheters were externalized, and lumbar drain catheters were placed simultaneously to assess CSF distribution after short-term methotrexate infusions. In 2 animals, methotrexate (0.5 mg) was infused into the fourth ventricle daily for 5 days. Serial CSF and serum methotrexate levels were measured. The third animal had a postoperative neurological deficit, and the experiment was aborted prior to methotrexate administration. In Group II (3 animals), catheters were connected to a subcutaneously placed port for subsequent long-term methotrexate infusions. In 2 animals, 4 cycles of intraventricular methotrexate, each consisting of 4 daily infusions (0.5 mg), were administered over 8 weeks. The third animal received 3 cycles, and then the experiment was terminated due to self-inflicted wound breakdown. All animals underwent detailed neurological evaluations, MRI, and postmortem histological analysis. No neurological deficits were noted after intraventricular methotrexate infusions. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated catheter placement within the fourth ventricle and no signal changes in the brainstem or cerebellum. Histologically, two Group I animals, one of which did not receive methotrexate, had several small focal areas of brainstem injury. Two Group II animals had a small (≤ 1-mm) focus of axonal degeneration in the midbrain. Intraventricular and meningeal inflammation was noted in 4 animals after methotrexate infusions (one from Group I and all three from Group II). In all Group II animals, inflammation extended

  8. Cerebral Oximetry in Cardiac Surgery

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of numerous current references, the review describes different neuromonitoring methods during cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. It shows that it is important and necessary to make neuromonitoring for the early diagnosis and prevention of neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Particular attention is given to cerebral oximetry; the possibilities and advantages of this technique are described. Correction of cerebral oximetric values is shown to improve survival rates and to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Lack of cerebral oximetry monitoring denudes a clinician of important information and possibilities to optimize patient status and to prevent potentially menacing complications, which allows one to conclude that it is necessary to use cerebral oximetry procedures within neu-romonitoring in cardiac surgery. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  9. CT differentiation of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver from solitary bile duct cysts.

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Yu, Eun Sil; Byun, Jae Ho; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, So Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the CT features required for differentiating mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver (mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct) from solitary bile duct cysts. CT images of pathologically confirmed mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 15), cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n = 16), and solitary bile duct cysts (n = 31) were reviewed. Analysis of the CT findings included shape, presence of septa, location of septa (peripheral vs central), thickness of septa (thin vs thick), mosaic pattern, mural nodules, intracystic debris, calcification, upstream bile duct dilatation, downstream bile duct dilatation, and communication between a cystic lesion and the bile duct. The maximum size of a cystic lesion and the maximum size of the largest mural nodule were measured. The presence of septa, central septa, mural nodules, upstream bile duct dilatation, and downstream bile duct dilatation were found to be significant CT findings for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from solitary bile duct cysts (p bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively. When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively [corrected]. With the use of specific CT criteria, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver can be differentiated from solitary bile duct cysts with a high degree of accuracy.

  10. Clinical Significance of Colonoscopy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Polyps and Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Liu, Jun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum) and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants). The principal findings included: (1) OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2) Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06–1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42–2.09], respectively) of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3) Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64–4.11). Conclusions Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms. PMID

  11. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  12. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  13. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and neoplasms: a case study.

    Lopes, Nilza N F; Caran, Eliana M; Lee, Maria Lucia; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Rocha, André Caroli; Macedo, Carla R D

    2010-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. It is characterized by facial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), palmar and plantar pits, bifid ribs, vertebral anomalies and a variety of other malformations. Various neoplasms, such as medulloblastomas, meningiomas, ovarian and cardiac fibromas are also found in this syndrome. To describe a twelve-year-old patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, with basal cell carcinomas and promyelocytic leukemia developed after receiving craniospinal radiation for a medulloblastoma. Bifid ribs as well as mandibular and maxillar OKC were also diagnosed Conclusion: The patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome should receive close follow-up for early detection of malformations nd malignant neoplasias.

  14. [Evidence on chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms from landmark clinical trials].

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the JAK2 gene are thought to underlie the development of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (cMPN). Indeed, ≥95% of polycythemia vera patients, and half or more of essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients, harbor the JAK2V617F mutation. Besides the JAK2V617F mutation, the JAK2 exon 12 deletion, the MPLW515L/K, and CALR mutation have been discovered and shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on these advancements in the study of cMPN, the JAK2 inhibitor was developed as a new therapy for PMF. Moreover, recent advancements in our ability to diagnose cMPN have paralleled the development of large clinical trials for patients with cMPN. This article provides explanatory information from these large clinical trials that is useful for the actual clinical practice of caring for patients with cMPN in Japan.

  15. Autopsy findings of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Jun; Tatezawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Niibe, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy findings in 26 cases of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation were analysed and following results were obtained. 1. Causes of death except for neoplastic extension were 58% (15/26) and infection was the single predominant cause of death (73% : 11/15) with 50% (4/8) in lung cancer. 2. Distant metastases were found in 73% (19/26). In 7 cases, no obvious metastasis was found before and after autopsy. On the other hand, the patients with metastases over 2 organs before autopsy revealed metastases in 82% (9/11) to the other organs at autopsy. 3. Radiation therapy was effective and the primary tumor disappeared completely in 71% (10/14) with curative irradiation. In metastatic lesions, tumor cells were almost disappeared with dosage over 40 Gy. (author)

  16. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio; Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  17. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    David I Bruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  18. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF RADIOACTIVE GOLD SEEDS IN NEOPLASMS

    Lachance, Paul; Vallee, A. F.

    1963-06-15

    A method and the apparatus for the treatment of neoplasms with Au/sup 198/ seeds are described. The introducer or gun is loaded with a magazine or cartridge containing 15 radioactive gold grains and then irradiated. The grains are cylinders made of gold encased in Pt with measurements of: length, 2.1 mm; diameter, 0.4 mm; weight, 25 mgm; platinum casing, 0.2 mm. The seeds are ready for use 7 to 10 days after irradiation or when gamma activity is around 3 to 4.5 mC per seed. A permanent implant gives to the tumor an approximate dose of 6000- 7000 r in 4 to 5 days. The effectiveness and advantages of the method are also discussed. (P.C.H.)

  19. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  20. Non-driver mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis

    Bing Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied non-driver mutations in 62 subjects with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN-associated myelofibrosis upon diagnosis, including 45 subjects with primary myelofibrosis (PMF and 17 with post-polycythemia vera or post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis (post-PV/ET MF. Fifty-eight subjects had ≥1 non-driver mutation upon diagnosis. Mutations in mRNA splicing genes, especially in U2AF1, were significantly more frequent in PMF than in post-PV/ET MF (33 vs. 6%; P = 0.015. There were also striking differences in clonal architecture. These data indicate different genomic spectrums between PMF and post-PV/ET MF.

  1. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms

  2. The characteristics of cerebral meningiomas and surrounding tissues on dynamic CT

    Jinkins, J.R.; Sener, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic CT was utilized to evaluate 11 patients with histologically benign meningiomas. While it was found that all demonstrated macroscopic neovascularity, subtle differences in the dynamic perfusion curves were identified both between different meningiomas and from region to region within the same tumor. Other than basic anatomic differences, these changes may reflect intratumoral ischemia and hypothetically herald cystic/necrotic alteration within the neoplasm. The dynamic calculations over the surrounding brain showed areas of gross hyper- and hypoperfused cerebral cortex, and hypoperfused white matter in regions of peritumoral edema. These latter findings are of uncertain clinical importance. The dynamic examination also confirmed cases of dural venous sinus invasion and calvarial permeation by tumor. In addition, the dynamic series showed macroscopic neovascularity in one case with a completely negative selective cerebral arteriogram. It is felt that certain cases which have previously been evaluated by static CT may benefit from further study utilizing the dynamic method. (orig.)

  3. Multimodal MRI in the characterization of glial neoplasms: the combined role of single-voxel MR spectroscopy, diffusion imaging and echo-planar perfusion imaging

    Zonari, Paolo; Baraldi, Patrizia; Crisi, Girolamo

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) provide useful data for tumor evaluation. To assess the contribution of these multimodal techniques in grading glial neoplasms, we compared the value of DWI, PWI and MRS in the evaluation of histologically proven high- and low-grade gliomas in a population of 105 patients. Independently for each modality, the following variables were used to compare the tumors: minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) normalized values between tumor and healthy tissue, maximum Cho/Cr ratio and minimum NAA/Cr ratio in tumor, and scored lactate and lipid values in tumor. The Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were employed to compare DWI, PWI and MRS between tumor types. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which parameters best increased the diagnostic accuracy in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. ROC curves were determined for parameters with high sensitivity and specificity to identify threshold values to separate high- from low-grade lesions. Statistically significant differences were found for rCBV tumor/normal tissue ratio, and NAA/Cr ratio in tumor and Cho/Cr ratio in tumor between low- and high-grade tumors. The best performing single parameter for group classification was the normalized rCBV value; including all parameters, statistical significance was reached by rCBV tumor/normal tissue ratio, NAA/Cr tumor ratio and lactate. From the ROC curves, a high probability for a neoplasm to be a high-grade lesion was associated with a rCBV tumor/normal tissue ratio of >1.16 and NAA/Cr tumor ratio of <0.44. Combining PWI and MRS with conventional MR imaging increases the accuracy of the attribution of malignancy to glial neoplasms. The best performing parameter was found to be the perfusion level. (orig.)

  4. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  5. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN): the cutaneous sanctuary.

    Pileri, A; Delfino, C; Grandi, V; Agostinelli, C; Pileri, S A; Pimpinelli, N

    2012-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDNC) is a rare tumour, which stems from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Although the aetiology is still unclear, in the last few years various reports suggested a potential role of chromosomal aberrations in the oncogenesis. The disease is currently enclosed among "acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms" in the last WHO classification. BPDCN has an aggressive course, however, it has been suggested that an exclusive cutaneous involvement at presentation is related to a better clinical outcome. We review the literature about BPDCN, and we present a series of 11 cases, all characterised by disease limited to the skin at presentation. Furthermore, we examined all cases of the last 10 years stored in the database of the multidisciplinary study group on cutaneous lymphomas of the University of Florence. Basing on the clinical features, patient were classified into two groups: with a single-lesion or multiple eruptive-lesions presentation. The former were treated with radiotherapy (limited field, electron beam therapy). The latter were treated with different therapeutic options, depending on age and co-morbidities. All patients with a single lesion achieved complete response. Five of 6 patients with eruptive lesions achieved a clinical response (2 complete and 3 partial response). Notably, the progression free survival was higher in the single-lesion than in the eruptive-lesion group (23 vs. 9 months). However all patients relapsed and 8 of 11 died. Although the small number of selected patients, we could speculate that the concept of "cutaneous sanctuary" is particularly true in patients with a single lesion-presentation. In these patients, especially if >70 year-old aged, radiotherapy should be encouraged as the treatment of choice.

  6. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  7. CSF in the ventricles of the brain behaves as a relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave phase coupling.

    William E Butler

    Full Text Available The ventricles of the brain remain perhaps the largest anatomic structure in the human body without established primary purpose, even though their existence has been known at least since described by Aristotle. We hypothesize that the ventricles help match a stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives into the rigid cranium with an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood by spatially configuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to act as a low viscosity relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave (PW phase coupling. We probe the hypothesis by comparing the spatiotemporal behavior of vascular PW about the ventricular surfaces in piglets to internal observations of ventricle wall motions and adjacent CSF pressure variations in humans. With wavelet brain angiography data obtained from piglets, we map the travel relative to brain pulse motion of arterial and venous PWs over the ventricle surfaces. We find that arterial PWs differ in CF phase from venous PWs over the surfaces of the ventricles consistent with arteriovenous PW phase coupling. We find a spatiotemporal difference in vascular PW phase between the ventral and dorsal ventricular surfaces, with the PWs arriving slightly sooner to the ventral surfaces. In humans undergoing neuroendoscopic surgery for hydrocephalus, we measure directly ventricle wall motions and the adjacent internal CSF pressure variations. We find that CSF pressure peaks slightly earlier in the ventral Third Ventricle than the dorsal Lateral Ventricle. When matched anatomically, the peri-ventricular vascular PW phase distribution in piglets complements the endo-ventricular CSF PW phase distribution in humans. This is consistent with a role for the ventricles in arteriovenous PW coupling and may add a framework for understanding hydrocephalus and other disturbances of intracranial pressure.

  8. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  15. [Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle. Two cases report and literature review].

    Choque Cuba, Bernardino; Ortega Zufiría, José Manuel; Poveda Núñez, Pedro Domingo; Lomillos Prieto, Noemí; Sierra Rodríguez, Mario; Tamarit Degenhardt, Martin; López Serrano, Remedios; Gómez Angulo Giner, Juan Carlos; Aramburu González, José Antonio

    2018-01-12

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle is a primary central nervous system tumor introduced in the group of glioneuronal tumors in the WHO classification of 2007. Initially it was described around the fourth ventricle, but recently have been published cases in different locations. We present 2cases of this rare tumor, both surgically treated. The first in a 41 year old man with typical symptoms of posterior fossa injury. The second in an 18 year old woman, with incidental finding of posterior fossa injury that was also surgically treated. We present pre- and post-surgical magnetic resonance images, histological pictures of this tumor and we make a review of the literature. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Substance Use, Dental Hygiene, and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Single Ventricle Physiology

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss

    2013-01-01

    % are not flossing their teeth (32% in controls; OR = 1.32; P = 0.239); and 39% are not physically active (24% in controls; OR = 1.63; P = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: While in general there was no significant differences in overall health behaviors between SVP patients and controls, SVP patients are less physically active......Substance Use, Dental Hygiene, and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Single Ventricle Physiology. Overgaard D, Schrader AM, Lisby KH, King C, Christensen RF, Jensen HF, Moons P. Author information OBJECTIVES: The study aims to describe substance use, dental hygiene, and physical activity...... in adult survivors with single ventricle physiology (SVP) and to compare the behaviors with matched controls, while the patients are particularly at risk for general health problems. DESIGN: The present study is part of a larger research project on long-term outcomes in adult patients with SVP. A cross...

  17. Influence of chronic prenatal hypoxia on the specialized contact apparatus of rat heart ventricles during ontogeny

    N. S. Petruk

    2014-08-01

    day of embryogenesis is lower in experimental group by 31,3% (p <0,05 in the left ventricle and 30,8% (p <0,05 in the right ventricle than parameters in the control group. The slowdown of growth of the profile length density of fascia adhaerens in the myocardium increases on the 20th day of cardiogeny and it was lower by 32,9% (p <0,05 in the left ventricle and 37,3% (p <0,05 in the right ventricle as compared with the control. During normal prenatal cardiogeny ventricular level of communicative contacts in cardiomyocytes respectably increases and shows a significant increase in nexus mean length from 14th to 18th day of embryogenesis by 75,5% in the control and insignificant increase in the left ventricle in experimental group – 23,6%. The increase in value of the convolution index of intercalated disc of rats with hypoxic myocardial damage as compared with the corresponding value in the neonatal period was 85,4% (p <0,05 in the left ventricle and 52,3% (p <0,05 in the right ventricle. Conclusion. It was established that the alterative influence of intrauterine hypoxia factor is associated with the formation delay of the mechanical and electrical contacts between the contractive cardiomyocytes of the left and right ventricles of rat heart at the stages of prenatal ontogeny. The increasing complexity of the geometry of the intercalated disc is characterized by slower growth of convolution index.

  18. Nuclear thyroid hormone receptors in rabbit heart: reduced triiodothyronine binding in atrium compared with ventricle

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled triiodothyronine (T3) binding to isolated nuclei was measured to compare the binding characteristics of the nuclear receptors in rabbit ventricular and atrial muscle cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded a maximum binding capacity of 170 +/- 20 fmol per mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant of 525 +/- 100 pM for ventricular nuclei. The binding capacity and the dissociation constant for the atrial muscle cell nuclei were 55 +/- 10 fmol per mg DNA and 500 +/- 75 pM, respectively. The results suggest that the binding capacity for T3 receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle. The reduced binding capacity of the T3 receptor in the atrium might reflect differences in the nuclear T3 receptors between ventricle and atrium

  19. The dorso-lateral recess of the hypothalamic ventricle in neonatal rats.

    Menéndez, A; Alvarez-Uría, M

    1987-10-01

    Light and electron microscopy of the hypothalamic ventricle in neonatal rats demonstrate morphological specializations of the ventricular wall at the level of the premammillary region of the third ventricle. The morphological features are: (1) A ventricular recess that we have called the "hypothalamic dorso-lateral recess" (HDR). (2) The presence of intraventricular capillaries near the dorso-lateral recess. (3) The HDR possessing a specialized ependymal lining; this consists of non-ciliated cells with short microvilli and bleb-like processes. (4) The existence of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons within the HDR. (5) The presence of numerous phagocytic supraependymal cells. The HDR is not found in adult rats. This indicates that the dorso-lateral recess may play a physiological role during development.

  20. A novel type of self-beating cardiomyocytes in adult mouse ventricles

    Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the presence of resident heart cells that are distinct from terminally-differentiated cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse heart was coronary perfused with collagenase, and ventricles were excised and further digested. After spinning cardiomyocyte-containing fractions down, the supernatant fraction was collected and cultured without adding any chemicals. Two to five days after plating, some of rounded cells adhered to the culture dish, gradually changed their shape and then started self-beating. These self-beating cells did not appreciably proliferate but underwent a further morphological maturation process to form highly branched shapes with many projections. These cells were mostly multinucleated, well sarcomeric-organized and expressed cardiac marker proteins, defined as atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs). Patch-clamp experiments revealed that ACMs exhibited spontaneous action potentials arising from the preceding slow diastolic depolarization. We thus found a novel type of resident heart cells in adult cardiac ventricles that spontaneously develop into self-beating cardiomyocytes.

  1. Evaluation of CSF flow in patients after endoscopic ventriculostomy of 3th ventricle with MRI

    Petkov, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Phase-contrast MR imaging is wide used for qualitative assessment and quantification of the CSF flow under normal and pathologic conditions. The increasing popularity of minimally invasive liquor derivation procedures - namely endoscopic ventriculostomy of 3-th ventricle - in neurosurgery raises the question of their actual effect on CSF flow in various types of hydrocephalus. We present our experience with 2D and 3D PC MRI in qualitative assessment and quantification of the CSF flow in 23 patients after endoscopic ventriculostomy of the 3-th ventricle for hyper- or normotensive hydrocephalus of various origins. We compare parameters of the CSF flow (direction, rate and net volume for one cardiac cycle) before and after the ventriculostomy

  2. Estimation of global and regional ejection fraction of the left ventricle using a fully digitalised technique

    Tuengerthal, S.; Reifart, N.; Standke, R.; Lang, J.; Kollath, J.; Riemann, H.E.; Frankfurt Univ.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Subtraction angiocardiography (DSAK) with a fully digitalised system (DR 960) provides a well defined demonstration of the left ventricle after peripheral venous contrast injection. Cardiac volume and ejection fractions were calculated by a dedicated software programme and the findings correlated with cine ventriculography (CA) (r=0.91), biplane echo cardiography (2 DE) (r=0.77) and radionucleid ventriculography (RNV) (r=0.85); the method can be used even with reduced cardiac output (EF [de

  3. Patient-reported outcomes in adult survivors with single-ventricle physiology

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen H

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Data on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SVP) are scarce. We sought (1) to describe the perceived health status, quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sense of coherence in adult survivors with SVP, (2) to compare PROs a...... of perceived health and quality of life. For patients in Ability Index class II and III, PROs were poorer. Conclusions: PROs in patients with SVP are generally good....

  4. VACTERL association with double-chambered left ventricle: A rare occurrence

    Abdulla Al-Farqani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects of unknown etiology derived from structures of embryonic mesoderm. The common cardiac defects seen with VACTERL association are ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot. We present a 2-year-old child with VACTERL association in whom we detected double-chambered left ventricle on transthoracic echocardiography.

  5. Ca2+-regulatory proteins in cardiomyocytes from the right ventricle in children with congenital heart disease

    Wu Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia and hypertrophy are the most frequent pathophysiological consequence of congenital heart disease (CHD which can induce the alteration of Ca2+-regulatory proteins and inhibit cardiac contractility. Few studies have been performed to examine Ca2+-regulatory proteins in human cardiomyocytes from the hypertrophic right ventricle with or without hypoxia. Methods Right ventricle tissues were collected from children with tetralogy of Fallot [n = 25, hypoxia and hypertrophy group (HH group], pulmonary stenosis [n = 25, hypertrophy group (H group], or small isolated ventricular septal defect [n = 25, control group (C group] during open-heart surgery. Paraffin sections of tissues were stained with 3,3′-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate to measure cardiomyocyte size. Expression levels of Ca2+-regulatory proteins [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a, ryanodine receptor (RyR2, sodiumcalcium exchanger (NCX, sarcolipin (SLN and phospholamban (PLN] were analysed by means of real-time PCR, western blot, or immunofluorescence. Additionally, phosphorylation level of RyR and PLN and activity of protein phosphatase (PP1 were evaluated using western blot. Results Mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy of the right ventricle in H and HH groups was confirmed by comparing cardiomyocyte size. A significant reduction of SERCA2a in mRNA (P16-phosphorylated PLN was down-regulated (PP Conclusions The decreased SERCA2a mRNA may be a biomarker of the pathological process in the early stage of cyanotic CHD with the hypertrophic right ventricle. A combination of hypoxia and hypertrophy can induce the adverse effect of PLN-Ser16 dephosphorylation. Increased PP1 could result in the decreased PLN-Ser16 and inhibition of PP1 is a potential therapeutic target for heart dysfunction in pediatrics.

  6. Is exercise good for the right ventricle? Concepts for health and disease.

    La Gerche, André; Claessen, Guido

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the prescription of exercise training in patients with left-sided heart disease, but data on the effects of exercise are far more limited for conditions that primarily affect the right ventricle. There is evolving evidence that right ventricular (RV) function is of critical importance to circulatory function during exercise. Even in healthy individuals with normal pulmonary vascular function, the hemodynamic load on the right ventricle increases relatively more during exercise than that of the left ventricle, and this disproportionate load is far greater in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Exercise-induced increases in pulmonary artery pressures can exceed RV contractile reserve (so-called arterioventricular uncoupling), resulting in attenuated cardiac output and exercise intolerance. In this review, we explore the spectrum of RV reserve-from transient RV dysfunction observed in athletes after extreme bouts of intense endurance exercise to RV failure with minimal exertion in patients with advanced pulmonary hypertension. Recent advances and novel approaches to echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have provided more accurate means of assessing the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation during exercise such that quantification of exercise reserve may provide a valuable means of assessing prognosis and response to therapies. We discuss the potential benefits and risks of exercise training in both health and disease while recognizing the need for prospective studies that assess the long-term efficacy and safety of exercise interventions in patients with pulmonary vascular and RV pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: computerized anatomic study of relashionship between septal and free left ventricle wall.

    Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; Costa, Eder França da; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Monteiro, Rosangela; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    A feature of dilated cardiomyopathy is the deformation of ventricular cavity, which contributes to systolic dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated this deformation bearing in mind ventricular regions and segments of the ventricle, which could reveal important details of the remodeling process, supporting a better understanding of its role in functional impairment and the development of new therapeutic strategies. To evaluate if, in basal, equatorial and apical regions, increased internal transverse perimeter of left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy occurs proportionally between the septal and non-septal segment. We performed an anatomical study with 28 adult hearts from human cadavers. One group consisted of 18 hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and another group with 10 normal hearts. After lamination and left ventricle digital image capture, in three different regions (base, equator and apex), the transversal internal perimeter of left ventricle was divided into two segments: septal and not septal. These segments were measured by proper software. It was established an index of proportionality between these segments, called septal and non-septal segment index. Then we determined whether this index was the same in both groups. Among patients with normal hearts and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the index of proportionality between the two segments (septal and non-septal) showed no significant difference in the three regions analyzed. The comparison results of the indices NSS/SS among normal and enlarged hearts were respectively: in base 1.99 versus 1.86 (P=0.46), in equator 2.22 versus 2.18 (P=0.79) and in apex 2.96 versus 3.56 (P=0.11). In the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the transversal dilatation of left ventricular internal perimeter occurs proportionally between the segments corresponding to the septum and free wall at the basal, equatorial and apical regions of this chamber.

  8. Left and right ventricle late remodeling following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Stefanon, Ivanita; Valero-Muñoz, María; Fernandes, Aurélia Araújo; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Rodríguez, Cristina; Miana, Maria; Martínez-González, José; Spalenza, Jessica S; Lahera, Vicente; Vassallo, Paula F; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiac remodeling in left (LV) and right ventricles (RV) after myocardial infarction (MI) are still unclear. We assayed factors involved in collagen turnover in both ventricles following MI in rats either presenting signs of heart failure (pulmonary congestion and increased LVEDP) or not (INF-HF or INF, respectively). MI was induced in male rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after MI gene expression of collagen I, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) as well as cardiac hemodynamic in both ventricles were evaluated. Ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy and an increase in interstitial fibrosis and myocyte size were observed in the RV and LV from INF-HF animals, whereas only LV dilatation and fibrosis in RV was present in INF. The LV fibrosis in INF-HF was associated with higher mRNA of collagen I, CTGF, TGF-β and LOX expressions than in INF and SHAM animals, while MMP2/TIMP2 mRNA ratio did not change. RV fibrosis in INF and INF-HF groups was associated with an increase in LOX mRNA and a reduction in MMP2/TIMP2 ratio. CTGF mRNA was increased only in the INF-HF group. INF and INF-HF animals presented different patterns of remodeling in both ventricles. In the INF-HF group, fibrosis seems to be consequence of collagen production in LV, and by reductions in collagen degradation in RV of both INF and INF-HF animals.

  9. Left and right ventricle late remodeling following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Ivanita Stefanon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in cardiac remodeling in left (LV and right ventricles (RV after myocardial infarction (MI are still unclear. We assayed factors involved in collagen turnover in both ventricles following MI in rats either presenting signs of heart failure (pulmonary congestion and increased LVEDP or not (INF-HF or INF, respectively. METHODS: MI was induced in male rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after MI gene expression of collagen I, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and lysyl oxidase (LOX, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2 as well as cardiac hemodynamic in both ventricles were evaluated. RESULTS: Ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy and an increase in interstitial fibrosis and myocyte size were observed in the RV and LV from INF-HF animals, whereas only LV dilatation and fibrosis in RV was present in INF. The LV fibrosis in INF-HF was associated with higher mRNA of collagen I, CTGF, TGF-β and LOX expressions than in INF and SHAM animals, while MMP2/TIMP2 mRNA ratio did not change. RV fibrosis in INF and INF-HF groups was associated with an increase in LOX mRNA and a reduction in MMP2/TIMP2 ratio. CTGF mRNA was increased only in the INF-HF group. CONCLUSIONS: INF and INF-HF animals presented different patterns of remodeling in both ventricles. In the INF-HF group, fibrosis seems to be consequence of collagen production in LV, and by reductions in collagen degradation in RV of both INF and INF-HF animals.

  10. Surgical Treatment of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Complicated by Pulmonary Hypertension

    Qing-Yu Wu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: PAP of patients with DORV complicated by PH can be expected to fall significantly after surgery. An arterial switch procedure can achieve excellent results in patients with transposition of the great arteries type. Higher incidence of complications may occur in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD type before 1 year of age. For those with remote VSD type, VSD enlargement and right ventricle outflow tract reconstruction are usually required with acceptable results. The degree of aortic overriding does not influence surgical outcome.

  11. Left ventricle function in patients with ischemic cardiopathy: determination of the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle with gated-SPECT. Experience in the CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE

    Mendoza, L.; Puente, A.; Hernandez, T.; Jimenez, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to correlate the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle (FEVI) obtained by means of g-SPECT and other diagnostic methods: ECO 2D and ventriculography for heart catheterization (CTT). (Author)

  12. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  13. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando; Sanches, Rafael Angelo

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  14. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  15. Diagnostic value of visualization of the right ventricle using thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Khaja, F.; Alam, M.; Goldstein, S.; Anbe, D.T.; Marks, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of visualizing the right ventricle on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scans (T-scan) at rest was studied in 53 patients. In 33 patients, the right ventricle was visualized clearly on the T-scan (group A). Hemodynamic evidence of right ventricular hypertension with systolic pressure greater than or equal to 30 mm Hg was present in 28 of 33 (85%) of these patients. Right ventricular volume overload with left-to-right shunt > 2:1 was present in three patients. Other tests were diagnostic for right ventricular enlargement and or pulmonary hypertension as follows: chest x-ray (58%), echocardiogram (36%), and electrocardiogram (15%). In an unselected group of 20 patients (group B) where resting T-scan did not show visualization of the right ventricle, the right ventricular systolic pressure was < 30 mm Hg in all. The other noninvasive tests did not reveal presence of right ventricular hypertrophy or enlargement. T-scan appears to be a useful and sensitivie test in detecting right ventricular pressure or volume overload compared with other noninvasive tests. This may be useful in detection of patients with right ventricular hypertrophy or enlargement secondary to pulmonary hypertension or other causes

  16. Cilia induced cerebrospinal fluid flow in the third ventricle of brain

    Wang, Yong; Westendorf, Christian; Faubel, Regina; Eichele, Gregor; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) conveys many physiologically important signaling factors through the ventricles of the mammalian brain. The walls of the ventricles are covered with motile cilia that were thought to generate a laminar flow purely following the curvature of walls. However, we recently discovered that cilia of the ventral third ventricle (v3V) generate a complex flow network along the wall, leading to subdivision of the v3V. The contribution of such cilia induced flow to the overall three dimensional volume flow remains to be investigated by using numerical simulation, arguably the best approach for such investigations. The lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the CFS flow in a reconstructed geometry of the v3V. Simulation of CSF flow neglecting cilia in this geometry confirmed that the previous idea about pure confined flow does not reflect the reality observed in experiment. The experimentally recorded ciliary flow network along the wall was refined with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and then adapted as boundary condition in simulation. We study the contribution of the ciliary network to overall CSF flow and identify site-specific delivery of CSF constituents with respect to the temporal changes.

  17. Complex blood flow patterns in an idealized left ventricle: A numerical study

    Tagliabue, Anna; Dedè, Luca; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the blood flow dynamics in a three-dimensional (3D) idealized left ventricle of the human heart whose deformation is driven by muscle contraction and relaxation in coordination with the action of the mitral and aortic valves. We propose a simplified but realistic mathematical treatment of the valves function based on mixed time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the Navier-Stokes equations modeling the flow. These switchings in time BCs, from natural to essential and vice versa, model either the open or the closed configurations of the valves. At the numerical level, these BCs are enforced by means of the extended Nitsche's method (Tagliabue et al., Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 2017). Numerical results for the 3D idealized left ventricle obtained by means of Isogeometric Analysis are presented, discussed in terms of both instantaneous and phase-averaged quantities of interest and validated against those available in the literature, both experimental and computational. The complex blood flow patterns are analysed to describe the characteristic fluid properties, to show the transitional nature of the flow, and to highlight its main features inside the left ventricle. The sensitivity of the intraventricular flow patterns to the mitral valve properties is also investigated.

  18. Method of segmenting inferior horns of lateral ventricles using active contour models

    Hattori, Masumi; Koyama, Shuji; Kodera, Yoshie

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the measurement of regional atrophy in the structure of the medial temporal lobe is a promising way to discriminate Alzheimer-type dementia patients from healthy control subjects. There are some reports that the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles are expanded by atrophying the structure of the medial temporal lobe. We developed a technique to automatically detect the region of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles by gray-level thresholding and morphological processing. However, there were some incorrect regions in this method. Accordingly, we proposed a technique for which active contour models (ACM) were used. Our ACM incorporates the improved edge-based image and the external constraint to improve convergence and to reduce its dependence on initial estimation. In this study, we present the details of an algorithm that traces the contours of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricles and its performance relative to manual methods. The average degree of correspondence between the extract region and manual trace was measured in 30 inferior horns of 15 subjects. The average degree of correspondence of the proposed method was about 4% higher than that of the conventional method. These results suggest that the proposed method is more accurate than the conventional method. (author)

  19. Fluid Structure Interaction simulation of heart prosthesis in patient-specific left-ventricle/aorta anatomies

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-11-01

    In order to test and optimize heart valve prosthesis and enable virtual implantation of other biomedical devices it is essential to develop and validate high-resolution FSI-CFD codes for carrying out simulations in patient-specific geometries. We have developed a powerful numerical methodology for carrying out FSI simulations of cardiovascular flows based on the CURVIB approach (Borazjani, L. Ge, and F. Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational physics, vol. 227, pp. 7587-7620 2008). We have extended our FSI method to overset grids to handle efficiently more complicated geometries e.g. simulating an MHV implanted in an anatomically realistic aorta and left-ventricle. A compliant, anatomic left-ventricle is modeled using prescribed motion in one domain. The mechanical heart valve is placed inside the second domain i.e. the body-fitted curvilinear mesh of the anatomic aorta. The simulations of an MHV with a left-ventricle model underscore the importance of inflow conditions and ventricular compliance for such simulations and demonstrate the potential of our method as a powerful tool for patient-specific simulations.

  20. Selective scanning of the right ventricle with the ultrashort-lived isotope krypton-81m

    Horn, M.; Witztum, K.; Neveu, C.; Perkins, G.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of right ventricular function using /sup 99m/Tc gated blood-pool imaging is hampered by the difficulty in separating the right ventricle from the left heart as well as from the right atrium. Krypton-81m, an ultrashort-lived isotope (t/sub 1/2/, 13 sec) with a single 190-keV gamma ray, can be infused into the venous circulation to yield stable count rates over the right heart. The authors have developed a technique for delivering a continuous infusion of /sup 81m/Kr via an antecubital vein for gated right ventricle (RV) equilibrium studies. Preliminary rest studies have been performed in 15 normal subjects ranging in age from 23 to 62 years. Right-heart structures including the right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonic valve, and pulmonary outflow tract are clearly identifiable. Essentially no counts are present over the left heart. RV ejection fractions in this group averaged 48.3 (+/- 5.7)%. Changes in pulmonary blood flow distribution from supine to upright position, which may be an index of pulmonary arterial pressures, are also easily demonstrated

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of anatomical structure and function of the ventricles

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Usui, Masahiro; Takenaka, Katsu

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being widely employed for evaluation of cardiovascular anatomies and functions. However, the indications for cardiac MRI to obtain information which cannot be obtained using other conventional methods have not yet been determined. To demonstrate the usefulness of MRI in delineating the apex of the left ventricle and free wall of the right ventricle, end-diastolic short axis MRI images were obtained in 20 patients with apical hypertrophy and in 9 normal volunteers. To compare the accuracy of estimations of left ventricular volumes obtained using the modified Simpson's method of MRI with that using the MRI area length method, 19 patients, in whom left ventriculography had been performed, were studied. The apex of the left ventricle was evaluated circumferentially and distribution of hypertrophied muscles was defined. Sixty-five percent of the length of the right ventricular free wall was clearly delineated. Correlation coefficients of the ejection fraction between MRI and angiography were 0.85 with the modified Simpson's method of MRI, and 0.62 with the area length method of MRI. Three themes were chosen to demonstrate good clinical indications for cardiac MRI. (author)

  2. Interfaces para control cerebral

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  3. Techniques in cerebral protection.

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.

  4. Cerebral aneurysms – an audit

    Enrique

    Abstract. We performed an audit to determine the profile of cerebral aneurysms at the Universitas Hospital Bloem- fontein, the only government hospital with a vascular suite in the Free State and Northern Cape area. Two hun- dred and twenty-three government patients, diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms during the period.

  5. Molecular Diagnostics in the Neoplasms of Small Intestine and Appendix: 2018 Update.

    Zhang, Yingtao; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Bluth, Martin H; Bhalla, Amarpreet; Beydoun, Rafic

    2018-06-01

    Neoplasms of the small intestine are rare in comparison with colorectal tumors. The most common tumor types arising in the small intestine are adenocarcinomas, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphoma. Primary appendiceal neoplasms are rare and found in less than 2% of appendectomy specimens with an incidence of approximately 1.2 cases per 100,000 people per year in the United States. This article explores molecular diagnostics in the neoplasms of small intestine and appendix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor registry data, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1957-1959: malignant neoplasms

    Harada, Tomin; Ide, Masao; Ishida, Morihiro; Troup, G M

    1963-10-03

    The report concerns three aspects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registry data, 1957-1959: comparability, reliability and validity of incidence rates of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries and various statistical problems of registered data related to the Life Span Study sample and Adult Health Study sample; incidence rates of main site of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries are compared with those of the United States and Denmark; and incidence of malignant neoplasm among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. 15 references, 7 figures, 30 tables.

  7. Simultaneous liver mucinous cystic and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct: a case report.

    Budzynska, Agnieszka; Hartleb, Marek; Nowakowska-Dulawa, Ewa; Krol, Robert; Remiszewski, Piotr; Mazurkiewicz, Michal

    2014-04-14

    Cystic hepatic neoplasms are rare tumors, and are classified into two separate entities: mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and jaundice due to the presence of a large hepatic multilocular cystic tumor associated with an intraductal tumor. Partial hepatectomy with resection of extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated an intrahepatic MCN and an intraductal IPMN-B. This is the first report of the simultaneous occurrence of these two histologically distinct entities in the liver.

  8. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women...... with progressing dyspnoea secondary to a huge left-side neoplasm. RESULTS: Work-up reveal an FEV(1) of 0.4 L, and a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The tumor was surgically removed in toto without complications: weighting approximately 3 kg, and benign histology. The patient was without dyspnoea...

  9. Molecular mechanisms associated with leukemic transformation of MPL-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Beer, Philip A; Ortmann, Christina A; Stegelmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Somatic activating mutations in MPL, the thrombopoietin receptor, occur in the myeloproliferative neoplasms, although virtually nothing is known about their role in evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, the MPL T487A mutation, identified in de novo acute myeloid leukemia......, was not detected in 172 patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm. In patients with a prior MPL W515L-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasm, leukemic transformation was accompanied by MPL-mutant leukemic blasts, was seen in the absence of prior cytoreductive therapy and often involved loss of wild-type MPL...

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of genetic heterogeneity in myeloid neoplasms uncovered by comprehensive mutational analysis

    Sarah M. Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While growing use of comprehensive mutational analysis has led to the discovery of innumerable genetic alterations associated with various myeloid neoplasms, the under-recognized phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity within such neoplasms creates a potential for diagnostic confusion. Here, we describe two cases where expanded mutational testing led to amendment of an initial diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia with subsequent altered treatment of each patient. We demonstrate the power of comprehensive testing in ensuring appropriate classification of genetically heterogeneous neoplasms, and emphasize thoughtful analysis of molecular and genetic data as an essential component of diagnosis and management.

  11. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  12. A robust automated left ventricle region of interest localization technique using a cardiac cine MRI atlas

    Ben-Zikri, Yehuda Kfir; Linte, Cristian A.

    2016-03-01

    Region of interest detection is a precursor to many medical image processing and analysis applications, including segmentation, registration and other image manipulation techniques. The optimal region of interest is often selected manually, based on empirical knowledge and features of the image dataset. However, if inconsistently identified, the selected region of interest may greatly affect the subsequent image analysis or interpretation steps, in turn leading to incomplete assessment during computer-aided diagnosis or incomplete visualization or identification of the surgical targets, if employed in the context of pre-procedural planning or image-guided interventions. Therefore, the need for robust, accurate and computationally efficient region of interest localization techniques is prevalent in many modern computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy applications. Here we propose a fully automated, robust, a priori learning-based approach that provides reliable estimates of the left and right ventricle features from cine cardiac MR images. The proposed approach leverages the temporal frame-to-frame motion extracted across a range of short axis left ventricle slice images with small training set generated from les than 10% of the population. This approach is based on histogram of oriented gradients features weighted by local intensities to first identify an initial region of interest depicting the left and right ventricles that exhibits the greatest extent of cardiac motion. This region is correlated with the homologous region that belongs to the training dataset that best matches the test image using feature vector correlation techniques. Lastly, the optimal left ventricle region of interest of the test image is identified based on the correlation of known ground truth segmentations associated with the training dataset deemed closest to the test image. The proposed approach was tested on a population of 100 patient datasets and was validated against the ground truth

  13. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  14. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  15. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  17. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  18. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  19. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system neoplasms

    Kortman, K.E.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    MRI has proved effective in the evaluation of intracranial mall lesions, and has become the imaging modality of choice in the work-up of suspected cerebral neoplasia. The reported lack of specificity may, at least in part, reflect a relative lack of familiarity with this new modality. Specificity will be maximized by diligent application of the diagnostic criteria already established by CT, and by recognition of distinctive MRI patterns as more experience is gained. The expected availability of paramagnetic contrast materials will yield an additional advantage in MRI, particularly in separating the tumor from edema