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  1. Research progress of cerebral small vessel disease

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    Jun-dong JIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease refers to a group of pathological processes with various etiologies that affect small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Recently, the researches of cerebral small vessel disease have got initial progressions, and a definite diagnosis of this disease is comfirmed by biopsy. Given the pathological material is difficult to obtain, clinicians should pay more attention to the imaging features and clinical manifestations. Correct understanding of imaging and clinical manifestations contributes to the early identification of cerebral small vessel disease. Herein, an overview is provided on the present status, common imaging features, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of cerebral small vessel disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.003

  2. Imaging cerebral small vessel disease at 7 Tesla MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a term often used to refer to lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WML) and microbleeds; lesions that are thought to be caused by changes in the small vessels of the brain. These lesions are commonly found in the general elderly population. However, it is hard to

  3. Sublingual Microvascular Changes in Patients With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Khalilzada; K. Dogan; C. Ince; J. Stam

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-It is unknown whether changes in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are limited to the brain or part of a generalized vascular disorder. Methods-We examined the sublingual microcirculation of 10 healthy controls, 10 patients with large vessel disease, and 8 with SVD, with sid

  4. Structural network connectivity and cognition in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, A.M.; Dijk, E.J. van; Zwiers, M.P.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Laat, K.F. de; Shumskaya, A.N.; Norris, D.G; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and microbleeds, and brain atrophy, are related to cognitive impairment. However, these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for SVD do not account for all the clinical variances observed in subjects with

  5. Retinal vessel diameters and cerebral small vessel disease: the Rotterdam Scan Study

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    Ikram, M.K.; Jong, F.J. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Prins, N.D.; Hofman, A.; Breteler, M.M.B.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The direct visualization of retinal vessels provides a unique opportunity to study cerebral small vessel disease, because these vessels share many features. It was reported that persons with smaller retinal arteriolar-to-venular ratio tended to have more white matter lesions on MRI. It is unclear wh

  6. Current pathophysiological concepts in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

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    Fred eRincon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between cerebral small vessel disease (SVD – in the form of white matter lesions, infarctions, and hemorrhages – with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI, has mostly been deduced from observational studies. Pathological conditions affecting the small vessels of the brain and leading to SVD have suggested plausible molecular mechanisms involved in vascular damage and their impact on brain function. However, much still needs to be clarified in understanding the pathophysiology of VCI, the role of neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer disease, and the impact of aging itself. In addition, both genetic predispositions and environmental exposures may potentiate the development of SVD and interact with normal aging to impact cognitive function and require further study. Advances in technology, in the analysis of genetic and epigenetic data, neuroimaging such as MRI, and new biomarkers will help to clarify the complex factors leading to SVD and the expression of VCI.

  7. White matters - The influence of cerebral small-vessel disease on depression, cognition and functioning

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    Grool, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in later life, and frequently co-occur. One of the possible mechanisms that may underlie both conditions is the presence of cerebral small-vessel disease. The presence of cerebral small-vessel disease is strongly associated with common vascula

  8. Disruption of rich club organisation in cerebral small vessel disease.

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    Tuladhar, Anil M; Lawrence, Andrew; Norris, David G; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they investigate the rich club organisation-a set of highly connected and interconnected regions-and investigate whether there is preferential rich club disruption in SVD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive assessment were performed in a discovery sample of SVD patients (n = 115) and healthy control subjects (n = 50). Results were replicated in an independent dataset (49 SVD with confluent WMH cases and 108 SVD controls) with SVD patients having a similar SVD phenotype to that of the discovery cases. Rich club organisation was examined in structural networks derived from DTI followed by deterministic tractography. Structural networks in SVD patients were less dense with lower network strength and efficiency. Reduced connectivity was found in SVD, which was preferentially located in the connectivity between the rich club nodes rather than in the feeder and peripheral connections, a finding confirmed in both datasets. In discovery dataset, lower rich club connectivity was associated with lower scores on psychomotor speed (β = 0.29, P SVD is characterized by abnormal connectivity between rich club hubs in SVD and provide evidence that abnormal rich club organisation might contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in SVD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1751-1766, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Yulu; Thrippleton, Michael J; Makin, Stephen D; Marshall, Ian; Geerlings, Mirjam I; de Craen, Anton Jm; van Buchem, Mark A; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities are frequent on neuroimaging of older people and are a key feature of cerebral small vessel disease. They are commonly attributed to chronic hypoperfusion, although whether low cerebral blood flow is cause or effect is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies that as

  10. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Dementia and Depression: a prospective population-based MRI study

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    N.D. Prins (Niels)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebral white matter lesions and asymptomatic brain infarcts are common in elderly people. These brain lesions are thought to result from cerebral small vessel disease, and their presence and severity increase with age and the presence of arterial hypertension. There i

  11. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: Cognition, Mood, Daily Functioning, and Imaging Findings from a Small Pilot Sample

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    John G. Baker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of cognitive decline, is considered a relatively homogeneous disease process, and it can co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging and neuropsychology testing for a small pilot sample of 14 patients are presented to illustrate disease characteristics through findings from structural and functional imaging and cognitive assessment. Participants showed some decreases in executive functioning, attention, processing speed, and memory retrieval, consistent with previous literature. An older subgroup showed lower age-corrected scores at a single time point compared to younger participants. Performance on a computer-administered cognitive measure showed a slight overall decline over a period of 8–28 months. For a case study with mild neuropsychology findings, the MRI report was normal while the SPECT report identified perfusion abnormalities. Future research can test whether advances in imaging analysis allow for identification of cerebral small vessel disease before changes are detected in cognition.

  12. Cerebral small vessel disease: targeting oxidative stressas a novel therapeutic strategy?

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    Alyson Anne Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a major contributor to stroke, and a leading cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Despite the devastating effects of cerebral SVD, the pathogenesis of cerebral SVD is still not completely understood. Moreover, there are no specific pharmacological strategies for its prevention or treatment. Cerebral SVD is characterized by marked functional and structural abnormalities of the cerebral microcirculation. The clinical manifestations of these pathological changes include lacunar infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds. The main purpose of this review is to discuss evidence implicating oxidative stress in the ateriopathy of both non-amyloid and amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy forms of cerebral SVD and its most important risk factors (hypertension and aging, as well as its contribution to cerebral SVD-related brain injury and cognitive impairment. We also highlight current evidence of the involvement of the NADPH oxidases in the development of oxidative stress, enzymes that are a major source of reactive oxygen species in the cerebral vasculature. Lastly, we discuss potential pharmacological strategies for oxidative stress in cerebral SVD, including some of the historical and emerging NADPH oxidase inhibitors.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging and mild parkinsonian signs in cerebral small vessel dissease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de K.F.; Norden, van A.G.W.; Oudheusden, van L.J.B.; Uden, van I.W.M.; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, de F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunar infarcts, in mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) is increasingly being recognized, not all individuals with SVD have MPS. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we investigated whether the presence o

  14. Through the looking glass: Risk factors, radiological hallmarks and cognitive function in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease’ (CSVD) is een ziekte van de kleine bloedvaatjes in de hersenen. In onderzoek wordt vaak gebruik gemaakt van MRI markers: witte stofafwijkingen en lacunaire infarcten. Beide markers komen vaak voor in de normale bevolking. Dit proefschrift onderzoekt 1) mogelijk andere

  15. Microbleeds are independently related to gait disturbances in elderly individuals with cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, Karlijn de; Berg, H.A. van den; Norden, Anouk van; Gons, R.A.R.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including white matter lesions and lacunar infarcts, is related to gait disturbances. Microbleeds (MB) are another manifestation of SVD, but their clinical impact remains unclear. We therefore investigated the relation between the number a

  16. Cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Shi, Yulu; Thrippleton, Michael J; Makin, Stephen D; Marshall, Ian; Geerlings, Mirjam I; de Craen, Anton Jm; van Buchem, Mark A; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2016-10-01

    White matter hyperintensities are frequent on neuroimaging of older people and are a key feature of cerebral small vessel disease. They are commonly attributed to chronic hypoperfusion, although whether low cerebral blood flow is cause or effect is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease patients, performed meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis of potential confounders. Thirty-eight studies (n = 4006) met the inclusion criteria, including four longitudinal and 34 cross-sectional studies. Most cerebral blood flow data were from grey matter. Twenty-four cross-sectional studies (n = 1161) were meta-analysed, showing that cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with more white matter hyperintensity, globally and in most grey and white matter regions (e.g. mean global cerebral blood flow: standardised mean difference-0.71, 95% CI -1.12, -0.30). These cerebral blood flow differences were attenuated by excluding studies in dementia or that lacked age-matching. Four longitudinal studies (n = 1079) gave differing results, e.g., more baseline white matter hyperintensity predated falling cerebral blood flow (3.9 years, n = 575); cerebral blood flow was low in regions that developed white matter hyperintensity (1.5 years, n = 40). Cerebral blood flow is lower in subjects with more white matter hyperintensity cross-sectionally, but evidence for falling cerebral blood flow predating increasing white matter hyperintensity is conflicting. Future studies should be longitudinal, obtain more white matter data, use better age-correction and stratify by clinical diagnosis.

  17. Blood pressure and sodium: Association with MRI markers in cerebral small vessel disease

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    Heye, Anna K.; Thrippleton, Michael J; Chappell, Francesca M; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Armitage, Paul A.; Makin, Stephen D.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Sakka, Eleni; Flatman, Peter W.; Dennis, Martin S.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary salt intake and hypertension are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke. We aimed to explore the influence of these factors, together with plasma sodium concentration, in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). In all, 264 patients with nondisabling cortical or lacunar stroke were recruited. Patients were questioned about their salt intake and plasma sodium concentration was measured; brain tissue volume and white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) load were m...

  18. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Results from the Kerala-Einstein Study

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    Wang, Nan; Allali, Gilles; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Noone, Mohan L.; Pradeep, Vayyattu G.; Blumen, Helena M.; Verghese, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebral small vessel disease to cognitive decline, especially in non-Caucasian populations, is not well established. Objective We examined the relationship between cerebral small vessel disease and motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a recently described pre-dementia syndrome, in Indian seniors. Methods 139 participants (mean age 66.6 ± 5.4 y, 33.1% female) participating in the Kerala-Einstein study in Southern India were examined in a cross-sectional study. The presence of cerebral small vessel disease (lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMB)) and white matter hyperintensities on MRI was ascertained by raters blinded to clinical information. MCR was defined by the presence of cognitive complaints and slow gait in older adults without dementia or mobility disability. Results Thirty-eight (27.3%) participants met MCR criteria. The overall prevalence of lacunar infarcts and CMB was 49.6% and 9.4%, respectively. Lacunar infarcts in the frontal lobe, but no other brain regions, were associated with MCR even after adjusting for vascular risk factors and presence of white matter hyperintensities (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 4.67, 95% CI: 1.69–12.94). Frontal lacunar infarcts were associated with slow gait (aOR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.46–10.79) and poor performance on memory test (β: −1.24, 95% CI: −2.42 to −0.05), but not with cognitive complaints or non-memory tests. No association of CMB was found with MCR, individual MCR criterion or cognitive tests. Conclusions Frontal lacunar infarcts are associated with MCR in Indian seniors, perhaps, by contributing to slow gait and poor memory function. PMID:26757037

  19. Dementia due to cerebral small vessel damage: Current ideas on its pathogenesis and therapy

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    I. V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing attention now focusses on dementia caused by small vessel damage when considering cerebrovascular disease leading to cognitive impairments (CIs. Stroke is one of the most important risk factors (RFs of vascular CI, including vascular dementia. Experienced stroke increases thrice the risk of dementia. Diffuse changes in the cerebral white matter (leukoaraiosis due to fluctuating blood pressure (BP and cerebral small vessel damage in most cases play an important role in the genesis of vascular CIs. Executive dysfunctions frequently concurrent with delayed psychomotor speed are the leading clinical manifestations of subcortical vascular dementia. Severe memory impairments are nottypical for subcortical dementia, its early stages in particular. The basis for the pathogenesis of CIs is the dissociation phenomenon that disrupts connections between the frontal lobes and subcortical structures and other cerebral cortical areas. Inadequate hypertension correction at a middle age is responsible for more than one fourth of cases of dementia developing in the elderly. The detection and further elimination of vascular RFs can reduce the risk of developing dementia in elderly and senile patients. Correction of elevated BP in the middle-aged is regarded as an effective method to prevent dementia in the future, but no premium is placed upon antihypertensive therapy in the elderly to lower elevated BP that is an inherent characteristic of this category of patients. Medications affecting RFs and those improving cerebral metabolism and bloodflow, including nicergoline are widely used to treat PD.

  20. Characterising the grey matter correlates of leukoaraiosis in cerebral small vessel disease.

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    Lambert, Christian; Sam Narean, Janakan; Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a heterogeneous group of pathological disorders that affect the small vessels of the brain and are an important cause of cognitive impairment. The ischaemic consequences of this disease can be detected using MRI, and include white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunar infarcts and microhaemorrhages. The relationship between SVD disease severity, as defined by WMH volume, in sporadic age-related SVD and cortical thickness has not been well defined. However, regional cortical thickness change would be expected due to associated phenomena such as underlying ischaemic white matter damage, and the observation that widespread cortical thinning is observed in the related genetic condition CADASIL (Righart et al., 2013). Using MRI data, we have developed a semi-automated processing pipeline for the anatomical analysis of individuals with cerebral small vessel disease and applied it cross-sectionally to 121 subjects diagnosed with this condition. Using a novel combined automated white matter lesion segmentation algorithm and lesion repair step, highly accurate warping to a group average template was achieved. The volume of white matter affected by WMH was calculated, and used as a covariate of interest in a voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness analysis. Additionally, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) was used to assess if the severity of SVD, measured by WMH volume, could be predicted from the morphometry and cortical thickness measures. We found significant (Family Wise Error corrected p grey matter density and cortical thickness maps (Pearson's coefficients 0.80 and 0.75 respectively). We demonstrate that SVD severity is associated with regional cortical thinning. Furthermore a quantitative measure of SVD severity (WMH volume) can be predicted from grey matter measures, supporting an association between white and grey matter damage. The pattern of cortical thinning and volumetric decline is distinctive for SVD

  1. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

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    Mark F. McCarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea, and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  2. Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    van Sloten, Thomas T; Protogerou, Athanase D; Henry, Ronald MA; Schram, Miranda T; Launer, Lenore J; Stehouwer, Coen DA

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n=15,666/22 cross-sectional/3 longitudinal) and 41 studies (n=57,671/30 cross-sectional/15 longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29 to 1.32 (P<.001). Studies on cognitive impairment could not be pooled due to large heterogeneity. Some (but not all) studies showed an association between greater stiffness and cognitive impairment, and the strength of this association was relatively weak. The present study supports the hypothesis that greater arterial stiffness is a contributor to microvascular brain disease. PMID:25827412

  3. Relation of cerebral small-vessel disease and brain atrophy to mild Parkinsonism in the elderly.

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    Reitz, Christiane; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kretzschmar, Konrad; Roesler, Andreas; V Eckardstein, Arnold; Berger, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    The association between cerebral small-vessel disease, brain atrophy, and the risk and severity of mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) remains unclear. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of lacunar brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs), and cortical atrophy on the risk and severity of MPS. This study is a cross-sectional community-based cohort study comprising 268 subjects, 65 to 83 years of age, residing in the Augsburg region of southern Germany, and without contraindications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Main outcome measures. Subcortical and periventricular WMLs, lacunar brain infarcts, and cortical atrophy determined using a standardized MRI protocol developed for the Rotterdam Scan Study and an established rating scale. MPS, assessed in a standardized neurological examination and based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scale. Lacunar brain infarcts and large subcortical white matter lesions were associated with an elevated risk of resting tremor. More severe cortical atrophy was related to an increased risk of rigidity and bradykinesia. In a linear regression analysis relating each individual MRI measurement with the severity of MPS, the number of lacunar brain infarcts and the degree of brain atrophy were correlated with the severity of resting tremor, whereas the size of subcortical and periventricular WMLs was correlated with the severity of rigidity. A higher degree of brain atrophy was associated with increased severity of either cardinal sign. In our study, presence and volume of lacunar brain infarcts, cerebral WMLs, and cortical atrophy were associated with the risk as well as severity of MPS. Determining the presence of these brain changes using brain imaging might contribute to identify persons at risk for MPS.

  4. Cerebral Microbleeds Are Associated with Worse Cognitive Function in the Nondemented Elderly with Small Vessel Disease

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    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs have emerged as an important manifestation of cerebral SVD, in addition to lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions (WMLs. We investigated whether the presence and location of CMBs in elderly subjects were associated with cognitive function, independent of lacunar infarcts and WMLs. Methods: One hundred and forty-eight nondemented elderly with SVD, defined as the presence of lacunar infarcts and/or WMLs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, were studied. Executive function and global cognition were assessed by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, respectively. The differences in the scores for the FAB and MMSE between CMB-positive and CMB-negative subjects were calculated after adjusting for possible confounders. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 72.4 w 8.6 years. CMBs were detected in 48 subjects (32%, with a mean number of CMBs per subject of 1.6 (range 0-31. Among CMB-positive subjects, 42 (87.5% had CMBs in deep or infratentorial regions with or without lobar CMBs, and 6 (12.5% had CMBs in strictly lobar regions. The presence of CMBs was significantly associated with FAB and MMSE scores after adjustment for age, years of education, brain volume and the presence of lacunar infarcts (for the FAB or severe WMLs (for the MMSE. The presence of CMBs in the basal ganglia, in the thalamus or in the lobar regions was associated with FAB scores, while that in the lobar regions was associated with MMSE scores. However, there was no association between CMBs in the infratentorial regions and cognitive parameters. Conclusions: In nondemented elderly with SVD on MRI, the presence of CMBs was independently associated with worse executive and global cognitive functions. CMBs seemed to reflect hypertensive microangiopathy in this population, and CMBs in specific areas may play an

  5. New angiographic measurement tool for analysis of small cerebral vessels: application to a subarachnoid haemorrhage model in the rat

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    Turowski, B.; Moedder, U. [Heinrich-Heine University, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Neuroradiology, Duesselorf (Germany); Haenggi, D.; Steiger, H.J. [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Beck, A.; Aurich, V. [Heinrich-Heine University, Institute of Informatics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Exact quantification of vasospasm by angiography is known to be difficult especially in small vessels. The purpose of the study was to develop a new method for computerized analysis of small arteries and to demonstrate feasibility on cerebral angiographies of rats acquired on a clinical angiography unit. A new software tool analysing grey values and subtracting background noise was validated on a vessel model. It was tested in practice in animals with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). A total of 28 rats were divided into four groups: SAH untreated, SAH treated with local calcium antagonist, SAH treated with placebo, and sham-operated. The diameters of segments of the internal carotid, caudal cerebral, middle cerebral, rostral cerebral and the stapedial arteries were measured and compared to direct measurements of the diameters on magnified images. There was a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of vessels measured in a phantom and the measurements acquired using the new image analysis method. The spread of repeated measurements with the new software was small compared to the spread of direct measurements of vessel diameters on magnified images. Application of the measurement tool to experimental SAH in rats showed a statistically significant reduction of vasospasm in the SAH groups treated with nimodipine-releasing pellets in comparison to all the other groups combined. The presented computerized method for analysis of small intracranial vessels is a new method allowing precise relative measurements. Nimodipine-releasing subarachnoidal pellets reduce vasospasm, but further testing with larger numbers is necessary. The tool can be applied to human angiography without modification and offers the promise of substantial progress in the diagnosis of vasospasm after SAH. (orig.)

  6. Pattern and Rate of Cognitive Decline in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Prospective Study.

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    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting processing speed and executive function, is an important consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. To date, few longitudinal studies of cognition in SVD have been conducted. We determined the pattern and rate of cognitive decline in SVD and used the results to determine sample size calculations for clinical trials of interventions reducing cognitive decline.121 patients with MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis were enrolled into the prospective St George's Cognition And Neuroimaging in Stroke (SCANS study. Patients attended one baseline and three annual cognitive assessments providing 36 month follow-up data. Neuropsychological assessment comprised a battery of tests assessing working memory, long-term (episodic memory, processing speed and executive function. We calculated annualized change in cognition for the 98 patients who completed at least two time-points.Task performance was heterogeneous, but significant cognitive decline was found for the executive function index (p<0.007. Working memory and processing speed decreased numerically, but not significantly. The executive function composite score would require the smallest samples sizes for a treatment trial with an aim of halting decline, but this would still require over 2,000 patients per arm to detect a 30% difference with power of 0.8 over a three year follow-up.The pattern of cognitive decline seen in SVD over three years is consistent with the pattern of impairments at baseline. Rates of decline were slow and sample sizes would need to be large for clinical trials aimed at halting decline beyond initial diagnosis using cognitive scores as an outcome measure. This emphasizes the importance of more sensitive surrogate markers in this disease.

  7. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

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    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey); Topalkara, Kamil [Bayindir Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Erkoc, Mustafa F. [Bozok University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm{sup 2} which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  8. Clinical and magnetic resonance observations in cerebral small-vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, V.I.H.

    1999-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis tried to address the following questions: 1. Is it possible to detect genetic factors and vascular risk factors that are specifically associated with the development of small- or large-vessel disease? 2. Are the different clinical and MRI manifestations, that are at

  9. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Small Vessel Cerebral Stroke in Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is an established risk factor for small-vessel cerebral stroke and the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the maintenance of blood pressure. We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism to the risk of small-vessel stroke in south Indian population. Materials and Methods. We investigated 128 patients diagnosed with small-vessel stroke and 236 age, and gender-matched healthy controls. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results. Hypertension was significantly more prevalent in the patient group and was associated with 6-fold increase in risk for stroke. ACE genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both patients and controls. Prevalence of DD, ID, and II genotypes in cases (34.4%, 43.7%, and 28% did not differ significantly from controls (31.8%, 43.2%, and 25%. The polymorphism was not associated with small-vessel stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.52–1.55. However, diastolic blood pressure was associated with the ACE I/D genotypes in the patients. (DD; 90.2±14.2> ID; 86.2±11.9> II; 82.3±7.8 mm Hg,  P=0.047. Conclusion. Our study showed that hypertension, but not ACE I/D polymorphism, increased the risk of small-vessel stroke.

  10. 视网膜血管异常与脑小血管病%Retinal vascular abnormalities and cerebral small vessel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李華; 吴丹紅

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common and is gradually being understood,but it is difficult to visualize directly in the body.The retinal vessels share the similar anatomic,physiological,and embryological characteristics with the cerebral small vessels.Their changes may reflect the changes of cerebral small vessels in a certain extent.Studies in recent years have shown that retinal vascular abnormalities are associated with lacunar infarction and white matter lesions.This article summarizes the research evidence of the correlation of between retinal vascular abnormalities and cerebral small vessel disease.%脑小血管病很常见并逐渐被认识,但在体内很难直接观察.视网膜血管与脑小血管具有相似的解剖学、生理学和胚胎学特征,其改变可能在一定程度上能反映脑小血管改变.近年来的研究显示,视网膜血管异常与腔隙性梗死和脑白质病变相关.文章对视网膜血管异常与脑小血管病相关性的研究证据进行了总结.

  11. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

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    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  12. Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP HP, INSERM, UMR 740, Dept Neurol, Lariboisiere (France); Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [Univ Paris 07, F-75221 Paris 05 (France); Porcher, R. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Dept Biostat, St Louis (France); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Clin Trials Unit, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA (United States); O' Sullivan, M.; Dichgans, M. [Univ Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Dept Neurol, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Guichard, J.P. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Dept Neuroradiol, Lariboisiere (France)

    2008-07-01

    Brain atrophy represents a key marker of disease progression in cerebrovascular disorders. The 3D changes of cortex morphology occurring during the course of small vessel diseases of the brain (SVDB) remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the changes affecting depth and surface area of cortical sulci and their clinical and radiological correlates in a cohort of patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriolopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic SVDB. Data were obtained from a series of 69 CADASIL patients. Validated methods were used to determine depth and surface area of four cortical sulci. The ratio of brain to intracranial cavity volumes (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF), volume of lacunar lesions (LL) and of white matter hyper-intensities, number of cerebral micro-haemorrhages, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient were also measured. Association between depth and surface area of the cortical sulci and BPF, clinical status and subcortical MRI lesions were tested. Depth and surface area of cortical sulci obtained in 54 patients were strongly correlated with both cognitive score and disability scales. Depth was related to the extent of subcortical lesions, surface area was related only to age. In additional analyses, the depth of the cingular sulcus was independently associated with the volume of LL (P 0.001), and that of the superior frontal sulcus with the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (P 0.003). In CADASIL, important morphological changes of cortical sulci occur in association with clinical worsening,extension of subcortical tissue damage and progression of global cerebral atrophy. These results suggest that the examination of cortical morphology may be of high clinical relevance in SVDB. (authors)

  13. Causes of cerebral small vessel disease : a prospective population-based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the 1970s, the introduction of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine, made it possible to image the living brain. These images showed that cerebral white matter lesions and asymptomatic lacunar brain infarcts are extremely common i

  14. Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

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    van der Vlugt Maureen J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM. Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white

  15. Probabilistic atlas based labeling of the cerebral vessel tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2015-03-01

    Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.

  16. Association of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Toshitaka Umemura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent years, the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD and cognitive impairment has been attracting attention. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is also associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether CKD markers are associated with cognitive impairment independently of SVD in elderly diabetic patients. Methods: Seventy-nine type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 76.0 years were enrolled in the present study. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria and/or a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 2. SVD was evaluated by the presence and severity of silent brain infarcts (SBIs and white matter lesions (WMLs on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychological tests were assessed using four validated cognitive instruments. Results: In multiple linear regression analyses, albuminuria was associated with worse modified Stroop Color Word scores (β = 0.284, p = 0.017 and low eGFR was associated with reduced Digit Symbol Substitution scores (β = -0.224, p = 0.026 after adjustment for age, sex, education years, diabetes duration, hypertension, multiple SBIs, and advanced WMLs. In contrast, there were no significant associations between CKD markers and Mini-Mental State Examination or Word Recall scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that albuminuria and low eGFR are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction independently of SVD in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.

  17. Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters to Detect Change in Longitudinal Studies in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

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    Eva Anna Zeestraten

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is the major cause of vascular cognitive impairment, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. Cognitive tests have been shown to be insensitive to change in longitudinal studies and, therefore, sensitive surrogate markers are needed to monitor disease progression and assess treatment effects in clinical trials. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is thought to offer great potential in this regard. Sensitivity of the various parameters that can be derived from DTI is however unknown. We aimed to evaluate the differential sensitivity of DTI markers to detect SVD progression, and to estimate sample sizes required to assess therapeutic interventions aimed at halting decline based on DTI data. We investigated 99 patients with symptomatic SVD, defined as clinical lacunar syndrome with MRI confirmation of a corresponding infarct as well as confluent white matter hyperintensities over a 3 year follow-up period. We evaluated change in DTI histogram parameters using linear mixed effect models and calculated sample size estimates. Over a three-year follow-up period we observed a decline in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivity in white matter tissue and most parameters changed significantly. Mean diffusivity peak height was the most sensitive marker for SVD progression as it had the smallest sample size estimate. This suggests disease progression can be monitored sensitively using DTI histogram analysis and confirms DTI's potential as surrogate marker for SVD.

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Amygdala Volume in Elderly with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The RUN DMC Study

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    I. W. M. van Uden

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. Lower left amygdala volume is associated with LODS, independent of SVD. This may suggest differential mechanisms, in which individuals with a small amygdala might be vulnerable to develop LODS.

  19. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  20. Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiac function and cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderen, Saskia G.C. van; Brandts, A.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Grond, J. van der; Buchem, M.A. van; Kroft, L.J.M.; Roos, A. de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Tamsma, J.T.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is associated with cardiac left ventricular (LV) function and mass as well as with cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 86 consecutive type 1 DM patients (49 male, mean age 46.9 {+-} 11.7 years) in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included aortic/heart disease and general MRI contra-indications. MRI of the aorta, heart and brain was performed for assessment of aortic PWV, as a marker of aortic stiffness, systolic LV function and mass, as well as for the presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), microbleeds and lacunar infarcts. Multivariate linear or logistic regression was performed to analyse the association between aortic PWV and outcome parameters, with covariates defined as age, gender, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, BMI, smoking, DM duration and hypertension. Mean aortic PWV was 7.1 {+-} 2.5 m/s. Aortic PWV was independently associated with LV ejection fraction (ss= -0.406, P = 0.006), LV stroke volume (ss=-0.407, P = 0.001), LV cardiac output (ss= -0.458, P = 0.001), and with cerebral WMHs (P < 0.05). There were no independent associations between aortic stiffness and LV mass, cerebral microbleeds or lacunar infarcts. Aortic stiffness is independently associated with systolic LV function and cerebral WMHs in patients with type 1 DM. (orig.)

  1. Demonstration of cerebral vessels by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography

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    Asari S.; Satch, T.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)); Sadamoto, K.

    1981-06-01

    1. Cerebral arteries and veins were demonstrated by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography (combination of axial, modified coronal, half axial (Towne), and semisagittal planes). The vessels which were demonstrated by various planes were as follows: Axial plane: Willis ring, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), anterior cerebral arteries (Horizontal and ascending portions), posterior cerebral arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal, internal cerebral veins (and the subependymal veins which join the ICV), and vein of Galen. Coronal plane: intermal carotid arteries (supraclinoid portion), anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), lenticulostriate arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal (and the subependymal veins which join this vessel), internal cerebral veins, and vein of Galen. Half axial plane (Towne projection): basilar artery, vertebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, superior cerebellar arteries, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), and anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal and ascending portions). Semisagittal plane: internal carotid artery (supraclinoid portion), posterior communicating artery, posterior carebral artery, superior cerebellar artery, internal cerebral vein, basal vein of Rosenthal, vein of Galen, and straight shinus. 2. A detailed knowledge of normal cerebrovascular structures acquired by computed tomography (CT) is essential in detecting and more precisely localizing lesions such as cerebrovascular disease, neoplasm or abscess, in differentiating these lesions from the normal contrast-enhanced structures, and in understanding the spatial relationship between the mass lesion and the neighboring vessels. In addition, it will be possible to discover such asymptomatic cerebrovascular diseases as non-ruptured aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and Moyamoya disease by means of computed cerebral angiotomography.

  2. Significance of Haemodynamic and Haemostatic Factors in the Course of Different Manifestations of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The SHEF-CSVD Study—Study Rationale and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Staszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. This paper describes the rationale and design of the SHEF-CSVD Study, which aims to determine the long-term clinical and radiological course of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD and to evaluate haemostatic and haemodynamic prognostic factors of the condition. Design. This single-centre, prospective, non-interventional cohort study will follow 150 consecutive patients with different clinical manifestations of CSVD (lacunar ischaemic stroke, vascular dementia, vascular parkinsonism or spontaneous deep, intracerebral haemorrhage and 50 age- and sex-matched controls over a period of 24 months. The clinical and radiological course will be evaluated basing on a detailed neurological, neuropsychological and MRI examinations. Haemodynamic (cerebral vasoreactivity, 24 h blood pressure control and haemostatic factors (markers of endothelial and platelet dysfunction, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation test will be determined. Discussion. The scheduled study will specifically address the issue of haemodynamic and haemostatic prognostic factors and their course over time in various clinical manifestations of CSVD. The findings may aid the development of prophylactic strategies and individualised treatment plans, which are critical during the early stages of the disease.

  3. Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. A number of disease features can be assessed on MRI including lacunar infarcts, T2 lesion volume, brain atrophy, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to disruption of white matter ultrastructure, and recently it has been suggested that additional information on the pattern of damage may be obtained from axial diffusivity, a proposed marker of axonal damage, and radial diffusivity, an indicator of demyelination. We determined the contribution of these whole brain MRI markers to cognitive impairment in SVD. Consecutive patients with lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis were recruited into the ongoing SCANS study of cognitive impairment in SVD (n = 115, and underwent neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI. SVD subjects displayed poor performance on tests of executive function and processing speed. In the SVD group brain volume was lower, white matter hyperintensity volume higher and all diffusion characteristics differed significantly from control subjects (n = 50. On multi-predictor analysis independent predictors of executive function in SVD were lacunar infarct count and diffusivity of normal appearing white matter on DTI. Independent predictors of processing speed were lacunar infarct count and brain atrophy. Radial diffusivity was a stronger DTI predictor than axial diffusivity, suggesting ischaemic demyelination, seen neuropathologically in SVD, may be an important predictor of cognitive impairment in SVD. Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD.

  4. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Risk of Death, Ischemic Stroke, and Cardiac Complications in Patients With Atherosclerotic Disease The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.A. Conijn; R.P. Kloppenborg; A. Algra; W.P.T.M. Mali; L.J. Kappelle; K.L. Vincken; Y. van der Graaf; M.I. Geerlings

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Cerebral small vessel disease may be related to vascular and nonvascular pathology. We assessed whether lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions on MRI increased the risk of vascular and nonvascular death and future vascular events in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Me

  5. 脑小血管病影像标志共识指南解读%New standard of neuroimaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群

    2016-01-01

    常与神经退行性疾病并存,可加剧认知障碍和躯体残疾。由于在 CSVD 影像学特征术语脑小血管病(cerebral small vessel disease,CSVD)是老化的常见伴随疾病,并且的命名、定义、影像采集和分析以及科学报告等方面均缺乏一致性,因此阻碍了相关研究的发展。2012年,由全球相关领域的专家组成的神经影像研究专家组发布共识指南,确立了代表 CSVD 6种关键性损伤的神经影像标志的术语及其定义,并对影像采集及科学报告的一致性提出了指导意见。这6种 CSVD 神经影像标志包括近期皮质下小梗死、假定血管源性的腔隙灶、假定血管源性的白质高信号、血管周围间隙、脑微出血和脑萎缩。应在临床实践及相关研究中,充分应用这份共识指南,从而促进 CSVD 的影像学诊断、影像采集和分析以及科学报告的标准化。%Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common disease accompanied by aging and is also usually concomitant with neurodegeneration diseases, exacerbating cognitive impairment and physical disability. The lack of consistency of terminology, definition, image acquisition and scientific report of CSVD hampers the further understanding of effects of CSVD on pathophysiological and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. A working group of global research specialists made a comprehensive review of neuroimaging markers of CSVD. The standard of interpretation of terminology and definition of six neuroimaging markers indicating key characteristic manifestations of CSVD, minimum standard for image acquisition and analysis, agreement on scientific reporting of neuroimaging features of CSVD, and new imaging methods for early detection of CSVD, were developed in 2012. These six neuroimaging markers include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacune of presumed vascular origin, white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin

  6. Accumulation of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease is associated with decreased cognitive function. A study in first-ever lacunar stroke and hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein eHuijts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background – White matter lesions (WMLs, asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, brain microbleeds (BMBs and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS have been identified as silent lesions due to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD. All these markers have been individually linked to cognitive functioning, but are also strongly correlated with each other. The combined effect of these markers on cognitive function has never been studied and would possibly provide more useful information on the effect on cognitive function. Methods – Brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in 189 patients at risk for cSVD (112 hypertensive patients and 77 first-ever lacunar stroke patients. We rated the presence of any asymptomatic lacunar infarct, extensive WMLs, any deep BMB, and moderate to extensive EPVS in the basal ganglia. The presence of each marker was summed to an ordinal score between 0 and 4. Associations with domains of cognitive function (memory, executive function, information processing speed and overall cognition were analyzed with correlation analyses. Results – Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between accumulating cSVD burden and decreased performance on all cognitive domains (all p≤.001. Results remained significant for information processing speed (r=-.181, p=.013 and overall cognition (r=-.178, p=.017, after correction for age and sex. Testing of trend using linear regression analyses revealed the same results. Discussion – We tested a new approach to capture total brain damage resulting from cSVD and found that accumulation of MRI burden of cSVD is associated with decreased performance on tests of information processing speed and overall cognition, implying that accumulating brain damage is accompanied by worse cognitive functioning.

  7. 脑小血管病与血管性认知功能障碍的关系%Relationship between Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敏; 朱晓钢

    2015-01-01

    主要简述脑小血管病(cerebral small vessel disease,SVD)与血管性认知功能障碍(vascular cognitive impair-ment,VCI)的关系。SVD 包括腔隙性脑梗死、脑微出血、脑白质病变或脑白质疏松三种类型,三者均与 VCI 密切相关,均可导致认知功能下降。因 SVD 起病隐袭,在临床工作中常被忽略,早发现、早干预 SVD 对预防 VCI 至关重要。%ABSTRACT:This paper reviews the relationship between cerebral small vessel disease (SVD)and vas-cular cognitive impairment (VCI).SVD includes lacunar infarction,cerebral microbleeds,and white mat-ter lesions or leukoaraiosis.The three types of SVD are closely correlated with VCI and can result in cog-nitive decline.Because of the insidious onset,SVD is often neglected in the clinical work.Therefore,early detection and intervention of SVD are very important for the prevention of VCI.

  8. Correlation research between serum uric acid and cerebral small vessel disease and its subtypes%血尿酸水平与脑小血管病及其亚型的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王式伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid in patients with and cerebral small vessel disease and different subtypes.Methods:The clinical data of 100 cases of patients with cerebral small vessel disease was analyzed retrospectively.The correlation between blood biochemical index,serum uric acid and cerebral small vessel disease was analyzed. Results:The levels of blood uric acid and blood glucose in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The level of serum uric acid was an independent risk factor for white matter ischemic lesion(P<0.05).Conclusion:The level of serum uric acid in patients with cerebral small vessel disease was significantly higher than that in healthy people,and the level of serum uric acid was an independent risk factor for white matter ischemic lesion.%目的:探讨脑小血管病患者血尿酸水平及其与不同亚型的相关性。方法:回顾性分析脑小血管病患者100例的临床资料,分析患者血液生化指标及血尿酸水平与脑小血管病的相关性。结果:观察组血尿酸水平以及血糖水平均显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。血尿酸水平是缺血性脑白质病变的独立危险因素(P<0.05)。结论:脑小血管病患者血尿酸水平显著高于健康人,血尿酸水平升高是缺血性脑白质病变的独立危险因素。

  9. Digital subtraction angiography of the cerebral vessels by intraarterial injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Izumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun; Mitsugi, Toru; Naruo, Yoshito; Takamiya, Makoto (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 184 neurosurgical patients by intraarterial injection. Examinations consisted of 192 carotid angiography, 110 vertebral angiography, 23 aortography, 11 spinal angiography and 21 other angiography. In all examinations, visualization of the vessels was excellent and the complications were never experienced. High contrast sensitivity of DSA resulted in better visualization of tumor stains, phlebogram, and arteries in cerebral arteriovenous malformations with large shunt blood flow than conventional angiography. Selective catheterization into each cerebral arteries was not necessarily demanded for good opacification of the vessels because of high sensitivity. High contrast sensitivity also permitted low concentration of contrast material, small dose of contrast material, and slow injection rate. Low concentration of contrast material reduced pain and heat during injection especially in the external carotid and vertebral angiography. Using slow injection, recoiling of catheter into the aorta was reduced, so that injection from the innominate and subclavian arteries for visualization of origin of the cerebral arteries were always successful. Full study of cerebral arteries by Seldinger's method, if necessary, was easily achieved using DSA even in patient with high age or with severe atherosclerosis. Bolus injection of small dose of contrast material as well as serial imaging was helpful in evaluating hemodynamics in the lesion. Real time display of DSA reduced the time required for angiography and was very convenient for artificial embolization. Besides these advantages, DSA became comparable to conventional angiography in spacial resolution by use of intraarterial injection and could be a preoperative genuine examination as well as a screening method.

  10. Spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in cerebral vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Hansson, Andreas; Phillip, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    The etiology behind and physiological significance of spontaneous oscillations in the low-frequency spectrum in both systemic and cerebral vessels remain unknown. Experimental studies have proposed that spontaneous oscillations in cerebral blood flow reflect impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA......). Analysis of CA by measurement of spontaneous oscillations in the low-frequency spectrum in cerebral vessels might be a useful tool for assessing risk and investigating different treatment strategies in carotid artery disease (CAD) and stroke. We reviewed studies exploring spontaneous oscillations...... coefficients in the time domain are the most frequently used parameters for analyzing spontaneous oscillations in systemic and cerebral vessels. At present, there is no gold standard for analyzing spontaneous oscillations in the low-frequency spectrum, and simplistic models of CA have failed to predict...

  11. Relationship between silent cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment%静止性脑小血管病与认知功能障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊雯; 黄敬

    2014-01-01

    The imaging features of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) include 1acunar infarcts, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds. Silent CSVD is closely associated with cognitive impairment. The decline in executive function, processing speed and memory problem are the main performance of the cognitive dysfunction caused by silent CSVD, which is associated with focal areas, quantity and size. Here we summarize the imaging features of silent CSVD and the relationship between silent CSVD and cognitive impairment for the purpose of early recognition and management of silent CSVD so as to delay the onset and development of cognitive impairment and improve the patients’ quality of life.%脑小血管病(cerebral small vessel disease, CSVD)在影像学上主要以腔隙性梗死、白质病变和脑微出血的形态存在。静止性CSVD与认知功能障碍密切相关,其导致的认知功能障碍主要表现为执行功能障碍、反应迟钝和注意力下降等,与病灶部位、数量和大小相关。本文就静止性CSVD的主要影像学表现及其与认知功能障碍的关系作一综述,以期加深临床医生对静止性CSVD及其危害的认识并提高识别率,由此尽早干预而延缓患者认知功能障碍的发生和发展,提高患者的生活质量。

  12. Demographic features and neuropsychological correlates in a cohort of 200 patients with vascular cognitive decline due to cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia and is potentially reversible. Small vessel disease (SVD closely mimics degenerative dementia in view of its sub-acute onset and progressive course. Therefore, unlike large vessel disease, Hachinski Ischemic scale score may not always reflect vascular cognitive decline resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic confusions. Therefore, there is a need for detailed neuropsychological assessment for various cognitive domains for early identification of vascular cognitive decline as it carries a very good long term prognosis for cognitive morbidity, unlike degenerative dementias. Patients and Methods: This prospective study involves thorough domain based neuropsychological assessment of patients with a radiological diagnosis of SVD involving the following parameters-digit forward and backward, category fluency, color trails, stick test, logical memory test, and bender gestalt test. Magnetic resonance imaging scans done using 3-tesla machines and SVD graded using Fazekas visual scale. Results: The mean Hachinskis score was less sensitive for differentiating vascular dementia from degenerative dementia. However, the domain based neuropsychological scores were highly sensitive showing statistically significant impairment in all 6 domains tested and compared with Fazekas 1-3 grades in imaging. Discussion and Conclusion: This study aimed at establishing an early diagnosis of vascular mild cognitive impairment using domain wise neuropsychological testing and correlating it with radiological scores. Hachinskis score is more sensitive for large vessel disease in view of acute onset and step-like progression as against steady progression in SVD. However, domain-wise testing was highly sensitive in identifying early cognitive impairment in patients with SVD, and early therapeutic interventions are highly rewarding.

  13. Relaxation oscillation model of hemodynamic parameters in the cerebral vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Mikhaylova, A. V.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Ufimtseva, I. V.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Simulation of a blood flow under normality as well as under pathology is extremely complex problem of great current interest both from the point of view of fundamental hydrodynamics, and for medical applications. This paper proposes a model of Van der Pol - Duffing nonlinear oscillator equation describing relaxation oscillations of a blood flow in the cerebral vessels. The model is based on the patient-specific clinical experimental data flow obtained during the neurosurgical operations in Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology. The stability of the model is demonstrated through the variations of initial data and coefficients. It is universal and describes pressure and velocity fluctuations in different cerebral vessels (arteries, veins, sinuses), as well as in a laboratory model of carotid bifurcation. Derived equation describes the rheology of the ”blood stream - elastic vessel wall gelatinous brain environment” composite system and represents the state equation of this complex environment.

  14. A case of small vessel vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mahashabde

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of un-specified small vessel vasculitis, which was diagnosed on the basis of positive perinuclear anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA P MPO done by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA.

  15. Research Progress of Post-stroke Depression and Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases%卒中后抑郁与脑小血管病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明宝红; 郭阳

    2015-01-01

    The post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the common complications after stroke. It not only affects the recovery of the psychiatric and neurological function in patients, but also increases mortality and morbidity, resulting in a negative inlfuence for the prognosis in patients with stroke. There is a certain degree of correlation between the PSD and the lesion site, degree of pathological changes. But recent studies demonstrated that the cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD) are also closely related to the occurrence of PSD. With the increasing of the aging population, the occurrence of the CSVD is raising. The CSVD is not only an important risk factor of PSD, but also increases the severity of PSD. In this article, we made a review of the relationship between CSVD and PSD.%卒中后抑郁为卒中常见并发症之一,不仅影响患者的精神及神经功能恢复,甚至增加患者的病死率、致残率,对患者的预后产生消极影响。卒中后抑郁与病变部位、病变程度等存在一定程度的相关性,但近年来研究证实脑小血管病变同样与卒中后抑郁的发生密切相关,随着人口老龄化的加剧,脑小血管病的发病率随之增加,它不仅是卒中后抑郁发生的危险因素,并且会加重卒中后抑郁的严重程度。本文对脑小血管病与卒中后抑郁的关系做一综述。

  16. Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Smith, E.E.; Biessels, G.J.; Cordonnier, C.; Fazekas, F.; Frayne, R.; Lindley, R.I.; O'Brien, J.T.; Barkhof, F.; Benavente, O.R.; Black, S.E.; Brayne, C.; Breteler, M.; Chabriat, H.; DeCarli, C.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Doubal, F.; Duering, M.; Fox, N.C.; Greenberg, S.; Hachinski, V.; Kilimann, I.; Mok, V.; Oostenbrugge, R.; Pantoni, L.; Speck, O.; Stephan, B.C.; Teipel, S.; Viswanathan, A.; Werring, D.; Chen, C.; Smith, C.; Buchem, M. van; Norrving, B.; Gorelick, P.B.; Dichgans, M.; nEuroimaging, S.T.f.R.V.c.o.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have

  17. Small RoPax Vessel stability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher;

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 new damage stability requirements for passenger ships based on a probabilistic method were adopted by IMO and are now part of the current SOLAS Chapter II-1 regulations (SOLAS 2009). The mandate from IMO was to keep the same safety level as inherent in the old deterministic damage stability......-representative”. Currently there is a renewed debate in IMO regarding the required damage stability safety level for passenger ships. The damage stability safety level for small ro/pax vessels has also been discussed outside of the IMO assuming that the damage stability safety level for small ro/pax designs is perhaps...... not sufficient, i.e. that the current safety level according to SOLAS 2009 is less than the old safety level according to SOLAS 90. In order to establish a solid foundation for the discussion, this study was made possible by a grant from The Danish Maritime Fund. The study focus on small ro/pax vessels...

  18. Population Imaging of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.F. Poels (Mariëlle)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs we grow older, our brain tends to shrink. We become increasingly vul nerable to dementia and stroke, two common disorders in the elderly that have great impact on brain functioning and the way people live their lives. The burden of these diseases will rapidly grow over the coming year

  19. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  20. Large cerebral vessel occlusive disease in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, R; Benndorf, G; Schmitt, M; von Moers, A; Lehmann, R

    2002-02-01

    We report on a 12-year-old, previously healthy girl with an acute hemiparesis as the predominant clinical manifestation of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). The diagnosis of LNB was based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, laboratory findings and the clinical course whereas the patient's history and the lack of characteristic skin lesions obscured the diagnosis in the beginning. After four weeks of antibiotic and physiotherapeutic treatment, the hemiparetic symptoms had completely resolved. Although evidence of vasculitic and perivascular inflammation in LNB has been described in the literature, large cerebral vessel occlusive disease represents a rare finding. Appropriate treatment strategies can lead to good clinical rehabilitation, as shown in this case, making the timely diagnosis a crucial issue. We conclude that LNB should be considered in every stroke-like episode of unknown origin in children, even in the absence of a history of a tick bite or typical skin lesions.

  1. Cognitive profiles in degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology and small vessel vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Antonella; Cipollini, Virginia; Donato, Nicole; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Orzi, Francesco; Giubilei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have examined possible differences in cognitive performance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the data in the literature are conflicting. The aims of this study were to analyze the neuropsychological pattern of subjects affected by degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology (DD) and small vessel VaD subjects in the early stages and to investigate differences in the progression of cognitive impairment. Seventy-five patients with probable VaD and 75 patients with probable DD were included. All the subjects underwent a standard neuropsychological evaluation, including the following test: Visual Search, Attentional matrices, Story Recall, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency, Token, and Copying Drawings. The severity of cognitive impairment was stratified according to the MMSE score. Fifteen subjects with probable DD and 10 subjects with probable VaD underwent a 12-month cognitive re-evaluation. No significant difference was found between DD and VaD subjects in any of the neuropsychological tests except Story Recall in the mild cognitive impairment (P dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology from small vessel VaD in the early stages of these diseases.

  2. D-Dimer combined with glycated hemoglobin level of cerebral small vessel disease condition prediction effect%D - D 二聚体水平联合糖化血红蛋白对脑小血管疾病病情的预测效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周绍英; 伍辉; 王真艳; 刘连琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨 D - D 二聚体水平联合糖化血红蛋白对脑小血管疾病病情的预测效果。方法选取2012年1月至2014年12月期间住院治疗的脑小血管病患者150例,根据患者的脑动脉脉动指数(PI)的差别将患者分为高 PI组(PI ﹥1.5,n =49)、中 PI 组(1.2≤PI≤1.5,n =66)、低 PI 组(PI ﹤1.2,n =35)。另选健康对照组50例。所有观察对象检测 D - D 二聚体、糖化血红蛋白、PI、血压、体重、身高等基本资料,比较4组的血样中 D - D 二聚体、糖血红蛋白的差异;再通过多因素 Logistic 回归分析确定脑小血管病的危险影响因素,分析糖化血红蛋白与 D - D 二聚体含量与脑血小血管疾病病情的关系。结果随着脑小血管疾病病情的加重,患者的 D - D 二聚体水平和糖化血红蛋白水平明显升高。4组研究对象的 D - D 二聚体和糖化血红蛋白含量的差异具有统计学意义,组间两两比较均具有统计学差异;D - D 二聚体含量、糖化血红蛋白含量均为脑小血管疾病的危险因素;通过 Pesrson 相关性分析显示,糖化血红蛋白含量与脑小血管疾病病情的严重程度呈正相关( r =0.669,P =0.013;D - D 二聚体含量与脑小血管疾病病情的严重程度呈正相关( r =0.683,P =0.010)。结论脑小血管疾病的严重程度与 D - D 含量和糖化血红蛋白含量存在正相关性,在临床上可以通过 D - D 二聚体含量和糖化血红蛋白含量来一定程度上预测脑小血管疾病的病情。%Objective To discuss the prediction effect of D - D combined with glycated hemoglobin level of cerebral small vessel disease. Methods This study selected 150 cases of cerebral small vessel disease patients during the treatment from January 2012 to December 2014 in our hospital. According to differences in the patient's brain artery pulsatility index(PI),the patients were divided into high,medium and low

  3. Mechanism and treatment principle for cerebral vessel spasm caused by concussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖兴义; 郭新红; 王德文; 薛关生

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the mechanism of cerebral vessel spasm caused by concussion and the effect of Nimodipine on concussion. Methods: A total of 224 patients who were treated from March 1995 to October 1999 were divided into two groups randomly, ie, Nimodipine group (113 cases) and control group (111 cases). Middle cerebral artery (MCA), basilar artery (BA) and the average peak forward velocity of cerebral blood flow were observed by color three-dimensional transcranial Doppler (3D-TCD) within 24 hours after admission and at the end of 3-6 days of treatment. Cerebral blood flow changes, characteristics and treatment effect were analyzed and determined by clinical main symptom disappearance rate. Results: In concussion, cerebral blood flow was divided into 3 phases: cerebral blood flow low infusion dilation phase, cerebral blood vessel spasm phase and cerebral blood flow recovery phase. In the Nimodipine group, clinical main symptom disappearance rate was higher than that in the control group in the cerebral spasm and recovery phases with a significant difference (P<0.01).  Conclusions: Cerebral vessel spasm, hypoxia and ischemia lesion are the main pathological changes. Whether cerebral dysfunction is reversible or not is mainly determined by spasm time of cerebral blood vessel. Nimodipine has a good effect on releasing spasm and diminishing the cerebral blood flow velocity. It not only improves curative effect on concussion, but also reduces and prevents concussion sequelae. Hence, concussion patients who have cerebral spasm confirmed by 3D-TCD should be given Nimodipine routinely and early.

  4. Combined Visualization of Vessel Deformation and Hemodynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuschke, Monique; Voss, Samuel; Beuing, Oliver; Preim, Bernhard; Lawonn, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We present the first visualization tool that combines patient-specific hemodynamics with information about the vessel wall deformation and wall thickness in cerebral aneurysms. Such aneurysms bear the risk of rupture, whereas their treatment also carries considerable risks for the patient. For the patient-specific rupture risk evaluation and treatment analysis, both morphological and hemodynamic data have to be investigated. Medical researchers emphasize the importance of analyzing correlations between wall properties such as the wall deformation and thickness, and hemodynamic attributes like the Wall Shear Stress and near-wall flow. Our method uses a linked 2.5D and 3D depiction of the aneurysm together with blood flow information that enables the simultaneous exploration of wall characteristics and hemodynamic attributes during the cardiac cycle. We thus offer medical researchers an effective visual exploration tool for aneurysm treatment risk assessment. The 2.5D view serves as an overview that comprises a projection of the vessel surface to a 2D map, providing an occlusion-free surface visualization combined with a glyph-based depiction of the local wall thickness. The 3D view represents the focus upon which the data exploration takes place. To support the time-dependent parameter exploration and expert collaboration, a camera path is calculated automatically, where the user can place landmarks for further exploration of the properties. We developed a GPU-based implementation of our visualizations with a flexible interactive data exploration mechanism. We designed our techniques in collaboration with domain experts, and provide details about the evaluation.

  5. 57例脑小血管病患者步态及平衡障碍特征分析%Gait and Balance Disorders in 57 Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗黎霞; 姜坤; 崔丽英; 朱以诚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脑小血管病患者步态及平衡障碍的特征。方法连续纳入2013年6月至2015年2月就诊于北京协和医院神经内科门诊的脑小血管病患者57例,收集临床资料,对其日常生活能力、整体运动功能及步态和平衡功能进行评价。结果57例患者中,男性71.9%,年龄(64.5±12.4)岁;45.6%(26/57)以步态障碍为主诉,73.7%(42/57)Barthel指数≥90分。帕金森病统一评分量表(Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale,UPDRS)评分(14.2±10.1)分,共济失调等级量表(Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia,SARA)(5.2±3.6)分;70.2%(40/57)Tinetti步态评分<12分,易累及的步态特征是步高、步宽(基)、步长对称性;50.9%(29/57)Tinetti平衡评分<16分,易受累的平衡特征是360°转身、轻推试验、座位起立;简明运动试验(Short Physical Performance Battery,SPPB)中,3米步行所需时间是(5.0±1.9)s,其中72.7%(24/33)步行时间≥3.62 s(评分≤3分)。结论半数以上患者表现出步态障碍,但对整体运动功能和日常生活能力影响较小;步态障碍主要表现为速度减慢、拖地、步基宽和双侧步长不等。步态和平衡功能障碍的早期评价对于预防跌倒和生活能力下降有重要意义。%Objective To explore the kinematic features of gait and balance disorders in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Methods Clinical data were collected in consecutive patients who visited the neurological department in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and were diagnosed with CSVD. Activity of daily living, movement performance, as well as balance and gait disturbance were assessed using several semi-quantitive scales. Results Of the 57 patients included, 71.9% were male, aged 64.5±12.4 years. Twenty six(45.6%) complained of gait disorders but 42(73.7%) were doing well in daily life with Barthel index≥90

  6. [A Case of Ruptured Peripheral Cerebral Aneurysm at Abnormal Vessels Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis:Similarity to Moyamoya Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hajime; Kohno, Kanehisa; Tanaka, Hideo; Fukumoto, Shinya; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Onoue, Shinji; Fumoto, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Saya; Maeda, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of ruptured peripheral cerebral aneurysm at abnormal vessels associated with severe stenosis at the middle cerebral artery (MCA). A 66-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital with headache on foot. Computed tomography (CT) showed intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-basal area. Three-dimensional-CT and conventional angiogram revealed abnormal vessels, which were similar to those seen in moyamoya disease, with a small enhancement close to the hematoma. On day 11, subsequent cerebral angiogram demonstrated an aneurysm at the peripheral portion of an abnormal vessel arising from the left A2. On day 17, soon after the diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm was made (while still at the subacute stage), we operated on the aneurysm. Superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA anastomosis was also performed to preserve cerebral blood flow and reduce hemodynamic stress. Several days after the operation, she had transient aphasia due to hyperperfusion of the MCA territory, but eventually recovered with no neurological deficit at discharge. Follow-up study revealed revascularization from the branches of the external carotid artery as well as the STA. On admission, we initially thought that this patient had abnormal vessels associated with arteriosclerotic MCA stenosis. However, the postoperative clinical course as well as the histopathological specimens of both the abnormal artery with the aneurysm and the STA revealed similar findings to those of moyamoya disease. Although this case did not satisfy the criteria for moyamoya disease, it is conceivable that a single arterial occlusive lesion associated with moyamoya-like vessels might develop in the same mechanism with that of moyamoya disease.

  7. 丁苯酞对脑小血管病患者血流灌注及认知功能影响的临床研究%Effects of Dl-3-n-butylphthalide on cerebral perfusion and cognitive function in patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾朝均; 罗丽君; 余巨明; 王莉; 周睿娇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丁苯酞对脑小血管病患者认知功能及脑血流灌注的影响。方法将经知情同意及医院医学伦理委员会审查,并符合入组条件的70例脑小血管病患者随机分为常规治疗组(A 组)18例、丁苯酞组(B 组)26例及尼莫地平组(C 组)26例,疗程1个月。治疗前后作蒙特利尔量表(MOCA)评分。B 组及 C 组各随机选取10例患者于治疗前后行64排螺旋 CT 灌注成像检查,计算灌注参数值变化,并对疗效进行评定。结果68例患者最终完成实验。(1)MOCA 总评分变化:①B 组及 C 组治疗后 MOCA 评分较治疗前明显改善(均 P<0.01);②B 组与 C 组治疗后 MOCA 评分较 A 组治疗后均显著改善(均 P<0.05);但 B 组与 C 组 MOCA 总评分比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。(2)MOCA 亚项评分变化:B 组治疗后在视空间及执行力、注意力及计算力、语言、延迟记忆力和抽象评分的变化有显著性差异(均 P<0.05);C 组治疗后在视空间及执行力、注意力及计算力、语言和延迟记忆力评分的变化有统计学差异(均 P<0.05);B 组治疗后在延迟记忆力亚项评分较 C 组治疗后变化更明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(3)基底节区层面灌注成像参数变化比较:B 组及 C 组治疗后脑血流速度(CBF)、脑血流量(CBV)及平均通过时间(MTT)较治疗前均明显改善(P<0.01)。但 B 组与 C 组比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论丁苯酞软胶囊可改善脑小血管病患者的认知功能,尤其是记忆力、视空间执行能力和计算力,并能提高局部脑灌注量,其作用至少不弱于尼莫地平片,且安全无明显不良反应。%Objective To investigate the impact of Dl-3-n-butylphthalide on the local cerebral perfusion and cognitive function in patients with cerebral small vessel disease. Methods 70 patents with cerebral

  8. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and micro

  9. A Novel Imaging Marker for Small Vessel Disease Based on Skeletonization of White Matter Tracts and Diffusion Histograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baykara, E.; Gesierich, B.; Adam, R.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Biesbroek, J.M.; Koek, H.L.; Ropele, S.; Jouvent, E.; Chabriat, H.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Ewers, M.; Schmidt, R.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Biessels, G.J.; Dichgans, M.; Duering, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a fully automated, robust imaging marker for cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and related cognitive impairment that is easy to implement, reflects disease burden, and is strongly associated with processing speed, the predominantly affected cognitive domain in SVD. METHODS:

  10. A Novel Imaging Marker for Small Vessel Disease Based on Skeletonization of White Matter Tracts and Diffusion Histograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baykara, Ebru; Gesierich, Benno; Adam, Ruth; Tuladhar, Anil Man; Biesbroek, J. Matthijs; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Ropele, Stefan; Jouvent, Eric; Chabriat, Hugues; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Ewers, Michael; Schmidt, Reinhold; de Leeuw, Frank Erik; Biessels, Geert Jan; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a fully automated, robust imaging marker for cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and related cognitive impairment that is easy to implement, reflects disease burden, and is strongly associated with processing speed, the predominantly affected cognitive domain in SVD. Methods:

  11. The cerebral imaging using vessel-around method in the perfusion CT of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Choong-Il; Choi, Seung-Wook; Park, Seung-Chul; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Jae-Hyoung; Chong, Gi-Bong

    2005-04-01

    Perfusion CT has been successfully used as a functional imaging technique for diagnosis of patients with hyperacute stroke. However, the commonly used methods based on curve-fitting are time consuming. Numerous researchers have investigated to what extent Perfusion CT can be used for the quantitative assessment of cerebral ischemia and to rapidly obtain comprehensive information regarding the extent of ischemic damage in acute stroke patients. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative approach to rapidly obtain the brain perfusion mapping and to show the proposed cerebral flow imaging of the vessel and tissue in human brain be reliable and useful. Our main design concern was algorithmic speed, robustness and automation in order to allow its potential use in the emergency situation of acute stroke. To obtain a more effective mapping, we analyzed the signal characteristics of Perfusion CT and defined the vessel-around model which includes the vessel and tissue. We proposed a nonparametric vessel-around approach which automatically discriminates the vessel and tissue around vessel from non-interested brain matter stratifying the level of maximum enhancement of pixel-based TAC. The stratification of pixel-based TAC was executed using the mean and standard deviation of the signal intensity of each pixel and mapped to the cerebral flow imaging. The defined vessel-around model was used to show the cerebral flow imaging and to specify the area of markedly reduced perfusion with loss of function of still viable neurons. Perfusion CT is a fast and practical technique for routine clinical application. It provides substantial and important additional information for the selection of the optimal treatment strategy for patients with hyperacute stroke. The vessel-around approach reduces the computation time significantly when compared with the perfusion imaging using the GVF. The proposed cerebral imaging shows reliable results which are validated by physicians and

  12. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Christian; Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson's R = -0.69, P atrophy occurs annually (P atrophy rates, in the medial-frontal, orbito-frontal, parietal and occipital regions. Conversely, increased rates of global grey matter atrophy are significantly associated with faster white matter hyperintensity growth in the frontal and parietal regions. Together, these results link the progression of white matter hyperintensities

  13. New insights into mechanisms of small vessel disease stroke from genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rhea; Traylor, Matthew; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes; Markus, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD. Proteomic and biochemical studies in post-mortem monogenic SVD patients, as well as in animal models of monogenic disease have suggested that disease pathways are shared between different types of monogenic disease, often involving the impairment of extracellular matrix (ECM) function. In addition, genetic studies in 'sporadic' SVD have also shown that the disease is highly heritable, particularly among young-onset stroke patients, and that common variants in monogenic disease genes may contribute to disease processes in some SVD subtypes. Genetic studies in sporadic lacunar stroke patients have also suggested distinct genetic mechanisms between subtypes of SVD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have also shed light on other potential disease mechanisms that may be shared with other diseases involving the white matter, or with pathways implicated in monogenic disease. This review brings together recent data from studies in monogenic SVD and genetic studies in 'sporadic' SVD. It aims to show how these provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SVD, and highlights the possible convergence of disease mechanisms in monogenic and sporadic SVD.

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of small blood vessels in skin biopsies in CADASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lačković Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an inherited small- and medium-artery disease of the brain caused by mutation of the Notch3 gene. Very often, this disease is misdiagnosed. We examined skin biopsies in two members of the first discovered Serbian family affected by CADASIL. Electron microscopy showed that skin blood vessels of both patients contain numerous deposits of granular osmiophilic material (GOM around vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. We observed degeneration of VSMCs, reorganization of their cytoskeleton and dense bodies, disruption of myoendothelial contacts, and apoptosis. Our results suggest that the presence of GOM in small skin arteries represents a specific marker in diagnosis of CADASIL.

  15. Gliovascular disruption and cognitive deficits in a mouse model with features of small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Philip R; Searcy, James L; Salvadores, Natalia; Scullion, Gillian; Chen, Guiquan; Lawson, Greig; Scott, Fiona; Bastin, Mark E; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Rajesh; Wood, Emma R; Smith, Colin; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Horsburgh, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major cause of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia. The pathophysiology of SVD is not well understood and is hampered by a limited range of relevant animal models. Here, we describe gliovascular alterations and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of sustained cerebral hypoperfusion with features of SVD (microinfarcts, hemorrhage, white matter disruption) induced by bilateral common carotid stenosis. Multiple features of SVD were determined on T2-weighted and diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans and confirmed by pathologic assessment. These features, which were absent in sham controls, included multiple T2-hyperintense infarcts and T2-hypointense hemosiderin-like regions in subcortical nuclei plus increased cerebral atrophy compared with controls. Fractional anisotropy was also significantly reduced in several white matter structures including the corpus callosum. Investigation of gliovascular changes revealed a marked increase in microvessel diameter, vascular wall disruption, fibrinoid necrosis, hemorrhage, and blood-brain barrier alterations. Widespread reactive gliosis, including displacement of the astrocytic water channel, aquaporin 4, was observed. Hypoperfused mice also demonstrated deficits in spatial working and reference memory tasks. Overall, gliovascular disruption is a prominent feature of this mouse, which could provide a useful model for early-phase testing of potential SVD treatment strategies.

  16. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rose Kyrtsos

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  17. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  18. Gait in elderly with cerebral small vessel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Norden, A.G.W. van; Gons, R.A.R.; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Uden, I.W. van; Bloem, B.R.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait disorders are common in the elderly and are related to loss of functional independence and death. White matter lesions (WMLs) may be related, but only a minority of individuals with WMLs has gait disorders. Probably other factors are involved, including location and the

  19. Endothelial cell–oligodendrocyte interactions in small vessel disease and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Rikesh M.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a prevalent, neurological disease that significantly increases the risk of stroke and dementia. The main pathological changes are vascular, in the form of lipohyalinosis and arteriosclerosis, and in the white matter (WM), in the form of WM lesions. Despite this, it is unclear to what extent the key cell types involved–the endothelial cells (ECs) of the vasculature and the oligodendrocytes of the WM–interact. Here, we describe the work that has so far been carried out suggesting an interaction between ECs and oligodendrocytes in SVD. As these interactions have been studied in more detail in other disease states and in development, we explore these systems and discuss the role these mechanisms may play in SVD. PMID:28202749

  20. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  1. Cerebrovascular reserve in cerebral small vessel disease patients with lacunar infarction: a transcranial Doppler study%表现为腔隙性梗死的脑小血管病患者的脑血管储备:经颅多普勒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟劲; 高庆春; 杨容坤; 陈秀梅; 樊静; 杨继党; 王文君; 张波; 傅贤

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨表现为腔隙性脑梗死(lacunar infarction,LI)的脑小血管病(cerebral small vessel disease,SVD)患者的脑血管储备(cerebrovascular reserve,CVR)变化.方法 纳入表现为LI的连续SVD患者(SVD组)和影像学检查正常的对照者(对照组).采用(transcranial Doppler,TCD)检测双侧大脑中动脉(middle cerebral artery,MCA)供血区CVR.比较SVD组与对照组人口统计学、临床资料、TCD参数和CVR,并采用多变量logistic回归分析确定CVR与SVD的相关性.结果 共纳入97例表现为LI的SVD患者和40名对照者.SVD组LI分级:1级34例,2级23例,3级40例.40名健康对照者均无LI病灶.SVD组高血压(58.8%对27.5%;x2=3.315,P=0.001)和男性患者(76.3%对50.0% 2=3.004,P=0.003)的构成比以及年龄[(64.5±10.0)岁对(59.5±8.0)岁;t=2.667,P=0.008]和体质指数(body mass index,BMI)[(24.47±3.16)kg/m2对(21.52 ±2.15) kg/m2;=5.409,P<0.001]均显著性高于对照组.MCA平均血流速度在正常范围,但SVD组右侧MCA搏动指数(pulsatility index,PI)显著性高于对照组(0.90±0.15对0.83±0.11;=2.286,P=0.024),SVD组左侧[(4.56±1.12)%/mm Hg对(7.42±0.62) %/mm Hg,1 mmHg=0.133kPa;t 18.93,P<0.000]和右侧[(4.62±1.00)%/mmHg对(7.43±0.59)%/mm Hg;t =20.45,P<0.001] CVR显著性低于对照组.多变量logistic回归分析显示,高血压[优势比(odds ratio,OR)3.757,95%可信区间(confidence interval,CI)1.683 ~8.388;P <0.001]、年龄较大(OR1.061,95% CI1.016~1.109;P=0.007)和BMI较高(OR1.428,1.224 ~ 1.667;P<0.001)为SVD的独立危险因素,男性(OR0.311,0.143 ~0.676;P =0.003)以及左侧(OR 0.025,95% CI0.005 ~0.116;P<0.001)和右侧(OR0.001,95% CI0.000~0.049;P<0.001)CVR较高为SVD的独立保护性因素.结论 表现为LI的SVD患者脑血流动力学主要表现为CVR降低,存在高血压、年龄较大、BMI较高是SVD的独立危险因素,丽男性和CVR较高是SVD的独立保护因素.%Objective To investigate the changes of

  2. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao McONeil Plancher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Comprehensive gene expression profiling reveals synergistic functional networks in cerebral vessels after hypertension or hypercholesterolemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi Ong

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic stenosis of cerebral arteries or intracranial large artery disease (ICLAD is a major cause of stroke especially in Asians, Hispanics and Africans, but relatively little is known about gene expression changes in vessels at risk. This study compares comprehensive gene expression profiles in the middle cerebral artery (MCA of New Zealand White rabbits exposed to two stroke risk factors i.e. hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia, by the 2-Kidney-1-Clip method, or dietary supplementation with cholesterol. Microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses of the MCA of the hypertensive rabbits showed up-regulated genes in networks containing the node molecules: UBC (ubiquitin, P38 MAPK, ERK, NFkB, SERPINB2, MMP1 and APP (amyloid precursor protein; and down-regulated genes related to MAPK, ERK 1/2, Akt, 26 s proteasome, histone H3 and UBC. The MCA of hypercholesterolemic rabbits showed differentially expressed genes that are surprisingly, linked to almost the same node molecules as the hypertensive rabbits, despite a relatively low percentage of 'common genes' (21 and 7% between the two conditions. Up-regulated common genes were related to: UBC, SERPINB2, TNF, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A and APP, and down-regulated genes, related to UBC. Increased HNF4A message and protein were verified in the aorta. Together, these findings reveal similar nodal molecules and gene pathways in cerebral vessels affected by hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, which could be a basis for synergistic action of risk factors in the pathogenesis of ICLAD.

  4. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: kando@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  5. The characteristics of vascular cognitive impairment no dementia in patients with cerebral small vessel disease and theevaluation of nimodipine treatment%脑小血管病患者伴发非痴呆血管性认知功能损害情况及尼莫地平疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 赖娅莉; 陈嘉应; 田劲; 李延峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑小血管病(cerebral small vessel disease,SVD)不同亚型伴发非痴呆血管性认知功能损害的情况,评价尼莫地平对SVD的疗效.方法 选择SVD患者118例,包括52例腔隙灶脑梗死(LI)和66例白质疏松(WML)患者.分别将LI组和WML组患者随机分组为治疗组(基础治疗加尼莫地平治疗)和对照组(基础治疗),进行6个月治疗.治疗前后对所有患者采用蒙特利尔认知评估量表( MoCA)、简易智能状态检查表(MMSE)、语义分类流畅测验(动物)、St roop测验(计算错误数)、画钟试验、积木测验、数字广度顺背测验、数字符号测验、逻辑记忆亚测验和再生亚测验进行认知功能评价,并比较各组患者治疗前后认知功能评分.结果 治疗前,LI组患者语义分类流畅测验(动物)、数字符号测验、逻辑记忆亚测验、视觉再生亚测验、MoCA、MMSE评分显著高于WML组患者,Stroop测验得分显著低于WML组患者.经过6个月治疗后,LI组和WML组患者中的对照组治疗前后各项认知功能评分均没有统计学差异(P>0.0S).LI组患者中治疗组MoCA、画钟试验和数字广度顺背测验得分升高,Stroop测验得分下降(均P<0.05);WML组患者中治疗组MoCA、MMSE、画钟试验、数字广度顺背测验和视觉再生亚测验得分升高,Stroop测验得分下降(均P<0.05).结论 SVD两个亚型伴发非痴呆血管性认知功能损害情况不同,LI患者损害程度比WML患者轻.尼莫地平治疗可较好的改善患者的执行功能、视空间结构能力和注意力.%Objective To explore the neuropsychological difference of vascular cognitive impairment no dementia in two subtpyes of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) patients and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nimodipine on the disease. Methods A total of 118 SVD patients, including 52 Lacunar Infarction (LI) and 66 White Matter Lesion (WML) patients, were enrolled. The patients were divided into experimental

  6. In vivo imaging of stepwise vessel occlusion in cerebral photothrombosis of mice by 19F MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Weise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: (19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was recently introduced as a promising technique for in vivo cell tracking. In the present study we compared (19F MRI with iron-enhanced MRI in mice with photothrombosis (PT at 7 Tesla. PT represents a model of focal cerebral ischemia exhibiting acute vessel occlusion and delayed neuroinflammation. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perfluorocarbons (PFC or superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO were injected intravenously at different time points after photothrombotic infarction. While administration of PFC directly after PT induction led to a strong (19F signal throughout the entire lesion, two hours delayed application resulted in a rim-like (19F signal at the outer edge of the lesion. These findings closely resembled the distribution of signal loss on T2-weighted MRI seen after SPIO injection reflecting intravascular accumulation of iron particles trapped in vessel thrombi as confirmed histologically. By sequential administration of two chemically shifted PFC compounds 0 and 2 hours after illumination the different spatial distribution of the (19F markers (infarct core/rim could be visualized in the same animal. When PFC were applied at day 6 the fluorine marker was only detected after long acquisition times ex vivo. SPIO-enhanced MRI showed slight signal loss in vivo which was much more prominent ex vivo indicative for neuroinflammation at this late lesion stage. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that vessel occlusion can be followed in vivo by (19F and SPIO-enhanced high-field MRI while in vivo imaging of neuroinflammation remains challenging. The timing of contrast agent application was the major determinant of the underlying processes depicted by both imaging techniques. Importantly, sequential application of different PFC compounds allowed depiction of ongoing vessel occlusion from the core to the margin of the ischemic lesions in a single MRI measurement.

  7. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  8. 脑梗死患者脑血管血液动力学变化与功能障碍相关性研究%Correlation of hemodynamic change of cerebral vessels and functional disturbance in cerebral infarction patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伯良; 王俊卿

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe and investigate the correlation of hemodynamic change of cerebral vessels and functional disturbance in cerebral infarction patient.Methods To investigate hemodynamic characters of cerebral vessels in every type and every group patients via comparing cerebral infarction group(observe group)with control group,comparing stage of recovery with early stage, sever, moderate, mild degree in observe group.Results Apparent hemodynamic change was observed in above 94.10% cerebral infarction patients. The more apparent the hemodynamic change,the severer the functional disturbance.Conclusion The hemodynamic change of cerebral vessels is the predictive index of state of illness and prognosis of cerebral infarction patient.Clinical doctor should pay enough attention to modify it in treatment.

  9. Microfluidic strategy to investigate dynamics of small blood vessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasotharan, Sanjesh; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Guenther, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Resistance arteries (RAs, 30-300 microns in diameter) that are located within the terminal part of the vascular tree regulate the laminar perfusion of tissue with blood, via the peripheral vascular resistance, and hence controls the systemic blood pressure. The structure of RAs is adapted to actively controlling flow resistance by dynamically changing their diameter, which is non-linearly dependent on the temporal variation of the transmural pressure, perfusion flow rate and spatiotemporal changes in the chemical environment. Increases in systemic blood pressure (hypertension) resulting from pathologic changes in the RA response represent the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We use a microfluidic strategy to investigate small blood vessels by quantifying structural variations within the arterial wall, RA outer contour and diameter over time. First, we document the artery response to vasomotor drugs that were homogeneously applied at step-wise increasing concentration. Second, we investigate the response in the presence of well-defined axial and circumferential heterogeneities. Artery per- and superfusion is discussed based on microscale PIV measurements of the fluid velocity on both sides of the arterial wall. Structural changes in the arterial wall are quantified using cross-correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition analyses of bright-field micrographs.

  10. Relationships between blood fat,glomerular filtration rate,carotid atherosclerotic claqueand and cerebral small vessel disease%血脂、肾小球滤过率和颈动脉斑块与脑小血管病相关性的多因素分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships between blood fat, glomerular filtration rate,carotid atheroscle rotic claqueand and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) as well as two subtypes of SVD Lacunar Infarction (LI) and Matter Lesion (WML). Methods A total of 118 SVD patients including 52 LI and 66 WML patients were enrolled. At the same period,80 healthy people were selected as controls. Blood fat,glomerular filtration rate,and carotid atheroscle rotic claqueand were tested and then compared between SVD patients and controls using t and x2 tests. All the factors with significance different bteween two grougs were anlyzed in multivariable Logistic regression model to find the risk factors. Results The levels of HBAIC,LDL C and TG of SVD patients were higher, while the levels of HDL C and GFR were lower than those of controls significantly (P<0. 05). The stability of carotid atherosclerotic claqueand was different between two groups (x2 = 61. 76,P<0. 001). When other factors were controlled,the individuals with LDL C more than 2. 6 mmol/L,and those with unstable carotid atherosclerotic claqueand were more likely to be diagonosed as SVD (adjusted OR was from 7. 71 to 15. 95 lor high LDL C level,from 17. 44 to 23. 14 for unstable carotid atheroscle rotic claqueand). The TG≥1. 70 mmol/L and stable carotid atherosclerotic claqueand were found being related with WML (OR>1 ,P<0. 05). Conclusion LDL C ≥ 2. 6 mmol/L and unstable carotid atherosclerotic claqueand are risk factors for SVD. In addition to this,TG≥1. 70 mmol/L and stable carotid atherosclerotic claqueand are the other risk factors for WML.%目的 分析血脂、肾小球滤过率和颈动脉斑块稳定性等与脑小血管病(SVD)之间相关性,并进一步分析相关因素对脑SVD两种表现,脑小腔隙灶(LI)与白质疏松(WML)的影响是否一致,为更好的预防脑SVD提供依据.方法 纳入脑小血管病患者118例(LI 52例,WML66例)以及80例健康对照作为观察对象,检

  11. Structural network alterations and neurological dysfunction in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Salat, David H.; Schultz, Aaron; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Ayres, Alison M.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Rosas, Diana; Schwab, Kristin; Leemans, Alexander; Biessels, Geert Jan; Rosand, Jonathan; Johnson, Keith A.; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, M. Edip; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common form of small-vessel disease and an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. The mechanisms linking small-vessel disease to cognitive impairment are not well understood. We hypothesized that in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, multiple small s

  12. Acetylcholine- and sodium hydrosulfide-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization in cerebral vessels of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Wu; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the role of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the cerebral vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) rats. CIR was induced by occlusion of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries. Isolated arterial segments from the cerebral basilar (CBA) and middle artery (MCA) of CIR rats were studied in a pressurized chamber. Transmembrane potential was recorded using glass microelectrodes to evaluate hyperpolarization. In the CIR CBAs and MCAs preconstricted by 30 mM KCl, ACh induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization that were partially attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 30 μM) and l-NAME plus indomethacin (10 μM). The residual responses were abolished by the H2S inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG, 100 μM). The H2S donor NaHS and l-Cys, the substrate of endogenous H2S synthase, elicited similar responses to ACh and was inhibited by tetraethylamonine (1 mM) or PPG. ACh induces EDHF-mediated vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in rat cerebral arteries. These responses are up-regulated by ischemia-reperfusion while NO-mediated responses are down-regulated. Further, the ACh-induced, EDHF-mediated relaxation, and hyperpolarization and the inhibition of these responses are similar to the H2S-induced responses, suggesting that H2S is a possible candidate for EDHF in rat cerebral vessels.

  13. Cerebral microangiopathies; Zerebrale Mikroangiopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-03-15

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of global cerebral ischemia models constructed by modified four-vessel occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbao Li; Lai Jiang; Hua Xu; Yuanchang Xiong; Xiaoming Deng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsinelli et al developed a kind of rat models with four-vessel occlusion-induced global cerebral ischemia. Because the histo-pathological changes and severe cerebral ischemia reproducibility of this model are good and the stability of this model in circulation respiration is superior to that of other models, so four-vessel occlusion method has become a classic modeling method for global cerebral ischemia model. This model has been improved in some laboratories to meet different requirements in different studies. OBJECTIVE: To establish a highly reproducible rat model of reversible forebrain ischemia by modifying four-vessel occlusion model introduced by Pulsinelli et al, and to investigate its neurophysiological and pathological changes and the characteristics of modified operation. DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping, controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology,Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. MATERIALS: A total of 65 male healthy SD rats, weighing 250-300 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. VSM hemodynamic monitor and temperature monitor (Thermal ert TH-5, U.S.A) were used.METHODS: The trial was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January 2005 to March 2006. ① Experimental grouping: Sixty-five rats were randomly divided into the following 7 groups: sham-operation group (n =9): given the same operation, without occlusion of vessels; 5 minutes ischemia group (n =9): ischemia 5 minutes and reperfusion 72 hours; 10 minutes ischemia group (n =8): ischemia 10 minutes and reperfusion 72 hours; 15 minutes ischemia group (n =9): ischemia 15 minutes and reperfusion 72 hours; 20 minutes ischemia group (n =8): ischemia 20 minutes and reperfusion 72 hours; 30 minutes ischemia group (n =7); ischemia 30 minutes and reperfusion 72 hours; ischemia control group

  15. 脑分水岭梗死与脑血管狭窄类型相关性研究%Relationship between cerebral watershed infarction and cerebral vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 针对脑分水岭梗死(CWI)与脑血管狭窄类型的相关性进行统计分析.方法 对我院从2005年3月至2010年9月收治的128例脑分水岭梗死病患与同期收治的128例非脑分水岭梗死病患行头颅CT和核磁共振MRI检查,并应用头颅多普勒(TCD)检测颅内血管与脑血管造影DSA显示脑血管,统计分析影像结果.结果 128例脑分水岭梗死病患与颈内动脉与脑内动脉狭窄有一定的相关性(P<0.05),其中大脑前动脉狭窄42例(32.8%),大脑中动脉狭窄78例(60.9%),大脑后动脉狭窄36例(28.1%),大脑基底动脉狭窄49例(38.3%),颈内动脉狭窄85例(66.4%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 脑分水岭梗死与颈内动脉和脑内动脉狭窄有一定的相关性,其中,与颈内动脉和大脑中动脉狭窄关系密切,值得深入研究和讨论.%Objective To analyze the relationship between cerebral watershed infarction ( CWI )and the types of stenosis of cerebral vessels.Methods 128 patients with CWI and 128 patients with other types of cerebral infarction who had been hospitalized during the period of March 2005 to September 2010were detected by cranial CT and MRI.TCD and DSA were used to examine cerebral vessels.The imaging findings were analyzed.Results In 128 patients,cerebral watershed infarction was related with internal carotid artery stenosis and internal cerebral arteriostenosis ( P< 0.05 ).42( 32.8% )patients were stenosis of precerebral artery stenosis,78( 60.9% ) were stenosis of middle cerebral artery,36 ( 28.1% ) were stenosis of postcerebral artery,49( 38.3% ) were basilar artery stenosis,and 85( 66.4% ) were internal cerebral arteriostenosis,with statistical differences ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusions Cerebral watershed infarction has certain relationship with internal carotid artery stenosis and internal cerebral arteriostenosis,especially with internal carotid artery stenosis and middle cerebral artery stenosis.It is worth further

  16. New Cerebral Microbleeds After Mechanical Thrombectomy for Large-Vessel Occlusion Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Jahan, Reza; Tateshima, Satoshi; Gonzalez, Nestor R.; Szeder, Viktor; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Kim, Doojin; Ali, Latisha K.; Starkman, Sidney; Vespa, Paul M.; Salamon, Noriko; Villablanca, J. Pablo; Viñuela, Fernando; Feng, Lei; Loh, Yince; Liebeskind, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The interval appearance of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) after endovascular treatment has never been described. We investigated the frequency and predictors of new CMBs that developed shortly after mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, and its impact on clinical outcome. We retrospectively analyzed patients with large-vessel occlusion strokes treated with Merci Retriever, Penumbra System, or stent-retriever devices. Serial T2∗-weighted gradient-recall echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 48 h after endovascular thrombectomy were assessed to identify new CMBs. We examined independent factors associated with new CMBs after mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed the association of the presence, burden, and distribution of new CMBs with clinical outcome. A total of 187 consecutive patients with serial GRE were enrolled in this study. CMBs were evident in 36 (19.3%) patients before mechanical thrombectomy. New CMBs occurred in 41 (21.9%) patients after mechanical thrombectomy. Of the 68 new CMBs, 45 appeared in the lobar location, 18 in the deep location and 5 in the infratentorial location. The presence of baseline CMBs was associated with new CMBs after mechanical thrombectomy (OR 5.38; 95% CI 2.13–13.59; P rates of hemorrhagic transformation, in-hospital mortality, and modified Rankin Scale score 4 to 6 at discharge. New CMBs are common after mechanical thrombectomy in one-fifth of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Baseline CMBs before mechanical thrombectomy predicts the development of new CMBs. New CMBs after mechanical thrombectomy do not influence clinical outcome. PMID:26632753

  17. Risk factors and clinical features of mild cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic cerebral small vessel disease:a retrospective case series study%缺血性脑小血管病患者轻度认知障碍的危险因素和临床特征:回顾性病例系列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊亚超; 王海峰; 王新; 孔伟; 邢成名

    2012-01-01

    1.01)分对(4.04±0.99)分;t=13.824,P=0.000]等亚项得分均显著低于非MCI组,而命名和定向力得分无显著差异.在MCI组中,LA-LI组MoCA总分[(17.04±6.15)分对(21.04±3.98)分;P<0.05]以及视空间/执行功能[(1.68± 1.16)分对(3.24±1.13)分;P<0.05]、注意力[(3.92±2.03)分对(5.19±0.87)分;P<0.05]、延迟回忆[(1.35±1.01)分对(1.86±1.58)分;P<0.05]等亚项得分显著低于U组;LA组MoCA总分[(18.18±5.31)分对(21.04±3.98)分;P<0.05]以及视空间/执行功能[(2.56±1.78)分对(3.24±1.13)分;P<0.05]、语言[(0.64±0.23)分对(1.24±0.83)分;P< 0.05]、延迟回忆[(0.69±0.58)分对(1.86±1.58)分;P<0.01]等亚项得分显著低于LI组;LA-LI组视空间/执行功能评分显著低于LA组[(1.68±1.16)分对(2.56±1.78)分;P<0.05]和LI组[(1.68±1.16)分对(3.24±1.13)分;P<0.05].结论 高血压、糖尿病、高脂血症、颈动脉粥样硬化、吸烟和受教育水平较低是SVD患者MCI的独立危险因素.SVD后MCI的认知损害表现为包括视空间/执行功能、延迟回忆在内的多个认知域损害,不同类型脑小血管病之间的认知损害有所不同.%Objective To investigate the risk factors and clinical features of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with ischemic cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) for early diagnosis and prevention.Methods Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used to screen MCI.The related risk factors and other clinical data were collected,and other neuropsychological tests were conducted.SVD was divided into leukoaraiosis (LA),lacunar infarction (LI),and LA + LI.Results A total of 143 patients with SVD were enrolled (68 in an MCI group,75 in a non-MCI group).Univariate analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the constituent ratio of age and gender between the MCI group and the non-MCI group,but the years of education in the MCI group was shorter than that in the non-MCI group,while the

  18. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain. PMID:26448331

  19. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  20. The everolimus-eluting Xience stent in small vessel disease: bench, clinical, and pathology view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez OD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar D Sanchez, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Tobias Koppara, Renu Virmani, Michael Joner CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CAD relates to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries, which are most frequently treated today by percutaneous coronary intervention. Small vessel disease treatment represents one-third of all percutaneous coronary interventions with higher rates of restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. Initially, drug-eluting stents (DES were developed to reduce in-stent restenosis, improving clinical outcomes and reducing the need for target vessel revascularization. However, late and very late stent thrombosis emerged as a new problem compromising DES's long-term results. The cobalt–chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES represents the results of an evolutionary process in DES technology aimed at improving the shortcomings of first-generation DES. Small vessel CAD has historically been an obstacle to long-term patency following implantation of DES. Antirestenotic efficacy has been shown to be of high relevance in small vessels. Therefore, stent selection may play an important role in determining outcomes in this subgroup of patients. This article will review the performance of CoCr-EES in the treatment of small vessel CAD from preclinical, clinical, and pathology perspectives, and it will highlight the most important findings in this regard. Keywords: small vessel, cobalt–chromiun everolimus-eluting stent, Xience V, pathology

  1. Enhanced nestin expression and small blood vessels in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Millan, María Inés; Berner, Silvia Inés; Luque, Guillermina María; De Bonis, Cristian; Sevlever, Gustavo; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Cristina, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    The role of angiogenesis in human pituitary tumor progression is questioned. Our aim was to characterize the morphologic changes that occur in the vasculature of pituitary adenomas, in correlation with the expression of nestin, a protein found in endothelial cells of newly formed vessels of developing organs. We also evaluated the relation of angiogenic markers and nestin with Ki-67 index. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin embedded samples of 47 pituitary adenomas and six normal pituitaries. We determined microvessel density (number of CD31+ or CD34+ vessels per square millimetre), vascular area (cumulative area occupied by vessels), average vessel size, and further classified vessels as small ( 100 μm2). We correlated the above parameters with nestin expression and Ki-67 index. Lower vascular area compared to normal tissue was found in adenomas (p vessels than control pituitaries (p controls, so that nestin positive area was significantly higher in tumors. Furthermore, nestin area correlated positively with the % of small vessels. Ki-67 correlated neither with vascular area nor with nestin expression. In human pituitary tumors there was a predominance of small capillaries in correlation with increased expression of the progenitor marker nestin. We suggest that angiogenesis is an active process in these tumors, in spite of their low total vascular area when compared to normal pituitaries.

  2. Deployment of self-expandable stents in aneurysmatic cerebral vessels: comparison of different computational approaches for interventional planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, A; Larrabide, I; Petrini, L; Pennati, G; Flore, E; Kim, M; Frangi, A F

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing focus on faster computational methods to support clinicians in planning stenting procedures. This study investigates the possibility of introducing computational approximations in modelling stent deployment in aneurysmatic cerebral vessels to achieve simulations compatible with the constraints of real clinical workflows. The release of a self-expandable stent in a simplified aneurysmatic vessel was modelled in four different initial positions. Six progressively simplified modelling approaches (based on Finite Element method and Fast Virtual Stenting--FVS) have been used. Comparing accuracy of the results, the final configuration of the stent is more affected by neglecting mechanical properties of materials (FVS) than by adopting 1D instead of 3D stent models. Nevertheless, the differences showed are acceptable compared to those achieved by considering different stent initial positions. Regarding computational costs, simulations involving 1D stent features are the only ones feasible in clinical context.

  3. The influence of turbulence on aggregation of small particles in agitated vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Karel Antonius

    The influence of the hydrodynamics in baffled turbine agitated vessels on the turbulent coagulation of small solid particles is studied, with focus on the dependence of the aggregate size on stirrer speed, concentration of solids, destabilizer concentration, and vessel size. The following studies are presented: aggregation theory; hydrodynamics in stirred tanks; numerical particle tracking in a turbine agitated vessel; aggregation kinetics in stirred tanks; and maximum aggregate size in stirred tanks. The application of the model to describe the aggregation process in strirred tanks to experimental conditions other than those tested and to particulate systems with different physical properties is discussed.

  4. Assessing the Efficiency of Small-Scale and Bottom Trawler Vessels in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pinello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the technical and scale efficiency of two types of Greek fishing vessels, small-scale vessels and bottom trawlers, using a bias-corrected input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis model. Moreover, the associations between efficiency scores and vessel’s and skipper’s characteristics are also explored. The results indicate that small-scale vessels achieve a very low average technical efficiency score (0.42 but a much higher scale efficiency score (0.81. Conversely, bottom trawlers achieve lower scale but higher technical efficiency scores (0.68 and 0.73, respectively. One important finding of this study is that the technical efficiency of small-scale vessels, in contrast to trawlers, is positively associated with the experience of the skipper. In a looser context, it can be said that small-scale fisheries mainly rely on skill, whereas bottom trawlers rely more on technology. This study concludes that there is space for improvement in efficiency, mainly for small-scale vessels, which could allow the achievement of the same level of output by using reduced inputs.

  5. 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms based on vessel directions and intensity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Uroš; Špiclin, Žiga; Štern, Darko; Markelj, Primož; Likar, Boštjan; Miloševic, Zoran; Pernuš, Franjo

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) involves navigation of a catheter through the femoral artery and vascular system to the site of pathology. Intra-interventional navigation is done under the guidance of one or at most two two-dimensional (2D) X-ray fluoroscopic images or 2D digital subtracted angiograms (DSA). Due to the projective nature of 2D images, the interventionist needs to mentally reconstruct the position of the catheter in respect to the three-dimensional (3D) patient vasculature, which is not a trivial task. By 3D-2D registration of pre-interventional 3D images like CTA, MRA or 3D-DSA and intra-interventional 2D images, intra-interventional tools such as catheters can be visualized on the 3D model of patient vasculature, allowing easier and faster navigation. Such a navigation may consequently lead to the reduction of total ionizing dose and delivered contrast medium. In the past, development and evaluation of 3D-2D registration methods for endovascular treatments received considerable attention. The main drawback of these methods is that they have to be initialized rather close to the correct position as they mostly have a rather small capture range. In this paper, a novel registration method that has a higher capture range and success rate is proposed. The proposed method and a state-of-the-art method were tested and evaluated on synthetic and clinical 3D-2D image-pairs. The results on both databases indicate that although the proposed method was slightly less accurate, it significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art 3D-2D registration method in terms of robustness measured by capture range and success rate.

  6. Influence of cerebral blood vessel movements on the position of perivascular synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic activity is regulated and limited by blood flow, which is controlled by blood vessel dilation and contraction. Traditionally, the study of neurovascular coupling has mainly focused on energy consumption and oxygen delivery. However, the mechanical changes that blood vessel movements induce in the surrounding tissue have not been considered. We have modeled the mechanical changes that movements of blood vessels cause in neighboring synapses. Our simulations indicate that synaptic densities increase or decrease during vascular dilation and contraction, respectively, near the blood vessel walls. This phenomenon may alter the concentration of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall and thus may have an influence on local blood flow. PMID:28199396

  7. Passive and active EO sensing of small surface vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Berglund, Folke; Allard, Lars; Öhgren, Johan; Larsson, Hâkan; Amselem, Elias; Gustafsson, Frank; Repasi, Endre; Lutzmann, Peter; Göhler, Benjamin; Hammer, Marcus; McEwen, Kennedy; McEwan, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The detection and classification of small surface targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. This paper will present an overview of a measurement campaign which took place in the Baltic Sea in November 2014. The purpose was to test active and passive EO sensors (10 different types) for the detection, tracking and identification of small sea targets. The passive sensors were covering the visual, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR regions. Active sensors operating at 1.5 μm collected data in 1D, 2D and 3D modes. Supplementary sensors included a weather station, a scintillometer, as well as sensors for positioning and attitude determination of the boats. Three boats in the class 4-9 meters were used as targets. After registration of the boats at close range they were sent out to 5-7 km distance from the sensor site. At the different ranges the target boats were directed to have different aspect angles relative to the direction of observation. Staff from IOSB Fraunhofer in Germany and from Selex (through DSTL) in UK took part in the tests beside FOI who was arranging the trials. A summary of the trial and examples of data and imagery will be presented.

  8. A prototype vessel compressor helps efficient laser treatment of small leg veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; Calderhead, R Glen

    2004-11-01

    The eradication of small leg veins with lasers continue to present problems. Visible light lasers (488 nm approximately 595 nm) are well absorbed in haemoglobin but melanin is also a target, necessitating aggressive skin cooling to prevent damage to the epidermis and adding to the expense of these laser systems. A new generation of much less expensive semiconductor-based lasers operating in the near infrared offers a different approach, with protein as the main target rather than pigment. For visible light lasers, compression of the target vessels is a contraindication, since the target pigment is removed. For near IR diode lasers, however, compression of the vessels is a benefit, as the cooling effect of the blood flow is removed and the highly proteinous vessel walls are coapted which encourages efficient coagulative vessel closure. The prototype of a simple vessel compressor is presented, which first compresses vessels and coapts the walls, and then presents the coapted vessels as a target for a laser of an appropriate wavelength.

  9. Morphological evaluation of the cerebral blood vessels in the late gestation fetal sheep following hypoxia in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburamani, Ana A; Lo, Camden; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia can significantly contribute to the development of permanent brain injury in the term neonate; however the response of cerebral blood vessels is not well understood. This study aimed to quantitatively measure vascular density and morphology using laminin immunohistochemistry as a marker of blood vessels, and determine the effects of a single, severe bout of hypoxia (umbilical cord occlusion, UCO) late in gestation on the developing cerebrovasculature in fetal sheep. At 124-126 days gestation singleton fetal sheep underwent surgery for implantation of catheters and placement of an inflatable cuff around the umbilical cord. A 10 min UCO or sham UCO (n=5) occurred at 132 days gestation. Fetal brains were collected at 24 h (n=5) or 48 h (n=4) after UCO for vascular density and morphology analysis of laminin immunohistochemistry. 48 h following a single, brief bout of severe hypoxia late in gestation decreased vascular density was seen in the caudate nucleus and no changes in vascular morphology occurred. However closer analysis revealed a significant shift in the frequency of smaller (≤10 μm) to larger (≤100 μm) perimeter blood vessels in periventricular and subcortical white matter. Close examination of the frequency distribution of vascular perimeter highlights that alterations in vascular morphology persist in the near term fetal brain for up to 48 h following a brief (10 min) hypoxia in white but not gray matter. These findings suggest that the near term brain may still be vulnerable to white matter injury following in utero hypoxia.

  10. Remote sensing of emissions from in-use small engine marine vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Daniel A; Bria, Carmen R M; Berenbeim, Jacob A

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the first use of a remote sensing device to measure emissions from in-use marine vessels. Emissions from 307 small marine vessels were measured as they passed through the Hiram M. Chittenden locks near Seattle, WA. Of these vessels, 89 were matched to state registration information to allow for further analysis of emissions vs model year, fuel type, and engine type. Emission factors are reported for CO, HC, and NOx in grams of pollutant per kilogram of fuel. The measured emission factors generally agreed with those derived from laboratory studies. HC emissions are disproportionately skewed across the fleet where 40% of the emissions come from just 10% of the fleet. These are most likely due to the remaining two-stroke engines in the fleet. CO and HC emissions show no improvement with newer vessels.

  11. The Clinicaal and Angiograghic Outcome of 290 Cases after Stent Placement in Small Coronary Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文怡; 贾国良; 李伟杰; 秦涛; 李成祥; 栾荣华; 吕安林; 王小燕; 李媛

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To invest the success procedure,immediate outcome after procedure,the rate of main adverse cardiac events after procedure and restenosis after stent placement in small coronary vessels. Methods 290 patients with selected or emergency stent implantation in small vessels from April, 1997 to March, 2002. Total 299 vessels, 304 lesions and 316 stents were statisted. The successs rate of procedure, immediate outcome after procedure, the rate of main adverse cardiac events after procedure and restenosis after stent placement in small coronary vessels were assessed. The patients were followed up l month to 4 years. Re-catheter angiography were done in 122/290 patients. Results The narrow rate of lesion dropped from 89% ± 12% before procedure to 5% ±5% after procedure (diameter). 202 patients were followed up 1 month(69.7% ). 197/202 cases were survival. 5/202 cases died in 3hrs to 7days. 2/5 cases died of persistent hypotension after procedure. 1/5 case died of acute left heart failure. 2/5 cases died of sudden death. 180 cases were followed up 5 months to 4 years. The non-event survival (NES) rate was 73.3% (132/180). The re-angiography were done in 122 cases. Restenosis happened in 39 cases (30.3%). 37 patients repeated PCI. 2 patients went to CABG. 2 cases got angina recurrence and were proved second time restenosis by re-angiography. The third time PCI was done in 1 patient. The other patients went to CABG. 1 case died of chronic heart failure after 2 years. 1 case suffered acute myocardial infarction on artery stent implanted. Conclusions There are high success rate of procedure and perfect immediate outcome in stent placement in small vessels.Main adverse cardiac events did not increased. Non-event survial was satisfied in long term follow - up.Restenosis rate was showed slightly higher than the one of main vessels.

  12. In situ tissue engineering of functional small-diameter blood vessels by host circulating cells only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; Van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Van Herwerden, Lex A.; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent

  13. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment : The relevance of central network connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network c

  14. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. Objective To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. Methods From 2004—2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. Results In this population (median age [interquartile range]=74[12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with −0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.37, −0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. Conclusions In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration. PMID:27372639

  15. Motion correction for passive radiation imaging of small vessels in ship-to-ship inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K.P., E-mail: ziockk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, C.B.; Ernst, J.M.; Fabris, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayward, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Karnowski, T.P.; Paquit, V.C.; Patlolla, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trombino, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Passive radiation detection remains one of the most acceptable means of ascertaining the presence of illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small to moderately sized vessels, where attenuation in the target vessel is of less concern. Unfortunately, imaging methods that can remove source confusion, localize a source, and avoid other systematic detection issues cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing system sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller watercraft, where passive inspections are most valuable. We have developed a combined gamma-ray, stereo visible-light imaging system that addresses this problem. Data from the stereo imager are used to track the relative location and orientation of the target vessel in the field of view of a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager. Using this information, short-exposure gamma-ray images are projected onto the target vessel using simple tomographic back-projection techniques, revealing the location of any sources within the target. The complex autonomous tracking and image reconstruction system runs in real time on a 48-core workstation that deploys with the system.

  16. Prediction of Impaired Performance in Trail Making Test in MCI Patients With Small Vessel Disease Using DTI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, Stefano; Citi, Luca; Salvadori, Emilia; Valenti, Raffaella; Poggesi, Anna; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Pantoni, Leonardo; Diciotti, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in patients with diffuse hyperintensities of cerebral white matter (WM) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). In MCI due to SVD, the most prominent feature of cognitive impairment lies in degradation of executive functions, i.e., of processes that supervise the organization and execution of complex behavior. The trail making test is a widely employed test sensitive to cognitive processing speed and executive functioning. MCI due to SVD has been hypothesized to be the effect of WM damage, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a well-established technique for in vivo characterization of WM. We propose a machine learning scheme tailored to 1) predicting the impairment in executive functions in patients with MCI and SVD, and 2) examining the brain substrates of this impairment. We employed data from 40 MCI patients with SVD and created feature vectors by averaging mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy maps within 50 WM regions of interest. We trained support vector machines (SVMs) with polynomial as well as radial basis function kernels using different DTI-derived features while simultaneously optimizing parameters in leave-one-out nested cross validation. The best performance was obtained using MD features only and linear kernel SVMs, which were able to distinguish an impaired performance with high sensitivity (72.7%-89.5%), specificity (71.4%-83.3%), and accuracy (77.5%-80.0%). While brain substrates of executive functions are still debated, feature ranking confirm that MD in several WM regions, not limited to the frontal lobes, are truly predictive of executive functions.

  17. Remodeling of the collagen fiber architecture due to compaction in small vessels under tissue engineered conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana L F; Stekelenburg, Maria; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2011-07-01

    Mechanical loading protocols in tissue engineering (TE) aim to improve the deposition of a properly organized collagen fiber network. In addition to collagen remodeling, these conditioning protocols can result in tissue compaction. Tissue compaction is beneficial to tissue collagen alignment, yet it may lead to a loss of functionality of the TE construct due to changes in geometry after culture. Here, a mathematical model is presented to relate the changes in collagen architecture to the local compaction within a TE small blood vessel, assuming that under static conditions, compaction is the main factor responsible for collagen fiber organization. An existing structurally based model is extended to incorporate volumetric tissue compaction. Subsequently, the model is applied to describe the collagen architecture of TE constructs under either strain based or stress based stimulus functions. Our computations indicate that stress based simulations result in a helical collagen fiber distribution along the vessel wall. The helix pitch angle increases from a circumferential direction in the inner wall, over about 45 deg in the middle vessel layer, to a longitudinal direction in the outer wall. These results are consistent with experimental data from TE small diameter blood vessels. In addition, our results suggest a stress dependent remodeling of the collagen, suggesting that cell traction is responsible for collagen orientation. These findings may be of value to design improved mechanical conditioning protocols to optimize the collagen architecture in engineered tissues.

  18. Photoacoustic imaging system for peripheral small-vessel imaging based on clinical ultrasound technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Hirota, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Tada, Takuji; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Azuma, Ryuichi; Otani, Naoki; Itoh, Kenji; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-03-01

    One of the features of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is small-vessel visualization realized without injection of a contrast agent or exposure to X-rays. For carrying out clinical studies in this field, a prototype PA imaging system has been developed. The PA imaging system utilizes a technological platform of FUJIFILM's clinical ultrasound (US) imaging system mounting many-core MPU for enhancing the image quality of US B-mode and US Doppler mode, which can be superposed onto PA images. By evaluating the PA and US Doppler images of the prototyped system, the applicability of the prototype system to small-vessel visualization has been discussed. The light source for PA imaging was on a compact cart of a US unit and emitted 750 nm wavelength laser pulses. The laser light was transferred to illumination optics in a handheld US transducer, which was connected to the US unit. Obtained PA rf data is reconstructed into PA images in the US unit. 3D images were obtained by scanning a mechanical stage, which the transducer is attached to. Several peripheral parts such as fingers, palms and wrists were observed by PA and US Doppler imaging. As for small arteries, US Doppler images were able to visualize the bow-shaped artery in the tip of the finger. Though PA images cannot distinguish arteries and veins, it could visualize smaller vessels and showed good resolution and vascular connectivity, resulting in a complementary image for the US Doppler images. Therefore, superposed images of the PA, US B-mode and US Doppler can visualize from large to small vessels without a contrast agent, which should be a differentiating feature of US/PA combined technology from other clinical vascular imaging modalities.

  19. Application of ion beam irradiated ePTFE to repair small vessel injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan) and Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)]. E-mail: norikichi@ionbeams.riken.jp; Suzuki, Y. [Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ujiie, H. [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Hori, T. [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Iwaki, M. [Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, T. [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    In surgery, bleeding from small injured vessels often requires prompt hemostasis without occlusion. This study evaluated the usefulness of 0.06 mm thick ion beam irradiated ePTFE sheets to repair small holes in vessels. Both surfaces of ePTFE sheets were irradiated with a 150 keV-Ar{sup +} beam with fluences of 5 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. A small hole up to 2 mm in diameter was created in the common carotid artery of a rabbit. The defect was wrapped with an ion beam irradiated or non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Fibrin glue was used to fix the ePTFE sheets to the common carotid artery. Hemostasis was instantly obtained with ion beam irradiated ePTFE but was rather difficult when using a non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Three weeks after implantation, no occlusion was observed. Histological examination showed that the ePTFE sheets functioned as a scaffold for vessel wall regeneration. Thin ion beam irradiated ePTFE would be useful in vascular surgery.

  20. Architecture of the subendothelial elastic fibers of small blood vessels and variations in vascular type and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaoka, Akira; Momota, Ryusuke; Shiratsuchi, Eri; Kosaka, Mitsuko; Kumagishi, Kanae; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Naito, Ichiro; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2013-04-01

    Most blood vessels contain elastin that provides the vessels with the resilience and flexibility necessary to control hemodynamics. Pathophysiological hemodynamic changes affect the remodeling of elastic components, but little is known about their structural properties. The present study was designed to elucidate, in detail, the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of delicate elastic fibers in small vessels, and to reveal their architectural pattern in a rat model. The fine vascular elastic components were observed by a newly developed scanning electron microscopy technique using a formic acid digestion with vascular casts. This method successfully visualized the 3D architecture of elastic fibers in small blood vessels, even arterioles and venules. The subendothelial elastic fibers in such small vessels assemble into a sheet of meshwork running longitudinally, while larger vessels have a higher density of mesh and thicker mesh fibers. The quantitative analysis revealed that arterioles had a wider range of mesh density than venules; the ratio of density to vessel size was higher than that in venules. The new method was useful for evaluating the subendothelial elastic fibers of small vessels and for demonstrating differences in the architecture of different types of vessels.

  1. Robinson 2 reactor vessel: pressurized thermal shock analysis for a small-break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marston, T.; Griesbach, T.; Chao, J.; Chexal, B.; Norris, D.; Nickell, B.; Layman, B.

    1984-08-01

    A best-estimate Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) analysis was performed for a three-inch diameter hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident for the Robinson 2 plant. This plant specific analysis was performed using EPRI's linked set of codes for PTS analysis. The analysis shows that with the H.B. Robinson 2 reactor pressure vessel, a hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident does not pose a significant health or safety concern to the public for at least 40 years of operation.

  2. In Vivo μPIV Measurements of Blood Flow in Small Vessels of a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Timothy; Conner, Nadine; Russell, John; Legac, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Ongoing research at the University of Wisconsin Medical School is addressing the effects of perfusion of glottal tissue on voice production. Building on the approach developed by Gharib's group at CalTech for embryonic zebra fish, we have modified μPIV to measure flow in capillaries and small blood vessels in a live rat model. In lieu of seeding particles, the DPIV correlation algorithm tracks the motion of red blood cells moving through these vessels. The methodology will be presented along with a video sequence showing measurements made from muscle tissue laid nominally flat on a microscope stage. Challenges of measurements in three-dimensional geometries, i.e. the throat, will be discussed.

  3. 脑血管病与继发性癫痫的相关性分析%The relative analysis of cerebral vessel disease and secondary epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于子燕; 徐伟丽; 黄小丽

    2001-01-01

    @@Background: CVD is one of reasons of secondary epilepsy, and epilepsy episode is some CVD patients' first symptom, whose state of disease is severe from beginning. Some latent epilepsy can worse the diseases of nerve system existed before and influence its prognosis. Objective:To explore the relationship between cerebral vessel disease and secondary epilepsy. Unit: Nervous Internal Medicine Deparetment of Weihai Municipal Hospital of Shandong .

  4. [Morphological signs of mitochondrial cytopathy in skeletal muscles and micro-vessel walls in a patient with cerebral artery dissection associated with MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharova, A V; Kalashnikova, L A; Chaĭkovskaia, R P; Mir-Kasimov, M F; Nazarova, M A; Pykhtina, T N; Dobrynina, L A; Patrusheva, N L; Patrushev, L I; Protskiĭ, S V

    2012-01-01

    Skin and muscles biopsy specimens of a patient harboring A3243G mutation in mitochondrial DNA, with dissection of internal carotid and vertebral arteries, associated with MELAS were studied using histochemical and electron-microscopy techniques. Ragged red fibers, regional variability of SDH histochemical reaction, two types of morphologically atypical mitochondria and their aggregation were found in muscle. There was correlation between SDH histochemical staining and number of mitochondria revealed by electron microscopy in muscle tissue. Similar mitochondrial abnormality, their distribution and cell lesions followed by extra-cellular matrix mineralization were found in the blood vessel walls. In line with generalization of cytopathy process caused by gene mutation it can be supposed that changes found in skin and muscle microvessels also exist in large cerebral vessels causing the vessel wall "weakness", predisposing them to dissection.

  5. Reduction in Cerebral Oxygenation due to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Is Pronounced in Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Dix, Laura; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) reduces cerebral oxygenation in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) preterm neonates. Reduced cerebral oxygenation has been associated with brain injury. Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates show higher cerebra

  6. An in situ optical imaging system for measuring lipid uptake, vessel contraction, and lymph flow in small animal lymphatic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Weiler, Michael J.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    All dietary lipids are transported to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Understanding how the lymphatics functionally respond to changes in lipid load is important in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid and lymphatic related diseases such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lymphedema. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. A custom-built optical set-up provides us with the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. This is achieved by dividing the light path into two optical bands. Utilizing high-speed and back-illuminated CCD cameras and post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we have the potential quantify correlations between vessel contraction, lymph flow and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. Local flow velocity is measured through lymphocyte tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel walls and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for both scientists studying lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatic system with orally delivered drugs.

  7. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals.

  8. Morphologic evidence for "small vessel disease" in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, B J; Wolfson, J K; Epstein, S E; Roberts, W C

    1987-01-01

    Many patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have signs and symptoms or metabolic and hemodynamic evidence of myocardial ischemia and dysfunction in the absence of extramural coronary atherosclerosis. To investigate the possibility that a form of "small vessel disease" could account for these findings, a histologic analysis of left ventricular myocardium obtained at necropsy was carried out in 48 patients with hypertophic cardiomyopathy and in 68 controls with either normal hearts or acquired heart disease. In HCM, abnormal intramural coronary arteries (IMCA) were characterized by thickening of the vessel wall and an apparent decrease in luminal size (external arterial diameter less than 1500 micron; average 300 micron). The wall thickening was due to proliferation of medial and/or intimal components, particularly smooth muscle cells and collagen. Of the 48 patients with HCM,40 (83%) had abnormal IMCAs located in the ventricular septum (33 patients), anterior left ventricular free wall (20 patients) or posterior free wall (nine patients); an average of 3.0 +/- 0.7 IMCA were identified per tissue section. Altered IMCAs were also significantly more common in tissue sections having considerable myocardial fibrosis (31 out of 42, 74%) than in those with no or mild fibrosis (31 or 102, 30%; p less than 0.001). Abnormal IMCA wera also identified in 3 out of 8 infants who died of HCM before 1 year of age. In contrast, only rare altered IMCA were identified in six (9%) of the 69 control patients, and those arteries showed only mild thickening of the wall and minimal luminal narrowing (abnormal IMCA per section: 0.1 +/- 0.05: p less than 0.001). Moreover, of those patients who did show abnormal IMCA, such vessels were about twenty times more frequent in patients with HCM (0.9 +/- 0.2/cm2 myocardium) than in controls (0.04 +/- 0.02/cm2 myocardium). Hence, abnormal IMCA with markedly thickened walls and narrowed lumens are present in increased numbers in most patients

  9. Clinical and angiographic outcome of elective stent implantation in small coronary vessels: an analysis of the BENESTENT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, D; Azar, A J; de Jaegere, P; Rutsch, W; de Bruyne, B; Legrand, V; Kiemeneij, F; de Feyter, P; van de Heuvel, P; Ozaki, Y; Morel, M A; Serruys, P W

    1996-12-01

    We examined the influence of vessel size using an intention-to-treat approach in 259 patients who underwent stent implantation and in 257 patients who underwent balloon angioplasty alone in the BENESTENT trial. In the stented population, smaller vessel size was associated with a higher stent:vessel ratio, a greater relative gain and a greater subsequent loss index, and a higher risk of adverse cardiac events. In the balloon angioplasty population small vessel size conveyed an increased requirement for revascularization but did not increase the risk of procedural failure or myocardial infarction during follow-up. Logistic regression indicated that decreasing vessel size (as a continous variable) was associated with an increasing risk of a cardiac event for both the stent and balloon angioplasty populations.

  10. Parent vessel occlusion for traumatic pseudoaneurysm of P3 segment of posterior cerebral artery:A case report and review of literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Gaofeng; Xie Wanfu; Li Ruichun; Wang Maode

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms (TIPA) are rare and pseudoaneurysm of P3 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is extremely rarely reported. A 27-year-old man suffered from blunt head injury and underwent diagnostic procedure with head CT scans,cerebral CT angiograms (CTA) and digital subtraction angiograms (DSA). An abnormal high-density lesion was detected at the left side of quadrigeminal cistern and a pseudoaneurysm showed at the P3 segment of PCA. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with parent artery occlusion (PAO). Making an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms is of great importance. Endovascular techniques allow a safe approach to complex intracranial lesion,so endovascular management of PCA pseudoaneurysms becomes safe and effective. However,the pseudoaneurysm may not be amenable to coil placement under some conditions,thus,occlusion of the parent vessel may be a preferable treatment.

  11. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Radiological Phenotypes, Histopathological Correlates, and Described Genotypes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vascular cognitive impairment is a common yet preventable cause for dementia. It needs high degree of suspicion and appropriate designing of investigatory tools to confirm diagnosis, identify comorbidities, and ascertain the areas of impairment. Commonly DSM-IV criterion is applied for diagnosis and detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination for identifying the specific phenotype is used. Early diagnosis using the mandatory criteria will help in early initiation of disease modifying treatment strategies which can result in partial reversal of vascular changes and arrest of progression. Patients with young onset disease might require genetic characterization for designing more aggressive treatment. Discussion and Conclusion. Dementias as such carry poor course and prognosis resulting in severe Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs for patients and caregivers. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify treatable and preventable causes so that man power loss can be reduced.

  12. Strategic lacunes and their relationship to cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Lacunes are important predictors of cognitive impairment in SVD. We highlight the importance of spatial distribution, particularly of anteromedial thalamic lacunes which are associated with impaired information processing speed and may mediate cognitive impairment via disruption of connectivity to the prefrontal cortex.

  13. Small-Medium Vessel Vasculitides: is the Complement System a Potential Forgotten Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Eleonora; Chimenti, Maria S; Perricone, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Systemic vasculitides are a group of uncommon diseases characterized by blood vessel inflammation. The complement system is involved in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic vasculitides. This enzymatic system is a component of the innate immune system. Its main function was initially believed to be limited to the recognition and elimination of pathogens, but research in recent years has demonstrated the important role that complement proteins play in modulating adaptive immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive responses. Its activation is also critical for the development of T cell immunity and natural antibodies as well as for the regulation of autoreactive B cells. In systemic vasculitides, particularly small-medium vesselvasculitides, the complement system has been shown to contribute to the development of inflammatory damage. In view of these crucial functions, the complement system represents an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. including vasculitic disorders.

  14. Vascular tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels: reviewing the electrospinning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Enrico; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Bianco, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    Vascular tissue engineering is a relevant research field aimed at elaborating and proposing innovative solutions to overcome the drawbacks related to the use of conventional blood vessel substitutes, especially referring to small-diameter grafts. For this aim, electrospinning can be regarded as a valuable technique to produce novel scaffolds with several functional characteristics that can be usefully tailored for the application discussed here. The reproduction of the natural extracellular matrix obtained by processing bioresorbable polymers, either functionalized or not, is driving the biomedical research towards technical solutions that can lead to an actual therapeutic improvement. In this context, this paper reviews those studies focused on the selection of suitable biomaterials for vascular applications, their microstructure, the cell response to polymeric fibres and the strategies considered so far to modify and therefore enhance the performance of final electrospun scaffolds.

  15. Microstructural investigations on Russian reactor pressure vessel steels by small-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, A.; Boehmert, J.; Strunz, P.; Dewhurst, C.; Mathon, M.-H.

    The effect of radiation embrittlement has a high safety significance for Russian VVER reactor pressure vessel steels. Heats of base and weld metals of the as-received state, irradiated state and post-irradiation annealed state were investigated using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to obtain insight about the microstructural features caused by fast neutron irradiation. The SANS intensities increase in the momentum transfer range between 0.8 and 3 nm-1 for all the material compositions in the irradiated state. The size distribution function of the irradiation-induced defect clusters has a pronounced maximum at 1 nm in radius. Their content varies between 0.1 and 0.7 vol.% dependent on material composition and increases with the neutron fluence. The comparison of nuclear and magnetic scattering indicates that the defects differ in their composition. Thermal annealing reduces the volume fraction of irradiation defect clusters.

  16. Small vessel ischemic disease of the brain and brain metastases in lung cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mazzone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain metastases occur commonly in patients with lung cancer. Small vessel ischemic disease is frequently found when imaging the brain to detect metastases. We aimed to determine if the presence of small vessel ischemic disease (SVID of the brain is protective against the development of brain metastases in lung cancer patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort of 523 patients with biopsy confirmed lung cancer who had received magnetic resonance imaging of the brain as part of their standard initial staging evaluation was reviewed. Information collected included demographics, comorbidities, details of the lung cancer, and the presence of SVID of the brain. A portion of the cohort had the degree of SVID graded. The primary outcome measure was the portion of study subjects with and without SVID of the brain who had evidence of brain metastases at the time of initial staging of their lung cancer.109 patients (20.8% had evidence of brain metastases at presentation and 345 (66.0% had evidence of SVID. 13.9% of those with SVID and 34.3% of those without SVID presented with brain metastases (p<0.0001. In a model including age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use, SVID of the brain was found to be the only protective factor against the development of brain metastases, with an OR of 0.31 (0.20, 0.48; p<0.001. The grade of SVID was higher in those without brain metastases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that vascular changes in the brain are protective against the development of brain metastases in lung cancer patients.

  17. VISIR-I: small vessels - least-time nautical routes using wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Gianandrea; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Iafrati, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    A new numerical model for the on-demand computation of optimal ship routes based on sea-state forecasts has been developed. The model, named VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is designed to support decision-makers when planning a marine voyage. The first version of the system, VISIR-I, considers medium and small motor vessels with lengths of up to a few tens of metres and a displacement hull. The model is comprised of three components: a route optimization algorithm, a mechanical model of the ship, and a processor of the environmental fields. The optimization algorithm is based on a graph-search method with time-dependent edge weights. The algorithm is also able to compute a voluntary ship speed reduction. The ship model accounts for calm water and added wave resistance by making use of just the principal particulars of the vessel as input parameters. It also checks the optimal route for parametric roll, pure loss of stability, and surfriding/broaching-to hazard conditions. The processor of the environmental fields employs significant wave height, wave spectrum peak period, and wave direction forecast fields as input. The topological issues of coastal navigation (islands, peninsulas, narrow passages) are addressed. Examples of VISIR-I routes in the Mediterranean Sea are provided. The optimal route may be longer in terms of miles sailed and yet it is faster and safer than the geodetic route between the same departure and arrival locations. Time savings up to 2.7 % and route lengthening up to 3.2 % are found for the case studies analysed. However, there is no upper bound for the magnitude of the changes of such route metrics, which especially in case of extreme sea states can be much greater. Route diversions result from the safety constraints and the fact that the algorithm takes into account the full temporal evolution and spatial variability of the environmental fields.

  18. A miniature research vessel: A small-scale ocean-exploration demonstration of geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Boston, B.; Sleeper, J. D.; Cameron, M. E.; Togia, H.; Anderson, A.; Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Tree, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Graduate student members of the University of Hawaii Geophysical Society have designed a small-scale model research vessel (R/V) that uses sonar to create 3D maps of a model seafloor in real-time. A pilot project was presented to the public at the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology's (SOEST) Biennial Open House weekend in 2013 and, with financial support from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and National Science Foundation, was developed into a full exhibit for the same event in 2015. Nearly 8,000 people attended the two-day event, including children and teachers from Hawaii's schools, home school students, community groups, families, and science enthusiasts. Our exhibit demonstrates real-time sonar mapping of a cardboard volcano using a toy size research vessel on a programmable 2-dimensional model ship track suspended above a model seafloor. Ship waypoints were wirelessly sent from a Windows Surface tablet to a large-touchscreen PC that controlled the exhibit. Sound wave travel times were recorded using an ultrasonic emitter/receiver attached to an Arduino microcontroller platform and streamed through a USB connection to the control PC running MatLab, where a 3D model was updated as the ship collected data. Our exhibit demonstrates the practical use of complicated concepts, like wave physics, survey design, and data processing in a way that the youngest elementary students are able to understand. It provides an accessible avenue to learn about sonar mapping, and could easily be adapted to talk about bat and marine mammal echolocation by replacing the model ship and volcano. The exhibit received an overwhelmingly positive response from attendees and incited discussions that covered a broad range of earth science topics.

  19. Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hsiu-Yueh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with many patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. The current standard is using autografts such as the saphenous vein or intimal mammary artery, however creating a synthetic graft could eliminate this painful and inconvenient procedure. Large diameter grafts have long been established with materials such as DacronRTM and TeflonRTM, however these materials have not proved successful in small-diameter (biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone) we utilize our expertise in electrospinning and femtosecond laser ablation to create a novel tri-layered tissue engineered blood vessel containing microchannels. The benefits of creating a tri-layer is to mimic native arteries that contain an endothelium to prevent thrombosis in the inner layer, aligned smooth muscle cells in the middle to control vasodilation and constriction, and a mechanically robust outer layer. The following work evaluates the mechanical properties of such a graft (tensile, fatigue, burst pressure, and suture retention strength), the ability to rapidly align cells in laser ablated microchannels in PCL scaffolds, and the biological integration (co-culture of endothelial and smooth muscle cells) with electrospun PCL scaffolds. The conclusions from this work establish that the electrospun tri-layers provide adequate mechanical strength as a tissue engineered blood vessel, that laser ablated microchannels are able to contain the smooth muscle cells, and that cells are able to adhere to PCL fibers. However, future work includes adjusting microchannel dimensions to properly align smooth muscle cells along with perfect co-cultures of endothelial and smooth muscle cells on the electrospun tri-layer.

  20. VISIR-I: small vessels, least-time nautical routes using wave forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mannarini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical model for the on-demand computation of optimal ship routes based on sea-state forecasts has been developed. The model, named VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes is designed to support decision-makers when planning a marine voyage. The first version of the system, VISIR-I, considers medium and small motor vessels with lengths of up to a few tens of meters and a displacement hull. The model is made up of three components: the route optimization algorithm, the mechanical model of the ship, and the environmental fields. The optimization algorithm is based on a graph-search method with time-dependent edge weights. The algorithm is also able to compute a voluntary ship speed reduction. The ship model accounts for calm water and added wave resistance by making use of just the principal particulars of the vessel as input parameters. The system also checks the optimal route for parametric roll, pure loss of stability, and surfriding/broaching-to hazard conditions. Significant wave height, wave spectrum peak period, and wave direction forecast fields are employed as an input. Examples of VISIR-I routes in the Mediterranean Sea are provided. The optimal route may be longer in terms of miles sailed and yet it is faster and safer than the geodetic route between the same departure and arrival locations. Route diversions result from the safety constraints and the fact that the algorithm takes into account the full temporal evolution and spatial variability of the environmental fields.

  1. VISIR-I: small vessels, least-time nautical routes using wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, G.; Pinardi, N.; Coppini, G.; Oddo, P.; Iafrati, A.

    2015-09-01

    A new numerical model for the on-demand computation of optimal ship routes based on sea-state forecasts has been developed. The model, named VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is designed to support decision-makers when planning a marine voyage. The first version of the system, VISIR-I, considers medium and small motor vessels with lengths of up to a few tens of meters and a displacement hull. The model is made up of three components: the route optimization algorithm, the mechanical model of the ship, and the environmental fields. The optimization algorithm is based on a graph-search method with time-dependent edge weights. The algorithm is also able to compute a voluntary ship speed reduction. The ship model accounts for calm water and added wave resistance by making use of just the principal particulars of the vessel as input parameters. The system also checks the optimal route for parametric roll, pure loss of stability, and surfriding/broaching-to hazard conditions. Significant wave height, wave spectrum peak period, and wave direction forecast fields are employed as an input. Examples of VISIR-I routes in the Mediterranean Sea are provided. The optimal route may be longer in terms of miles sailed and yet it is faster and safer than the geodetic route between the same departure and arrival locations. Route diversions result from the safety constraints and the fact that the algorithm takes into account the full temporal evolution and spatial variability of the environmental fields.

  2. Therapy with the Combination of Amlodipine and Irbesartan Has Persistent Preventative Effects on Stroke Onset Associated with BDNF Preservation on Cerebral Vessels in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Uekawa, Ken; Ma, Mingjie; Lin, Bowen; Kusaka, Hiroaki; Katayama, Tetsuji; Sueta, Daisuke; Toyama, Kensuke; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2016-02-01

    Although calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and combination therapy are effective for hypertensive patients, the significant differences among them against stroke onset are undetermined. In this study, we investigated the significant beneficial effects of the combination therapy using amlodipine and irbesartan against stroke onset in hypertensive rats. The animals were fed an 8% sodium diet and assigned to (1) vehicle, (2) amlodipine (2 mg/kg/day), (3) irbesartan (20 mg/kg/day), and (4) amlodipine + irbesartan groups. The drugs were given orally until 35 days, and incidences of stroke-related signs and mortality and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain water content, weight of the brain and left ventricle, and histological evaluations were conducted for the treated groups at 42 days after the start of the high-salt diet. Amlodipine and the combination therapy significantly reduced BP compared with the vehicle. Although the rates of stroke-related signs and mortality were high in the vehicle group, the rats in the treatment groups were mostly healthy until 35 days. After all drugs were discontinued, stroke onset was frequently seen in the monotherapy groups until 42 days, but no signs were observed in the combination therapy group. Although there were no significant differences in CBF or brain edema, the combination therapy reduced blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter injury, and reactive astrocytes compared with irbesartan, and the combination also inhibited left ventricular hypertrophy and preserved brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression on cerebral vessels compared to the monotherapies. These data suggest that the combination therapy had a persistent preventive effect on stroke onset in hypertensive rats, and the effects might be associated with BDNF preservation on cerebral vessels.

  3. Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with small-vessel lesions and stroke type in moyamoya disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Huh, Pil Woo; Lee, Kwan-Sung

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The present study was conducted to investigate whether microbleeds or microinfarcts are associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), and if so, whetherAPOE gene polymorphisms are also associated with stroke type in patients with MMD. METHODS This cross-sectional, multicenter study included 86 consecutive patients with MMD who underwent T2*-weighted gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted MR imaging and 83 healthy control volunteers. Baseline clinical and radiological characteristics were recorded at diagnosis, and inter- and intragroup differences in the APOE genotypes were assessed. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to determine the association factors for small-vessel lesions (SVLs) and hemorrhagic presentation in patients with MMD. RESULTS There was no difference in APOE gene polymorphism and the incidence of SVLs between patients with MMD and healthy controls (p > 0.05). In the MMD group, 7 (8.1%) patients had microbleeds and 32 (37.2%) patients had microinfarcts. Microbleeds were more frequently identified in patients with hemorrhagic-type than in nonhemorrhagictype MMD (p = 0.003). APOE genotypes differed according to the presence of microbleeds (p = 0.024). APOE ε2 or ε4 carriers also experienced microbleeds more frequently than APOE ε3/ε3 carriers (p = 0.013). In the multivariate regression analysis in patients with MMD, microbleeds were significantly related to APOE ε2 or ε4 carrier status (OR 7.86; 95% CI1.20-51.62; p = 0.032) and cerebral aneurysm (OR 17.31; 95% CI 2.09-143.57; p = 0.008). Microinfarcts were independently associated with hypertension (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; p = 0.007). Hemorrhagic presentation was markedly associated with microbleeds (OR 10.63; 95% CI 1.11-102.0; p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results did not show a difference in APOE gene polymorphisms between patients with MMD and healthy persons. However, they imply that APOE

  4. [In vitro study of regulation of shear stress on antithrombogenic potentials of endothelialized polyurethane small diameter artificial blood vessel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Tao, Jun; Wang, Jiemei; Tu, Chang; Feng, Lianqiang; Pan, Shirong; Ma, Hong

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the changes of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) secreted by endothelialized polyurethane small diameter artificial blood vessel. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adult were separated and induced into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which were identified by the methods of discrepancy microphage and fluorescent immunology labeling. After the induced cells being seeded on the polyurethane small-diameter artificial vessels, the endothelialized polyurethane small diameter artificial blood vessels were divided into four different experimental groups, including stationary group, low-flow shear stress group (5 dynes/cm2), medium-flow shearstress group (15 dynes/cm2), and high-flow shear stress group (25 dynes/cm2). Then, the levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha) and NO of different time were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nitrate reductase methods. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells differentiated into EPCs. They presented typical "spindie-shaped" appearance, and they were positively labeled by fluorescent acetylated-LDL, lectin, FLK-1 and vWF. Shear stress enhanced the production of NO and 6-keto-PGF1alpha by EPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, shear stress increases the secretion of NO and PGI2 by EPC, which suggests that shear stress can improve the antithrombogenic potentials of endothelialized polyurethane small diameter artificial blood vessel.

  5. Biomimetic control of vascular smooth muscle cell morphology and phenotype for functional tissue-engineered small-diameter blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Park, Mary B; Shen, Jin Ye; Cao, Ye; Xiong, Yun; Liu, Yunxiao; Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Kang, Gavin Chun-Wei; Greisler, Howard P

    2009-03-15

    Small-diameter blood vessel substitutes are urgently needed for patients requiring replacements of their coronary and below-the-knee vessels and for better arteriovenous dialysis shunts. Circulatory diseases, especially those arising from atherosclerosis, are the predominant cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Current therapies include the use of autologous vessels or synthetic materials as vessel replacements. The limited availability of healthy vessels for use as bypass grafts and the failure of purely synthetic materials in small-diameter sites necessitate the development of a biological substitute. Tissue engineering is such an approach and has achieved promising results, but reconstruction of a functional vascular tunica media, with circumferentially oriented contractile smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and extracellular matrix, appropriate mechanical properties, and vasoactivity has yet to be demonstrated. This review focuses on strategies to effect the switch of SMC phenotype from synthetic to contractile, which is regarded as crucial for the engineering of a functional vascular media. The synthetic SMC phenotype is desired initially for cell proliferation and tissue remodeling, but the contractile phenotype is then necessary for sufficient vasoactivity and inhibition of neointima formation. The factors governing the switch to a more contractile phenotype with in vitro culture are reviewed.

  6. Impact of small vessel disease in the brain on gait and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Ritchie, Stuart J; Doubal, Fergus; Gattringer, Thomas; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E; Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Pattie, Alison; Dickie, David A; Staals, Julie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2017-01-30

    Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71-74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity - WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients' performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects.

  7. Impact of small vessel disease in the brain on gait and balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Doubal, Fergus; Gattringer, Thomas; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; del C. Valdés Hernández, Maria; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Pattie, Alison; Dickie, David A.; Staals, Julie; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71–74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity – WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients’ performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects. PMID:28134332

  8. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  9. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: The relevance of central network connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijmer, Yael D; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven M; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network connections. Brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted MRI scans in 72 individuals (75 ± 8 years) with cognitive impairment and SVD on MRI. The centrality of white matter connections in the network was defined using graph theory. The association between the fractional anisotropy (FA) of central versus non-central connections, executive functioning, and markers of SVD was evaluated with linear regression and mediation analysis. Lower FA in central network connections was more strongly associated with impairment in executive functioning than FA in non-central network connections (r = 0.41 vs. r = 0.27; P 50%-10% connections). Higher SVD burden was associated with lower FA in central as well as non-central network connections. However, only central network FA mediated the relationship between white matter hyperintensity volume and executive functioning [change in regression coefficient after mediation (95% CI): -0.15 (-0.35 to -0.02)]. The mediation effect was not observed for FA alterations in non-central network connections [-0.03 (-0.19 to 0.04)]. These findings suggest that the centrality of network connections, and thus their contribution to global network efficiency, appears to be relevant for understanding the relationship between SVD and cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2446-2454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Primary Study of the Construction of Small Diameter Tissue-engineered Blood Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionToday, the blood vessel substitutes are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass procedures. Each year, more than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft procedures are performed in the United States. There are some blood vessel substitutes including autografts, allografts and synthetic grafts that have been applied in vascular surgery in clinics. But their clinical implementations are prevented, especially for the <6mm in diameter grafts, because of their shortcomings such as inadequat...

  11. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    Dihydralazine is widely used for acute control of hypertension. In experimental studies it seems to dilate cerebral resistance vessels and increase intracranial pressure. However, the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in man has been little studied. Measurements of CBF were performed with the i...... the period of study, in median 16, 27 and 23% at the three periods of measurements, respectively. The arterial blood pressure remained unchanged, whereas heart rate increased significantly. During CO2 inhalation, CBF increased on average 29%. Thus, the cerebral vasodilation exerted by a small i.v. dose...

  12. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  13. Quantitative CT measurements of small pulmonary vessels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: do they change on follow-up scans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruya, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shin; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Matsushita, Shoichiro; Fujikawa, Atsuko; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a longitudinal evaluation of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels and the extent of emphysema measured on computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to correlate the pulmonary vascular measurements with extent of emphysema. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the need for patients' informed consent. Seventy-four patients with COPD who underwent both initial and follow-up CT scans at an interval of ≥12 months were analysed. The CSA of small pulmonary vessels up measurements were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The relationship between longitudinal changes in %CSAup period was assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. The %LAA increased significantly on follow-up CT scans (Pup scans, but the difference was not significant. Although longitudinal change in %LAA was positively correlated with duration of follow-up period (ρ = 0·505, P<0·0001), longitudinal change in %CSA<5 was not. In conclusion, there was a progressive increase in the extent of emphysema over time, but no significant decrease in the CSA of small pulmonary vessels over the same time period.

  14. DETERMINATION OF RELATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AMONG HULL FORM PARAMETERS AND SHIP MOTIONS PERFORMANCE FOR A SET OF SMALL VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Sayli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data science for engineers is the most recent research area which suggests to analyse large data sets in order to find data analytics and use them for better designing and modelling. Ship design practice reveals that conceptual ship design is critically important for a successful basic design. Conceptual ship design needs to identify the true set of design variables influencing vessel performance and costs to define the best possible basic design by the use of performance prediction model. This model can be constructed by design engineers. The main idea of this paper comes from this crucial idea to determine relational classification of a set of small vessels using their hull form parameters and performance characteristics defined by transfer functions of heave and pitch motions and of absolute vertical acceleration, by our in-house software application based on K-Means algorithm from data mining. This application is implemented in the C# programming language on Microsoft SQL Server database. We also use the Elbow method to estimate the true number of clusters for K-Means algorithm. The computational results show that the considered set of small vessels can be clustered in three categories according to their functional relations of their hull form parameters and transfer functions considering all cases of three loading conditions, seven ship speeds as non-dimensional Froude numbers (Fn and nine wave-length to ship-length values (λ/L.

  15. Development of in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism for a innovative small reactor (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Although the control rod drive mechanism of an existing large scale light water reactor is generally installed outside the reactor vessel, an in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism (INV-CRDM) is installed inside the reactor vessel. The INV-CRDM contributes to compactness and simplicity of the reactor system, and it can eliminate the possibility of a rod ejection accident. Therefore, INV-CRDM is an important technology adopted in an innovative small reactor. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has developed this type of CRDM driven by an electric motor, which can work under high temperature and high pressure water for the advanced marine reactor. On the basis of this research result, a driving motor coil and a bearing were developed to be used under the high temperature steam, severe condition for an innovative small reactor. About the driving motor, we manufactured the driving motor available for high temperature steam and carried out performance test under room temperature atmosphere to confirm the electric characteristic and coolability of the driving coil. With these test results and the past test results under high temperature water, we analyzed and evaluated the electric performance and coolability of the driving coil under high temperature steam. Concerning bearing, we manufactured the test pieces using some candidate material for material characteristic test and carried out the rolling wear test under high temperature steam to select the material. Consequently, we confirmed that performance of the driving coil for the advanced type driving motor, is enough to be used under high temperature steam. And, we evaluated the performance of the bearing and selected the material of the bearing, which can be used under high temperature steam. From these results, we have obtained the prospect that the INV-CRDM can be used for an innovative small reactor under steam atmosphere could be developed. (author)

  16. About a mechanism of the influence of shear stress for viscosity of the blood in vessels of small diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лев Николаевич Катюхин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed a physiological and experimentally confirmed explanation of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist-effect in capillaries using the profile analyses of osmotic deformability of red blood cells. It was shown the dose-dependent change of the erythrocytes deformability in the stage of isotropic spheres after forming artificial water pores (nystatin and occlusion (PbCl2 of available pores. The Sigma-effect reducing of hematocrit and viscosity in a shear flow of blood through the vessels of a small diameter was conditioned by the interchange of liquid phase between the erythrocyte and the plasma.

  17. Acute hypertensive encephalopathy with widespread small-vessel disease at MRI in a diabetic patient: pathogenetic hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Department of Radiology, Pierre Benite (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Laennec (France); Kamoun, S.; Rety-Jacob, F.; Tran-Minh, V.A. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Department of Radiology, Pierre Benite (France); Nighoghossian, N. [Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Department of Neurology, Bron (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France); Hermier, M. [Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Bron (France); Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-I, CREATIS, UMR CNRS (France)

    2005-08-01

    We report unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a diabetic patient with neglected hypertension and hyperglycemia, presenting with seizures and coma. Outcome was fatal despite intensive care. The MRI findings included bilateral insular and temporo-occipital grey and white matter involvement, and numerous, scattered, lacunar-like lesions involving the peripheral and deep white matter, basal ganglia grey matter, and brainstem. Lesions had a low apparent diffusion coefficient, and some enhanced following contrast injection. Hypertensive encephalopathy with widespread and severe acute small-vessel disease was considered. Pathophysiology is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral ischemia/stroke and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation--a new target for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Sheng, Huaxin; Homi, H Mayumi; Warner, David S; Paschen, Wulf

    2008-08-01

    Transient cerebral ischemia/stroke activates various post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitin conjugation that are believed to play a major role in the pathological process triggered by an interruption of blood supply and culminating in cell death. A new system of post-translational protein modification has been identified, termed as small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation. Like ubiquitin, SUMO is conjugated to the lysine residue of target proteins in a complex process. This review summarizes observations from recent experiments focusing on the effect of cerebral ischemia on SUMO conjugation. Transient global and focal cerebral ischemia both induced a rapid, dramatic and long-lasting rise in levels of SUMO2/3 conjugation. After transient focal cerebral ischemia, SUMO conjugation was particularly prominent in neurons located at the border of the ischemic territory where SUMO-conjugated proteins translocated to the nucleus. Many SUMO conjugation target proteins are transcription factors and sumoylation has been shown to have a major impact on the activity, stability, and cellular localization of target proteins. The rise in levels of SUMO-conjugated proteins is therefore likely to have a major effect on the fate of post-ischemic neurons. The sumoylation process could provide an exciting new target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2011-11-01

    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  20. The association of cerebral palsy and death with small-for-gestational-age birthweight in preterm neonates by individualized and population-based percentiles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grobman, William A

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether an individualized growth standard (IS) improves the identification of preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates at risk of developing moderate\\/severe cerebral palsy (CP) or death.

  1. Experimental and numerical study on density stratification erosion phenomena with a vertical buoyant jet in a small vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Satoshi, E-mail: abe.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • This paper shows results of a small scale experiment and CFD analyses on a density stratification erosion with a vertical buoyant jet. • The particle image velocimetry (PIV) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with a multiport rotating valve were applied. • Two typical well-used RANS models were applied. • The simulated stratification erosion was in agreement with the experimental result, which suggested that the turbulence mixing occurred only in the jet impinging region. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project to investigate thermal hydraulic phenomena in a reactor containment vessel during a severe accident. The hydrogen distribution in the vessel is one of significant safety issues in discussing a potential of hydrogen combustion in the containment. Density stratification and its break-up are important phenomena affecting the hydrogen distribution. This paper focuses on a density stratification erosion and break-up mechanism with a vertical buoyant jet promoting the turbulent helium transport. Small scale experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were carried out for investigating this phenomena. In the experiment, a rectangular vessel made with acrylic plates with a width of 1.5 m, a length of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m was used for visualizing flow field with particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system with a multiport rotating valve was applied for measuring gaseous concentration at 20 elevation points. In CFD analysis with OpenFOAM, two typical well-used turbulence models were used: low-Reynolds number type k–ε model and SST k–ω model, with a turbulence model modification to consider the buoyant effect in the stratification. As a result, the stratification erosion in the CFD analyses with the modified turbulence model agreed well with the experimental data, indicating importance of the turbulence damping by the buoyant effect.

  2. Investigation of magnetic nanoparticle targeting in a simplified model of small vessel aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzababaei, S. N.; Gorji, Tahereh B.; Baou, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.; Fatouraee, Nasser

    2017-03-01

    An in simulacra study was conducted to investigate the capture efficiency (CE) of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in aneurysm model, under the effect of a bipolar permanent magnetic system positioned at the vicinity of the model vessel. The bipolar magnetic system with an active space of 9 cm was designed by FEMM software. The MNPs were magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by the hydrothermal method which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and magnetometer measurements. Ferrofluid velocity, magnetic field strength, and aneurysm volume all proved to be important parameters which affect the capturing of MNPs. Overall, the results of this in simulacra study confirmed the effectiveness of magnetic targeting for possible aneurysm embolization.

  3. Small-target leak detection for a closed vessel via infrared image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Hongjiu

    2017-03-01

    This paper focus on a leak diagnosis and localization method based on infrared image sequences. Some problems on high probability of false warning and negative affect for marginal information are solved by leak detection. An experimental model is established for leak diagnosis and localization on infrared image sequences. The differential background prediction is presented to eliminate the negative affect of marginal information on test vessel based on a kernel regression method. A pipeline filter based on layering voting is designed to reduce probability of leak point false warning. A synthesize leak diagnosis and localization algorithm is proposed based on infrared image sequences. The effectiveness and potential are shown for developed techniques through experimental results.

  4. The use of BDNF to enhance the patency rate of small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels through stem cell homing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen; Wen, Can; Wu, Yangxiao; Li, Li; Zhou, Zhenhua; Mi, Jianhong; Chen, Wen; Yang, Mingcan; Hou, Chunli; Sun, Jiansen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2012-01-01

    The patency rate of small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels is the determinant for their application in coronary artery bypass grafting. The coronary artery is innervated by vagus nerves. The origin of vagus nerves is rich in brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF). We have investigated whether BDNF could improve the patency rate of small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels through promoting stem cell homing and paracrine activity. In vitro, we isolated early and late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and found BDNF could promote single clone formation and paracrine function of EPCs, and could also induce the proliferation, migration and differentiation of late EPCs. BDNF could enhance the capturing of EPCs in parallel-plate flow chamber. Flow cytometric analysis and laser-scanning confocal microscope showed BDNF could enhance the mobilization and homing of C57BL/6 mouse EPCs after wire injury. Based on it, BDNF was coupled to the lumen surface of the blood vessel matrix material incubated with collagen through SPDP to construct BDNF-modified small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessel. The blood vessel patency rate was significantly higher than that of control group 8 weeks after implantation in rats and the endothelialization level was superior to control. These results demonstrate that BDNF can effectively improve patency of small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels through stem cell homing and paracrine, and it is expected to play an important role in the construction of substitutes for coronary artery bypass grafting.

  5. Usefulness of dilated blood vessels in the tumor periphery for assessing the invasion depth of small-sized depressed colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Rintaro; Matsuda, Tomoki; Hamamoto, Hidetaka; Yamaoka, Hajime; Nakahori, Masato; Chonan, Akimichi

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between dilated blood vessels in the tumor periphery and the tumor invasion depth is unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the relationship between dilated blood vessels and the invasion depth of small-sized (<30 mm) colorectal cancer (CRC), and its implications on endoscopic treatment.We performed a single-arm observational study of the diagnostic accuracy of the existence of dilated vessels in the tumor periphery of CRC lesions as an indicator of submucosal deep (SM-d, ≥1000 μm) carcinomas. Lesions were classified into two groups based on the existence of dilated vessels by two experienced endoscopists. The clinicopathological features, invasion depth, and lymphovascular invasion/poorly differentiated clusters were analyzed in all resected specimens.Four hundred and two consecutive small-sized CRC lesions were included. The dilated vessels were observed in 96/402 (24%) lesions, and most of them (93/96) were found in depressed lesions. In depressed lesions, the histopathological diagnosis of the dilated vessels group showed SM-d or deeper invasion in 84/93 (90%) cases, whereas 3/20 (15%) had SM-d invasion in the nondilated vessels group (P < 0.001). When the dilated vessels were used as an indicator of SM-d or deeper invasion in depressed lesions, the sensitivity was 95.6%, specificity was 66.7%, and accuracy was 90.2%. No correlation was observed between the existence of dilated vessels and the lesion site, lesion diameter, and lymphovascular invasion/poorly differentiated cluster.The existence of dilated blood vessels in the tumor periphery suggests SM-d or deeper invasion in depressed lesions.

  6. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  7. Evaluation of ductile-brittle transition behavior with neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels using small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Y. J. [Hanbat National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    A Small Punch (SP) test was performed to evaluate the ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after neutron irradiation in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels produced by different manufacturing (refining) processes. The results were compared to the standard transition temperature shifts from the Charpy test and Master Curve fracture toughness test in accordance with the ASTM standard E1921. The samples were taken from 1/4t location of the vessel thickness and machined into a 10x10x0.5mm dimension. Irradiation of the samples was carried out in the research reactor at KAERI (HANARO) at about 290 .deg. C of the different fluence levels respectively. SP tests were performed in the temperature range of RT to -196 .deg. C using a 2.4mm diameter ball. For the materials before and after irradiation, SP transition temperatures (T{sub sp}), which are determined at the middle of the upper and lower SP energies, showed a linear correlation with the Charpy index temperature, T{sub 41J}. T{sub sp} from the irradiated samples was increased as the fluence level increased and was well within the deviation range of the unirradiated data. The TSP had a correlation with the reference temperature (T{sub 0}) from the master curve method using a pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen.

  8. Clinical Observation on Effect of Clearing the Governor Vessel and Refreshing the Mind Needling on Head SPECT and CT Scanning of Kids with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 祁岩超; 潘佩光; 马美美; 钱旭光; 符文杰; 张宏雁

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨针灸在脑瘫康复中的脑功能代偿作用.方法:100例脑瘫患儿随机分为治疗组(50例)和对照组(50例),治疗组采用通督补肾组穴:督脉穴13针配伍涌泉、阳陵泉、足三里、三阴交.和醒神头针(神庭透百会,百会透脑户和四神聪).配合康复训练.对照组单纯用康复训练.观察两组临床疗效以及头颅CT、SPECT病变恢复情况.结果:治疗组总有效率为84%,显著高于对照组总有效率的52%.治疗后发育商(DQ)治疗显著组高于对照组(P<0.01).头颅CT脑发育不良,脑萎缩的好转率和头颅SPECT脑神经元代谢功能恢复正常率,治疗组高于对照组(P<0.01)结论:针灸能促进脑功能的代偿作用.%To investigate the brain functional compensation of acupuncture in cerebral palsy rehabilitation. Method: All 100 cerebral palsy kids were randomized into a treatment group (50 cases) and a control group (50 cases). For cases in the treatment group,points of connecting the Governor Vessels and tonifying the kidney were selected: 13 points of the Governor Vessel, Yongquan (Kid 1), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), and points of refreshing the mind were also selected: puncturing Shenting (GV 24) toward Baihui (GV 20) and puncturing Baihui (GV 20) toward Naohu (GV 17) and Sishencong (Ex-HN 1). In addition, rehabilitation training was also combined. For cases in the control group,rehabilitation training alone was adopted. Then the clinical effect and improvement through head CT scanning and SPECT were observed. Result: The total effective rate of the treatment group was 84%, significantly higher than 52% of the control group. After treatment, the DQ in the treatment group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.01). Also, the improvement rate of brain maldevelopment and brain atrophy showed by CT scan and restoration rate of brain neuron metabolic function in the treatment group were higher than the control group

  9. Activated conduction by small incision and moderate stimulation for treatment of cerebral palsy in 182 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenying Wang; Jianhua Shi; Mingjiang Yu; Dazhi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, methods to treat cerebral palsy (CP) are basically the same, including correction of deformity with orthopaedic operation, selective posterior rhizotomy(SPR), rehabilitation therapy and so on. Domestic methods to treat CP are basically close to the international methods. Traditional Chinese medical therapies, such as, acupuncture and moxibustion, acupoint injection, massage and so on, also have good curative effects.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of activated conduction by small incision and moderate stimulation (ACSIMS) on limb function and living ability in patients with spastic CP at different degrees. DESIGN: Retrospective case analysis.SETTING: Department of Medical Education, Shanxi Medical College for Continuing Education. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 182 patients with CP, including 97 males and 85 females, aged 3 to 23 years, who received treatment in Beijing Haidian District Diaoyutai Hospital during October 1996 to September 2005, were involved in this trial. The involved patients met the diagnostic criteria proposed in 2004 National Special Seminar of Cerebral Palsy. According to typing criteria of CP purposed in 1990 Brioni International Conference, the involved patients were typed: 117 with spastic CP, 14 with involuntary movement CP, 19 with defective coordination CP, 5 with hypotonia CP and 27 with mixed type CP. The guardians of underage patients and adult patients themselves were all informed of the therapeutic regimens. METHODS: ①According to CP typing assessment quantitative criteria of Li, the involved patients were assigned from limb position, daily living and movement 3 aspects: mild 23, moderate 75, severe 62 and extremely severe 22. ② Operation methods: The lower limb of moderate spastic CP patient was taken as an example. A median incision or paramedian incision was made between L2 and S1, and it was also the first incision in lower limb. The secorid incision was made at the center of buttock or at the

  10. "Student Lab"-on-a-Chip: Integrating Low-Cost Microfluidics into Undergraduate Teaching Labs to Study Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Small Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple, low-cost laboratory session to demonstrate the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, a microphase flow phenomenon that occurs in small blood vessels and alters the effective rheological properties of blood. The experiments are performed by flowing cells through microchannels fabricated by soft lithography and characterization of cell…

  11. The association between small vessel infarcts and the activities of amyloid-β peptide degrading proteases in apolipoprotein E4 allele carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haihao; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Liu, Zhiheng; Vu, Linh; Li, Huajie; Scott, Tammy; Bergethon, Peter; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Rosenzweig, James L; Rosenberg, Irwine; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2013-11-01

    Small vessel (SV) and large vessel (LV) brain infarcts are distinct pathologies. Using a homebound elderly sample, the numbers of either infarct subtypes were similar between those apolipoprotein E4 allele (ApoE4) carriers (n = 80) and noncarriers (n = 243). We found that the higher the number of SV infarcts, but not LV infarcts, a participant had, the higher the activity of substrate V degradation in serum especially among ApoE4 carriers (β = +0.154, SE = 0.031, P ApoE4.

  12. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  13. New microangiography system development providing improved small vessel imaging, increased contrast-to-noise ratios, and multiview 3D reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Andrew T.; Patel, Vikas; Ionita, Ciprian; Noël, Peter B.; Walczak, Alan M.; Rangwala, Hussain S.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    A new microangiographic system (MA) integrated into a c-arm gantry has been developed allowing precise placement of a MA at the exact same angle as the standard x-ray image intensifier (II) with unchanged source and object position. The MA can also be arbitrarily moved about the object and easily moved into the field of view (FOV) in front of the lower resolution II when higher resolution angiographic sequences are needed. The benefits of this new system are illustrated in a neurovascular study, where a rabbit is injected with contrast media for varying oblique angles. Digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) images were obtained and compared using both the MA and II detectors for the same projection view. Vessels imaged with the MA appear sharper with smaller vessels visualized. Visualization of ~100 μm vessels was possible with the MA whereas not with the II. Further, the MA could better resolve vessel overlap. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for vessels of varying sizes for the MA versus the II and were found to be similar for large vessels, approximately double for medium vessels, and infinitely better for the smallest vessels. In addition, a 3D reconstruction of selected vessel segments was performed, using multiple (three) projections at oblique angles, for each detector. This new MA/II integrated system should lead to improved diagnosis and image guidance of neurovascular interventions by enabling initial guidance with the low resolution large FOV II combined with use of the high resolution MA during critical parts of diagnostic and interventional procedures.

  14. Small scale module of the rat granular retrosplenial cortex: an example of minicolumn-like structure of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka eIchinohe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structures associated with the small scale module called minicolumn can be observed frequently in the cerebral cortex. However, the description of functional characteristics remains obscure. A significant confounding factor is the marked variability both in the definition of a minicolumn and in the diagnostic markers for identifying a minicolumn (see for review, Jones, 2000, DeFelipe et al., 2003; Rockland and Ichinohe, 2004. Within a minicolumn, cell columns are easily visualized by conventional Nissl staining. Dendritic bundles were first discovered with Golgi methods, but are more easily seen with MAP2-immunohistochemisty. Myelinated axon bundles can be seen by Tau-immunohistochemistry or myelin staining. Axon bundles of double bouquet cell can be seen by calbindin-immunohistochemistry. The spatial interrelationship among these morphological elements is more complex than expected and is neither clear nor unanimously agreed upon. In this review, I would like to focus first on the minicolumnar structure found in layers 1 and 2 of the rat granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS. This modular structure was first discovered as a combination of prominent apical dendritic bundles from layer 2 pyramidal neurons and spatially-matched thalamocortical patchy inputs (Wyss et al., 2000. Further examination showed more intricate components of this modular structure, which will be reviewed in this paper. Second, the postnatal development of this structure and potential molecular players for its formation will be reviewed. Thirdly, I will discuss how this modular organization is transformed in mutant rodents with a disorganized layer structure in the cerebral cortex (i.e., reeler mouse and Shaking Rat Kawasaki. Lastly, the potential significance of this type of module will be discussed.

  15. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  16. Using ergonomics Digital Human Modeling in Evaluation of workplace Design and Prevention of work related musculoeskeletal disorders aboard small fishing vessels r

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Zhang, Bing; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to presentmethods for preventing work-relatedmusculoskeletal disorders of Spanish fishermen and for redesigning the workplace aboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps. First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish were studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). ...

  17. Subjective cognitive failures in patients with hypertension are related to cognitive performance and cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiterwijk, Renske; Huijts, Marjolein; Staals, Julie; Duits, Annelien; Gronenschild, Ed; Kroon, Abraham A; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between subjective cognitive failures (SCF) and objective cognitive function have shown inconsistent results. In addition, research on the association between SCF and imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We investigated whether SCF in patients with essential hypertension, who are at high risk of cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with objective cognitive function and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease. We included 109 patients with hypertension who underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment, including questionnaires measuring SCF and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed to rate the presence of lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces, as well as white matter hyperintensities volume. Results showed significant associations between SCF and objectively measured overall cognition (B=-0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.005), memory (B=0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.004), and information processing speed (B=-0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.001) after adjustment for patient characteristics and vascular risk factors. In addition, SCF were associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio=1.12; 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.23) after adjustment for patient characteristics and vascular risk factors but not with other imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease. Our study demonstrates that attention for SCF in patients with hypertension is needed because these may point to lower objective cognitive function, which might be as a result of the presence of cerebral microbleeds. Accordingly, this study emphasizes that neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging need to be considered when patients with hypertension report SCF.

  18. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: MRI demonstration of persistent small cerebral infarcts after clinical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O.; Cramon, D.Y. von [Day-Care Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany); Wittig, I. [Day-Care Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Wiggins, C.J. [Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Abnormalities in the brain of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are infrequent on MRI, often reversible and mainly limited to symptomatic stages of the disease. We report a case in which high-resolution MRI demonstrated multiple persistent small cortical infarcts after clinical remission. High-resolution MRI investigations may detect clinically latent but permanent brain damage, and complement clinical judgement in guiding therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  19. Large particulate allergens can elicit mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis without exit from blood vessels as efficiently as do small soluble allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiHua, Li; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Ohta, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kayo; Kawano, Yohei; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2015-11-06

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, life-threatening allergic reaction in that IgE, mast cells and histamine are commonly involved. It can be experimentally induced in IgE-sensitized animals by intravenous injection of corresponding allergens, and the sign of anaphylactic reaction can be detected within minutes after allergen challenge. However, it remains puzzling why the anaphylactic reaction can be initiated in vivo so quickly, considering that allergens are delivered into the blood circulation while mast cells reside within peripheral tissues but not in the blood circulation. To address this issue, we compared two different forms of the same allergen, small soluble and large particulate ones, in their ability to induce anaphylaxis in IgE-sensitized mice. In contrast to our expectation, particulate allergens could induce anaphylaxis as quickly and efficiently as did soluble allergens, even though they remained inside of blood vessels. In vivo imaging analysis suggested the direct interaction of intravascular particulate allergens and perivascular mast cells across the capillary wall. Taken together with previous report that perivascular mast cells can capture IgE in the blood circulation by extending cell processes across the vessel wall, our findings imply that blood-circulating allergens, regardless of their size, can stimulate mast cells without exit from blood vessels, by means of cross-linking IgE on mast cell processes inserted into the vessel lumen, and hence initiate anaphylactic reaction so quickly.

  20. Age-related changes in the sympathetic innervation of cerebral vessels and in carotid vascular responses to norepinephrine in the rat: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nisreen Mansour; Marshall, Janice M

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesized that the density of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation of cerebral arteries and vasoconstrictor responses evoked in carotid circulation by norepinephrine (NE) increase with maturation and age. In rats of 4-5, 10-12, and 42-44 wk of age (juvenile, mature, middle aged), glyoxylic acid applied to stretch preparations showed the density of noradrenergic nerves in basilar and middle cerebral arteries was greater in mature than juvenile or middle-aged rats. In anesthetized rats, infusion of NE (2.5 mug/kg iv) increased mean arterial pressure (ABP) to approximately 180 mmHg in mature and middle-aged but to only approximately 150 mmHg in juveniles rats. Concomitantly, carotid blood flow (CBF) decreased in mature and middle-aged rats but remained constant in juveniles because carotid vascular conductance (CVC) decreased more in mature and middle-aged than juvenile rats. We also hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) blunts cerebral vasoconstrictor responses to NE. Inhibition of NO synthase with l-NAME (10 mg/kg iv) induced similar increases in baseline ABP in each group, but larger decreases in CVC and CBF in mature and middle-aged than juvenile rats. Thereafter, the NE-evoked increase in ABP was similar in juvenile and mature but accentuated in middle-aged rats. Concomitantly, NE decreased CVC in juvenile and mature, but not middle-aged rats; in them, CBF increased. Thus, in juvenile rats, sparse noradrenergic innervation of cerebral arteries is associated with weak NE-evoked pressor responses and weak carotid vasoconstriction that allows autoregulation of CBF. Cerebral artery innervation density increases with maturation but lessens by middle age. Meanwhile, NE-evoked pressor responses and carotid vasoconstriction are stronger in mature and middle-aged rats, such that CBF falls despite the evoked increase in ABP. We propose that in juvenile and mature rats, NO does not modulate NE-evoked pressor responses, cerebral vasoconstriction, or CBF autoregulation

  1. 改良小口径人工血管的血液相容性研究*%The Study of the Modified Small-caliber Artificial Blood Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 陈群清; 李少彬; 闫玉生

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the hemocompatibility of the modified small-caliber artificial blood vessel(the combined blood vessel). Method:To produce a combined blood vessel with a small-caliber expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vessel coated by silk fibroin film,which sulfonated by low temperature plasma treatment,to evaluated the hemocompatibility and safety of the combined blood vessel including dynamic cruor time test, recalcification time,and the hemolysis test.Result:Hemolytic test indicated that the vascular hemolysis was 4.5%,in line with the requirements of materials hemolytic.The average value of absorbance-clotting time of the combined blood vessel was higher than that of the control blood vessel,and declined more slowly.The recalcification time of the combined blood vessel was significantly longer than that of control blood vessel(610.06±37.65 vs 450.00±32.18 seconds,P<0.01).Conclusion:Form this experiment,we demonstrate the combined blood vessel has a good hemocompatibility.%  目的:研究改良小口径人工血管的血液相容性。方法:将丝素蛋白膜涂覆于聚四氟乙烯小口径人工血管内侧壁,采用等离子体技术对涂覆后的小口径人工血管磺酸化,制成改良小口径人工血管;改良小口径人工血管的溶血相关安全性以体外溶血实验检测,同时行动态凝血、复钙实验评价复合血管血液相容性。结果:溶血试验提示复合血管的溶血率为4.5%,符合材料溶血要求;动态凝血中根据各时间点吸光度平均值可见复合血管组吸光度整体位于普通血管之上,且下降趋势较缓,经历时间较长,与普通血管相比,其抗凝血性能较好;复钙实验中复合血管组平均时间为(450.00±32.18)s,小于对照组平均时间(610.06±37.65)s,两样本t检验提示P=0.000,提示两者差异有统计学意义。结论:改良小口径人工血管具有良好的血液相容性。

  2. Cerebral microbleeds. Imaging characteristics, causes and differential diagnoses; Zerebrale Mikroblutungen. Bildgebung, Ursachen und Differenzialdiagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2016-12-15

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) represent small hemosiderin deposits, which are surrounded by normal brain tissue and can be depicted as small, rounded or ovoid areas of signal loss on susceptibility-sensitive MRI sequences. This review summarizes helpful methodological considerations to identify CMBs and to differentiate them from other causes of focal hypointensities on these sequences. Important differential diagnoses and ''mimics'' are presented and the clinical relevance of CMBs is discussed, in particular their role as important MRI marker of various cerebral small vessel diseases.

  3. Arterial pulsatility as an index of cerebral microangiopathy in diabetes type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, M S; Alboudi, A

    2014-01-09

    Transcranial doppler is an inexpensive, non-invasive investigation. This study assessed its validity in determining cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Flow velocity and pulsatility index were measured in the middle cerebral, basilar and intracranial internal carotid arteries of a sample of 141 diabetic patients with no other risk factors, and 132 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 73 with complicated and 68 with uncomplicated diabetes. There was a statistically significant difference between the complicated diabetes and control groups for the 3 arteries and most indices. The differences between the uncomplicated diabetes patients and the controls were also statistically significant but less strongly. Transcranial doppler may be useful in early diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Robust and enduring atorvastatin-mediated memory recovery following the 4-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Gislene Gonçalves Dias; Godinho, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common condition associated with the development and/or worsening of age-related dementia.We previously reported persistent memory loss and neurodegeneration after CCH in middle-aged rats. Statin-mediated neuroprotection has been reported after acute cerebral ischemia. Unknown, however, is whether statins can alleviate the outcome of CCH. The present study investigated whether atorvastatin attenuates the cognitive and neurohistological outcome of CCH. Rats (12–15 months old) were trained in a non-food-rewarded radial maze, and then subjected to CCH. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 42 days or 15 days, beginning 5 h after the first occlusion stage. Retrograde memory performance was assessed at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of CCH, and expressed by “latency,” “number of reference memory errors” and “number of working memory errors.” Neurodegeneration was then examined at the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Compared to sham, CCH caused profound and persistent memory loss in the vehicle-treated groups, as indicated by increased latency (91.2% to 107.3%) and number of errors (123.5% to 2508.2%), effects from which the animals did not spontaneously recover across time. This CCH-induced retrograde amnesia was completely prevented by atorvastatin (latency: −4.3% to 3.3%; reference/working errors: −2.5% to 45.7%), regardless of the treatment duration. This effect was sustained during the entire behavioral testing period (5 weeks), even after discontinuing treatment. This robust and sustained memory-protective effect of atorvastatin occurred in the absence of neuronal rescue (39.58% to 56.45% cell loss). We suggest that atorvastatin may be promising for the treatment of cognitive sequelae associated with CCH.

  5. Marine animal sighting and census data from various small vessels as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 26 July 1982 to 24 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8300139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine animal sighting and census data were collected from various small vessels from 26 July 1982 to 24 August 1982. Data were collected by the University of Alaska...

  6. Marine bird specimen and other data from various small vessels as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 June 1976 to 11 August 1980 (NODC Accession 8200073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine bird specimen and other data were collected from various small vessels from 24 June 1976 to 11 August 1980. Data were collected by the University of Alaska -...

  7. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature.

  8. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM, biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors.

  9. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Engelhardt, Sascha; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Krüger, Hartmut; Wenz, Annika; Schönhaar, Veronika; Tovar, Günter E. M.; Kluger, Petra J.; Borchers, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors. PMID:27104576

  10. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Engelhardt, Sascha; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Krüger, Hartmut; Wenz, Annika; Schönhaar, Veronika; Tovar, Günter E M; Kluger, Petra J; Borchers, Kirsten

    2016-04-20

    Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap(®) technology by the authors.

  11. Cerebral angiography in patients with complicated migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, K.; Wessely, P.; Holzner, F.

    1985-08-01

    38 patients (mean age: 29 years) were investigated by means of complete 4-vessel angiography: all of them were suffering from complicated migraine without detectable vascular malformation. Stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels were found in 11 patients (28.9%), but there was not a single case of vascular occlusion. A correlation between the localization of the stenosis, the localization of the headache and the presumed region of the transient cerebral function disturbance was found only in a few patients. Concerning the morphological changes of the small intracranial arterial branches, there was hardly an difference between clinically affected and non-affected territories of the middle cerebral artery. The angiograms of the 38 cases of complicated migraine were compared with the angiograms of 40 patients suffering from strokes in the young and those of 49 patients with transient ischaemic attacks. There were remarkably fewer stenoses or occlusions in the great craniocervical arteries of patients suffering from complicated migraine (28.9%) than in the vessels of cases of stroke in the young (52.5%). However, the incidence was comparable with the results in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (34.7%). The degree of morphological changes in the small intracranial arterial branches is likely to depend primarily on the patient's age and less on the diagnosis. The results suggest that in almost 30% of patients with complicated migraine - even at juvenile age-stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels might be found. However, considering the fact that most of the stenoses are without haemodynamic significance and their localization is not in agreement with the clinical data, the pathogenetic value of these vessel wall changes is highly questionable. (Author).

  12. 视网膜血管管径与颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的相关性分析%Relation between retinal vessel diameters and carotid artery stenosis patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵露; 谢国丽; 王佳琳; 王艳玲

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察探讨视网膜血管管径与颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的相关性.方法 彩色多普勒血流显像检查确诊的颈动脉狭窄患者87例174只眼纳入研究.患者中,男性49例,女性38例;平均年龄(65.25±7.85)岁.以是否有脑梗死将患者分为脑梗死组和对照组,分别为34、53例.两组患者间年龄(t=1.916)、男性构成比(x2=0.142)、颈动脉狭窄程度(x2=0.785)比较,差异均无统计学意义(P=0.059、0.706、0.675).散瞳后拍摄以黄斑和视盘之间中点为中心周围45°彩色眼底像,包括视盘、黄斑、颞侧黄斑区上下血管弓以及距离视盘边缘2个视盘直径(DD)的鼻侧区域.应用IVAN计算机图像分析软件,测量距视盘边缘1/2~1DD范围内视网膜动静脉的血管直径.主要参数为视网膜中央动脉直径(CRAE)、视网膜中央静脉直径(CRVE)、视网膜动静脉比值(ARV).视网膜血管管径与脑梗死关系行logistic回归分析.结果 脑梗死组CRVE、CRAE、AVR分别为(132.90±20.67)、(243.47±43.92)μm和0.56±0.10;对照组分别为(145.26±21.59)、(224.99±32.35) μm和0.68±0.13.两组CRVE、CRAE、AVR比较,差异均有统计学意义(t=-2.648、2.257、-4.631,P<0.05).多因素logistic回归分析,控制年龄、吸烟、低密度脂蛋白混杂因素后,CRAE与脑梗死发生相关性降低,CRVE与脑梗死发生呈显著相关(P=0.015、0.011).结论 CRAE降低、CRVE增加是颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生的危险因素;对颈动脉狭窄患者脑梗死发生有一定预测价值.%Objective To investigate the relationship between retinal vessel diameters and cerebral infarction of carotid artery stenosis patients.Methods Eighty seven patients (174 eyes) with carotid stenosis were included in this study.There were 49 males and 38 females,with an average age of (65.25±7.85) years.Thirty-four patients were suffered from cerebral infarction (cerebral infarction group),and the other 53 patients had no cerebral

  13. Evaluation of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging and computed tomographic angiography on traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fang-hong; CHEN Wei-jian; YANG Yun-jun; DUAN Yu-xia; FU Feng-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging (MSCTPI) and multislice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) on traumatic cerebral infarction. Methods: MSCTA was performed on 10 patients who were initiailly diagnosed as traumatic cerebral infarction by normal conventional computed tomography (NCCT), among whom, 3 patients were examined by MSCTPI simultaneously. Reconstructed images of the intracranial artery were made with techniques of maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) from MSCTA scanning data. Then the graph of function of four parameters, regional cerebral blood flow (Rcbf), regional cerebral blood volume (Rcbv), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP), acquired by the perfusing analysis software was obtained. Results: Among the 10 patients with traumatic cerebral infarction, 6 showed complex type on NCCT, which depicted abnormality on MSCTA, and 4 showed simple type on NCCT, which had negative results on MSCTA. Among the 4 patients with abnormal great vessels, 2 suffered from steno sis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 1 from spasm of the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 from spasm of the vertebral-basal artery. The image of MSCTPI of 1 patient with massive cerebral infarction on the right cerebral hemisphere confirmed by CT was smaller than those of the other patients, which showed occlusion of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on MSCTA. Among the 6 patients whose MSCTA showed no abnormality, 4 showed simple infarction and 2 showed complex infarction. The infarction focus of 5 patients occurred in the basal ganglia and 1 in the splenium of corpus callosum. Among the 2 cases of small cerebral infarction volume on NCCT, one was normal, the other showed hypoperfusion on MSCTPI and was normal on MSCTA. Conclusion: The combination of MSCTPI and MSCTA is very useful for evaluating the change of intracranial artery in ischemic regions and assessing the cerebral

  14. Effects of rapamycin on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

  15. Structural network alterations and neurological dysfunction in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Salat, David H.; Schultz, Aaron; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Ayres, Alison M.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Rosas, Diana; Schwab, Kristin; Leemans, Alexander; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Rosand, Jonathan; Johnson, Keith A.; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, M. Edip

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common form of small-vessel disease and an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. The mechanisms linking small-vessel disease to cognitive impairment are not well understood. We hypothesized that in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, multiple small spatially distributed lesions affect cognition through disruption of brain connectivity. We therefore compared the structural brain network in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy to healthy control subjects and examined the relationship between markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related brain injury, network efficiency, and potential clinical consequences. Structural brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 38 non-demented patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (69 ± 10 years) and 29 similar aged control participants. The efficiency of the brain network was characterized using graph theory and brain amyloid deposition was quantified by Pittsburgh compound B retention on positron emission tomography imaging. Global efficiency of the brain network was reduced in patients compared to controls (0.187 ± 0.018 and 0.201 ± 0.015, respectively, P < 0.001). Network disturbances were most pronounced in the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes. Among patients, lower global network efficiency was related to higher cortical amyloid load (r = −0.52; P = 0.004), and to magnetic resonance imaging markers of small-vessel disease including increased white matter hyperintensity volume (P < 0.001), lower total brain volume (P = 0.02), and number of microbleeds (trend P = 0.06). Lower global network efficiency was also related to worse performance on tests of processing speed (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), executive functioning (r = 0.54, P = 0.001), gait velocity (r = 0.41, P = 0.02), but not memory. Correlations with cognition were independent of age, sex, education level, and other magnetic resonance imaging

  16. Brief Screening of Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Without Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic form of cerebral small vessel disease leading to early-onset stroke and dementia, with younger patients frequently showing subclinical deficits in cognition. At present, there are no targeted cognitive screening measures for this population. However, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have shown utilit...

  17. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Trondheim (Norway); Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Indredavik, Marit [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-08-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  18. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  19. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well...

  20. Experimental Investigation on Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident for Direct Vessel Injection Line%DVI管小破口失水事故实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭传新; 张妍; 黄志刚; 昝元锋; 卓文彬; 闫晓

    2016-01-01

    在模块化小型反应堆非能动安全系统综合模拟实验装置上进行了压力容器直接注入(DVI)管小破口失水事故实验,研究了DVI管小破口失水事故过程中的热工水力现象和非能动安全系统运行特性。研究结果表明:模块化小型反应堆DVI管小破口失水事故中,非能动安全系统可对堆芯进行注水,有效导出堆芯衰变热量,保护堆芯安全。%T he small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA ) experiment for direct vessel injection (DVI ) line , w hich investigated the thermal‐hydraulic phenomena and the performances of passive safety system during the accident ,was performed on the passive safety system test facility for small modular reactor .The experimental results show that the passive safety system of small modular reactor can provide effective cool‐ant injection ,successful removal of core residual heat under the DVI line SBLOCA and protection to reactor core safety .

  1. The Susceptibility Vessel Sign of the Middle Cerebral Artery on the T2-Weighted Gradient Echo Imaging: Semi-quantification to Predict the Response to Multimodal Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Sung Won [Catholic University of Daegu Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Cheol Kyu; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kwon, O Ki; Han, Moon Ku; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bae Ju [Kwandong University Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We wanted to determine whether or not the 'susceptibility asymmetry index' (SAI) of acute stroke on the T2-weighted image is related with successful recanalization using multimodal intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). The 81 patients who underwent multimodal IAT for middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory acute stroke were included in this retrospective study. The multimodal IAT included intra-arterial urokinase infusion, clot disruption by a microwire, microcatheter and balloon manipulation, and balloon angioplasty and/or stenting for the flow-limiting stenosis. The diameter of the susceptibility vessel sign was measured on the T2-weighted gradient echo imaging (GRE), and the diameter of the contralateral normal MCA at the corresponding level was measured on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): the ratio between these two diameters was defined as the susceptibility asymmetry index. The relation between the TICI (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction) score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT and the SAI was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on the SAI to predict a TICI score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT. The mean SAI of 81 patients was 1.66 {+-} 0.66. Seventy nine percent of the patients had a TICI of 2-3 after multimodal IAT. According to the ROC curve analysis, an SAI less than 1.3 was optimal for predicting the presence of stenotic lesion after recanalization (area under the curve: 0.821, sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 69.8%, p=0.0001), and the SAI {<=}1.61 (area under the curve: 0.652, sensitivity: 60.9%, specificity: 70.6%, p=0.0226) could predict a TICI score of 2-3. The TICI score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT was achieved in 88.6% of the cases with a SAI {<=} 1.61 and in 67.6% of the cases with a SAI >1.61 (p=0.028). The lower SAI on T2-GRE could predict stenotic lesion and successful recanalization after performing IAT

  2. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis; Bildgebung zerebraler Vaskulitiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengenroth, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Luebeck (Germany); Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Saam, T. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Haehnel, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [German] Die zerebrale Vaskulitis kann viele Ursachen haben. Daher ist die klinische und radiologische Diagnose schwierig, auch weil es etliche vaskulitistypische Symptome und MR-Befunde bei anderen Erkrankungen gibt. Die ZNS-Vaskulitis kann zahlreiche andere neurologische Erkrankungen imitieren, die unterschiedlicher Therapie beduerfen. MRT und MR-Angiographie (MRA) sind die Verfahren der Wahl, mit denen die radiologische Diagnostik begonnen werden sollte, um den Parenchymschaden und den Gefaessbefall zu beurteilen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann eine digitale Subtraktionsangiographie (DSA) ergaenzt werden, um auch mittelgrosse Gefaesse beurteilen zu koennen. Der Befall kleiner Gefaesse kann nur bioptisch nachgewiesen werden. In der folgenden Uebersicht stellen wir das diagnostische Herangehen bei zerebraler Vaskulitis vor, praesentieren zahlreiche Befunde und diskutieren die wichtigsten radiologischen Differenzialdiagnosen. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of ductile-brittle transition behavior in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels for reactor pressure vessel by small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. C.; Lee, B. S.; Park, S. D.; Kim, K. B

    2004-12-01

    Small Punch (SP) tests were performed to evaluate the ductile-brittle transition behavior of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels produced by different manufacturing (refining) processes. The results were compared to the standard test results, such as the conventional Charpy impact tests, JIC test and the Master Curve fracture toughness tests in accordance with the ASTM standard E1921. The SP transition temperatures (TSP), which are determined by the middle of the upper SP energy, showed a good correlation with the Charpy index temperatures. And the critical fracture strength, {sigma}{sup *}{sub f(sp)} from small punch test were found to have a linear relationship to the values from the pre-cracked specimens({sigma}{sup *}{sub f(PCVN)}). From the observation of thickness changes according to displacement, Equivalent strain(Eq) could be obtained as a function of ball displacement. It is found that relation between specimen thickness and ball displacement is not dependent on material properties and it is expressed as a function of ball displacement, and then SP equivalent strain(Eq) have close relationship with the fracture toughness(J{sub IC})

  4. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  5. Ataque cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    ¿Qué es un ataque cerebral?/¿Qué tipos de ataque cerebral existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de un ataque cerebral?/Factores de riesgo para un ataque cerebral/Tratamiento médico del ataque cerebral/¿por qué es importante acudir temprano cuando se presentan las señales de alarma?/ Manejo preventivo del ataque cerebral isquémico/Tratamiento quirúrgico del ataque cerebral/Enfermedad vascular cerebral hemorrágica/¿Cómo está constituido el grupo de ataque cerebral de la fundación Clínica Valle d...

  6. RELAP5 Analyses of ROSA/LSTF Experiments on AM Measures during PWR Vessel Bottom Small-Break LOCAs with Gas Inflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RELAP5 code posttest analyses were performed on ROSA/LSTF experiments that simulated PWR 0.2% vessel bottom small-break loss-of-coolant accidents with different accident management (AM measures under assumptions of noncondensable gas inflow and total failure of high-pressure injection system. Depressurization of and auxiliary feedwater (AFW injection into the secondary-side of both steam generators (SGs as the AM measures were taken 10 min after a safety injection signal. The primary depressurization rate of 55 K/h caused rather slow primary depressurization being obstructed by the gas accumulation in the SG U-tubes after the completion of accumulator coolant injection. Core temperature excursion thus took place by core boil-off before the actuation of low-pressure injection (LPI system. The fast primary depressurization by fully opening the relief valves in both SGs with continuous AFW injection led to long-term core cooling by the LPI actuation even under the gas accumulation in the SG U-tubes. The code indicated remaining problems in the predictions of break flow rate during two-phase flow discharge period and primary pressure after the gas inflow. Influences of the primary depressurization rate with continuous AFW injection onto the long-term core cooling were clarified by the sensitivity analyses.

  7. Quantification of brittle-ductile failure behavior of ferritic reactor pressure vessel steels using the Small-Punch-Test and micromechanical damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linse, T., E-mail: thomas.linse@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute for Solid Mechanics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kuna, M. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Lampadiusstrasse 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Viehrig, H.-W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-09-22

    Two German ferritic pressure vessel steels are examined in the brittle to ductile transition regime as a function of temperature and irradiation. The experiments are done by a miniaturized Small-Punch-Test in hot cells within the temperature range of −185 °C up to 70 °C. From the load–displacement curve of the SPT, the yield curves and parameters of both a non-local GURSON-TVERGAARD-NEEDLEMAN ductile damage model and a modified BEREMIN model are identified. The influence of temperature and irradiation on the model parameters is analyzed. All parameters are verified by comparison with results from standard test methods. The parameters, identified from SPT, are used to simulate the failure behavior in standard fracture mechanics specimens. In the upper shelf, the non-local GTN-model is applied to simulate crack resistance curves, from where the fracture toughness data could be successfully predicted. In the lower shelf, the WEIBULL-stress of the specimens was computed to find out the statistics of fracture toughness values. Finally, the modified BEREMIN model and the non-local ductile damage model were combined to evaluate the failure of fracture specimens in the brittle-ductile transition region. This way, an acceptable agreement with Master-curve data for non-irradiated steels could be achieved in the whole temperature range.

  8. Cephalea, Horner's syndrome and cerebral ischemia: pathognomonic triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of cerebral vessels represents an important cause of stroke in young patients without cardiovascular risk factors. Clinical feature of this pathology is quite peculiar and is described as combination of cephalea, Horner’s syndrome and cerebral ischemia. Clinical suspicion and fast access to ecocolordoppler are the only ways to save vessels’ patency and to restore cerebral blood flow.

  9. Computer simulation of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation—validation analysis of hemodynamics parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shashi Bhushan; Ramachandra, Manjunath

    2017-01-01

    Problem The purpose of this work is to provide some validation methods for evaluating the hemodynamic assessment of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (CAVM). This article emphasizes the importance of validating noninvasive measurements for CAVM patients, which are designed using lumped models for complex vessel structure. Methods The validation of the hemodynamics assessment is based on invasive clinical measurements and cross-validation techniques with the Philips proprietary validated software’s Qflow and 2D Perfursion. Results The modeling results are validated for 30 CAVM patients for 150 vessel locations. Mean flow, diameter, and pressure were compared between modeling results and with clinical/cross validation measurements, using an independent two-tailed Student t test. Exponential regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between blood flow, vessel diameter, and pressure between them. Univariate analysis is used to assess the relationship between vessel diameter, vessel cross-sectional area, AVM volume, AVM pressure, and AVM flow results were performed with linear or exponential regression. Discussion Modeling results were compared with clinical measurements from vessel locations of cerebral regions. Also, the model is cross validated with Philips proprietary validated software’s Qflow and 2D Perfursion. Our results shows that modeling results and clinical results are nearly matching with a small deviation. Conclusion In this article, we have validated our modeling results with clinical measurements. The new approach for cross-validation is proposed by demonstrating the accuracy of our results with a validated product in a clinical environment. PMID:28149675

  10. COL4A1 Mutations and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease%COL4A1基因突变与脑血管病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇

    2010-01-01

    Ⅳ型胶原蛋自基因α1(αl type IV collagen,COUA1)编码IV型胶原的αl链,是构成所有组织基底膜的主要成分.COL4A1基因突变可引起脑内小动脉病变,在一定的环境压力下引发脑内小血管的阻塞或破裂,造成脑出血(intracerrbral hemorrhage,ICH).本文综述了COL4A1与α1链的结构,构成Ⅳ型胶原的方式,Ⅳ型胶原在基底膜中的作用以及目前发现的COL4A1突变引发的人类脑血管方面的疾病,并对发病机理进行了简要综述.

  11. Clinical diagnosis and treatment on cerebral small vessel disease%脑小血管病变与临床诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴渝宪

    2013-01-01

    随着对脑血管病临床研究的不断深入和核磁共振成像各项检测功能的开发和利用,脑小血管病变(SVD)正日益受到人们的关注.由于SVD是隐匿性渐进发展的,所以以往人们对它往往认识不足.血管性认知损害和痴呆与SVD有着密切的关系,SVD的后期可对患者造成不可逆性损害.本文就SVD的病理生理变化、相关危险因素以及临床治疗中的一些注意事项作一综述.

  12. Experimental stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery. Vascular contractility studies of the rat middle cerebral artery after chronic survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Otto; Szeifert, György Tamás; Radatz, Matthias W R; Walton, Lee; Kemeny, Andras Armand

    2002-03-01

    In vitro isometric small vessel myograph experiments and pathological investigations were performed on rat middle cerebral arteries. Thirty-four animals provided 68 normal vessels, six further rats had the endothelial layer mechanically removed from their 12 arteries. Eighteen animals received gamma knife irradiation to the middle cerebral arteries. Fifteen of these received 50 Gray, and three 25 Gray dose to the 50% isodose and the contralateral vessels offered 20 Gray and 15 Gray irradiated specimens. Survival times varied from 12 weeks to 18 months. In the acute stage, abolition of potassium-induced relaxation occurred as early as 24 h after irradiation whilst in one year this reaction seemed to recover and remained active to 18 months. The contraction response to prostaglandin F2 alpha was diminished at six weeks in the 50 Gray-irradiated vessels. However, from one year further reduction was seen and by 18 months this response was totally abolished. We demonstrated reduction of contractile capability of the irradiated normal vessels while the vessels remained patent. When using low irradiation dose there were no pathological changes even at 18 months, but marked physiological changes could be demonstrated. Different vessel wall functions appear to have different radiosensitivity, time course and capability for regeneration.

  13. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  14. New microangiography system development providing improved small vessel imaging, increased contrast to noise ratios, and multi-view 3D reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Andrew T; Patel, Vikas; Ionita, Ciprian; Noël, Peter B; Walczak, Alan M; Rangwala, Hussain S; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A new microangiographic system (MA) integrated into a c-arm gantry has been developed allowing precise placement of a MA at the exact same angle as the standard x-ray image intensifier (II) with unchanged source and object position. The MA can also be arbitrarily moved about the object and easily moved into the field of view (FOV) in front of the lower resolution II when higher resolution angiographic sequences are needed. The benefits of this new system are illustrated in a neurovascular study, where a rabbit is injected with contrast media for varying oblique angles. Digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) images were obtained and compared using both the MA and II detectors for the same projection view. Vessels imaged with the MA appear sharper with smaller vessels visualized. Visualization of ~100 μm vessels was possible with the MA whereas not with the II. Further, the MA could better resolve vessel overlap. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for vessels of varying sizes for the MA versus the II and were found to be similar for large vessels, approximately double for medium vessels, and infinitely better for the smallest vessels. In addition, a 3D reconstruction of selected vessel segments was performed, using multiple (three) projections at oblique angles, for each detector. This new MA/II integrated system should lead to improved diagnosis and image guidance of neurovascular interventions by enabling initial guidance with the low resolution large FOV II combined with use of the high resolution MA during critical parts of diagnostic and interventional procedures.

  15. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    design with a full load displacement of 6,480 long tons. The vessel was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small...and system complexity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic patrol, green technology, environment, polution , ship design, CISD, fuel cell 16. SECURITY...was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small interdiction and rescue craft. In anticipation of more stringent

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Tongxinluo Capsule(通心络胶囊) on Patients with Acute Small Cerebral Infarction and Its Influence on SPECT Brain Perfusion Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛年; 周国钰; 刘黎青

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL, 通心络胶囊) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT) brain perfusion imaging, and to observe the therapeutic effects of TXL on acute small cerebral infarction (ASCI).Methods: Thirty-four patients with ASCI were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the control group ( n = 17) was treated with the conventional treatment, i.e. 1.0g of Citicoline added into 300 mi normal saline for intravenous dripping daily for 2 weeks and 0.8 g of Piracetam taken three times a day orally for 4 weeks, and the treatment group ( n = 17)was treated additionally with 4 TXL capsules three times a day for 4 weeks besides the conventional treatment. The 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after treatment to observe the change of rCBF, and the neurological deficit was evaluated by Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) scores and Barthel index (BI) at the same time. Results: After treatment, the rCBF in the treatment group was significantly improved ( P<0.01), while that in the control group remained unchanged, with the comparison of the rCBF in the two groups after treatment showing significant difference (P<0.01). In addition, the SSS score was significantly lower and BI significantly higher in the treatment group than those in the control group respectively after treatment. Conclusion: TXL could effectively improve rCBF and lessen the neurological deficit symptoms in patients with ASCI.

  17. Características generales de 29 pacientes con vasculitis de pequeños vasos General characteristics of 29 patients with small vessel vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Di Benedetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta serie fue describir las características generales y manifestaciones clínicas de pacientes con vasculitis de pequeños vasos que concurrieron al servicio de autoinmunidad de un hospital de la comunidad y compararlas con la literatura. Se revisaron de manera retrospectiva las historias clínicas archivadas bajo el rótulo de vasculitis en un período de 16 años. Se seleccionaron aquellos pacientes que cumplieran criterios diagnósticos de vasculitis de pequeños vasos. Se extrajeron los datos de interés y se constató la supervivencia mediante contacto telefónico. Posteriormente se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica y se compararon los resultados. Se incluyeron 13 pacientes con granulomatosis de Wegener, 6 con síndrome de Churg Strauss y 10 con poliangeítis microscópica. El 55% (16 fueron menores de 55 años al diagnóstico y hubo predominio del sexo femenino (2.6:1. La demora diagnóstica fue mayor a un año en el 46% de los casos. Los sistemas más frecuentemente afectados fueron respiratorio y otorrinolaringológico. El 79% presentó anticuerpos anti-citoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA positivos. La mortalidad fue del 24% (7/29. Al comparar las características de los pacientes incluidos en esta serie con lo descripto en la literatura, se hallaron diferencias en cuanto a la forma de presentación, sistemas comprometidos y porcentaje de pacientes ANCA positivos; además se observó que el resultado negativo de este marcador parece asociarse con mayor demora diagnóstica y en consecuencia peor pronóstico, lo que remarca su importancia como herramienta adicional no invasiva al momento del diagnóstico.The objective of this series was to describe the general characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with small vessel vasculitis who were assisted in the autoimmunity department of a community public hospital and to compare the results with the literature. Clinical records under the label of vasculitis in a

  18. Pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, A.A.M.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the result of the deposition of an amyloidogenic protein in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels. The most common type of CAA is caused by amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which is particularly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Excessive Abeta-CAA formation c

  19. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  20. Comparative analysis of ECGs in navy personnel onboard large and small vessels during prolonged deployment at sea%海军护航不同舰艇官兵的心电图对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翅; 蒋建华; 柳兵; 陈文; 彭焕亭

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察海军大、小不同类型舰艇亚丁湾护航返回官兵心电图特点。方法对赴亚丁湾海域护航返回的某补给舰(简称大舰组)140名官兵、某护卫舰(简称小舰组)79名官兵,分别在2艘舰艇返回靠泊的当天,行常规体表12导联心电图检测,比较心电图异常及心率、各波间期的变化情况。结果小舰组官兵室性早搏发生率高于大舰组官兵,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);心率、左心室高电压、ST-T改变、早期复极、间歇性Ⅰ度或Ⅱ度Ⅰ型房室传导阻滞及各波形的间期差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论小舰官兵心律失常发生率高于大舰官兵,可能与小舰官兵自主神经功能失衡程度高,造成交感神经兴奋性增高有关。%Objective To observe the change features of ECG in navy personnel onboard large and small vessels after they re -turn from prolonged deployment to the Gulf of Aden .Methods One hundred and forty navy personnel onboard the auxiliary ship ( sim-ply designated as the large vessel ) and 79 people onboard the escort ( simply called the small vessel ) respectively received routine body surface 12-lead ECG detection , on the day they returned to the homeport , following prolonged deployment at sea .Abnormality in ECG and changes in heart rate and wave intervals were compared between the 2 ship crews.Results The incidence of premature ventricular contraction for the afloat personnel onboard the small vessel was higher than that for those onboard the large vessel (P0.05).Conclusion The incidence of arrhythmia for the afloat personnel onboard small vessel was evidently higher than that for the afloat personnel onboard the large ves -sel, which might be related with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and increased sympathetic nerve excitability .

  1. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  2. 吲哚菁绿对大鼠脑皮层血管近红外光学特性及光学相干层析成像的影响%Effects of Indocyanine Green on Near-Infrared Optical Properties and Optical Coherence Tomographic Image of Cerebral Blood Vessel in Vivo in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠平; 曾常春; 关晓月; 朱志荣; 刘颂豪

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this research lies in the effects of indocyanine green (ICG) on the near-infrared optical properties and optical coherence tomographic image of cerebral blood vessel in vivo in rats. The skulls of SD rats were opened under nembutal anesthesia to expose and mark the middle cerebral artery. The reflectance spectra of middle cerebral artery were monitored by Vis/ NIR spectrometer and the optical attenuation coefficients of middle cerebral artery were detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) when indocyanine green was administrated intravenously through tail veins. It was shown that the reflectance spectra of middle cerebral artery could provide guidance for OCT image, where characteristic changes appeared around 800 nm, an absorption peak of indocyanine greea Additionally, significant difference (p<0. 01) was observed between the optical attenuation coefficients of middle cerebral artery with and without indocyanine green, which were 24. 692± 1. 471 and 15.088± 1. 602, respectively. It was concluded that indocyanine green, as an optical contrast agent to enhance detection of cerebral artery by the reflectance spectra and OCT imaging, has the potential for monitoring and imaging of cerebral blood vessels.%研究观察了吲哚菁绿(ICG)对大鼠脑皮层血管近红外光谱学特性及光学相干层析成像(OCT)的影响.实验中,将SD大鼠颞部开颅,暴露并标记大脑中动脉,给予动物尾静脉注射ICG溶液,应用可见-近红外反射光谱仪和OCT系统检测脑皮层血管反射光谱的动态变化和衰减系数的特征性变化.结果显示,ICG注射后,大脑中动脉的反射光谱在ICG的吸收峰(800 nm)左右出现一个特异性的低反射峰并随时间而逐渐变化;在注射ICG 3 min时,本特异性低反射峰值达到最强,反射光谱的特征性变化可以为实现最佳OCT图像效果提供时间点.此外,ICG注射后的脑动脉OCT信号衰减系数为24.692±1.471,明显高于未注射ICG时15.088

  3. Cerebral aterial spasm. I. Adrenergic mechanism in experimental cerebral vasospasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morooka,Hiroshi

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that an adrenergic mechanism plays an important role in producing the delayed cerebral vasospasm which follows subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results were as follows: 1. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was produced by injection of fresh arterial blood into the cisterna magna in cats. The cerebral vasospasm was shown angiographically to be biphasic in nature: immediate constriction lasting 1 h and marked prolonged spasm occurring between the 3rd and 5th day after SAH. The amount of noradrenaline (NA and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH activity decreased over a period of 24 h both within the wall of the basilar artery and in the locus ceruleus and then gradually increased, reaching a maximum on the 3rd day after SAH. 2. Topical application of spasmogenic substances (NA and blood produced a marked constriction of the hypersensitive basilar artery on the 3rd day after SAH. 3. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the cisterna magna produced prolonged vasocilatation. The dilated vessel responded with mild transient constriction after the topical application of NA or fresh blood. DBH activity and NA concentration in the vessels, locus ceruleus and medial hypothalamus decreased markedly on the 3rd day after the cisternal injection of 6-OHDA. 4. Various spasmogenic substances (i.e. serotonin, NA, prostaglandins and methemoglobin were measured in a mixture of equal volume of CSF and blood in cats. ONly the serotonin in the mixed fluid produced vasoconstriction. Spasmogenic substances decreased markedly in the mixed fluid incubated for 3 days at 37 degrees C, and none of these substances apart from methemoglobin was present in a concentration sufficient to produce constriction of vessels. 5. These results suggest that early spasm is induced by serotonin around the arteries of the cranial base, and delayed spasm might be caused by hyperreaction of cerebral vessels to spasmogenic substances such as methemoglobin, during the

  4. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  5. [A patient with meningeal carcinomatosis accompanied by a small pituitary metastatic lesion from gastric cancer who developed cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y; Sakaguchi, K; Udaka, F; Tsujimura, T; Kameyama, M

    1999-09-01

    A 68-year-old man with disturbed consciousness had repeatedly developed light-headedness and dizziness since the summer of 1996 and was admitted to a hospital for detailed examinations on October 8, 1996. On admission, he weighed 49 kg and showed subclinical hypothyroidism with low T3 syndrome. The adrenal function and serum electrolytes were normal. Since the stool samples were positive for occult blood, gastroscopy was performed. Examination of the biopsy specimens demonstrated gastric cancer. On October 21, blood examination showed hyponatremia (127 mEq/l). On October 22, marked disturbance of consciousness developed. On October 24, the serum Na level further decreased to 116 mEq/l. On November 8, he was referred to our hospital. On admission, his skin and tongue showed marked dehydration, and severe disturbance of consciousness and neck stiffness were observed. The central venous pressure was 4 cmH2O. In the cerebrospinal fluid, atypical cells were observed, and a diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis was made. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was excluded because of marked dehydration, a normal blood ADH level, and because plasma osmotic pressure was greater than urinary osmotic pressure. Considering the possibility of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) or hypoadrenocorticism, Na supplementation and drip infusion of prednisolone (20 mg/day) were performed. The serum Na has normalized (140.1 mEq/l), and his consciousness improved. He died of aggravation of the general condition on December 16. Pathological examination demonstrated a small metastatic lesion in the infundibular part of the pituitary gland and a small metastatic lesion in the parenchyma of the bilateral adrenal glands. However, since neither hypotension nor hypoglycemia was observed before treatment, and the blood cortisol level and the serum K level were normal, hypoadrenocorticism was excluded. Hypoaldosteronism was also excluded because of a normal serum K

  6. 脑安胶囊治疗高血压脑血管功能异常临床分析%Clinical analysis of cerebral blood vessel dysfunction in patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红潮

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察脑安胶囊治疗高血压脑血管功能异常临床效果.方法:选择我院于2013年7月至2014年7月期间收治的60例高血压脑血管功能异常患者,随机分成两组,每组各30例,对照组的高血压脑血管功能异常患者给予一般干预方法治疗,观察组的高血压脑血管功能异常患者服用脑安胶囊治疗.结果:观察组高血压脑血管功能异常患者治疗后的脑血管功能评分显著优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:脑安胶囊治疗高血压脑血管功能异常效果明显,值得临床推广.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of the treatment of hypertensive cerebral vascular dysfunction by. Give general intervention treatmentMethods in our hospital from July 2013 to 2014 July admitted during the period of 60 cases of hypertensive cerebral vascular function in patients with abnormal were randomly divided into two groups, 30 cases in each group. The control group of hypertensive cerebral vascular function in patients with abnormal, the observation group of hypertensive cerebral blood tube dysfunction in patients taking Naoan capsule in the treatment of.Results after the observation group of hypertensive cerebrovascular function treatment for patients with abnormal cerebrovascular function score was significantly better than the control group (P< 0.05).Conclusion the therapeutic effect of brain an Capsule on hypertensive cerebral vascular dysfunction is obvious, which is worthy of clinical application.

  7. Dissolution vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Tomohiro; Fujioka, Tsunaaki

    1998-05-22

    A basket for containing sheared fuel pieces of spent fuel assemblies in a dissolving vessel main body has many apertures for keeping the concentration of a dissolving liquid at the inner side and the outer side of the basket uniformly. Secured neutron absorbers such as boron stainless and hafnium are appended to one or both surfaces of the basket. Partitioning members are disposed in the basket, and the partitioning members are formed in a lattice-like shape. The partitioning members are also made of secured neutron absorbers such as boron stainless and hafnium. The inside dimension of each division (lattice distance) is determined to about 15cm. Then, it is no more necessary to add soluble neutron absorbers such as gadolinium nitrate to a dissolution solution such as nitric acid thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes. (I.N.)

  8. Current meter components and other data from XCP casts from VARIOUS SMALL VESSELS and other platforms from the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the OCEAN DUMPING and other projects from 01 December 1990 to 01 June 1991 (NODC Accession 9300076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components and other data were collected from XCP casts from VARIOUS SMALL VESSELS and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected...

  9. 小口径人工血管支架材料:问题与前景%Small-caliber artificial blood vessels:problems and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志伟; 谭燕; 吴昊; 李温斌

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Long-term patency rate of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels is stil the most important issue to be solved. OBJECTIVE:To review the materials and fabrication technologies of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels as wel as endothelialization of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels. METHODS:A computer-based search of PubMed (2000-2013) and Wanfang database (2003-2013) was done for relevant articles using the key words of“smal-caliber, vascular graft, electrospun, layer-by-layer assembly, endothelialization”in English and Chinese, respectively. A total of 125 articles were retrieved, and final y, 41 were included for further analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At present, smal-caliber vascular graft materials include natural biological materials, biodegradable polymers, composite materials and xenogeneic biomaterials. Preparation technologies of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels mainly include electrospinning, self-assembly, rapid prototyping, and gel spinning. Numerous methods can elicit endothelialization of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels, but each method has its flaws and cannot ensure long-term patency radical y. With the development and diversification of preparation technologies and in-depth study of endothelialization of vascular prostheses, the long-term patency of smal-caliber artificial blood vessels wil gradual y be resolved.%背景:小口径人工血管移植后远期通畅率的问题仍然是目前亟待解决的首要问题。  目的:综述小口径人工血管支架材料及制备工艺、小口径人工血管的内皮化研究进展。  方法:应用计算机检索Pubmed数据库(2000至2013年)和万方数据库(2003至2013年)相关文献,中文检索词为“人工血管,小口径,制备,静电纺丝,自组装,内皮化”;英文检索词为“smal-caliber,vascular graft,electrospun,layer-by-layer assembly,endothelialization”。共检索到文献125篇,保留其中41篇进行总

  10. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...

  11. Endovascular therapy of high-degree stenoses of the neck vessels-stent-supported percutaneous angioplasty of the carotid artery without cerebral protection; Endovaskulaere Behandlung hochgradiger Halsgefaessstenosen - Stentgestuetzte perkutane Angioplastie der Arteria Carotis ohne Protektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C.; Kucinski, T.; Eckert, B.; Wittkugel, O.; Zeumer, H. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany); Roether, J. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: Technical essentials and therapeutic results of carotid stenting without cerebral protection are presented. Materials and methods: In 161 patients, 167 high grade carotid stenoses were stented, followed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, with subsequent evaluation of the clinical and angiographic results. Diffusion-weighted MRI was carried out in 108 patients to detect cerebral sequelae. Results: Endovascular therapy was successful (residual stenosis <25%) in 166 stenoses (99.4%). Twelve patients (7.5%) had cerebrovascular complications within the 30-day perioperative period, seven of which occurred during the procedure. After treatment, diffusion-weighted MRI disclosed at least one new cerebral lesion in 40 patients (37%), which were symptomatic in six patients. Conclusion: Even without cerebral protection, high grade carotid stenosis can be safely treated with stent-protected percutaneous angioplasty. Microemboli detected by postoperative MRI are infrequently symptomatic. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es werden die Durchfuehrung der direkten Stentangioplastie der A.ccarotis ohne zerebrale Protektion und die Ergebnisse dieses Behandlungsverfahrens beschrieben. Methoden: Bei 161 Patienten wurden 167 hochgradige Karotisstenosen durch Platzieren eines Stents mit anschliessender perkutaner transluminaler Angioplastie behandelt. Die Behandlungsergebnisse wurden klinisch und angiographisch bewertet. 108 Patienten wurden mit diffusionsgewichteter MRT zum Nachweis klinisch stummer Infarkte untersucht. Ergebnisse: 166 Stenosen (99,4%) wurden erfolgreich behandelt (Reststenose <25%). Im perioperativen Zeitraum von 30 Tagen trat bei insgesamt 12 Patienten eine zerebrovaskulaere Komplikation auf (7,5%), 7 Patienten erlitten die Komplikation waehrend des Eingriffs. Nach der Behandlung hatten 40 Patienten (37%) mindestens eine neue zerebrale Diffusionsstoerung, 6 davon mit klinischen Symptomen. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der stentgestuetzten perkutanen Angioplastie

  12. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. de Salles

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológicos são responsáveis pelas manifestações vasculares que ocorrem após a hemorragia subaracnóidea. Alternativas de tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral são discutidas.

  13. Local oestrogenic/androgenic balance in the cerebral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D N; Duckles, S P; Gonzales, R J

    2011-09-01

    Reproductive effects of sex steroids are well-known; however it is increasingly apparent that these hormones have important actions on non-reproductive tissues such as the vasculature. The latter effects can be relevant throughout the lifespan, not just limited to reproductive years, and are not necessarily restricted to one gender or the other. Our work has established that cerebral blood vessels are a non-reproductive target tissue for sex steroids. We have found that oestrogen and androgens alter vascular tone, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in cerebral vessels. Often the actions of oestrogen and androgens oppose each other. Moreover, it is clear that cerebral vessels are directly targeted by sex steroids, as they express specific receptors for these hormones. Interestingly, cerebral blood vessels also express enzymes that metabolize sex steroids. These findings suggest that local synthesis of 17ß-estradiol and dihydrotestosterone can occur within the vessel wall. One of the enzymes present, aromatase, converts testosterone to 17ß-estradiol, which would alter the local balance of androgenic and oestrogenic influences. Thus cerebral vessels are affected by circulating sex hormones as well as locally synthesized sex steroids. The presence of vascular endocrine effector mechanisms has important implications for male-female differences in cerebrovascular function and disease. Moreover, the cerebral circulation is a target for gonadal hormones as well as anabolic steroids and therapeutic drugs used to manipulate sex steroid actions. The long-term consequences of these influences are yet to be determined.

  14. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  15. Biological and mechanical evaluation of the small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels matrix%小口径组织工程血管基质材料的生物学和力学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菊; 曾文; 周静婷; 李刚; 张晓彦; 朱楚洪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels which possesses normal blood vessels physiological structure, good biocompatibility, and mechanical properties. And it was evaluated by mechanical and biological of national standard of medi-cal transfusion material. Methods The bio-derived material were regarded as the ground substance, and it was evaluated by mechanical and biological of national standard after composite modification. Results The axial and radial tensile stress of the blood vessel was 23. 14 N and 36. 79 N respectively, and it was greater than the standard 7. 5N. The tensile rate of the axial and radial was 95. 19% and 80. 24% respec-tively, which were higher than the standard value 20%. The suture strength of the blood vessel was 13. 71 N, which was conform to the me-chanical requirement. Mainly used blood vessels or its extracts to detect the pH of the blood vessels is in the scope of control deionized water pH (7. 5 ± 1. 5);the hemolysis rate was 1. 3972% which was less than 5%;the whole blood coagulation time was 50% longer than the con-trol level, and there was no stimulation after intradermal injection. Conclusion With bio-derived material as the ground substance and com-positely modified, this kind od blood vessels is conform to the mechanical and biological of national standard, and it has the potential of clini-cal application which could play an important role in the replacement therapy of small-diameter vascular xenografts.%目的:研制一种具备正常血管的生理结构和良好的生物相容性,而且具有血管力学特性的小口径组织工程血管基质材料,并按医用输血材料的力学及生物学国家标准评价。方法以去细胞生物衍生材料作为基质,按照国家标准对其进行力学和生物学评价。结果血管的轴向、径向拉伸应力分别为23.14 N和36.79 N,均大于标准规定的7.5 N;拉伸率分别为95.19%和80.24%,大于标准规定的20%

  16. Effects of JPEG data compression on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of small vessels ischemic lesions of the brain; Efeitos da compressao de dados JPEG na avaliacao de lesoes vasculares cerebrais isquemicas de pequenos vasos em ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Paulo Eduardo de Aguiar; Abdala, Nitamar; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: paulokuriki@gmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Objective: to establish the maximum achievable JPEG compression ratio without affecting quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of ischemic lesion in small vessels of the brain. Material and method: fifteen DICOM images were converted to JPEG with a compression ratio of 1:10 to 1:60 and were assessed together with the original images by three neuro radiologists. The number, morphology and signal intensity of the lesions were analyzed. Results: lesions were properly identified up to a 1:30 ratio. More lesions were identified with a 1:10 ratio then in the original images. Morphology and edges were properly evaluated up toa 1:40 ratio. Compression did not affect signal. Conclusion: small lesions were identified ( < 2 mm ) and in all compression ratios the JPEG algorithm generated image noise that misled observers to identify more lesions in JPEG images then in DICOM images, thus generating false-positive results.(author)

  17. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  18. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  19. 丙硫氧嘧啶致抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体相关血管炎研究进展%Research progress in antineutrophil cytoplasmtic antibody associated small vessel vasculitis due to propylthiouracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云华; 陈旻

    2015-01-01

    丙硫氧嘧啶(PTU)致抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体(ANCA)相关血管炎(AAV)(PTU-AAV)占抗甲状腺药物所致血管炎的80% ~ 90%,可累及呼吸、肾脏、皮肤、肌肉、神经、胃肠和五官等系统,临床表现为发热、乏力、体重下降、肌肉关节疼痛、紫癜样皮损、血尿、结膜炎,严重时可致肺泡出血、急性肾衰竭甚至危及生命,实验室检查血清ANCA阳性.PTU与髓过氧化物酶(MPO)相互作用可能是PTU-AAV的发生机制之一.长期使用PTU可能是诱发AAV的高危因素,血清抗MPO抗体阳性率、滴度以及亲和力也可能与PTU-AAV的发生有关.PTU-AAV的诊断:(1)有小血管炎临床症状,与应用PTU有明确的时间关系;(2) ANCA呈阳性或滴度升高;(3)组织活检显示小血管有炎性反应与坏死,肾穿刺活检为局灶节段纤维素样坏死和/或新月体性肾小球肾炎;(4)可除外其他可能引起血管炎的疾病,如感染和肿瘤.及时停用PTU及联合应用糖皮质激素与细胞毒药物是治疗PTU-AAV的主要方法.PTU-AAV的预后与小血管受损范围密切相关,其总体预后优于原发性小血管炎.%Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated small vessel vasculitis (AAV) induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) accounted for 80%-90% of vasculitis due to anti hyperthyroidism drugs.AAV is the disease which involved the systems of respiration, kidney, skin, muscle, nerve, stomach and intestine and ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology.The clinical manifestations of AAV include fever,weakness, weight loss, myalgia and arthralgia, purpuric skin injury, hematuresis, conjunctivitis, pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage, and acute renal failure, can be even life-threatening.Laboratory examination showed positivc ANCA.The mechanism of AAV induced by PTU may be related to interaction of PTU and myeloperoxidase (MPO).Long-term use of PTU may be the high risk factor in AAV.Serum anti-MPO antibody positive, anti-MPO antibody titer and the

  20. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Enzensberger, W. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  1. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológi...

  2. Effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoli Xia; Baoling Sun; Mingfeng Yang; Dongmei Hu; Tong Zhao; Jingzhong Niu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that although brain does not contain lining endothelial lymphatic vessel,it has lymphatic drain.Anterior lymphatic vessel in brain tissue plays a key role in introducing brain interstitial fluid to lymphatic system;however,the significance of lymphatic drain and the affect on cerebral edema remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Institute of Cerebral Microcirulation of Taishan Medical College and Department of Neurology of Affiliated Hospital.MATERIALS:A total of 63 healthy adult male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were selected in this study.Forty-seven rats were used for the morphological observation induced by lymphatic drain and randomly divided into three groups:general observation group(n=12),light microscopic observation group(n=21)and electronic microscopic observation group(n=14).The rats in each group were divided into cerebral lymphatic block subgroup and sham-operation control subgroup.Sixteen rats were divided into cerebral the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cortical evoked potential,in which the animals were randomly divided into sham-operation group(n=6)and cerebral lymphatic block group(n=10).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Institute of Cerebral Microcirculation of Taishan Medical College from January to August 2003.Rats in cerebral lymphatic block group were anesthetized and separated bilateral superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes under sterile condition. Superior and inferior boarders of lymph nodes were ligated the inputting and outputting channels, respectively, and then lymph node was removed so as to establish cerebral lymphatic drain disorder models. Rats in sham-operation control group were not ligated the lymphatic vessel and removed lymph nodes.and other operations were as the same as those in cerebral lymphatic block group

  3. 经颅多普勒超声联合呼气末二氧化碳分压评估脑血管狭窄患者脑血管储备功能的临床意义%Clinical significance of transcranial Doppler and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure on cerebrovascular reserve capacity in cerebral vessels stenosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐珊珊; 李英毅; 齐晓微

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经颅多普勒超声(TCD)联合呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)评估脑血管狭窄患者脑血管储备(CVR)功能的临床意义.方法 对52例脑血管狭窄患者(分为单血管狭窄组22例和多血管狭窄组30例)和45例健康体检者(对照组)采用TCD联合PETCO2检测,通过吸入自身呼出二氧化碳诱导高碳酸血症,过度换气诱导低碳酸血症的方法测定CVR功能.结果 (1)单血管狭窄组患侧[(3.16±2.73)%/mm Hg,1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa]、多血管狭窄组病变较重侧[(2.41±1.25) %/mm Hg]和对照组血管扩张储备[(3.75±1.77)%/mm Hg]比较差异有统计学意义(F=3.866,P<0.05),其中多血管狭窄组病变较重侧的血管扩张储备明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t=-2.657,P<0.05).单血管狭窄组患侧[(3.13±1.38) %/mm Hg]、多血管狭窄组病变较重侧[(2.01±1.89)%/mm Hg]和对照组血管整体储备[(3.51±0.92)%/mm Hg]比较差异有统计学意义(F=5.905,P< 0.05),其中多血管狭窄组病变较重侧血管整体储备明显低于对照组及单血管狭窄组患侧,差异有统计学意义(t=-3.468、2.582,P<0.05).(2)单血管狭窄组、多血管狭窄组及对照组在平静呼吸、低碳酸血症、高碳酸血症时PETCO2比较差异均无统计学意义(F=0.398、0.967、1.186,P> 0.05).(3)血管病变程度与血管扩张储备、血管整体储备呈负相关(r=-0.433、-0.475,P< 0.05).结论 TCD联合PETCO2作为一种简单、方便、经济的手段可有效地用于CVR功能的评价与研究.脑血管病变患者由于血管狭窄、闭塞、血流受阻使CVR功能降低,狭窄程度越重,CVR功能越差.%Objective To study the clinical significance of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) capacity in cerebral vessels stenosis (CVS) patients with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2).Methods Fifty-two CVS patients were divided into two groups:one blood vessel stenosis group (22 cases) and

  4. Renovascular hypertension causes cerebral vascular remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamei Tang; Xiangpen Li; Yi Li; Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Ruxun Huang; Ying Peng

    2011-01-01

    Renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRs) were developed using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method. All RHRs at 10 weeks displayed high permeability of the cerebral surface blood vessels. Vascular casts of the RHRs showed that the vascular network was sparse. The arterioles of the RHRs at 10 weeks had smaller lumen diameters, but thicker vessel walls with hyalinosis formation compared with control animals. The endothelial cell membrane appeared damaged, and microthrombus formed. After ischemia, the infarction size was larger in RHRs than in control animals. These results suggest that cerebral arterioles in RHRs underwent structural remodeling. High blood pressure may aggravate the severity of brain injury in cerebral ischemia and affect the recovery of ischemia.

  5. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles. Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and\\/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu\\'s or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.

  6. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N;

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...... metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose and lactate differences), as well as the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean); transcranial Doppler ultrasound) during a sustained static handgrip contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (n = 9) and the MCA V...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  7. Role of precoating in artificial vessel endothelialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖乐; 时德

    2004-01-01

    @@ As the progress of vascular surgery, artificial vessels have become the substitute for large and middle diameter vessels but have not for small diameter ones owing to thrombogenesis and occlusion within a short period of time after being applied.Artificial vessel endothelialization is one of the ideal methods to resolve such issue and has been improved continuously since Herring1 in 1978 put forward this term in the first time and utilized vascular endothelial cells (ECs) harvested from living animals to perform the test of artificial vessel endothelialization.

  8. 全身小血管炎合并严重心肌受累10例分析%Ten cases analysis of small vessel vasculitis with myocardial involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁莉萍; 施举红; 曾学军; 严晓伟

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of systemic vasculitis with cardiac involvement.Methods Clinical information of 10 patients with systemic vasculitis complicated by myocardial vasculitis,selected from 181 small vessel vasculitis patients and 114 systemic vasculitis patients were analyzed.Results The clinical manifestations were varied significantly dependent on the etiology of small vessel vasculitis.It is usually djfficult to make the diagnosis because of the insidious onset,varied etiology and the undifferentiated manifestations of heart involvement.Echocardiography is commonly used in detecting and monitoring cardiac involvement.Glueocortieoid therapy can improve left ventricular systolic function dramatically when used properly.Conclusions The cardiac involvement of systemic vasculitis is quite rare.Dyspnea of various degrees and left ventricular systolic dysfunction ale the most common clinical findings.The earlier the establishment of diagnosis and institution of appopriate treatment,the better the prognosis.%目的 通过对小血管炎引起的严重心肌受累病例的分析提高对本病的认识.方法 总结北京协和医院近12年共10例小血管炎心肌受累病例临床资料及预后.结果 小血管炎心肌受累主要表现心肌收缩功能受损,心脏超声检查可早期诊断并监测病情,糖皮质激素治疗可改善心功能.结论 小血管炎心肌受累仍属罕见病,早期诊断、及时治疗可以改善症状和预后.

  9. Effects of Blood Pressure Fluctuations on Cerebral Perfusion after Ischemic Stroke%血压波动对脑梗死后脑灌注的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂志余; 靳令经

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral infarction affects both cerebral autoregulation and cerebral perfusion. This review article summarizes the published evidence of cerebral autoregulation impairment and cerebral blood flow alteration after cerebral infarction, including cerebrovascular small vessel disease leading to an impairment of vasoreactivity, blood flow velocities and cerebral blood flow associated positively with systemic blood pressure, perfusion declined on the infarcted side and lower blood pressure resulting in hypoperfusion in distal area of the narrowing main cerebral artery. The question should be thought by physicians about what is the 'best blood pressure range' in patients with cerebral infarction and it will be benefit for optimal recovery.%本文主要从脑血管的自动调节与自动调节受损、脑小血管病变可导致脑血管反应性受损、脑梗死患者脑血流速度、脑血流量与血压的相关性,脑梗死侧大脑半球脑灌注降低、低血压对脑主要动脉狭窄者可导致狭窄远端脑组织局部低灌注等几个方面来讨论脑梗死后血压的变化对脑血流速度、脑血流量的影响.给临床医生提出一个思考问题,在脑梗死的急性期把血压控制在多少才是最合适的水平,对患者的功能恢复最有益.

  10. CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumors with midline shift less than or equal to 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo/sub 2/) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g/sup -1/ min/sub -1/ and 1.98 ml O/sub 2/ 100 g/sup -1/ min/sup -1/, respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged.

  11. Statins and selective inhibition of Rho kinase protect small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel function (K(Ca2.3 in cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister J McNeish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In rat middle cerebral and mesenteric arteries the K(Ca2.3 component of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH is lost following stimulation of thromboxane (TP receptors, an effect that may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease. In cerebral arteries, K(Ca2.3 loss is associated with NO synthase inhibition, but is restored if TP receptors are blocked. The Rho/Rho kinase pathway is central for TP signalling and statins indirectly inhibit this pathway. The possibility that Rho kinase inhibition and statins sustain K(Ca2.3 hyperpolarization was investigated in rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA. METHODS: MCAs were mounted in a wire myograph. The PAR2 agonist, SLIGRL was used to stimulate EDH responses, assessed by simultaneous measurement of smooth muscle membrane potential and tension. TP expression was assessed with rt-PCR and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence detected TP in the endothelial cell layer of MCA. Vasoconstriction to the TP agonist, U46619 was reduced by Rho kinase inhibition. TP receptor stimulation lead to loss of K(Ca2.3 mediated hyperpolarization, an effect that was reversed by Rho kinase inhibitors or simvastatin. K(Ca2.3 activity was lost in L-NAME-treated arteries, but was restored by Rho kinase inhibition or statin treatment. The restorative effect of simvastatin was blocked after incubation with geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate to circumvent loss of isoprenylation. CONCLUSIONS: Rho/Rho kinase signalling following TP stimulation and L-NAME regulates endothelial cell K(Ca2.3 function. The ability of statins to prevent isoprenylation and perhaps inhibit of Rho restores/protects the input of K(Ca2.3 to EDH in the MCA, and represents a beneficial pleiotropic effect of statin treatment.

  12. Improvement in regional CBF by L-serine contributes to its neuroprotective effect in rats after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Jie Ren

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF. Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1 reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2 improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3 increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.

  13. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  14. 老年冠心病小血管置入EXCEL支架的安全性与有效性%Outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention with EXCEL stents for elderly patients with small vessel coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 孙书红; 张磊; 杨星昌; 马兰香; 惠增骞; 丁守良; 赵妮; 韩雅玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention with EXCEL stents for elderly patients with small vessel coronary artery disease. Methods Patients were assigned into small stent group( 0. 05 ). The small stent group had higher stent thrombosisrate than the large stent group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions This study demonstrates not only the clinical safety and efficacy of biodegradable polymer based sirolimus - eluting stents. In elderly patients with small vessel coronary artery disease, but also a higher stent thrombosis rate in the long - term outcome.%目的 观察老年冠心病患者小血管置入国产EXCEL支架的安全性与有效性.方法 本研究对老年冠心病患者单纯置入小血管支架(支架直径<3.0 mm,297例)和单纯置入大血管支架(直径≥3.0 mm,405例)进行对比分析,术后6、12、18个月进行随访,观察临床不良事件(major adverse cardiac events,MACE)发生情况及血栓发生率.结果 6~18个月时两组间MACE事件、靶病变血运重建(target lesion revascularization,TLR)、心源性病死率差异无统计学意义,但非致命性急性心肌梗死(myocardial infarction,MI)及累计血栓事件老年小血管支架组较大血管组增加(P<0.05).结论 老年冠心病患者小血管内置入国产EXCEL比同龄大血管冠心病患者血栓累计发生率高.

  15. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  16. Free Flow of Qi in Conception Vessel and Governor Vessel Leading to Longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Liang; CUI Yi-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Circle of Qi in human body, is namely Conception Vessel and Governor Vessel. It is divided into Large and Small Circle of qi. Small Circle of qi means that qi flows along the Circle of qi. Large Circle of qi means that vitality flows along the Circle of qi.Health-preserving expert holds that, if someone can achieve the skill of Small Circle of qi, he can return to juvenscence in essence, consolidating the body and achieve longevity.

  17. Effects of Electroacupuncture plus Intra-carotid Drug Injection on Rheoencephalogram in Patients with Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江明; 胡永均; 童利民; 王大军; 张道敬

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) plus intra-carotid drug injection for treating cerebral infarction. Methods: Rheoencephalogram was recorded with a RG-2B type of bridge rheoencephalograph and findings were compared before and after the treatment. Results: After the treatment, the prolonged rising time was shortened, and the decreased amplitude obviously elevated. Conclusion: The therapy can dilate cerebral blood vessels, increase the cerebral blood flow, and improve the elasticity of cerebral blood vessels, leading to sufficient blood and oxygen supply in the ischemic brain tissues and to restoration of their functions.

  18. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  19. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  1. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  2. Vessel involvement in giant cell arteritis : an imaging approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Pieter W; Sandovici, Maria; Slart, Riemer H.; Glaudemans, Andor W; Rutgers, Abraham; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Vasculitis is classified based on the size of the involved vessels. The two major forms are small vessel vasculitis (SVV) and large vessel vasculitis (LVV). Main forms of LVV are Takayasu Arteritis (TA), Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), Isolated Aortitis (IA) and Chronic Periaortitis (PC). This manuscrip

  3. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  4. Study of the type of cerebral vessels in normal condition through 3.0T MRA%3.0T磁共振血管成像研究生理状态下国人脑血管形态学类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建成; 刘怀军; 赵林; 刘增品; 王铁刚; 周存和

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the proportion and sex ratio of various kinds of cerebral vessels in normal condition.Method 1081 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images performed in recent two years were defined as shape of cerebral vessels in normal condition.According to the blood-supply scope of internal carotid artery (ICA) and developmental condition of Willis circle, we divide and analyze occurrence of various types.Result The composition of gender in one-sided dominance and non-one-sided dominance was not statistically significant (x2=1.6274 P=0.2024),The incidence of left A1 dominance (121/164) and right A1 dominance (43/164) showed significant difference (u = 6.09,P<0.001), left dominance showed high incidence obviously.The composition of pro-circulation and non-pro-circulation was not statistically significant in side (x2=0.6285 P=0.4279) and showed significant difference in gender (x2=30.1706 P<0.001), female had higher incidence.In the incidence between the combination of one-sided dominance with pro-circulation and pro-circulation in non-one-sided dominance there was no statisticall significance (x2=0.1254 P=0.7233).In normal condition ,The display ratio of complete Willis circle of MRA was lower.Conclusion MRA was an non-invasive and effective method to study the type of cerebral in normal condition, and it can as the control group for other disease related with various types of cerebral vessels.%目的 探讨一般人群生理状态下各种腩血管形态学类型所占比例、性别比等.方法 连续性抽取正常MRA图像计1081份定义为一般人群生理状态下的脑血管形态学类型,按颈内动脉供血范围及Willis环发育情况进行分型,分析各种类型发生情况. 结果一侧A1优势型与非一侧A1优势型性别构成无统计学意义(x2=1.6274 P=0.2024),左右侧性别构成尢统计学意义(x2=3.5353 P=0.0601).左侧A1优势犁发牛率(121/164)与右侧A1优势型发生率(43/164)存在显著性差异(u=6.09,P<0

  5. [Nitroxidergic nerve fibers of intracerabral blood vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiuba, A E; Kotsiuba, E P; Chertok, V M

    2009-01-01

    Methods of light and electron microscopic histochemistry were applied to study the structure and distribution of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons and processes in the parietal area of rat cerebral cortex. It was found that the most of the neurons displayed close connections with the intracerebral vessels. In the cerebral cortex, the smallest distance between the axonal plasma membrane and smooth muscle cells of the intracerebral arteries was found to be no less than 0.3-0.5 microm. Neuronal cell bodies were located in the functionally important areas of the vessels (in the areas of lateral trunk branching and in arteriolar sources), while their processes accompanied the vessels, tightly embracing them with their branches. Quite often, the neurons, the dendrites of which make contacts with the bodies or processes of over- or underlying neurons, sent their nerve fibers to the arteries, veins and capillaries. Thus, nitroxidergic neurons or their groups may control the blood flow in the different areas of vascular bed, performing the functions of the local nerve center.

  6. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  7. 改良型三血管结扎慢性脑缺血模型大鼠的行为学评价%The ethology representation of the modified three-vessel-occlusion rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 章军建; 张磊

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the ethology representation of the modified model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion ( m-3VO) , created by occluding bolh common carotid in combination with one vertebral artey. Methods Rats were randomly put into m-3VO group,2VO group,and sham group ,and were subjected to the matching operation. Eight weeks after the operation, Morris water maze,open field test,and forced swimming lest were carried out. Results Compared with the sham group[ (18.46 ± 2. 63)s, (15. 9 ± 2. 16)s] .escape latencies of Morris water maze of m-3VO group [ ( 37. 69 ± 5. 11 ) s, ( 32. 55 ± 4. 28 ) s] and 2V0 group [ (42. 94 ± 3.05)s, (37.43 ± 4. 55)s] in the fourth and fifth days significantly increased (t = 3. 61 , P0. 05). Conclusion The spatial learning ability of m-3V0 group rats are impaired 8 weeks after the operation, which is similar to that of 2VO group rats,and the m-3V0 operation have few effect on exploring ability and depression of rats.%目的 检测改良三血管结扎慢性脑缺血模型(m-3VO)与舣侧劲总动脉结扎(2VO)模型的空间学习记忆能力、探索能力与抑郁表现,以评价m-3VO改良模型的行为学表现.方法 按照3VO改良术式与2VO经典术式分别制造m-3VO模型、2VO模型以及假于术对照模型.术后第8周进行Morris水迷宫、旷场实验和强迫游泳实验检测.结果 Morris水迷宫检测显示m-3VO组第4,5天潜伏期[(37.69±5.11)s,(32.55±4.28)s]与假手术对照组[(18.46±2.63)s,(15.9±2.16)s]相比时间较长(t=3.61,P0.05).结论 m-3VO模型大鼠存术后8周出现空间学习记忆能力的损害,而探索能力无明显改变且未出现抑郁,其行为学表现与2VO模型大鼠相似.

  8. Vessel wall enhancement in the diagnosis and management of primary angiitis of the central nervous system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koyo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Kurata, Hirofumi; Saiki, Yusuke; Ohtahara, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Yamashita, Eijiro; Fujii, Shinya; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    We describe two cases of primary angiitis of the central nervous system in children (cPACNS) diagnosed by vessel wall contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both patients developed acute cerebral infarction after fever and malaise. In patient 1, a 7-month-old boy, MRI revealed extensive cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) area and stenosis at the M1 portion of the right MCA. Oral glucocorticoid therapy was initiated. Vessel wall enhancement was ameliorated 3months after onset, and stenosis was mostly restored. Patient 2, a 5-year-old boy, suffered from cerebral infarction in the left MCA area, and stenosis was identified in the left internal carotid artery, left MCA, and left posterior cerebral artery. Although vessel wall enhancement was reduced after glucocorticoid therapy, vessel wall enhancement of left MCA re-emerged, accompanied by increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the affected hemisphere. Intravenous methylprednisolone therapy followed by oral glucocorticoid and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in resolution of these findings. Vessel wall enhancement is a promising finding in the diagnosis of cPACNS. Disease flares occur rarely in medium-to-large vessel cPACNS during dose tapering. Vessel wall enhancement, ESR, and CBF may be useful for the assessment of the activity of angiitis.

  9. Vessel discoloration detection in malarial retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Harding, S.; Lewallen, S.; Joshi, V.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome associated with malarial infection. It affects approximately 200 million people, mostly sub-Saharan African children under five years of age. Malarial retinopathy (MR) is a condition in which lesions such as whitening and vessel discoloration that are highly specific to CM appear in the retina. Other unrelated diseases can present with symptoms similar to CM, therefore the exact nature of the clinical symptoms must be ascertained in order to avoid misdiagnosis, which can lead to inappropriate treatment and, potentially, death. In this paper we outline the first system to detect the presence of discolored vessels associated with MR as a means to improve the CM diagnosis. We modified and improved our previous vessel segmentation algorithm by incorporating the `a' channel of the CIELab color space and noise reduction. We then divided the segmented vasculature into vessel segments and extracted features at the wall and in the centerline of the segment. Finally, we used a regression classifier to sort the segments into discolored and not-discolored vessel classes. By counting the abnormal vessel segments in each image, we were able to divide the analyzed images into two groups: normal and presence of vessel discoloration due to MR. We achieved an accuracy of 85% with sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 67%. In clinical practice, this algorithm would be combined with other MR retinal pathology detection algorithms. Therefore, a high specificity can be achieved. By choosing a different operating point in the ROC curve, our system achieved sensitivity of 67% with specificity of 100%.

  10. Cerebral blood volume estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced steady-state MRI at 9.4 T reveals microvascular impact of α1 -adrenergic receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Karczewski, Peter; Ku, Min-Chi; Dieringer, Babette; Waiczies, Helmar; Wisbrun, Natali; Kox, Stefanie; Palatnik, Irina; Reimann, Henning Matthias; Eichhorn, Christina; Waiczies, Sonia; Hempel, Petra; Lemke, Bernd; Niendorf, Thoralf; Bimmler, Marion

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular abnormality is frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions, such as dementia. Antibodies against the α1 -adrenoceptor (α1 -AR) can be found in patients with Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease, and have been shown to affect the larger vessels of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of α1 -AR antibodies on the cerebral vasculature remains unclear. In the present study, we established a neuroimaging method to measure the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in small rodents with the ultimate goal to detect changes in blood vessel density and/or vessel size induced by α1 -AR antibodies. For this purpose, mapping of R2 * and R2 was performed using MRI at 9.4 T, before and after the injection of intravascular iron oxide particles (ferumoxytol). The change in the transverse relaxation rates (ΔR2 *, ΔR2 ) showed a significant rCBV decrease in the cerebrum, cortex and hippocampus of rats (except hippocampal ΔR2 ), which was more pronounced for ΔR2 * than for ΔR2 . Immunohistological analyses confirmed that the α1 -AR antibody induced blood vessel deficiencies. Our findings support the hypothesis that α1 -AR antibodies lead to cerebral vessel damage throughout the brain, which can be monitored by MRI-derived rCBV, a non-invasive neuroimaging method. This demonstrates the value of rCBV estimation by ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI at 9.4 T, and further underlines the significance of this antibody in brain diseases involving vasculature impairments, such as dementia.

  11. 小口径生物型人工血管移植后的血管壁重构%Experiment study of vessel wall reconstruction after a novel biological small-diameter vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许益民; 漆松涛; 林绿标; 曾绍文; 李伟秋; 庄冰容

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compared with human vessels, vascular prosthesis has the greastest advantage for its rich source. Besides, its characteristics are similar to the human vessel, and vascular prosthesis has high histocompatibility after graft.OBJECTIVE: To observe the survival and life status, graft histocompatibility and histopathological changes of the reconstructed vascular wall in experimental dogs within eighteen months following the implantation of biological small-diameter vascular graft.METHODS: By crosslinking fixation, removing antigen, covalent bonding with heparin and coupling with specific polypetide capable of sticking and enriching growth factors, a kind of highly anticoagulant biological artificial vessel with the diameter of 3.5 to 4.5 mm was prepared. Artificial vascular grafts were implanted end-to-end by a continuous suture in the common carotid artery of the experimental dogs. Sample procedure was performed at different time for postoperative eighteen months, for histopathological examination.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Only a little adhesion between the artificial artery and the surounding tissue was found during sampling procedure. Eight weeks after grafting, the host tissue penetrated the poros of grafts and protruded into the lumen, forming the neointima of the graft vessel. Twelve weeks after grafting, endothelial cells were sparsely distributed throughout the neointima near the stoma. Six months after grafting, endothelial cells were present on the whole surface of the patent graft lumen.Twelve months after grafting, VG staining of the graft wall revealed that the graft stent had been replaced by a large amount of newly grown collagen fibers and blood capillaries. The previous graft stent was partly replaced by the host vascular tissue.Eighteen months after grafting, the previous graft stent was mostly replaced by the host vascular tissue. All of the above proves that the novel biological small-diameter vascular graft has early and intact formation

  12. Power Management of Small Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Reference [16] and [6] explains the current differential scheme employed in SPS and HVDC systems respectively. Other schemes presently employed in DC...2002.985003 [3] Jiebei Zhu; Booth, C;, "Future multi-terminal HVDC transmission systems using Voltage source converters," Universities Power Engineering...Delivery, IEEE Transactions on , vol.25, no.4, pp.2308-2318, Oct. 2010 doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2044813 [6] Naidoo, D.; Ijumba, N.M.;, " HVDC line

  13. Effects of perfluorocarbon dodecafluoropentane (NVX-108) on cerebral microvasculature in the healthy rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon-Massat, Paula F; Abutarboush, Rania; Pappas, Georgina; Haque, Ashraful; Aligbe, Chioma; Arnaud, Francoise; Auker, Charles; McCarron, Richard; Scultetus, Anke

    2014-01-01

    NVX-108, a dodecafluoropentane-based perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, has therapeutic potential as an oxygen- carrying fluid for emergency medical treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock. Potential cerebral vasoactive properties were assessed by directly measuring pial arteriolar vessel diameters before and after a 30 minute intravenous (IV) infusion of 1.0 ml/kg (high dose [H]) or 0.25 ml/kg (low dose [L]) NVX-108 compared to 2.0 ml/kg Saline (control) in healthy anesthetized rats (N = 6/group). Results showed that post-infusion vessel diameters for small (< 50 µm) and medium (50-100 µm)-sized pial arterioles were significantly (p < 0.05) narrower after only the NVX- 108 H infusion although this vasoconstriction was not statistically significant when analyzed as a percentage change in these vessels. Pial arteriolar vessel diameters were not significantly different for mean value or percentage change after either NVX-108 L or Saline infusions. There were no significant post-infusion changes from baseline in systolic, mean or diastolic blood pressures after any of the treatments although post-infusion blood pressure was statistically higher in the NVX-108 L group compared to NVX-108 H and Saline groups. Arterial blood gases, methemoglob in and lactate were not different from baseline or among groups. No adverse events were observed at either dose of NVX-108. In conclusion, neither 0.25 nor 1.0 ml/kg NVX-108 caused vasoconstriction in cerebral pial arterioles of healthy rats nor resulted in blood pressure changes; the compound should be considered for further investigation for TBI therapy.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE-RETAINING DURATION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL PARALYSIS CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 王琴玉; 冯健强; 张壮涛; 陈雪云; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of different needle-retaining duration on cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral paralysis (CP) children.Methods: A total of 20 cases of CP children were subjected into this study.Changes of systolic peak value (Vs), blood flow velocity at the end-diastolic phase (Ved), mean velocity (Vm), pulsation index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the cerebral hemodynamics before and after performing JIN's Three-Needling Therapy with the needles retained for 30 min (group A) and 5 min (group B) were observed by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Results: After acupuncture, the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was accelerated, and the resistance of blood vessels decreased.The effect of needle-retaining-30 min was better than that of needle-retaining-5 min.Conclusion: In treating cerebral paralysis by using JIN's Three-Needling Therapy, sufficient stimulation provided by needle remaining is an important factor for achieving satisfactory therapeutic effects.

  15. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  16. Transbrachial artery approach for selective cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Morisako, Toshitaka; Numazawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Keisuke; Nagai, Shigeki; Shibamoto, Kenji (Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Transaxillary or transbrachial approaches to the cerebral vessels have been reported, but selective angiography of all four vessels has not been possible through one route. In this report, a new technique for selective cerebral angiography with transbrachial approach is described. One hundred and twenty three patients with cerebral infarction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, intracerebral hemorrhage, epilepsy, or cerebral tumor were examined. Those patients consisted of 85 outpatients and 38 inpatients whose age ranged from 15 years old to 82 years old. The patients were examined via the transbrachial approach (97 cases via the right brachial, 29 cases via the left). Materials included a DSA system (Digital Fluorikon 5000, General Electric Co.), a 4 French tight J-curved Simmons 80-cm catheter, a 19-gauge extra-thin-wall Seldinger needle, and a J/Straight floppy 125-cm guide-wire. Generally, the volume of the contrast agent (300 mgI/ml iopamidol) used in the common carotid artery angiogram was 6 ml, while that used in the vertebral artery angiogram was 4 ml. If catheterization of the vertebral artery or right common carotid artery was unsuccessful, about 8 ml of the contrast agent was injected into the subclavian or branchiocephalic artery. Definitive diagnosis and a decision on proper treatment of the patients can be easily obtained, and the results were clinically satisfactory. Moreover, no complications were encountered in this study. This new technique making a transbrachial approach to the cerebral vessels using the DSA system is introduced here. Neurosurgeons can use this technique easily, and they will find that it provides them with all the information they need about the patient. (author).

  17. Pre- and postoperative changes of regional cortical cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石广志; 赵继宗; 王硕; 王永刚; 陆铮

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate pre- and postoperative changes of regional cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Method Twenty-two adult patients with arteriovenous malformation(AVM) were recruited into this study at Beijing Tiantan Hospital from September 2001 to May 2002. Eight patients had giant cerebral AVM and the other 14 had a small one. Cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) before and after AVM resections. After surgery, the probe of LDF was implanted adjacent to the area of AVM and monitored for 24 hours.Results CBF increased significantly after the resection in all patients regardless of AVM size. In patients with small AVM, CBF returned to the baseline level within 4 hours, but in patients with giant AVM, CBF remained high even after 24 hours.Conclusions Monitoring CBF is helpful to understand pre- and postoperative changes of regional cortical CBF in patients with cerebral AVM.

  18. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  19. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  20. Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct (PPCI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G.; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2016-01-01

    to be caused by emboli, but inadequate blood flow caused by other mechanisms may increase ischaemia in the penumbra or cause watershed infarcts. During cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure can be below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation. Although much debated, the constant blood flow provided...... by the cardiopulmonary bypass system is still considered by many as appropriate to avoid cerebral ischaemia despite the low blood pressure. Methods/design: The Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct trial is a single-centre superiority trial with a blinded outcome assessment. The trial is randomising 210 patients...... with coronary vessel and/or valve disease and who are undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients are stratified by age and surgical procedure and are randomised 1:1 to either an increased mean arterial pressure (70–80 mmHg) or ‘usual practice’ (40–50 mmHg) during cardiopulmonary...

  1. Assessment of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T quantitative flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvy, W H; Geurts, L J; Kuijf, H J; Luijten, P R; Kappelle, L J; Biessels, G J; Zwanenburg, J J M

    2016-09-01

    Thus far, blood flow velocity measurements with MRI have only been feasible in large cerebral blood vessels. High-field-strength MRI may now permit velocity measurements in much smaller arteries. The aim of this proof of principle study was to measure the blood flow velocity and pulsatility of cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T MRI. A two-dimensional (2D), single-slice quantitative flow (Qflow) sequence was used to measure blood flow velocities during the cardiac cycle in perforating arteries in the basal ganglia (BG) and semioval centre (CSO), from which a mean normalised pulsatility index (PI) per region was calculated (n = 6 human subjects, aged 23-29 years). The precision of the measurements was determined by repeated imaging and performance of a Bland-Altman analysis, and confounding effects of partial volume and noise on the measurements were simulated. The median number of arteries included was 14 in CSO and 19 in BG. In CSO, the average velocity per volunteer was in the range 0.5-1.0 cm/s and PI was 0.24-0.39. In BG, the average velocity was in the range 3.9-5.1 cm/s and PI was 0.51-0.62. Between repeated scans, the precision of the average, maximum and minimum velocity per vessel decreased with the size of the arteries, and was relatively low in CSO and BG compared with the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery. The precision of PI per region was comparable with that of M1. The simulations proved that velocities can be measured in vessels with a diameter of more than 80 µm, but are underestimated as a result of partial volume effects, whilst pulsatility is overestimated. Blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries have been measured directly in vivo for the first time, with moderate to good precision. This may be an interesting metric for the study of haemodynamic changes in aging and cerebral small vessel disease. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of cerebral and pulmonary thrombosis in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Idorn, L; Thomsen, C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) have a high prevalence of thrombosis, the most frequently described locations being the cerebral and pulmonary vessels. The reported prevalence of both cerebral infarction and pulmonary thrombosis has been highly variable. The aim...

  3. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  4. APP mutations in the Aβ coding region are associated with abundant cerebral deposition of Aβ38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Giaccone, Giorgio; Lombardi, Raffaella; Indaco, Antonio; Uggetti, Andrea; Morbin, Michela; Saccucci, Stefania; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Walsh, Dominic M; Demarchi, Andrea; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Bugiani, Orso; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-12-01

    Aβ is the main component of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer disease (AD) and its aggregation into oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils is considered a seminal event in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ with C-terminus at residue 42 is the most abundant species in parenchymal deposits, whereas Aβ with C-terminus at residue 40 predominates in the amyloid of the walls of large vessels. Aβ peptides with other C-termini have not yet been thoroughly investigated. We analysed Aβ38 in the brains of patients with Aβ deposition linked to sporadic and familial AD, hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis, or Down syndrome. Immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, immunoprecipitation and the electrophoresis separation of low molecular weight aggregates revealed that Aβ38 accumulates consistently in the brains of patients carrying APP mutations in the Aβ coding region, but was not detected in the patients with APP mutations outside the Aβ domain, in the patients with presenilin mutations or in subjects with Down syndrome. In the patients with sporadic AD, Aβ38 was absent in the senile plaques, but it was detected only in the vessel walls of a small subset of patients with severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Our results suggest that APP mutations in the Aβ coding region favour Aβ38 accumulation in the brain and that the molecular mechanisms of Aβ deposition in these patients may be different from those active in patients with familial AD associated with other genetic defects and sporadic AD.

  5. [Endoscopic use of the water jet dissector in the cerebral ventricle system--an experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, S; Kehler, U; Reusche, E; Friedrich, H J; Arnold, H

    2000-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery in the cerebral ventricle is limited by the small number of suitable instruments and bleedings obscuring the visibility. The water jet cutter allows the dissection of tissue, generally leaving vessels intact. Therefore it could be an additional instrument for neuroendoscopic purposes. In this preclinical study the employment of the water jet dissector under endoscopic conditions was evaluated. Incision-experiments (n = 80) on the ventricular system of fresh porcine brain were carried out under endoscopic view. To achieve similarity to the ventricular system, specimens were dissected in liquid medium (Ringer's-lactate, 37 degrees C). The depths of incision were measured digitally and histological examination of the tissue was performed. Depending on the applied pressure, distance from cutting nozzle to tissue and cutting velocity, the depths of incision ranged from 0.12 mm up to 2.4 mm. The water jet dissector is good to handle under endoscopic conditions and vessels are preserved. Based on these factors, this instrument is predestinated for further neuroendoscopic application. Prior to clinical application our results will have to be tested on living, perfused cerebral tissue.

  6. Chronic cocaine disrupts neurovascular networks and cerebral function: optical imaging studies in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiujia; You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Choi, Jeonghun; Yin, Wei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine abuse can lead to cerebral strokes and hemorrhages secondary to cocaine's cerebrovascular effects, which are poorly understood. We assessed cocaine's effects on cerebrovascular anatomy and function in the somatosensory cortex of the rat's brain. Optical coherence tomography was used for in vivo imaging of three-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks and to quantify CBF velocities (CBFv), and multiwavelength laser-speckle-imaging was used to simultaneously measure changes in CBFv, oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbR]) concentrations prior to and after an acute cocaine challenge in chronically cocaine exposed rats. Immunofluorescence techniques on brain slices were used to quantify microvasculature density and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After chronic cocaine (2 and 4 weeks), CBFv in small vessels decreased, whereas vasculature density and VEGF levels increased. Acute cocaine further reduced CBFv and decreased Δ[HbO2] and this decline was larger and longer lasting in 4 weeks than 2 weeks cocaine-exposed rats, which indicates that risk for ischemia is heightened during intoxication and that it increases with chronic exposures. These results provide evidence of cocaine-induced angiogenesis in cortex. The CBF reduction after chronic cocaine exposure, despite the increases in vessel density, indicate that angiogenesis was insufficient to compensate for cocaine-induced disruption of cerebrovascular function.

  7. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  8. 76 FR 67255 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT... the vessel KIWI CAT is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Small vessel 12 person chartering...

  9. Surgical treatment of brachiocephalic vessel involvement in Takayasu's arteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xin; DUAN Hong-yong; GU Yong-quan; LI Jian-xin; CHEN Bing; WANG Zhong-gao; ZHANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    Background Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects large and medium size arteries. The brachiocephalic trunk is the most frequently involved site in TA, and multi-vessel lesions are common. Surgical treatment includes vessel reconstruction surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Herein, we report our preliminary experience with surgical treatment of cerebral ischemia caused by cervical arterial lesions due to TA.Methods From January 2000 to December 2007, 38 patients with cerebral ischemia caused by cervical arterial occlusive lesions due to TA were treated surgically. There were three males and 35 females, with an age range of 15-42 years (mean 26.5 years). All patients had operative repairs undertaken. Twenty eight patients received bypass operation and 10 patients received percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. One case with coronary stenosis received coronary artery bypass simultaneously. Patients were followed up for 11 months to eight years.Results There were no peri-operative deaths in cerebrovascular reconstruction patients. Symptoms of cerebral ischemia were improved or cured in 25 of 38 patients. There was a low incidence of cerebral reperfusion syndrome. Two patients died at five and seven years after surgery due to heart failure. Another 8 patients (20%) required further surgery for stenosis (5 patients) or anastomotic aneurysms (3 patients). Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed successfully for treatment of aortic and renal lesions. Repeated angioplasty for revascularization was performed in six PTA cases with restenosis after 5-24 months.Conclusions When cerebral perfusion has potential to be affected by TA, a definitive corrective procedure is advised when the patient is relatively stable. Although the recurrence rate is very high, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the first choice procedure. Bypass operation is optimal for brachiocephalic-vessel involvement in TA

  10. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner l

  11. Cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis: on the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Dinkel, Anke; Romig, Thomas; Ebi, Dennis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Loos-Frank, Brigitte

    2016-12-01

    We characterised the causative agents of cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis in livestock by determining the mitochondrial genotypes and morphological phenotypes of 52 Taenia multiceps isolates from a wide geographical range in Europe, Africa, and western Asia. Three studies were conducted: (1) a morphological comparison of the rostellar hooks of cerebral and non-cerebral cysts of sheep and goats, (2) a morphological comparison of adult worms experimentally produced in dogs, and (3) a molecular analysis of three partial mitochondrial genes (nad1, cox1, and 12S rRNA) of the same isolates. No significant morphological or genetic differences were associated with the species of the intermediate host. Adult parasites originating from cerebral and non-cerebral cysts differed morphologically, e.g. the shape of the small hooks and the distribution of the testes in the mature proglottids. The phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial haplotypes produced three distinct clusters: one cluster including both cerebral isolates from Greece and non-cerebral isolates from tropical and subtropical countries, and two clusters including cerebral isolates from Greece. The majority of the non-cerebral specimens clustered together but did not form a monophyletic group. No monophyletic groups were observed based on geography, although specimens from the same region tended to cluster. The clustering indicates high intraspecific diversity. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that all variants of T. multiceps can cause cerebral coenurosis in sheep (which may be the ancestral phenotype), and some variants, predominantly from one genetic cluster, acquired the additional capacity to produce non-cerebral forms in goats and more rarely in sheep.

  12. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified

  13. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems in the muscles or nerves. Instead, faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain disrupt the brain's ability to adequately control movement and posture (United Cerebral Palsy, 2010). "Cerebral" refers to the ...

  14. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  15. [The follow up of patients with extracranial pathology of the carotid arteries and ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhibladze, D N; Amintaeva, A G; Lagoda, O V; Ionova, V G

    2003-01-01

    According to the populational studies, about 50% of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation, both persistent and transient, are induced by thrombotic or embolic complications of atherosclerotic plaques which produce an adverse effect on the large and small caliber arteries; about 20-25% is associated with lesion of the small diameter intracranial vessels, about 20% with embolism from the heart, and the remaining disorders fall within other rare causes. The prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels feeding the brain, the severity of their clinical manifestations, insufficient efficacy of conservative therapy and the high risk of surgical treatment remain as before a matter of great medical and social concern. In connection with an appreciable progress of vascular surgery carotid endarterectoray (GEAE) as one of the radical approaches to correction of the pathology of the carotid artery segment is widespread at the large centers of vascular surgery of different countries. However, in spite of the fact that CEAE is an advanced and radical technique of preventive operation, it produces only a local effect on vascular diseases whereas the other, no less important pathogenetic mechanisms leading to disorders of cerebral circulation remain unchanged and demand drug correction to avoid repeated disorders of cerebral circulation. Analysis of the long-tern results evidences a stable and lasting effect of CEAE. The postoperative clinical manifestations can be used as the main criterion for the efficacy of CEAE, especially as compared to the purely conservative therepy. The results of the long-term follow up (over the period as long as 15 years) of a large group of operated patients demonstrate that the majority of them did not show the emergence of the new focal neurologic symptomatology in the ipsilateral hemisphere and only a small percentage of cases developed stroke. The major western statistics provide the analogous results.

  16. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  17. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  18. Mechanisms of magnesium-induced vasodilation in cerebral penetrating arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takahiro; Dietrich, Hans H; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Dacey, Ralph G

    2016-06-01

    We investigated in cerebral penetrating arterioles the signaling mechanisms and dose-dependency of extracellular magnesium-induced vasodilation and also its vasodilatory effects in vessels preconstricted with agonists associated with delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH. Male rat penetrating arterioles were cannulated. Their internal diameters were monitored. To investigate mechanisms of magnesium-induced vasodilation, inhibitors of endothelial function, potassium channels and endothelial impairment were tested. To simulate cerebral vasospasm we applied several spasmogenic agonists. Increased extracellular magnesium concentration produced concentration-dependent vasodilation, which was partially attenuated by non-specific calcium-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium, but not by other potassium channel inhibitors. Neither the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NNA nor endothelial impairment induced by air embolism reduced the dilation. Although the magnesium-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated by the spasmogen ET-1, neither application of PF2α nor TXA2 analog effect the vasodilation. Magnesium induced a concentration- and smooth muscle cell-dependent dilation in cerebral penetrating arterioles. Calcium-sensitive potassium channels of smooth muscle cells may play a key role in magnesium-induced vasodilation. Magnesium also dilated endothelium-impaired vessels as well as vessels preconstricted with spasmogenic agonists. These results provide a fundamental background for the clinical use of magnesium, especially in treatment against delayed cerebral ischemia or vasospasm following SAH.

  19. Development of Mechanical and Failure Properties in Sheep Cerebral Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kevin S; Converse, Matthew I; Dahl, Mar Janna; Albertine, Kurt H; Monson, Kenneth L

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction. Results show little difference among age groups under physiological loading conditions, but response varied significantly with age in response to large axial deformation. Vessels from all age groups reached the same ultimate stretch level, but the amount of stress carried at a given level of stretch increased significantly with age through the developmental period (fetal to juvenile). Our results are the first to identify changes in cerebral vessel response to large deformations with age and may lead to new insights regarding differences in response to TBI with age.

  20. Relationship between Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Microalbuminuria in Essential Hypertension Patients%原发性高血压病患者脑小血管病与尿微量清蛋白的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋广恩; 沈秀张; 甘利萍; 周乃珍

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性高血压病患者脑小血管病(SVD)与尿微量清蛋白(MAU)的关系.方法 选择2008年1月-2012年12月厦门大学附属中山医院住院及门诊诊断为原发性高血压病的患者100例,根据颅脑磁共振成像(MRI)检查结果,分为SVD阳性组和SVD阴性组,详细记录两组的临床资料,包括年龄、性别、体质指数、收缩压、舒张压、脉压、空腹血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、肌酐、MAU水平,采用单因素和多因素Logistic回归法分析原发性高血压病患者SVD的影响因素.结果 SVD阳性组与SVD阴性组患者性别、体质指数、舒张压、空腹血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、肌酐水平比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而年龄、收缩压、脉压、MAU比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,年龄、收缩压、MAU与原发性高血压病患者SVD有回归关系(P<0.05).结论 年龄、收缩压、MAU为原发性高血压病患者SVD发病的独立危险因素,提示原发性高血压病患者SVD与早期肾损害有相关性.

  1. 高龄脑小血管病患者脑微出血与步态障碍的相关性分析%Correlation between microbleeds and gait disorders in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳; 郭会映; 何月; 彭巧玲; 周国庆; 赵忠新

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨高龄脑小血管病患者脑微出血病灶与步态障碍的关系.方法 选择80岁以上军队离退休男性脑小血管病患者232例,通过测量定量步态参数及临床步态量表、脑微出血病灶影像学检查和统计学分析,比较脑微出血病灶数目及部位与步长、步速、步宽等步态特征的相关性.结果 脑微出血数目与步长(回归系数=-0.02,P=0.03)、步宽(回归系数=0.21,P=0.04)、Tinetti试验(回归系数=-0.19,P=0.00)及起立行走试验(回归系数=0.02,P=0.02)比较,差异有统计学意义.脑叶和深部微出血灶与步长、步宽呈负相关,与Tinetti试验及站立行走试验的相关性差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 脑微出血作为独立因素和高龄脑小血管病患者的步态障碍有相关性.

  2. Study on operation conditions and an operation system of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, 'report of working group on application of a very small nuclear reactor to an ocean research'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ura, Tamaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (JP)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    JAERI has studied on design of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, which will navigate under sea mainly in the Arctic Ocean, as a part of the design activity of advanced marine reactors. This report describes operation conditions and an operating system of the vessel, which were discussed by the specialists of hull design, sound positioning, ship motions and oceanography, etc. The design conditions on ship motions for submersible vessels were surveyed considering regulations in our country, and ship motions were evaluated in the cases of underwater and surface navigations taking account of observation activities in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of ship motions on the compact nuclear reactor SCR was assessed. A submarine transponder system and an on-ice communication buoy system were examined as a positioning and communication system, supposing the activity under ice. The interval between transponders or communication buoys was recommended as 130 km. Procedures to secure safety of nuclear powered submersible research vessel were discussed according to accidents on the hull or the nuclear reactor. These results were reflected to the concept of the nuclear powered submersible research vessel, and subjects to be settled in the next step were clarified. (author)

  3. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  4. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  5. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  6. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  11. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. Progressive Deconstruction of a Distal Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Using Competitive Flow Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew K; Tan, Lee A; Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-03-01

    Progressive deconstruction is an endovascular technique for aneurysm treatment that utilizes flow diverting stents to promote progressive thrombosis by diverting blood flow away from the aneurysm's parent vessel. While the aneurysm thromboses, collateral blood vessels develop over time to avoid infarction that can often accompany acute parent vessel occlusion. We report a 37-year-old woman with a left distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with this strategy. The concept and rationale of progressive deconstruction are discussed in detail.

  15. Study on cerebral microcirculation by Optical Doppler Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical Doppler Tomography (ODT) provides a novel method to measure the blood flow velocity in vessels with the diameter at micrometer scale. Rats with cranial window are used as a model, and the changes in the blood flow velocity of cerebral arterioles in sensory cortex are measured in real time with an established ODT system, under electrical stimulation and drug administration. The results show significant differences in the blood flow velocity between experimental groups and control groups, demonstrating the feasibility of ODT in the cerebral microcircula- tion study. Compared with the conventional Doppler ultrasound, ODT provides much higher spatial resolution, and thus holds a promising future in the application of the cerebral microcirculation study, especially in the observation of the blood flow velocity in micrometer scale vessels.

  16. Study on cerebral microcirculation by Optical Doppler Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jie; DING ZhiHua; YANG Yong; GUO ZhouYi

    2008-01-01

    Optical Doppler Tomography (ODT) provides a novel method to measure the blood flow velocity in vessels with the diameter at micrometer scale.Rats with cranial window are used as a model,and the changes in the blood flow velocity of cerebral arterioles in sensory cortex are measured in real time with an established ODT system,under electrical stimulation and drug administration.The results show significant differences in the blood flow velocity between experimental groups and control groups,demonstrating the feasibility of ODT in the cerebral microcircula-tion study.Compared with the conventional Doppler ultrasound,ODT provides much higher spatial resolution,and thus holds a promising future in the application of the cerebral microcirculation study,especially in the observation of the blood flow velocity in micrometer scale vessels.

  17. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (Pneurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  18. 25例肺部受累的原发性小血管炎的HRCT表现及临床分析%HRCT features and clinical analysis in 25 cases of primary small vessel vasculitis with lung involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 肖永龙; 蔡后荣; 张德平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chest HRCT features and clinical characteristics of small vessel vasculitis with lung involvement.Methods Clinical data of 19 patients of MPA and 6 patients of CSS with lung involvement, from Jan.2004 to Jan.2010, were retrospectively analyzed.Results There are two types of lung imaging manifestations in 19 MPA cases: ( 1 ) Diffuse patchy opacity in both lung similar to lung interstitial involvement in 12 cases.(2) Multiple patchy opacity in both lungs in 7 cases.The chest HRCT in all 6 cases of CSS shows multiple patchy opacity.94.74 percent (18/19) of these MPA cases were ANCA positive, while 1/6 of CSS cases.Conclusions The HRCT manifestations of MPA and CSS with lung involvement have no characteristic features.Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination can help to understand and diagnose MPA and CSS with lung involvement early.%目的 研究肺部受累的原发性小血管炎的HRCT表现等临床特点.方法 对本院2004年1月~2010年1月收治的肺部受累的19例显微镜下多血管炎(MPA)患者及6例变应性肉芽肿性血管炎(CSS)患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 19例MPA的肺部HRCT表现有:(1)两肺弥漫浸润性阴影、类似肺间质性改变12例;(2)肺内多发斑片影7例.6例CSS的肺部HRCT均表现为多发斑片影.19例MPA中抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体(ANCA)阳性18例,阳性率高达94.74%.6例CSS中ANCA阳性1例.结论 肺部受累的原发性小血管炎HRCT影像学表现无明显特异性,结合临床及实验室检查,可以提高认识,早期诊治.

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. Surgical strategy for cerebral arteriovenous malformation with acute hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, there have been craniocerebral operation, interventional embolization,stereotactic radiotherapy and other methods in treating cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM).However, the standard of different therapeutic regimens of cerebral AVM at the acute stage of hemorrhage has not been completely identified.OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic effects of AVM at the acute stage of hemorrhage in patients, and to analyze corresponding therapeutic strategies.DESIGN: Non-randomized clinical observation.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Foshan First People's Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: Forty-six patients with cerebral AVM complicated by hemorrhage admitted to Department of Neurosurgery, Foshan First People's Hospital between January 1999 and December 2006,were involved in this study. All the patients were confirmed as cerebral AVM complicated by hemorrhage by brain angiography or/and postoperational pathology. The involved patients, 32 males and 14 females,averaged 25 years old, ranging from 6 to 62 years. Informed consents of therapeutic items were obtained from the relatives of all the patients.METHODS: ①On admission, skull CT and brain angiography were conducted in the involved subjects. ②The therapeutic method was confirmed according to the consciousness, hematoma region, hematoma volume,imageological results following comprehensive analysis: DSA examination was permitted to identify the size and position of abnormal vessel mass, and the distribution of feeding artery and draining vein. Craniocerebral operation was carried out as early as possible in patients with severe or progressive conscious disturbance, in which most of hematoma with obvious occupied effect or cerebral hernia was located in lobe of brain. The primary thing was to clean intracerebral hematoma for in time decompression. According to different situations, corresponding therapeutic measures were used for resecting abnormal

  1. Helical CT study of cerebral perfusion and related hemodynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenic, Aleksa; Lee, Ting-Yim; Craen, Rosemary A.; Gelb, Adrian W.

    1997-05-01

    A convenient method for assessing cerebral perfusion and related functional parameters has been developed using a third generation slip-ring CT scanner. Dynamic contrast- enhanced scanning at the same level was employed to image the cerebral circulation at the rate of 1 image per second. Using data acquired with this non-helical mode of scanning, we have developed a method for the simultaneous in-vivo determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT). These measurements are given in the same physiological units as positron emission tomography. In order to obtain accurate measurements of these parameters, methods were also developed to correct for recirculation and partial volume averaging in imaging small blood vessels. We have used 6 New Zealand white rabbits in our studies. For each rabbit, up to 3 CT measurements of CBF, CBV, and MTT were made at normocapnia under isoflurane anesthesia. Coronal sections through the brain were imaged while simultaneously imaging either a brain artery or the ear artery. Images were acquired for 1 minute as Isovue 300 was injected intravenously. In the acquired CT images, regions of interest in brain parenchyma and an artery were drawn. For each region of interest, the mean CT number in pre-contrast images was subtracted from the mean in post-contrast images to calculate the contrast concentration curves for the brain regions Q(t) and the arterial region Ca(t). Using a robust deconvolution method, the MTT was determined. CBV was then determined from the ratio of the areas of Q(t) and Ca(t). Finally, CBF was calculated from the Central Volume Principle. The mean regional CBF, CBV and MTT values were 73.3 +/- 5.1 ml/min/100g, 1.93 +/- 0.12 ml/100g and 1.80 +/- 0.18 s respectively. IN order to validate our CT CBF measurements, we also measured CBF using the well- established technique of microspheres with each CT study. The feasibility of our CT method to measure CBF accurately was

  2. Impact of cerebral white matter changes on functionality in older adults: An overview of the LADIS Study results and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoni, Leonardo; Fierini, Fabio; Poggesi, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The evidence on the clinical significance of cerebral white matter changes (WMC) has mounted over the past few decades. WMC are recognized as one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease, and are associated with various disturbances and a poor prognosis. The Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study has contributed substantially to this body of knowledge. LADIS is a European multicenter collaboration aimed at assessing the role of WMC as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in initially non-disabled patients aged 65-84 years. Besides the demonstration that severe WMC cause a more than double risk of transition from an autonomous to a dependent status after 3 years of follow-up, the LADIS Study has also provided evidence on the role of WMC in relation to the decline of cognitive and motor performances, depressive symptoms associated with aging and cerebrovascular diseases, the presence of urinary disturbances, and various neurological abnormalities. The possible role of other lesions (lacunar infarcts, cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum morphology) and microstructural abnormalities (diffusion-weighted imaging changes in normal appearing brain tissue and in WMC) has also been investigated. In the present article, we review the main results of the LADIS Study and offer some considerations for future developments in the field, paying attention to the potential use of WMC progression as a surrogate marker in intervention trials in cerebral small vessel diseases. We also discuss some therapeutic perspectives regarding the beneficial impact of physical activity on the risk of vascular cognitive impairment in patients with WMC.

  3. Cerebral ischaemia: A neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, J.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief clinical and pathophysiological approach, the papers presented in this book are devoted to CT and angiography. Concerning CT, a particular study has been made of cerebral arterial territories on cuts parallel to the orbito-meatal line: these are very important in making the differential diagnosis from some tumors. Also concerning CT, a paper has been devoted to cerebral ''lacunae.'' The term ''lacuna'' as far as CT imaging is concerned, should be reserved only for those hypodense areas corresponding to small cavities containing fluid, which are sequelae of infarcts in the territory of penetrating arteries. Before this sequellar state come all the evolutive states of a small deep infarct. The angiographic study specifies the indications of angiography in the study of cerebral ischemia, and the techniques to be used. It shows the main etiologic aspects. Because of the important place of vascular surgery today, it seemed necessary to show also the main post operative angiographic aspects. After CT and angiography, some pages are reserved to more modern techniques. Finally, some pages are devoted to certain particular associations and etiologies: childhood, cardiopathies, migraine, oral contraception and end with venous infarction.

  4. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip G D; Fan, Audrey P; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G; Dowe, David L; Ng, Amanda C L; Egan, Gary F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error partial volume maps (root mean-squared error partial volume estimates from the ICF method.

  5. Complications of cerebral angiography: a prospective analysis of 2,924 consecutive procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawkins, A.A.; Evans, A.L.; Wattam, J.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Hodgson, T.J.; Coley, S.C. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Cerebral angiography is an invasive procedure associated with a small, but definite risk of neurological morbidity. In this study we sought to establish the nature and rate of complications at our institution among a large prospective cohort of consecutive patients. Also, the data were analysed in an attempt to identify risk factors for complications associated with catheter angiography. Data were prospectively collected for a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing diagnostic cerebral angiography between January 2001 and May 2006. A total of 2,924 diagnostic cerebral angiography procedures were performed during this period. The following data were recorded for each procedure: date of procedure, patient age and sex, clinical indication, referring specialty, referral status (routine/emergency), operator, angiographic findings, and the nature of any clinical complication or asymptomatic adverse event (arterial dissection). Clinical complications occurred in 23 (0.79%) of the angiographic procedures: 12 (0.41%) significant puncture-site haematomas, 10 (0.34%) transient neurological events, and 1 nonfatal reaction to contrast agent. There were no permanent neurological complications. Asymptomatic technical complications occurred in 13 (0.44%) of the angiographic procedures: 3 groin dissections and 10 dissections of the cervical vessels. No patient with a neck dissection suffered an immediate or delayed stroke. Emergency procedures (P = 0.0004) and angiography procedures performed for intracerebral haemorrhage (P = 0.02) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (P = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk of complications. Neurological complications following cerebral angiography are rare (0.34%), but must be minimized by careful case selection and the prudent use of alternative noninvasive angiographic techniques, particularly in the acute setting. The low complication rate in this series was largely due to the favourable case mix. (orig.)

  6. The Clinical analyse of 206 patients of cerebral infarction (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mai; Ti Yi Ming; Ghen Bo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis make a summary and analyse to 206 patients of cerebral infarction. The morbidity of the age from 51 to 70 is thehighist in 206 patients. It is 75.3 % a mong the patient that hypertension is original. The frequently-occurring cerebral in farction patient are 36.8 % and it is the highist. Because our hospital have purchased CT machinery, we can early diagnose cerebral infarction and do dissolving thrombus in early time, controlling blood pressure, clearing away free radical, dehydrating, di lating cerebral blood vessel, recovering treat early and so on. It reduced the appear ing of conplication and the death rate and viability by oneselfare improved obvious lv.

  7. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  8. A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for a tumor in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Koichi; Tomura, Noriaki; Kato, Koki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watarai, Jiro; Sasajima, Toshio; Mizoi, Kazuo [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-10-01

    A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for treatment of a tumor in the basal ganglia is reported. He was diagnosed as Down syndrome at birth. He had a tumor in the left basal ganglionic region at 12 years of the age. The tumor increased in size at age 14. He underwent cerebral angiography, which did not show a stenosis nor occlusion of the internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, nor the middle cerebral artery. He received radiation therapy with a total dose of 56 Gy. He presented a dressing apraxia at age 19. MRI showed cerebral infarction in the left temporo-occipital region. Right internal carotid angiography revealed a severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the right side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Left internal carotid angiography also showed a stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the left side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Leptomeningeal anastomose and transdural anastomose were bilaterally seen. These arterial occlusion and stenotic phenomenon corresponded to a previous radiation field. These Moyamoya-like vessels with arterial stenosis and occlusion were thought to be due to radiation-induced vasculopathy, because a previous cerebral angiography showed a normal caliber of cerebral arteries. This patient showed that patients with radiation therapy in their early childhood should be carefully observed considering the possibility of the phenomenon. (author)

  9. Low frequency oscillations in cephalic vessels assessed by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik W; Selb, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Low frequency oscillations (LFO) of cerebral vessels are believed to reflect cerebral autoregulation. We investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in 0.1 Hz LFO with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) to determine phase shift and gain...... of oxygenated haemoglobin (oxyHb) and the velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) to the arterial blood pressure (ABP). The direct left-right phase shifts of oxyHb and Vmca were also assessed. We examined 44 healthy volunteers by simultaneous recordings of ABP, oxyHb and Vmca during spontaneous and paced...

  10. An experimental study of small-caliber tissue engineering vessels with acellularmatrix%利用脱细胞基质预构小口径组织工程血管的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 杨大平; 郝晨光; 郭铁芳; 刘国锋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the mechanical properties of the prefabricated connective tissue tube as blood vessel substitute and its changes after implantation at the femoral artery. Methods The acellulannatrix tube of 8-12 cm in length with a silicone rod inside it was implanted into dog peritoneal cavity. 3 weeks lair, a new formed tube around the silicone rod was transferred to the femoral artery as blood vessel substitute. The mechanical properties and histological examination of the blood vessel substitute were assessed and compared to those of the carotid artery and vein. 6 months after transfer, the patency of the blood vessels substitute was observed. The histological change was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmitting electron microscopy. Results ①The mechanical properties of blood vessel substitute was not as strong as artery, but better than the vein. ②there were elastic and collagen fibers with many fibroblasts around the tube wall, but few mesothelial cells around the inner wail. All of the blood vessel substitutes (n=6) were found to keep pateney and the structure of the blood vessels substitutes became similar to femoral artery 6 months after they had been grafted to the femoral artery. Conclusions These results suggest that tissue engineering in vivo is a good approach to construct vessels substitute. The tissue tubes made in dog's peritoneal cavity have good condition when it is used as a blood vessel substitutes.%目的 在犬腹腔内预置脱细胞基质后形成结缔组织管,观察将其作为血管替代物的力学特征及移植于自体股动脉后的组织结构变化.方法 在犬腹腔内埋置长8~12 cm用硅胶棒支撑的制备好的脱细胞基质,3周后将硅胶棒周围形成的管状物作为血管替代物移植于自体股动脉,同时对此管状物作力学、组织学检测及与颈动脉、股静脉的对比分析.在移植术后6个月观察血管通畅情况.光镜、透射及扫描电镜观察

  11. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures.......The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel...

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of hypertension- induced cerebral hemorrhage on 34 cases%高血压脑出血术后高压氧治疗34例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晋成; 沈月萍; 王水平; 吴杨

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION In this study,we investigated effect of hyperbaric oxygen(HBO) on the hypertension- induced basio- cerebral hemorrhage.The affected patients often showed signs of cerebral circulation disorder,spasm of vessels,insufficiency of cerebral blood supply and intracranial hypertension.

  13. Increased pressure-induced tone in rat parenchymal arterioles vs. middle cerebral arteries: role of ion channels and calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E

    2014-07-01

    Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.

  14. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Leydet, P.; Viallard, G.; Charlet, J.P.; Danet, B.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attention was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients.

  15. Analysis of relative risk factors for small vessel disease with carotid atherosclerosis%脑小血管病合并颈动脉粥样硬化的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董斌; 朱幼玲; 穆燕芳; 宋道辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨单纯脑小血管病(SVD)和合并颈动脉粥样硬化(CAS)的相关危险因素.方法 比较单纯SVD患者(42例)与SVD合并CAS患者(93例)临床资料的差异,采用Logistic回归(前进法)分析年龄、性别、高血压、血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白、吸烟、酗酒、血尿酸、胱抑素c、肌酐等因素对SVD合并CAS发生的影响.结果 在是否吸烟和糖尿病方面,SVD合并CAS组明显高于单纯SVD组(P<0.05);在血尿酸水平、肌酐水平和胱抑素c水平等方面,SVD合并CAS组明显高于单纯SVD组(P<0.05).Logistic回归(前进法)分析发现年龄、糖尿病、吸烟等成为危险因素进入方程.结论SVD与CAS可同步发展,且年龄、糖尿病和吸烟是其合并发生的危险因素.尿酸、肌酐和胱抑素c在正常生理范围内的水平偏高,可能预示着CAS的合并发生.%Objective To analyze the relative risk factor for small vessel disease (SVD) with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS).Methods Clinical data of 42 patients of SVD and 93 patients of SVD accompanied with CAS were collected and analyzed.The effect of age,sex,hypertension,blood sugar,cholesterol total,triglyceride,low density lipoprotein,smoking status,alcohol abuse,blood uric acid,Cystatin C and creatinine on risk of SVD with CAS were estimated by logistic regression analysis.Results Pearson's chi-squared test(x2) showed that as far as smoking status and diabetes were concerned the patients of SVD with CAS were more than patients of SVD.Furthermore,the levels of blood uric acid,Cystatin C and creatinine in patients of SVD with CAS were significantly higher than those in patients of SVD.Logistic regression analysis indicated that age,diabetes,triglyceride and smoking status were risk factors for SVD with CAS.Conclusion SVD can be accompanied with CAS,and age,diabetes,triglyceride and smoking status may be risk factors for SVD with CAS.Moreover,the increased level of blood uric acid,Cystatin C

  16. Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2007-11-01

    Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5alpha-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ERalpha (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ERalpha protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ERalpha, AR, and 5alpha-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

  17. Correlation between Radiological and Clinical Features of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy%脑淀粉样血管病的影像学标志物及临床相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 朱以诚; 倪俊

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common form of cerebral small vessel disease among elderly persons. It is different with hypertensive cerebral small vessel disease, which mainly cause deep brain vascular disease, that CAA mainly affects the small cortical and leptomeningeal arteries and arterioles. Multiple lobar microbleeds are the radiologic hallmark of CAA and have been considered as a potential cause of intracranial hemorrhage and cognitive impairment. With further researches on radiologic markers of cerebral small vessel disease, convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical superifcial siderosis have been regarded as relatively speciifc radiologic ifndings of CAA. Besides, white matter hyperintensities and small infarcts have been found in CAA commonly, which indicates ischemic injuries are as important as hemorrhagic lesions of CAA.%脑淀粉样血管病(cerebral amyloid angiopathy,CAA)是一种多见于老年人群中的脑小血管病,不同于高血压导致的脑小血管病易累及脑深部区域,CAA多累及皮层及软脑膜小血管。多发脑叶微出血是CAA患者常见的影像学表现,研究认为其与症状性脑叶出血及进行性认知功能下降相关。随着近年来对脑小血管病影像学表现的深入研究,发现皮层蛛网膜下腔出血与皮层表面含铁血黄素沉积是CAA相对特异的影像学表现,并且与短暂性局灶性神经系统症状发作相关。此外,脑白质高信号、小梗死灶等脑小血管病影像学标志均在CAA患者中出现,提示除外临床较关注的出血性改变,CAA患者的缺血性损伤也是导致临床症状的重要因素。

  18. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  19. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    addition, based on personal contact with the shipping company, storing graywater in ballast tanks while in port can limit vessel stability considering...enters the treatment system and mixes with the aerated liquid already in the aeration chamber. EPDM Air diffuser injects air near the bottom of the

  20. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  1. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...to Powerboats. New York: International Marine/Ragged Mountain P, 2002. 8. [Asset/ Hydrofoil Advanced Surface Ship Evaluation Tool Module User Manual

  2. Doxycycline, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, reduces vascular remodeling and damage after cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Paulo W; Rogers, Curt T; McClain, Jonathon L; Garver, Hannah S; Fink, Gregory D; Dorrance, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of zinc peptidases involved in extracellular matrix turnover. There is evidence that increased MMP activity is involved in remodeling of resistance vessels in chronic hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that inhibition of MMP activity with doxycycline (DOX) would attenuate vascular remodeling. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with DOX (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in the drinking water) for 6 wk. Untreated SHRSP were controls. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry during the last week. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) passive structures were assessed by pressure myography. MMP-2 expression in aortas was measured by Western blot. All results are means ± SE. DOX caused a small increase in mean arterial pressure (SHRSP, 154 ± 1; SHRSP + DOX, 159 ± 3 mmHg; P Damage after transient cerebral ischemia (transient MCA occlusion) was reduced in SHRSP + DOX (20.7 ± 4 vs. 45.5 ± 5% of hemisphere infarcted; P damage after cerebral ischemia.

  3. Design of dynamic information monitoring system for small-sized fishing vessels on inland waterway based on internet of things%基于物联网的内河小型渔船动态信息监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺付亮; 李新科; 许愿; 王曲苑

    2015-01-01

    In order to standardize the fishery production order and protect the fishing operation safety in the river, the dynamic information monitoring system for small-sized inland waterway fishing vessels was proposed based on the Internet of Things (IOT) application. This system included several technologies: wireless sensor networks, remote information transmission networks, and the terminal fishery monitoring center. In this system, wireless sensor networks were applied to obtain fishery field data, including vessel position signals, monitoring information of electrofishing, and detection information of fishing vessel overload. Vessel position signals were acquired by NovAtel RTK-L1/L2 global positioning system receiver. Based on the principle of high-frequency pulse electric signal detection in water, the sensing circuit was designed to monitor electrofishing illegal operations. The overload detection was executed through pressure sensor installed on ship's load draft mark, which could transform water pressure to fishing vessel draft, and judge accurately the overload. In addition, wireless sensor networks could normalize these sensor data of different types, detect fishing violations automatically, and transmit them to remote information transmission networks. Each fishing vessel was equipped with a wireless sensor network based on ZigBee. It comprised multiple acquisition nodes, multiple route nodes, and a gateway node. Acquisition nodes and route nodes could gather fishery field data of fishing vessels. As an inter-connected network integration access, the gateway node was connected to remote information transmission networks. Remote information transmission networks comprised the mobile communications network of GPRS (general packet radio service)/GSM (global system for mobile communication) and internet. Fishery field data were transmitted by the mobile communication network and internet, and uploaded to the terminal fishery monitoring center through private data

  4. 首次脑梗死伴脑小血管病患者认知功能障碍相关危险因素的研究分析%Analysis of risk fca tors of cognitived ysfunction in firts a ttack cerebral infra ction patients with c erebral small vascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志勇; 郭啸鸣; 黄怀宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related risk factors in terms of cognitive dysfunction for the patients with cerebral infarction associated with cerebral small vessel disease .Methods One hundred and five patients in Neurology Department of Nantong First Peoples′Hospital with acute cerebral infarction from August 2012 to January 2014 were selected .According to MRI , 41 patients were associated with cerebral small vessel disease ( CSVD ) , and the other 64 patients were not associated with CSVD .The demographic indicators,such as the patient′s age,gender,education level,existing risk factors and clinical features were evaluated,looking for risk factors for CSVD.By using Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA),49 patients were screened out with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)from all the selected patients,the remaining 56 patients without cognitive dysfunction .The demographic characteristics of the two groups were compared to analyzerelated risk factors of cognitive dysfunction .The correlation between CSVD and cognitive dysfunction were studied by using the logistic regression and Spearman rank correlation analysis .Resulst Compared the group with CSVD and the group without CSVD ,the proportion of hypertension was34 cases (82.9%) and 29 cases(45.3%,χ2=14.732 ,P=0.000),the proportion of high cholesterol was 36 cases(87.8%) and 25 cases (39.1%,χ2 =24.834,P=0.000),the proportion of coronary heart disease was 37cases(90.2%)and 28 cases(43.8%,χ2=24.920,P=0.000);The age of CSVD group [(73.13 ±4.96)years] is greater than that of group without CSVD [ ( 68.45 ±7.05 ) years ,t=4.374,P=0.015 ];MoCA scores of groups with and without CSVD were ( 23.50 ±2.102 ) scores and( 27.46 ±1.823 ) scores;The attention function score [(3.09 ±0.916 )scores]and the visual spatial and executive ability score [(3.46 ±0.163)scores ]of the group with CSVD were less than the group without CSVD (t=5.384 ,11.546 ,all P<0.05 ) .The proportion of diabetes was20 cases ( 48.7%) and 34 cases

  5. Experimental Study on Tissue Engineered Small-Diameter Blood Vessel Walls Using Adipose Derived Stem Cells%应用脂肪干细胞构建组织工程化小口径血管平滑肌层的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛; 郭芳芳; 张昀; 巩伦礼; 崔磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of constructing tissue engineered blood vessel walls in bioreactor using adipose derived stem cells. Methods Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were obtained from fresh human lipoaspirates, and under the induction of TGF-31 and BMP4, hADSCs were differentiated into smooth muscle cells, and then the differentiated hADSCs were collected and seeded onto PGA mesh to form cell-PGA constructs. Thereafter, the cell/PGA constructs were cultivated in a bioreactor with the pulsatile radial stress (pulse rate: 75/min, radical distension <5%) for 8 weeks. New small diameter blood vessel walls was formed, the constructs were examined histologically and biomechanically and compared with normal blood vessels. Results With induction of TGF-β1 and BMP4 together, hADSCs acquired a SMC morphology, and grew in a "hill and valley" pattern similar to what was observed in primary isolated hUASMCs, with the expression of smooth muscle-specific contractile proteins including α- SMA, SM22α, calponin, and SM-MHC. An elastic small diameter vessel wall (4 mm in diameter) with improved biomechanical strength and well-organized collagenous fibers were engineered by in vitro culture of SMC -differentiated hADSCs on the PGA scaffold in a blood vessel bioreactor. Conclusion hADSCs can serve as a new cell source for SMCs in blood vessel engineering, and an elastic small diameter vessel wall could be engineered in a bioreactor. It is a promising candidate for treating cardiovascular diseases and for blood vessel engineering purposes.%目的 探索利用脂肪干细胞在生物反应器内构建组织工程血管平滑肌层的可行性.方法 用抽吸的脂肪获取脂肪干细胞,在生长因子TGF-β1和BMP4作用下诱导成平滑肌细胞,然后将诱导的平滑肌细胞接种于PGA上,将细胞-材料复合物置于生物反应器内进行培养,在模拟胚胎发育血流动力学的刺激下(搏动频率:75次/分;扩展量<5%),构建小口径

  6. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  10. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  11. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  16. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  20. Doppler sonography of extracranial and intracranial vessels in patients with thrombotic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The results of intracranial and extracranial vessel color Doppler sonography, which is now an inseparable part of patient evaluation, vary in different studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of vascular involvement in thrombotic stroke and its relationship with risk factors of stroke. METHODS: One-hundred patients (45 males and 55 females with thrombotic stroke underwent transcranial sonography and color Doppler sonography of extracranial vessels. The pattern of vascular involvement was analyzed. The risk factors of stroke were also evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the studied individuals had some variations in their color Doppler sonography of extracranial vessels, 27% had changes in the intracranial vessels and 26% showed changes in both. The most frequently involved vessels among the intracranial and extracranial vessels were the middle cerebral artery and the internal carotid artery, respectively. The pattern of vascular involvement was unrelated to hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or history of ischemic heart disease. Extracranial involvement in patients with positive history of MI was more prevalent than in those without such history. CONCLUSIONS: Extracranial vessel involvement in thrombotic stroke was found to be more prevalent than intracranial vessel involvement in the city of Rafsanjan; however, intracranial vessel involvement was more prevalent than in western countries. KEY WORDS: Thrombotic stroke, color Doppler sonography, intracranial vessels, extracranial, cerebrovascular risk factors

  1. Studies on intracranial collateral circulation with multi-slice CT angiography in patients with symptomatic cerebral artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-qing ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the features of intracranial collateral circulation in patients with symptomatic cerebral artery stenosis.Method Ninety-four patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease admitted from Apr.2004 to Jun.2009 were involved in present study.All the patients were examined with cerebral multi-slice CT angiography,and the features of cerebral artery stenosis and intracranial collateral circulation were evaluated using maximum intensity projection(MIP and volume rendering(VR images of CT angiography.Result Of the 94 patients involved,48 were diagnosed as cerebral artery stenosis,including 29 cases of cerebral infarction,18 of transient ischemic attack(TIA and 1 of moyamoya disease(MMD.Among the 14 cases of severe cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion,cerebral infarction was found in 6 cases with lesser intracranial collateral vessels(including massive cerebral infarction in 4 cases and watershed infarction in 2 cases,and focal infarction of central semi-ovale in 1 case and TIA in 7 cases were found with abundant intracranial collateral vessels.Multiple lacunar infarction was found in 22 cases of mild or moderate cerebral artery stenosis,but there was no significant correlation between the stenosed arteries and infarction sites.Abundant intracranial collateral vessels were found in one patient with Moyamoya disease but no infarction was observed.Conclusions Intracranial collateral circulation plays an important role of compensation in patients with severe cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion.Cerebral angiography with multi-slice CT is of great significance in evaluation of cerebral artery stenosis and intracranial collateral circulation.

  2. Cavitation distribution within large phantom vessel and mechanical damage formed on surrounding vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-11-01

    Blood vessel is one of the most important targets encountered during focused ultrasound (FU) therapy. The lasting high temperature caused by continuous FU can result in structural modification of small vessel. For the vessel with a diameter larger than 2mm, convective cooling can significantly weaken the thermal effect of FU. Meanwhile, the continued presence of ultrasound will cause repetitive cavitation and acoustic microstreaming, making comprehension of continuous wave induced cavitation effect in large vessels necessary. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method, mechanical damage observation and high-speed camera were used in this study to investigate the combination effect of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and continuous FU in large phantom vessels with a diameter of 10mm without consideration of thermal effect. When the focus was positioned at the proximal wall, cylindrical hole along the acoustic axis opposite the ultrasound wave propagation direction was observed at the input power equal to or greater than 50 W. When the focus was located at the distal wall, only small tunnels can be found. The place where the cylindrical hole formed was corresponding to where bubbles gathered and emitted brilliant light near the wall. Without UCAs neither such bright SL nor cylindrical hole can be found. However, the UCAs concentration had little influence on the SL distribution and the length of cylindrical hole. The SL intensity near the proximal vessel wall and the length of the cylindrical hole both increased with the input power. It is suggested that these findings need to be considered in the large vessel therapy and UCAs usage.

  3. Planning-free cerebral blood flow territory mapping in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Daniel F; Strother, Megan K; Davis, L Taylor; Fusco, Matthew R; Faraco, Carlos C; Roach, Brent A; Scott, Allison O; Donahue, Manus J

    2016-07-07

    A noninvasive method for quantifying cerebral blood flow and simultaneously visualizing cerebral blood flow territories is vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI. However, obstacles to acquiring such information include limited access to the methodology in clinical centers and limited work on how clinically acquired vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling data correlate with gold-standard methods. The purpose of this work is to develop and validate a semiautomated pipeline for the online quantification of cerebral blood flow maps and cerebral blood flow territories from planning-free vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI with gold-standard digital subtraction angiography. Healthy controls (n = 10) and intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients (n = 34) underwent 3.0 T MRI imaging including vascular (MR angiography) and hemodynamic (cerebral blood flow-weighted arterial spin labeling) MRI. Patients additionally underwent catheter and/or CT angiography. Variations in cross-territorial filling were grouped according to diameters of circle of Willis vessels in controls. In patients, Cohen's k-statistics were computed to quantify agreement in perfusion patterns between vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and angiography. Cross-territorial filling patterns were consistent with circle of Willis anatomy. The intraobserver Cohen's k-statistics for cerebral blood flow territory and digital subtraction angiography perfusion agreement were 0.730 (95% CI = 0.593-0.867; reader one) and 0.708 (95% CI = 0.561-0.855; reader two). These results support the feasibility of a semiautomated pipeline for evaluating major neurovascular cerebral blood flow territories in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

  4. Diffuse brain calcification after radiation therapy in infantile cerebral malignant glioma. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondo, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Yamada, Nobuhisa; Takeda, Norio

    1987-10-01

    We reported a case of infantile cerebral malignant glioma, which showed extensive intracranial calcification following radiation therapy, and reviewed the literature. A 4-month-old female infant was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, enlargement of the head and convulsive seizures. Computerized tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a heterogeneously contrast-enhanced mass in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region and marked obstructive hydrocephalus. Subsequent to ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, biopsy was performed. The surgical specimen revealed anaplastic glioma. She then underwent whole brain irradiation with 1800 rads before subtotal removal and 3000 rads postoperatively. Calcification was first identified in the right frontal region and left basal ganglia 2.5 months after radiation therapy. At the age of 14 months, CT scans demonstrated extensive intracranial calcification in the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglias, thalami, pons and cerebellum. A biopsy specimen of the frontal lobe revealed calcospherites of various sizes within and beside the walls of small vessels, but no tumor cells were observed. Cranial radiation therapy is a standard modality for treatment of children with neoplasm in the central nervous system. Since, however this therapy possibly causes long-term complications on the developing brain, it is important to plan radiation therapy for the brain tumor carefully.

  5. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with physical frailty: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Ta; Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ching-Po; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), as a presentation of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVDs), are associated with physical frailty. This is a cross-sectional evaluation in participants from a community-based study, the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study. The physical frail status was evaluated using the Cardiovascular Health Study score, which includes components of weakness, low physical activity, slowness, exhaustion, and weight loss. The CMBs were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging using susceptibility-weighted imaging. Of the 962 subjects (62.5 [8.6] years, 44.2% men) included, 33.2% had physical prefrail and 3.3% had frail status. Compared with the robust subjects, prefrail and/or frail subjects presented with more overall CMB numbers and a higher number and/or incidence of CMB in the deep and/or infratentorial regions. Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and vascular risk factors revealed that the CMB numbers were significantly associated with physical frailty. The brainstem was the only CMB location significantly associated with physical frailty (odds ratio, 95% CI, 13.50, 1.23-147.79) and the weakness component (5.04, 1.47-17.2), independent of age, sex, vascular risk factors, and the other presentations of CSVDs. Our results suggest that CSVD is involved in the pathophysiology of physical frailty.

  6. Aortic Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma Associated with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Takeuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old woman with a history of congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension was transferred to our institution with hematemesis. Her drug regimen included 2 mg warfarin potassium/day to prevent thromboembolic events. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE performed at 78 years of age revealed a mass attached to the noncoronary cusp and a cardiac tumor was suspected. The patient declined surgery and was meticulously followed up with periodic TTE. Upper gastroendoscopy revealed a gastric ulcer with an exposed blood vessel; anticoagulant therapy was ceased. On day 15 of admission, acute cerebral infarction occurred. Heparin sodium and warfarin potassium were administered rapidly, and her symptoms improved. TTE revealed no alteration of the mobile, string-like mass attached to the noncoronary cusp. Cardiac tumor was considered the cause of cerebral infarction, and the patient consented to surgical therapy. Pathological examination of the resected tumor suggested papillary fibroelastoma (PFE. Although no guidelines exist for PFE management, a mobile, cardiac tumor necessitates surgical resection to prevent thromboembolic events, even when small in size.

  7. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  8. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H [Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu [Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: youngho.seo@radiology.ucsf.edu

    2008-04-07

    arteries and major cerebral blood vessels were visible with contrast-enhanced CT, but not with noncontrast CT. In conclusion, the CT-compatible immobilization device was useful for in vivo microCT imaging of intracranial blood and of vascular structures within and immediately adjacent to the rodent brain. The microCT imaging technique is also compatible with continuous administration of a conventional iodinated contrast agent (e.g. iopromide) and therefore does not require specialized small animal specific contrast agent that has comparatively long in vivo residence time. (note)

  9. Cerebral arterial spasm. II. Etiology and treatment of experimental cerebral vasospasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morooka,Hiroshi

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available Delayed cerebral vasospams is caused by excessive accumulation of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH and noradrenaline in cerebral vessel walls. This study demonstrates the mechanisms of delayed spasm, particularly the role of red blood cell components, and the successful relief of delayed cerebral vasospasm. Spasmogenic substances which contained a heme component, such as methemoglobin, methemalbumin and catalase enhanced DBH activity in human serum as measured by a one step chemical spectrophotometric assay. The concentration which gave the highest DBH activity caused the maximum constriction of the basilar artery, when the substances were applied topically. Among components of red cells, methemoglobin, methemalbumin, catalase and nicotinamid adenin dinucleotide (NADH caused constriction of basilar artery in cats, when applied topically, whereas hematin, hemin and bilirubin caused no significant spasm. An oxyhemoglobin solution obtained by mixture with methemoglobin and ascorbic acid produced no significant vascular spasm either. Relief of delayed cerebral vasospasm was obtained with topical application of specific alpha adrenergic blocking drug such as phenoxybenzamine, specific inhibitors of DBH such as fusaric acid, o-phenanthroline and alphaalpha' dipyridyl beta2 adrenergic stimulants such as salbutamol, and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ascorbic acid.

  10. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  11. Mechanisms of Astrocyte-Mediated Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokum, Jesse A.; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral edema formation stems from disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and occurs after injury to the CNS. Due to the restrictive skull, relatively small increases in brain volume can translate into impaired tissue perfusion and brain herniation. In excess, cerebral edema can be gravely harmful. Astrocytes are key participants in cerebral edema by virtue of their relationship with the cerebral vasculature, their unique compliment of solute and water transport proteins, and their general role in brain volume homeostasis. Following the discovery of aquaporins, passive conduits of water flow, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was identified as the predominant astrocyte water channel. Normally, AQP4 is highly enriched at perivascular endfeet, the outermost layer of the BBB, whereas after injury, AQP4 expression disseminates to the entire astrocytic plasmalemma, a phenomenon termed dysregulation. Arguably, the most important role of AQP4 is to rapidly neutralize osmotic gradients generated by ionic transporters. In pathological conditions, AQP4 is believed to be intimately involved in the formation and clearance of cerebral edema. In this review, we discuss aquaporin function and localization in the BBB during health and injury, and we examine post-injury ionic events that modulate AQP4- dependent edema formation. PMID:24996934

  12. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  13. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  14. Vasculite cutânea de pequenos vasos: etiologia, patogênese, classificação e critérios diagnósticos - Parte I Small vessel cutaneous vasculitis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification and diagnostic criteria - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Roberto Clivati Brandt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasculite é a inflamação da parede dos vasos. Pode variar em gravidade desde doença autolimitada de um único órgão até doença grave com risco de morte por falência de múltiplos órgãos. Existem várias causas, embora só se apresente por poucos padrões histológicos de inflamação vascular. Vasos de qualquer tipo e em qualquer órgão podem ser afetados, resultando em ampla variedade de sinais e sintomas. Diferentes vasculites com apresentações clínicas indistinguíveis têm evolução e tratamento muito diferentes. Essa condição representa desafio para o médico, incluindo classificação, diagnóstico, exames laboratoriais pertinentes, tratamento e seguimento adequado. Neste artigo são revistos a classificação, a etiologia, a patogênese e os critérios diagnósticos das vasculites cutâneas.Vasculitis is an inflammation of vessel walls. It may range in severity from a self-limited disorder in one single organ to a life-threatening disease due to multiple-organ failure. It has many causes, although they result in only a few histological patterns of vascular inflammation. Vessels of any type in any organ can be affected, a fact that results in a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Different vasculitides with indistinguishable clinical presentations have very different prognosis and treatments. This condition presents many challenges to physicians in terms of classification, diagnosis, appropriate laboratory workup, treatment, and the need for careful follow-up. This article reviews the classification, etiology, pathology and diagnostic criteria of cutaneous vasculitis.

  15. Detection and measurement of retinal blood vessel pulsatile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Frost, Shaun; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. Pulsatile properties caused by cardiac rhythm, such as spontaneous venous pulsation (SVP) and pulsatile motion of small arterioles, can be visualized by dynamic retinal imaging techniques and provide clinical significance. In this paper, we aim at vessel pulsatile motion detection and measurement. We proposed a novel approach for pulsatile motion measurement of retinal blood vessels by applying retinal image registration, blood vessel detection and blood vessel motion detection and measurement on infrared retinal image sequences. The performance of the proposed methods was evaluated on 8 image sequences with 240 images. A preliminary result has demonstrated the good performance of the method for blood vessel pulsatile motion observation and measurement.

  16. [Acute benign cerebral angiopathy. 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, P; Scherpereel, B; Bernard, M H; Guyot, J F

    1983-10-08

    The 6 cases reported here constitute, with 5 previously published cases, a special nosological entity tentatively called "acute benign cerebral angiopathy" by the authors. These 11 cases have in common certain radiological and clinical features. Arteriography shows segmental, multifocal and assymetrical stenoses involving the cerebral arteries between Willis' circle and the terminal arterioles and looking like "strings of sausages". The lesions disappear within one month and present the radiological characteristics of arteritis of medium caliber vessels. The clinical symptoms are suggestive of meningeal haemorrhage or acute cerebromeningeal oedema, with acute repetitive attacks of severe headache and agitation with obnubilation; epileptic seizures and transient neurological deficit may occur. True meningeal haemorrhage confirmed by lumbar puncture is seen in nearly one half of the cases; it seems to be due to alterations in the blood-brain barrier induced by the angiopathy. Intracerebral haematoma may develop, but the disease is usually benign and regresses spontaneously in a few days. None of the usual causes of cerebral arteritis (intra-cranial infection, collagen disease, allergic or toxic angitis) has been found. Pseudo-arteritis (notably spasm of ruptured arterial aneurysms) has been excluded. No aetiological factor common to the 11 cases reported has been elicited, although 6 of the patients had recently given birth and our 6 patients had benign virus infection before or during the clinical manifestations of the disease. In the authors' opinion, the most rewarding line of research would be the role of short acute attacks of arterial hypertension.

  17. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, Shelley [Frenchay Hospital, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive synopsis on cerebral venous thrombosis is presented. It emphasizes the various aetiologies, the wide clinical spectrum and the unpredictable outcome. Imaging techniques and pitfalls are reported and the therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, M.A.; Niessen, Wiro

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffus...

  19. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  20. Stroke from Vasospasm due to Marijuana Use: Can Cannabis Synergistically with Other Medications Trigger Cerebral Vasospasm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of imaging proven cerebral vasospasm causing ischemic stroke in a young patient chronically on buprenorphine-naloxone for heroin remission who started smoking cannabis on a daily basis. With cannabis legalization spreading across the states in the USA, it is important for physicians not only to be aware of cannabis reported association with cerebral vasospasm in some patients but also to be on the lookout for possible interacting medications that can synergistically affect cerebral vessels causing debilitating strokes.

  1. THE EFFECT OF LIGUSTRAZINE ON NEUROGENESIS IN CORTEX AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芬; 刘勇; 张蓬勃; 康前雁; 田英芳; 陈新林; 赵建军; 祁存芳

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that there are neuralstemcells that can self-renewand differentiate intomultiple cell types[1-3]in central nervous system ofadult mammals.After cerebral ischemia,these cellscan proliferate,migrate,differentiate and partici-pate in the repair of ischemic cerebral injuries[4-6].Neural stemcells play a very i mportant role in alle-viating ischemic cerebral injuries and promotingfunctional recovery.Ligustrazine,an active ingre-dient of Ligustici,can help dilate blood vessels,i m-prove m...

  2. Influential factors of vascular cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease and its correlation with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein%小血管病性认知功能障碍的影响因素及其与血浆超敏C反应蛋白水平的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓雷; 李传玲; 郭靖; 李晓宾

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究小血管病性认知功能障碍( VCI-SVD )的影响因素及其与血浆超敏C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)水平的相关性。方法给256例SVD患者进行蒙特利尔认知评估( MoCA)量表评分,以及临床资料收集和血糖化血红蛋白、血脂、hs-CRP水平检测。分为VCI-SVD组( MoCA量表评分≤26分)和无VCI-SVD组( MoCA量表评分>26分),对结果进行比较分析。结果 VCI-SVD组患者135例,无VCI-SVD组患者121例。 VCl-SVD组的血浆hs-CRP水平显著高于无VCI-SVD组( P<0.01),血糖化血红蛋白水平、收缩压,有房颤、吸烟、饮酒的比率显著高于无VCI-SVD组,受教育年限显著低于无VCI-SVD组(P<0.05~0.01)。多因素Logistic回归分析显示,在校正了年龄、收缩压、教育年限、房颤、吸烟、饮酒因素后,糖化血红蛋白、高hs-CRP血症是VCI-SVD的独立危险因素(OR=1.447,95%CI:1.25~5.54,OR=1.587,95%CI:1.87~5.67,均P<0.05)。相关分析显示,血浆hs-CRP水平与MoCA量表总分及视空间与执行能力、语言、延迟回忆各亚项评分呈负相关(r=-0.621~-0.430,均P<0.05);与命名、抽象力、定向力和注意力亚项评分无相关性。结论糖尿病、高血压、房颤和吸烟、饮酒、受教育年限低及高hs-CRP血症是VCI-SVD的影响因素;而糖尿病、高hs-CRP血症是VCI-SVD的独立危险因素。%Objective To investigate the influential factors of vascular cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease(VCI-SVD) and its correlation with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ( hs-CRP).Methods Totally 256 patients with cerebral SVD were scored by Montreal Cognitive Assessment ( MoCA ) table and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin ,blood lipid and hs-CRP were measured respectively .They were divided into VCI-SVD group (MoCA≤26) and no VCI-SVD group(MoCA>26) , and the results were compared and analyzed

  3. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N;

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...... metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose and lactate differences), as well as the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean); transcranial Doppler ultrasound) during a sustained static handgrip contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (n = 9) and the MCA V......(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...

  4. A comparative study of EEG suppressions induced by global cerebral ischemia and anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Oprica, M; Nutiu, O; Ferechide, D

    1995-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and anoxia induce sequential changes that include ionic redistribution, alteration of enzimatic reactions governing metabolism and intracellular signaling. Despite high technology instrumentation including positron emission, tomography and magnetic resonance imaging used to unravel the intricacies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism, the electroencephalography (EEG) retains a useful place in the evaluation of processes induced by cerebral ischemia, especially in experimental conditions. We have investigated in this study EEG suppression and recovery following global cerebral ischemia, obtained by "four vessel occlusion model", reperfusion and anoxia. Both cerebral ischemia and anoxia have produced a sudden diminution of electrical brain activity and flat line was recorded after 8-10 sec. in the ischemic rats, but after 35-40 sec. in the anoxic rats. After same period of time (2 min) of ischemia and anoxia EEG recovery has been faster in the ischemic rat.

  5. Endovascular rescue from arterial rupture and thrombosis during middle cerebral artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.Y.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-ding, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, B.H. [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Kim, O.J. [Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Intravascular stents are being used with increasing frequency in interventional neuroradiology. Iatrogenic arterial rupture is an uncommon but serious complication. We present a case of arterial rupture and subarachnoid haemorrhage during middle cerebral artery stenting, treated by emergency additional, overlapping stenting and balloon tamponade of the dissected vessel. Thrombotic occlusion of the artery was managed by intra-arterial abciximab. Normal vessel patency was re-established within 20 min and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  7. Summary of Reported Whale-Vessel Collisions in Alaskan Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Neilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we summarize 108 reported whale-vessel collisions in Alaska from 1978–2011, of which 25 are known to have resulted in the whale's death. We found 89 definite and 19 possible/probable strikes based on standard criteria we created for this study. Most strikes involved humpback whales (86% with six other species documented. Small vessel strikes were most common (<15 m, 60%, but medium (15–79 m, 27% and large (≥80 m, 13% vessels also struck whales. Among the 25 mortalities, vessel length was known in seven cases (190–294 m and vessel speed was known in three cases (12–19 kn. In 36 cases, human injury or property damage resulted from the collision, and at least 15 people were thrown into the water. In 15 cases humpback whales struck anchored or drifting vessels, suggesting the whales did not detect the vessels. Documenting collisions in Alaska will remain challenging due to remoteness and resource limitations. For a better understanding of the factors contributing to lethal collisions, we recommend (1 systematic documentation of collisions, including vessel size and speed; (2 greater efforts to necropsy stranded whales; (3 using experienced teams focused on determining cause of death; (4 using standard criteria for validating collision reports, such as those presented in this paper.

  8. Rapid de novo aneurysm formation after clipping of a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant with an MYH11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Karsy, Michael; Schmidt, Richard H; Taussky, Philipp; Park, Min S; Bollo, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5-mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4-mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic.

  9. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Expression of p53 Protein in Cerebral Cortex of Rats with Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜渊; 耿德勤; 葛巍; 徐兴顺; 曾因明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of p53 protein in cerebral cortex of senile rats with global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and to explore its mechanism. Methods: The cerebral IR injury rat model was established referring to Pulsinelli 4-vessel occlusion method. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly and evenly divided into the control group, the IR group and the IR plus EA (IR-EA) group. The animals in the control group were subjected to electrocauterization of vertebral arteries in bilateral flank orifice alone with the general carotid arteries unoccluded.To rats in the IR-EA group, immediately and 24h, 48h, 72h after cerebral IR, EA treatment on bilateral acupoint "Zusanli"(ST36) was applied once a day, lasting for 60 minutes. After the final treatment, all the rats were sacrificed and their brains were taken to examine p53 protein expression by the immunohistochemical method. Results: Cells with positive p53 immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of rats in the IR group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.05), while that in the IR-EA group was significantly lower than that in the IR group (P<0.05). Conclusion: EA could remarkably reduce expression of p53 protein in the cerebral cortex of senile rats with global cerebral IR injury, which might be one of the means for EA to inhibit neuronal apoptosis after cerebral IR injury.

  10. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  11. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  12. Altered low frequency oscillations of cortical vessels in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease – a NIRS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Iversen, Helle K; Schytz, Henrik W

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cerebral autoregulation by measuring spontaneous oscillations in the low frequency spectrum of cerebral cortical vessels might be a useful tool for assessing risk and investigating different treatment strategies in carotid artery disease and stroke. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS...... patients with both symptomatic carotid occlusive disease and cerebral hypoperfusion in comparison to healthy controls. Each hemisphere was examined with two NIRS channels using a 3 cm source detector distance. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) was measured via a finger plethysmograph. Using transfer function...

  13. The role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis and remodeling of cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lingyan Wang,1 Shaolei Guo,2 Nu Zhang,2 Yuqian Tao,3 Heng Zhang,1 Tiewei Qi,2 Feng Liang,2 Zhengsong Huang2 1Department of Neurosurgery ICU, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM involves the vasculogenesis of cerebral blood vessels and can cause severe intracranial hemorrhage. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, are believed to exert multiple physiological functions including angiogenesis. Thus, we investigated the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis of cerebral AVM.Methods: Brain AVM lesions from surgical resections were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGF-A, and HIF-1 by using immunohistochemical staining. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Further, in an animal study, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model rats were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1 and HIF-1. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was also used to detect its effects on cerebral vasculogenesis and SDF-1 expression.Results: Large amounts of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells were found in brain AVM lesion blood vessel walls, which also have higher SDF-1 expression. Cerebral AVM patients also had higher level of EPCs and SDF-1. In chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats, SDF-1, HIF-1, and CD45 expressions were elevated. The application of AMD3100 effectively suppressed angiogenesis and infiltration of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells in hypoperfusion rats compared to controls.Conclusion: The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the vasculogenesis and migration of inflammatory cells in cerebral AVM lesions, possibly via the recruitment of bone marrow EPCs. Keywords: cerebral arteriovenous malformation, SDF-1/CXCR4, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, endothelial progenitor cells

  14. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  15. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  16. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  17. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  18. The Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Cerebral Gray Matter Volume Is Independent of Retinal Vascular Architecture and Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is uncertain whether small vessel disease underlies the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and brain atrophy. We aimed to study whether retinal vascular architecture, as a proxy for cerebral small vessel disease, may modify or mediate the associations of T2DM with brain volumes. In this cross-sectional study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans and retinal photographs in 451 people with and without T2DM, we measured brain volumes, geometric measures of retinal vascular architecture, clinical retinopathy, and MRI cerebrovascular lesions. There were 270 people with (mean age 67.3 years and 181 without T2DM (mean age 72.9 years. T2DM was associated with lower gray matter volume (p=0.008. T2DM was associated with greater arteriolar diameter (p=0.03 and optimality ratio (p=0.04, but these associations were attenuated by adjustments for age and sex. Only optimality ratio was associated with lower gray matter volume (p=0.03. The inclusion of retinal measures in regression models did not attenuate the association of T2DM with gray matter volume. The association of T2DM with lower gray matter volume was independent of retinal vascular architecture and clinical retinopathy. Retinal vascular measures or retinopathy may not be sufficiently sensitive to confirm a microvascular basis for T2DM-related brain atrophy.

  19. Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Pawelczyk, James A; Diedrich, André; Ertl, Andrew C; Cox, James F; Cooke, William H; Giller, Cole A; Ray, Chester A; Lane, Lynda D; Buckey, Jay C; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Eckberg, Dwain L; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Blomqvist, C Gunnar

    2007-03-15

    Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low- (0.02-0.07 Hz), low- (0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 +/- 3 cm s(-1) after versus -14 +/- 3 cm s(-1) before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 +/- 4.8% after versus -24.8 +/- 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27% after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with

  20. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  1. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease: The STROBE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified cerebral artery

  2. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  3. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  4. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S; Vaid, V K; Sharma, M; Bhartiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  5. Gamma Knife treatment for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Andras A; Radatz, Matthias W R; Rowe, Jeremy G; Walton, Lee; Vaughan, Paul

    2007-01-01

    One of the earliest indications for Gamma Knife treatment, radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations, has stood the test of time. While initially only the ideal cases (small, compact nidus in a non-eloquent site) were chosen, increasingly larger, more complex AVMs were treated. Combination treatment with embolisation and surgery enables most lesions to be treated with success and remarkably low complication rate. This paper is a brief overview of the experience gained in Sheffield.

  6. Bronze Vessel with Silkworm Motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This artifact was a kind of sacrificial vessel used during the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Most patterns found on these pieces are the fierce and formidable faces of beasts or mysterious dragons, tigers and phoenixes. Rut the pattern on this vessel illustrates the life of a mulberry field.

  7. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions....... To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity...... in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P

  8. AUTOMATIC RETINAL VESSEL TORTUOSITY MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular vessels have the role to indicate the retinal diseases and for systematic diseases when there are any abnormalities in retinal vascular pattern. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e., how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. In this study we suggest a novel mask filter to track the blood vessel along its course and measuring the blood vessels tortuosity over the entire human retinal vessel network in fundus eye image, by using the arc to chord ratio. The suggested algorithm tested with straight and curve hand drawing lines and gives high accurate results.

  9. Strain Growth in Containment Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Q; LI Q M; ZHENG J Y

    2006-01-01

    Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading.The elastic response of the vessel may become larger in a later stage compared to its response during the initial stage.The dynamic responses of infinitely long cylindrical containment vessels subjected to uniformly-distributed internal blast loading are studied using LS-DYNA.The development of bending modes and the interaction between the breathing mode and bending modes are observed.The methodology developed for dynamic elastic buckling analysis is employed to study the strain growth phenomenon in explosion containment vessels.It is shown that the dynamic instable vibration of a containment vessel is the basic mechanism of strain growth.

  10. Hyperintense vessel sign on FLAIR maybe associated with cerebral collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a retrospective case series study%缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作患者FLAIR序列高信号血管征可能与脑侧支循环有关:回顾性病例系列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显军; 周志明; 刘文华; 朱武生; 葛良; 徐格林; 刘新峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible formation mechanism and imaging features of the hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods The baseline data of the patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke or TIA with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showing the lesions of MCA M1 segment in clinical practice were retrospectively retrieved from Nanjing Stroke Registry Program from January 2010 to July 2011.FLAIR was used to observe HVS,and DSA was used to evaluate the degree of vascular stenosis and cerebral collateral circulation.Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled,76 (75.2%) were males,and their mean age was 53.94 ± 13.47 years; 90 patients (89.1%) with ischemic stroke and 11 patients (10.9%) with TIA; 55 patients (54.5%) were HVS negative and 46 (45.5%) were HVS positive.Among the patients whose MCA stenosis <50%,50%-70%,70%-90% and ≥90%,the positive rates were 0% (0/8),25.0% (3/12),17.6% (3/17),and 62.5% (40/64),respectively.There were significant differences (Z=-4.479,P< 0.001).The leptomeningeal collateral circulation of the HVS positive group was significantly more than that of the HVS negative group (Z =-6.196,P < 0.001).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the degree of MCA stenosis was an independent risk factor for influencing the formation of HVS (odds ratio 3.943,95% confidence interval 2.03-7.659; P <0.001).Conclusions The formed intracranial leptomeningeal colhteral circulation after severe intracranial vascular stenosis or occlusion is a major pathophysiological basis of HVS formation on FLAIR sequences in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA.%目的 探讨缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)患者液体衰减反转恢复序列(fluid-attenuated inversion recovery,FLAIR)高信号血管征(hyperintense vessel sign,HVS)的可

  11. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  12. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  13. 小子样状态下舰船特种阀门可靠性评估方法%Research on the reliability assessment of special vessel valves under a small sample condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少刚; 李少杰; 舒海生; 赵丹; 李芳; 谷青明

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the difficulty of assessing special vessel valves, a new method of reliability assessment was proposed based on Bayes theory and similarity theory. The posterior distribution was obtained from prior information and current data, and then the precise similarity value between the new valve and the old one was calculated by using similarity theory. The fused posterior distribution was acquired by means of the integration of the history posterior and the posterior distribution. Combined with an example, lower confidence limits of reliability on a new special valve obtained by classical methods, traditional Bayesian analysis, and the new method proposed here were listed and analyzed. Therefore, the scientific quality and applicability of the new method proposed in this paper were verified. The features of two-parameter Weibull distribution of the new valve were analyzed, and the reliability function and reliability life expressions were obtained. Additionally, the calculation results were used as the criteria of product acceptance. Reliability evaluation precision was improved by this method in practical applications and the quantity of the test samples was significantly reduced.%针对舰船特种阀门 可靠性评估比较困难的问题,提出了将Bayes理论和相似性理论相结合的评估新方法.充分利用历史先验信息,并结合现场数据从而获得后验分布;利用相似性理论确定新旧型号阀门的相似度精确值.综合历史后验和后验分布,得到产品可靠性的融合后验.结合实例,对比分析了经典评估方法、传统Bayes方法和新方法所得到的新型号特种阀门可靠性的置信下限,验证了所提出方法的科学性和实用性.研究了新型号阀门的两参数威布尔寿命分布特性,给出了可靠度函数和可靠度寿命表达式,其计算结果可作为产品的接收判据,并在应用中提高了舰船特种阀门可靠性的评估精度,

  14. An often unrecognized cause of thunderclap headache : reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K; Teune, L K; ter Laan, M; Uyttenboogaart, M; Vroomen, P C; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J

    2008-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) can have several causes of which subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most common and well known. A rare cause of TCH is the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) which is characterized by a reversible segmental vasoconstriction of the intracranial vessels. We d

  15. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  16. Tumor Vessel Compression Hinders Perfusion of Ultrasonographic Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Galiè

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an advanced approach to in vivo assessment of tumor vascularity and is being increasingly adopted in clinical oncology. It is based on 1- to 10 μm-sized gas microbubbles, which can cross the capillary beds of the lungs and are effective echo enhancers. It is known that high cell density, high transendothelial fluid exchange, and poorly functioning lymphatic circulation all provoke solid stress, which compresses vessels and drastically reduces tumor blood flow. Given their size, we supposed that the perfusion of microbubbles is affected by anatomic features of tumor vessels more than are contrast agents traditionally used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI. Here, we compared dynamic information obtained from CEUS and DCE-MRI on two experimental tumor models exhibiting notable differences in vessel anatomy. We found that tumors with small, flattened vessels show a much higher resistance to microbubble perfusion than to MRI contrast agents, and appear scarcely vascularized at CEUS examination, despite vessel volume adequate for normal function. Thus, whereas CEUS alone could induce incorrect diagnosis when tumors have small or collapsed vessels, integrated analysis using CEUS and DCE-MRI allows in vivo identification of tumors with a vascular profile frequently associated with malignant phenotypes.

  17. Expression of ET(A) and ET(B) receptor mRNA in human cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Szok, D; Edvinsson, L

    2002-01-01

    The vascular effects of endothelins (ET) are in mammals mediated via two receptor subtypes, endothelin A (ET(A), mainly constrictive) and endothelin B (ET(B), mainly dilating) receptors. We have examined the presence of ET(A) and ET(B) receptor mRNA using the reverse transcription polymerase chain...... reaction (RT-PCR) in both normal human cerebral arteries and cerebral arteries from patients with cerebrovascular disease. Two vessel preparations were studied: macroscopic arteries and microvessels, the latter obtained through a sensitive separation method. In endothelial cells both ET(A) and ET......(B) receptor mRNA was detected. In almost all samples from normal cerebral arteries only ET(A) receptor mRNA was detected, whereas in vessel samples from patients with cerebrovascular disease as well as cerebral neoplasms, additional ET(B) receptor mRNA was detected significantly more frequently...

  18. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  19. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Patients and methods Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Results Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Conclusion Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. PMID:27574434

  20. [Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, S; Abalmasov, V

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and developmental anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the x-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease.

  1. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  2. 46 CFR 298.11 - Vessel requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reconditioning of a Vessel as a condition for issuance of the Letter Commitment. The estimated cost of the Vessel may include escalation for the anticipated construction period of the Vessel. We may contact...

  3. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the ischemic focus...

  4. Collateral vessels in moyamoya disease : comparison of MR and MRA with conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Joo Eun; Yoon, Dae Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Choonchun (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in assessing collateral vessels of moyamoya disease. Twenty-four patients with moyamoya disease who underwent MR, 3D TOF MRA, and conventional angiography participated in this study. Two radiologists working independently and with no knowledge of the angiographic findings, interpreted the MR and MRA images. To determine the presence of parenchymal and leptomeningeal collaterals (48 hemispheres) and transdural collaterals (38 hemispheres in 19 patients were depicted by angiography of the external carotid), the findings were compared with those of angiography. Parenchymal, leptomeningeal, and transdural collaterals were depicted by conventional angiography in 34 (71%), 32 (67%), and 11 (29%) hemispheres respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA for collateral vessels were 79.1/88.1 % for parenchymal collaterals, 72.1/88.1 % for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 0.1/18.1 % for transdural collaterals, respectively. Respective sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA were 88.94/94.1% for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 18.93/55.1 % for transdural collaterals, when the prominent posterior cerebral and external carotid artery were regarded as secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. In moyamoya disease, MR and MRA are useful imaging modalities for the assessment of collateral vessels. The prominent posterior cerebral artery and external carotid artery can be useful secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Missing correlation of retinal vessel diameter with high-altitude headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M Dominik; Schommer, Kai; Bärtsch, Peter; Gekeler, Florian; Schatz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The most common altitude-related symptom, high-altitude headache (HAH), has recently been suggested to originate from restricted cerebral venous drainage in the presence of increased inflow caused by hypoxia. In support of this novel hypothesis, retinal venous distension was shown to correlate with the degree of HAH. We quantified for the first time retinal vessel diameter changes at 4559 m using infrared fundus images obtained from a state of the art Spectralis™ HRA+OCT with a semiautomatic VesselMap 1® software. High-altitude exposure resulted in altered arterial and venous diameter changes at high altitude, however, independent of headache burden. PMID:25356382

  6. Effects of fluid restriction in combination with small dose of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygen metabolism in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery%限制性输液复合小剂量去甲肾上腺素对胃肠道手术老年患者脑氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓东; 居斌华; 叶卉; 陆新健; 景亮; 汤文浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of fluid restriction in combination with small dose of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygen metabolism in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.Methods Forty elderly patients of both sexes,aged 65-80 yr,with body mass index of 18-24 kg/m2,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ (NYHA Ⅰ or Ⅱ),with left ventricular ejection fraction≥50%,undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:routine fluid administration group (group S) and restricted fluid administration + small dose of norepinephrine group (group RN).In group S,lactated Ringer's solution was given routinely,ephedrine 5 mg (per time) was injected intravenously,and MAP was maintained ≥ 65 mmHg during operation.In group RN,lactated Ringer's solution was infused intravenously at 5 ml · kg-1 · h-1 starting from 30 min before anesthesia,norepinephrine was infused intravenously at 0.01-0.03 μg · kg-1 · min-1 after induction of anesthesia,and MAP was maintained ≥ 65 mmHg.Intraoperative blood loss was replaced with the equal volume of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 sodium chloride injection in both groups.At 5 min before skin incision,1 and 2 h after skin incision and postanesthesia care unit discharge time,arterial and jugular bulb venous blood samples were obtained for blood gas analysis,and arterial oxygen content,jugular bulb venous oxygen content,arteriovenous oxygen content difference,cerebral oxygen extraction rate,and the ratio of cerebral blood flow to cerebral oxygen metabolic rate were calculated.Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in arterial oxygen content,jugular bulb venous oxygen content,arteriovenous oxygen content difference,cerebral oxygen extraction rate,and the ratio of cerebral blood flow to cerebral oxygen metabolic rate.Conclusion Fluid restriction combined with small dose of norepinephrine produces no effects on cerebral oxygen

  7. MMP-2 Is Mainly Expressed in Arterioles and Contributes to Cerebral Vascular Remodeling Associated with TGF-β1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ye; Zhang, Weifeng; Xie, Zhenying; Xu, Nanfei; Lu, Yunnan

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in vascular remodeling. It has been reported that hypoxia stimulated MMP-9 expression in brain endothelial cells and MMP-9 plays an important role in cerebral vascular remodeling. However, little is known about MMP-2 in the cerebral vessels remodeling. Herein, the aim of this study is to examine the class of vessel and cell type expressing MMP-2 in cerebral vessels and to investigate its potential role in vascular remodeling. In the present study, dual-immunofluorescence assay showed that MMP-2 was mainly expressed in arterioles. In addition, we found that MMP-2 expression in cerebral vessels was derived from endothelial cells, not astrocyte cells. Notably, in the normoxic central nervous system (CNS), there was no effect on vascular development, integrity, or endothelial proliferation when MMP-2 was knocked out, but lack of MMP-2 led to defective arteriolar remodeling and associated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling in CNS. Moreover, blocking TGF-β with SB431542, a specific TGF-β inhibitor, significantly reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of MMP-2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our findings reveal that the level of MMP-2 is high in arteriolar endothelial cells and demonstrate a novel connection between MMP-2 and TGF-β1 signaling in cerebral vascular remodeling.

  8. Dynamic temporal change of cerebral microbleeds: long-term follow-up MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (MBs are understood as an important radiologic marker of intracerebral hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the temporal changes of MBs and clinical factors associated with the changes using long-term follow-up MRI. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From October 2002 to July 2006, we prospectively enrolled patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack, and followed-up their brain MRIs with an interval >12 mo. We compared demographic factors, vascular risk factors, laboratory findings, and radiologic factors according to the presence or changes of MBs. A total of 224 patients successfully completed the follow-up examinations (mean, 27 months. Newly developed MBs were noted in 10 patients (6.8% among those without MBs at baseline (n = 148, and in those with MBs at baseline (n = 76, the MB count had decreased in 11 patients (14.5%, and increased in 41 patients (53.9%. The estimated annual rate of change of MB numbers was 0.80 lesions per year in all patients, a value which became greater in those patients who exhibited MBs at baseline (MBs≥5, 5.43 lesions per year. Strokes due to small vessel occlusion and intracerebral hemorrhage, as well as white matter lesions were independently associated with an increased MB count, whereas the highest quartile of low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol was associated with a decreased MB count. CONCLUSION: During the follow-up period, most of MBs showed dynamic temporal change. Symptomatic or asymptomatic small vessel diseases appear to act as risk factors while in contrast, a high level of LDL cholesterol may act as a protective factor against MB increase.

  9. The cerebral perivascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, D N; Walther, M; Streppel, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Neiss, W F

    1998-01-01

    fluorescent mode this DAB reaction product selectively quenches the fluorescence of all immunopositive cells, i.e. only those neuronophages that do not bind to the primary antibody remain fluorescent. Combining FG-labeling of neuronophages with immunoquenching, a population of small round fluorescent cells was discovered, localized in the immediate vicinity of the motoneurons long after the neuronofugal migration of microglia. As the fluorescence of these cells was not quenched after a triple immunostaining with anti-neuronal-specific enolase, anti-GFAP and OX-42 (quenching all fluorescence from neurons, astroglia, and microglia), they seem to represent a new, immunologically unidentified neuronophage. Following this triple immunostaining, a broad panel of antibodies was tested to stain, quench fluorescence, and thus immunotype these enigmatic phagocytes. Only the monoclonal antibody ED2, the classical marker for perivascular cells, specifically stained the small round neuronophages. Although the perivascular cells are in the vicinity of the basal lamina of the cerebral vasculature, they must not be confused with the pericytes, which are not able to perform phagocytosis. In contrast, the perivascular cells are macrophages-ED2 recognizes an established macrophage membrane antigen. In addition, after neuronal injury a subset of the perivascular cells starts to synthesize MHC class II glycoproteins and IL-1 beta. Hence this population of cells seems to possess the complete machinery required for antigen presentation: They are macrophages, upregulate MHC class II molecules and IL-1 beta, and due to their anatomical location, have access to circulating T lymphocytes. What was still lacking, however, was a direct proof of neuronophagia. Our experiments provided this proof. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  10. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  11. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  14. Regulation of Blood Vessel Sprouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, John C; Wiley, David M; Bautch, Victoria L

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels are essential conduits of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. The formation of these vessels involves angiogenic sprouting, a complex process entailing highly integrated cell behaviors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss how endothelial cells initiate a vessel sprout through interactions with their environment and with one another, particularly through lateral inhibition. We review the composition of the local environment, which contains an initial set of guidance cues to facilitate the proper outward migration of the sprout as it emerges from a parent vessel. The long-range guidance and sprout stability cues provided by soluble molecules, extracellular matrix components, and interactions with other cell types are also discussed. We also examine emerging evidence for mechanisms that govern sprout fusion with its target and lumen formation. PMID:22020130

  15. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  16. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. Estimating total cerebral microinfarct burden from diffusion-weighted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriel, Eitan; Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T; Reijmer, Yael; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Ni, Jun; Van Etten, Ellis; Frosch, Matthew P; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Schwab, Kris; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Boulouis, Grégoire; Younger, Alayna P; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Hedden, Trey; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral microinfarcts (CMI) are important contributors to vascular cognitive impairment. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities have been suggested to represent acute CMI. We aim to describe a mathematical method for estimating total number of CMI based on the presence of incidental DWI lesions. Methods We reviewed MRI scans of subjects with cognitive decline, cognitively normal subjects and previously reported subjects with past intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on temporal and spatial characteristics of DWI lesions we estimated the annual rate of CMI needed to explain the observed rate of DWI lesion detection in each group. To confirm our estimates we performed extensive sampling for CMI in the brain of a deceased subject with past lobar ICH who found to have a DWI lesion during life. Results Clinically silent DWI lesions were present in 13 of 343 (3.8%) cognitively impaired, and 10 of 199 (5%) cognitively intact normal non-ICH patients, both lower than the incidence in the past ICH patients (23 of 178, 12.9%, p<0.0006). The predicted annual incidence of CMI ranges from 16 to 1566 for non-ICH and 50 to 5041 for ICH individuals. Histologic sampling revealed a total of 60 lesions in 32 sections. Based on previously reported methods, this density of CMI yields an estimated total brain burden MLE of 9321 CMIs (95% CI 7255–11990). Conclusions Detecting even a single DWI lesion suggests an annual incidence of hundreds of new CMI. The cumulative effects of these lesions may directly contribute to small-vessel-related vascular cognitive impairment PMID:26159796

  19. Assessment of variability in cerebral vasculature for neuro-anatomical surgery planning in rodent brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, J. R.; Van Kuyck, K.; Himmelreich, U.; Nuttin, B.; Maes, F.; Suetens, P.

    2011-03-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies show that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of targeted brain regions by neurosurgical techniques ameliorate psychiatric disorder such as anorexia nervosa. Neurosurgical interventions in preclinical rodent brain are mostly accomplished manually with a 2D atlas. Considering both the large number of animals subjected to stereotactic surgical experiments and the associated imaging cost, feasibility of sophisticated pre-operative imaging based surgical path planning and/or robotic guidance is limited. Here, we spatially normalize vasculature information and assess the intra-strain variability in cerebral vasculature for a neurosurgery planning. By co-registering and subsequently building a probabilistic vasculature template in a standard space, we evaluate the risk of a user defined electrode trajectory damaging a blood vessel on its path. The use of such a method may not only be confined to DBS therapy in small animals, but also could be readily applicable to a wide range of stereotactic small animal surgeries like targeted injection of contrast agents and cell labeling applications.

  20. Cerebral Microvascular and Systemic Effects Following Intravenous Administration of the Perfluorocarbon Emulsion Perftoran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Abutarboush

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC fluids have the potential to increase tissue oxygenation during hypoxic states and to reduce ischemic cell death. Regulatory approval of oxygen therapeutics was halted due to concerns over vasoconstrictive side effects. The goal of this study was to assess the potential vasoactive properties of Perftoran by measuring brain pial arteriolar diameters in a healthy rat model. Perftoran, crystalloid (saline or colloid (Hextend solutions were administered as four sequential 30 min intravenous (IV infusions, thus allowing an evaluation of cumulative dose-dependent effects. There were no overall changes in diameters of small-sized (<50 μm pial arterioles within the Perftoran group, while both saline and Hextend groups exhibited vasoconstriction. Medium-sized arterioles (50–100 μm showed minor (~8–9% vasoconstriction within saline and Hextend groups and only ~5% vasoconstriction within the Perftoran group. For small- and medium-sized pial arterioles, the mean percent change in vessel diameters was not different among the groups. Although there was a tendency for arterial blood pressures to increase with Perftoran, pressures were not different from the other two groups. These data show that Perftoran, when administered to healthy anesthetized rats, does not cause additional vasoconstriction in cerebral pial arterioles or increase systemic blood pressure compared with saline or Hextend.

  1. Cerebral Microvascular and Systemic Effects Following Intravenous Administration of the Perfluorocarbon Emulsion Perftoran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarboush, Rania; Saha, Biswajit K.; Mullah, Saad H.; Arnaud, Francoise G.; Haque, Ashraful; Aligbe, Chioma; Pappas, Georgina; Auker, Charles R.; McCarron, Richard M.; Moon-Massat, Paula F.; Scultetus, Anke H.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC) fluids have the potential to increase tissue oxygenation during hypoxic states and to reduce ischemic cell death. Regulatory approval of oxygen therapeutics was halted due to concerns over vasoconstrictive side effects. The goal of this study was to assess the potential vasoactive properties of Perftoran by measuring brain pial arteriolar diameters in a healthy rat model. Perftoran, crystalloid (saline) or colloid (Hextend) solutions were administered as four sequential 30 min intravenous (IV) infusions, thus allowing an evaluation of cumulative dose-dependent effects. There were no overall changes in diameters of small-sized (<50 μm) pial arterioles within the Perftoran group, while both saline and Hextend groups exhibited vasoconstriction. Medium-sized arterioles (50–100 μm) showed minor (~8–9%) vasoconstriction within saline and Hextend groups and only ~5% vasoconstriction within the Perftoran group. For small- and medium-sized pial arterioles, the mean percent change in vessel diameters was not different among the groups. Although there was a tendency for arterial blood pressures to increase with Perftoran, pressures were not different from the other two groups. These data show that Perftoran, when administered to healthy anesthetized rats, does not cause additional vasoconstriction in cerebral pial arterioles or increase systemic blood pressure compared with saline or Hextend. PMID:27869709

  2. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  3. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  4. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Hua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG in preventing this adverse effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect, S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG, and CON (control rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2. During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G

  5. Propofol inhibits inflammation and lipid peroxidation following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wei; Xing Wan; Bo Zhao; Jiabao Hou; Min Liu; Bangchang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a rabbit model of global cerebral ischemia using the ‘six-vessel' method, which was reperfused after 30 minutes of ischemia. Rabbits received intravenous injection of propofol at 5 mg/kg prior to ischemia and 20 mg/kg per hour after ischemia until samples were prepared. Results revealed that propofol inhibited serum interleukin-8, endothelin-1 and malondialdehyde increases and promoted plasma superoxide dismutase activity after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, cerebral cortex edema was attenuated with little neuronal nuclear degeneration and pyknosis with propofol treatment. The cross-sectional area of neuronal nuclei was, however, increased following propofol treatment. These findings suggested that propofol could improve anti-oxidant activity and inhibit synthesis of inflammatory factors to exert a protective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  6. Moyamoya syndrome associated with γ knife surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Yoichi; Sumitomo, Masaki; Maruwaka, Mikio; Araki, Yoshio; Izumi, Takashi; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kato, Takenori; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kida, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Sho; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old female developed moyamoya syndrome after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and was treated with bypass surgery. She suffered from flittering scotoma, right transient hemianopsia, and headache for 1 year. Cerebral angiography revealed a Spetzler-Martin grade III AVM located in the left occipital lobe. After staged embolization, GKS was performed with a minimum dose of 20 Gy to the periphery of the nidus at the 50% isodose level of the maximum target dose. Gradual nidus regression was achieved, and the clinical symptoms disappeared completely. However, at 30 months after GKS, the patient suffered transient ischemic attack. Cerebral angiography showed left middle cerebral artery occlusion with moyamoya vessels. The patient underwent direct and indirect bypass surgery. After surgery, the patient was free from ischemic symptoms. Chronic inflammation and long-term changes in expression of cytokines and growth factors after GKS may have triggered this case.

  7. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

  8. Xylem dysfunction in Quercus: vessel sizes, tyloses, cavitation and seasonal changes in embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, H; Tyree, M T

    1990-12-01

    The seasonal progression of xylem dysfunction from tyloses and embolism induced both by cavitation and frost was studied in Quercus rubra L. and Quercus alba L. branches. Vessel lengths and diameters were measured in current-year rings of branches of various ages. Vessels in current-year shoots are about the same size as those in many diffuse porous trees, but vessels in older branches are two to six times larger in diameter and typically more than 10 times longer. Large Quercus vessels were more vulnerable to cavitation than small vessels. The small vessels in current-year shoots were more vulnerable to cavitation than vessels of comparable size in diffuse porous species. Earlywood vessels are completely blocked by tyloses within a year of their formation. Tylose growth starts in winter, but the vessels are not fully blocked until the next summer. Many latewood vessels, by contrast, remain free of complete blockage for several years. In Q. rubra, loss of hydraulic conductivity in current-year shoots due to cavitation reaches 20% by August and > 90% after the first hard frost. Both laboratory and field observations confirm that the role of frost in causing loss of hydraulic conduction by embolism is much more dramatic in Quercus than in conifers and diffuse porous hardwoods.

  9. M RI在诊断退变期脑实质型脑囊虫病同小转移瘤的鉴别价值%Value of convertional MRI in detecting degenerative phase of cerebral cysticerlosis and small metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立源; 曾睿; 黄红芳; 张雪; 侯仲军

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过常规M RI序列与DWI序列,鉴别退变期脑实质型脑囊虫病与小病灶环形强化转移瘤。方法回顾29例脑囊虫病患者与30例多发小病灶转移瘤患者的M R检查,观察两者的影像学表现及测量ADC值进行统计学处理。结果常规T2 WI退变期脑囊虫病组和小转移瘤组病灶出现低信号环的比例分别为91.9%和9.1%,诊断敏感性为90.7%(78/86)、特异性90.9%(60/66)、准确性90.8%(138/152);DWI退变期脑囊虫病组和转移瘤组病灶出现低信号所占比例分别为95.4%和69.7%,诊断敏感性95.4%(82/86)、特异性30.3%(20/66)、准确性67.1%(102/152)。退变期脑囊虫组病灶ADC值(1.54±0.42)×10-3 s/mm2,脑转移瘤病灶组ADC值(1.12±0.36)×10-3 s/mm2,两者比较具有统计学差异( P <0.01)。结论 T2 WI病灶周围连续的低信号和完整规则的环形强化是退变期脑囊虫病的特殊表现。DWI序列对退变期脑囊虫病和小病灶转移瘤的鉴别具有一定的价值。%Objective To study the difference of degeno-death stage cerebral neurocysticercosis lesions and brain metas-tasis nodules through the conventional MR scan and DWI sequence .Methods MRI data of 29 patients with degeno-death stage cerebral neurocysticercosis and 30 patients with brain metastasis were reviewed .The imaging features were studied and the ADC value of the lesions ,were measured with spss 16 .0 statistical software as data analysis .Results 91 .9% le-sions of degeno-death stage cerebral nerocyticercosis displayed surrounding hypointense signal on T 2 WI ,while ,the brain metastasis nodules was 9 .1% .The diagnostic sensitivety ,specificity and accuracy of T2WI low signal intensity surround-ing were 90 .7% (78/86) ,90 .9% (60/66) and 90 .8% (138/152) respectively .Among those ,95 .4% lesions of degeno-death stage cerebral nerocyticercosis were shown hypointense signal on

  10. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  11. Inhibitory effect of acupuncture on neuronal apoptosis in rats after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangyu Ju; Jing Zhang; Guohua Jiang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed neuronal death after total cerebral ischemia may accompany with apoptosis, but acupuncture may play a certain role in protecting nerve through inhibiting ischemic neuronal apoptosis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture on neuronal apoptosis in rats after cerebral ischemia and analyze its cerebral protective mechanism.DESIGN: Contrast observation among groups.SETTING: Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: A total of 30 male healthy Wistar rats of general grade and weighing (250±20) g were randomly divided into three groups, including sham operation group, cerebral ischemia group and acupuncture group with 10 rats in each group. Apoptosis in situ kit was provided by Baolingman Company,Germany.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory Center, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May to November 2004. ① Rats in the cerebral ischemia group and the acupuncture group were used to establish total cerebral ischemic models with four vessels occlusion; in addition, models in the sham operation group were established with the same method as mentioned above.However, four vessels of rats in the sham operation were exposured and cerebral ischemia did not occur. Rats in the acupuncture group were given acupuncture treatment after operation. Needle of 40 mm in length was used to acupuncture bilateral Zusanli (St 36) and Quchi (LI 11) with the depth of 3 mm, and then bilateral acupoints were connected with KWD-808Ⅱ omnipotenc impulse electro-therapeutic apparatus (frequency: 1 Hz;thin waves; voltage: 2 V) once a day for totally 30 minutes. Meanwhile, needle of 25 mm in length was used to acupuncture Baihui (Du 20) with the depth of 3 mm, and then the needle was twirled once every 5 minutes for 30 minutes in total. The course was 7 days. ② Neuronal injuries in hippocampal CA1 area after cerebral ischemia were observed with Nissl body staining method at 7 days after treatment

  12. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess functional changes measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presymptomatic stage of frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) caused by a truncating mutation in CHMP2B. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A memory clinic and tertiary referrals centre...... changes in brain tissue perfusion were measured as CBF with two different MR techniques, gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE), focusing on CBF in all cerebral vessels (GRE) and cerebral capillaries (SE), respectively. As planned, data analysis included co-registration of perfusion images to structural T...

  13. [Influence of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine hemisuccinate on cerebral blood perfusion in rats under experimental pathology conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan'shina, T S; Gorbunov, A A; Gnezdilova, A V; Kurdiumov, I N; Avdiunina, N I; Piatin, B M; Mirzoian, R S

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on rats showed that 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine hemisuccinate increases cerebral blood flow in the system of carotid arteries both in intact animals and under conditions of global transient ischemia. In combination with tropoxin, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine hemisuccinate enhances the blood flow in the inner carotid artery of intact rats and the local blood flow under conditions of global transient ischemia. A combination of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine hemisuccinate and tropoxin increases baseline cerebral blood flow and decreases the constrictor reaction of cerebral blood vessels to 5HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

  14. Radiologic findings of cerebral septic embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim Tae Hoon; Kim, Seung Chul; Kim, Jae Seung; Pai, Hyun Joo [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To determine the MR and CT findings which differentiate cerebral septic embolism from thrombotic infarction. Cerebral septic embolism was confirmed by blood culture in six patients and autopsy in two. The number, size, distribution, contrast enhancement, and hemorrhage of the lesions, as seen on MR and CT, were retrospectively analyzed, and four patients were followed up for between one week and seven months. In a total of eight patients, infective endocarditis (n=5) and sepsis (n=3) caused cerebral septic embolism. The number, of lesions was 3 {approx} 7 in six patients, over 10 in one, and innumerable in one: these varied in size from punctate to 6 cm and were distributed in various areas of the brain. Gyral infarction was noted in five patients: non-enhancing patchy lesions involving the basal ganglia or white matter were found in five, tiny isolated nodular or ring-enhancing small lesions involving the cortex and white matter in three, peripheral rim-enhancing large lesions in one, and numerous enhancing nodules disseminated in the cortex in one. Hemorrhage had occurred in six. follow-up studies in four patients showed that initial lesions had enlarged in two and regressed in two: new lesions had appeared in two. Multiple lesions of different sizes and various patterns which include gyral infarction, patchy or nodular lesion in the cortex, white mater of basal ganglia, and isolated small ring-like or nodular enhancement or frequent hemorrhage are findings which could be helpful in the radiologic diagnosis of cerebral septic embolism. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Advances in the understanding of delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Flynn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delayed cerebral ischaemia has been described as the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who survive the initial aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischaemia is meagre at best and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine remains the only intervention to consistently improve functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. There is substantial evidence to support cerebral vessel narrowing as a causative factor in delayed cerebral ischaemia, but contemporary research demonstrating improvements in vessel narrowing has failed to show improved functional outcomes. This has encouraged researchers to investigate other potential causes of delayed cerebral ischaemia, such as early brain injury, microthrombosis, and cortical spreading depolarisation. Adherence to a common definition of delayed cerebral ischaemia is needed in order to allow easier assessment of studies using multiple different terms. Furthermore, improved recognition of delayed cerebral ischaemia would not only allow for faster treatment but also better assessment of interventions. Finally, understanding nimodipine’s mechanism of action may allow us to develop similar agents with improved efficacy.

  17. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  18. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  19. Clinical application of iopamidol (pamiray 300) for cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Ho; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jin Na; Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of Pamiray 300 (Iopamidol; Dongkook Pharm, Seoul, Korea) as a nonionic contrast medium for cerebral angiography. One hundred patients undergoing cerebral angiography were randomly assigned to receive Pamiray 300 after written consent had been obtained. Patients with adverse reactions were divided into two groups. One group consisted of patients with minor adverse events such as heat sensation and pain, and the other group consisted of patients with major adverse events such as dyspnea, laryngeal edema and shock. The qualities of the radiographic images were stratified into five grades by three independent radiologists. No abnormality induced by Pamiray 300 was seen by a physical and neurological examination, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiogram, respiration rate measurement and partial fraction of arterial oxygen recording. No major and severe adverse events occurred throughout the study. Patient sex, age, disease category, underlying disease and administered contrast dosage showed no statistical significance with regards to the occurrence of adverse events. The opacification of blood vessels in all patients was 'good' or 'excellent'. Based on the results of this study, Pamiray 300 is a safe, efficacious and well-tolerated contrast medium for use in cerebral angiography. Thus, Pamiray 300 can be used as a competitive medium in cerebral angiography.

  20. Cerebral vasoreactivity in Andeans and headache at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, O; Passino, C; Roach, R; Gamboa, J; Gamboa, A; Bernardi, L; Bonfichi, M; Malcovati, L

    2004-04-15

    Headache is common in Cerro de Pasco (CP), Peru (altitude 4338 m) and was present in all patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in CP reported here. Forty-seven percent of inhabitants report headache. Twenty-four percent of men have migraine with aura, with an average of 65 attacks a year. We assessed vasoreactivity of the cerebral vessels to CO2 by rebreathing and to NO by the administration of isosorbite dinitrate (IDN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in natives of CP, some of whom suffered from CMS. We repeated the measurements in Lima (altitude 150 m) in the same subjects within 24 h of arrival. Vasodilatation in the middle cerebral artery supply territory in response to CO2 and NO, both physiologic vasodilators, is defective in Andean natives at altitude and in the same subjects at sea level. Incapacitating migraine can occur with impaired cerebral vasoreactivity to physiologic vasodilators. We propose that susceptibility to migraine might depend in part on gene expression with consequent alterations of endothelial function.

  1. Relationship Between CT Perfusion Imaging and the Generation of Micro Lymphatic Vessels in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer%非小细胞肺癌CT灌注成像与微淋巴管生成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊涛; 韩琴芳; 潘历波; 赵学武; 王曙生; 郭利锋

    2015-01-01

    目的: CT灌注成像参数与肺癌的病理类型及微血管生成有一定的关系,为进一步判断CT灌注成像参数评价肺癌临床预后的价值,本文探讨非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)CT灌注成像参数血容量(BV)、血流量(BF)、对比剂到达峰值时间(TTP)和强化峰值(PEI)与微淋巴管密度(MLVD)的关系。资料与方法100例肺内单发结节患者行CT灌注扫描,其中60例经病理证实为NSCLC,采用免疫组化法观察60例NSCLC患者的MLVD表达,分析NSCLC患者CT灌注参数与MLVD表达的关系。结果 NSCLC患者MLVD在肺癌边缘组织分布最多(25.16±1.28),其次为肺癌中心组织(16.38±3.58),在正常肺组织中分布最少(7.56±4.38),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。肿瘤BF、BV与肿瘤MLVD计数呈正相关(r=0.643、0.598, P<0.01)。结论 CT灌注成像参数BF、BV与NSCLC患者肿瘤微淋巴管生成有关,可在一定程度上预测肺癌的侵袭及转移。%PurposeThere is a certain correlation between parameters of CT perfusion imaging and pathological type and angiogenesis in lung cancer, in order to discuss the value of CT perfusion imaging parameters such as blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), time to peak (TTP) and peak enhancement image (PEI) for prognosis, this study is designed to observe the relationship between the parameters of CT perfusion imaging and micro lymphovascular density (MLVD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Materials and Methods 100 patients were enrolled in the study, all of them underwent CT perfusion imaging and 60 were diagnosed NSCLC by pathology, immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the expressions of MLVD of the 60 NSCLC, and the correlation analyses were carried out to determine the relationship between CT perfusion imaging and MLVD.Results The expression of MLVD was the most in the peripheral tissue of cancer (25.16±1.28), the next in the cancer tissue (16.38±3

  2. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  3. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  4. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  5. 46 CFR 182.330 - Pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 182.330 Section 182.330 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.330 Pressure vessels. All unfired pressure vessels must be... unfired pressure vessels must meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering)...

  6. Clay Corner: Recreating Chinese Bronze Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson where students make faux Chinese bronze vessels through slab or coil clay construction after they learn about the history, function, and design of these vessels. Utilizes a variety of glaze finishes in order to give the vessels an aged look. Gives detailed guidelines for creating the vessels. (CMK)

  7. Cerebral Endothelial Function Determined by Cerebrovascular Reactivity to L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Pretnar-Oblak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and plays an important role in many physiological functions including the control of vasomotor tone. Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types but until recently it was impossible to determine its function. In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. L-Arginine induces vasodilatation through enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO in the cerebral endothelium. Transcranial Doppler sonography is used for evaluation of cerebral blood flow changes. The method is noninvasive, inexpensive, and enables reproducible measurements. CVR-L-Arg has been compared to flow-mediated dilatation as a gold standard for systemic endothelial function and intima-media thickness as a marker for morphological changes. However, it seems to show specific cerebral endothelial function. So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. In addition CVR-L-Arg has also proven its usefulness in order to show potential improvement after pharmacological interventions. In conclusion CVR-L-Arg is a promising noninvasive research method that could provide means for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function in physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  9. Iron deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Phil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perivenular inflammation is a common early pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS. A recent hypothesis stated that CNS inflammation is induced by perivenular iron deposits that occur in response to altered blood flow in MS subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, an animal model was developed, called cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE, which presents with CNS perivascular iron deposits. This model was used to investigate the relationship of iron deposition to inflammation. Methods In order to generate cEAE, mice were given an encephalitogen injection followed by a stereotactic intracerebral injection of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Control animals received encephalitogen followed by an intracerebral injection of saline, or no encephalitogen plus an intracerebral injection of saline or cytokines. Laser Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow. MRI and iron histochemistry were used to localize iron deposits. Additional histological procedures were used to localize inflammatory cell infiltrates, microgliosis and astrogliosis. Results Doppler analysis revealed that cEAE mice had a reduction in cerebral blood flow compared to controls. MRI revealed T2 hypointense areas in cEAE animals that spatially correlated with iron deposition around vessels and at some sites of inflammation as detected by iron histochemistry. Vessels with associated iron deposits were distributed across both hemispheres. Mice with cEAE had more iron-labeled vessels compared to controls, but these vessels were not commonly associated with inflammatory cell infiltrates. Some iron-laden vessels had associated microgliosis that was above the background microglial response, and iron deposits were observed within reactive microglia. Vessels with associated astrogliosis were more commonly observed without colocalization of iron deposits. Conclusion The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of

  10. Cerebral Autoregulation in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Griffioen, Annemiek C.; Zeeman, Gerda; Belfort, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that preeclampsia is associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (determined by noninvasive arter

  11. Distribution and natural course of intracranial vessel wall lesions in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA at 7.0 tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, Anja G. van der; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brundel, Manon; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies using intracranial vessel wall MRI techniques showed that over 50 % of patients with ischemic stroke or TIA had one or more intracranial vessel wall lesions. In the current study, we assessed the preferential location of these lesions within the intracranial arterial tree and their potential changes over time in these patient groups. Forty-nine patients with ischemic stroke (n = 25) or TIA (n = 24) of the anterior cerebral circulation underwent 7.0 T MRI, including a T{sub 1}-weighted magnetization-preparation inversion recovery turbo-spin-echo (MPIR-TSE) sequence within one week and approximately one month after symptom onset. Intracranial vessel wall lesions were scored for multiple locations within the arterial tree and differences between one-week and one-month images. At baseline, 132 intracranial vessel wall lesions were found in 41 patients (84 %), located primarily in the anterior cerebral circulation (74 %), with a preferential location in the distal internal carotid artery and M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery. During follow-up, presence or enhancement patterns changed in 14 lesions (17 %). A large burden of intracranial vessel wall lesions was found in both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Most lesions were found to be relatively stable, possibly indicating a more generalized atherosclerotic process. (orig.)

  12. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-03-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

  13. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α Promotes Endogenous Adaptive Response in Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, a pivotal regulator of gene expression in response to hypoxia and ischemia, is now considered to regulate both pro-survival and pro-death responses depending on the duration and severity of the stress. We previously showed that chronic global cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH triggered long-lasting accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the hippocampus of rats. However, the role of the stabilized HIF-1α in CCH is obscure. Here, we knock down endogenous HIF-1α to determine whether and how HIF-1α affects the disease processes and phenotypes of CCH. Lentivirus expressing HIF-1α small hairpin RNA was injected into the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ventricles to knock down HIF-1α gene expression in the hippocampus and other brain areas. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusions, known as 2-vessel occlusions (2VOs, were used to induce CCH in rats. Angiogenesis, oxidative stress, histopathological changes of the brain, and cognitive function were tested. Knockdown of HIF-1α prior to 2VO significantly exacerbates the impairment of learning and memory after four weeks of CCH. Mechanically, reduced cerebral angiogenesis, increased oxidative damage, and increased density of astrocytes and microglia in the cortex and some subregions of hippocampus are also shown after four weeks of CCH. Furthermore, HIF-1α knockdown also disrupts upregulation of regulated downstream genes. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α-protects the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation response in the disease process of CCH. Accumulated HIF-1α during CCH mediates endogenous adaptive processes to defend against more severe hypoperfusion injury of the brain, which may provide a therapeutic benefit.

  14. NADPH oxidase 4 attenuates cerebral artery changes during the progression of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, Yara; Meirelles, Thayna; Dantas, Ana P; Schröder, Katrin; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc

    2016-05-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that is often associated with the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene mutation and characterized by cardiovascular alterations, predominantly ascending aortic aneurysms. Although neurovascular complications are uncommon in MFS, the improvement in Marfan patients' life expectancy is revealing other secondary alterations, potentially including neurovascular disorders. However, little is known about small-vessel pathophysiology in MFS. MFS is associated with hyperactivated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which among numerous other downstream effectors, induces the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) isoform of NADPH oxidase, a strong enzymatic source of H2O2 We hypothesized that MFS induces middle cerebral artery (MCA) alterations and that Nox4 contributes to them. MCA properties from 3-, 6-, or 9-mo-old Marfan (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) mice were compared with those from age/sex-matched wild-type littermates. At 6 mo, Marfan compared with wild-type mice developed higher MCA wall/lumen (wild-type: 0.081 ± 0.004; Marfan: 0.093 ± 0.002; 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), coupled with increased reactive oxygen species production, TGF-β, and Nox4 expression. However, wall stiffness and myogenic autoregulation did not change. To investigate the influence of Nox4 on cerebrovascular properties, we generated Marfan mice with Nox4 deficiency (Nox4(-/-)). Strikingly, Nox4 deletion in Marfan mice aggravated MCA wall thickening (cross-sectional area; Marfan: 6,660 ± 363 μm(2); Marfan Nox4(-/-): 8,795 ± 824 μm(2); 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), accompanied by decreased TGF-β expression and increased collagen deposition and Nox1 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that Nox4 mitigates cerebral artery structural changes in a murine model of MFS.

  15. Distribution of microglial cells in the cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ignácio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, morphology and morphometry of microglial cells in the chick cerebral hemispheres from embryonic day 4 (E4 to the first neonatal day (P1 were studied by histochemical labeling with a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum lectin. The histochemical analysis revealed lectin-reactive cells in the nervous parenchyma on day E4. Between E4 (5.7 ± 1.35 mm length and E17 (8.25 ± 1.2 mm length, the lectin-reactive cells were identified as ameboid microglia and observed starting from the subventricular layer, distributed throughout the mantle layer and in the proximity of the blood vessels. After day E13, the lectin-reactive cells exhibited elongated forms with small branched processes, and were considered primitive ramified microglia. Later, between E18 (5.85 ± 1.5 mm cell body length and P1 (3.25 ± 0.6 mm cell body length, cells with more elongated branched processes were observed, constituting the ramified microglia. Our findings provide additional information on the migration and differentiation of microglial cells, whose ramified form is observed at the end of embryonic development. The present paper focused on the arrangement of microglial cells in developing cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks, which are little studied in the literature. Details of morphology, morphometry and spatial distribution of microglial cells contributed to the understanding of bird and mammal central nervous system ontogeny. Furthermore, the identification and localization of microglial cells during the normal development could be used as a morphological guide for embryonic brain injury researches.

  16. Cerebral Amyloidal Angiopathy--a disease with implications for neurology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Nowak, Dennis A; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-06-26

    Cerebral Amyloidal Angiopathy (CAA), which occurs sporadically in most cases but can also occur hereditarily, belongs to the group amyloidoses and is characterized by the deposition and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) in smaller arterial vessels of the brain. The deposition of Aβ leads to degenerative changes in the cerebral vessel system (thickening of the vessel wall, microaneurysm, constriction of vascular lumen, dissection), which favour the development of the clinical symptomatology most often associated with CAA. Besides haemorrhages, cerebral ischaemia, transient neurological symptoms, leukoencephalopathy as well as cognitive decline and even dementia may appear in connection with CAA. A definite diagnosis of CAA can only be made on the basis of a pathological assessment, even though diagnostic findings of cerebral neuroimaging and clinical symptoms allow the diagnosis of a probable CAA. At present, no causal therapy options are available. Although CAA is placed within the range of neurological illnesses, psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive impairment, personality change or behavioural problems as well as depression are plausible clinical manifestations of CAA and may even dominate the clinical picture. Apart from epidemiological, pathogenetical, clinical and diagnostical aspects, possible psychiatric implications of CAA are discussed in the review article.

  17. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity.

  18. [Two Cases of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Complicated with Delayed Coil Protrusion after Coil Embolization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Ogata, Atsushi; Ebashi, Ryo; Takase, Yukinori; Masuoka, Jun; Kawashima, Masatou; Abe, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Case 1:An 82-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small anterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Eighteen days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the right anterior cerebral artery was observed without any symptoms. Further coil protrusion did not develop after 28 days. Case 2:A 78-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small left middle cerebral artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Twenty days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the left middle cerebral artery was observed, with a transient ischemic attack. Further coil protrusion did not develop. Both patients recovered with antithrombotic treatment. Even though delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization is rare, it should be recognized as a long-term complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms.

  19. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Manniesing (Rashindra); M.A. Viergever; W.J. Niessen (Wiro)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orient

  20. The Limit of Large Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Peiju

    2011-01-01

    On Feb 21(st),the industry was shocked by the news that AP Moller-Maersk placed an order of 10 container ships of 18,000 TEU with the South Korean ship yards.The order brings the development of large vessels to a new climax and at the same time puts forward a series of research subjects to the industry,such as what is the limit for the development of large vessels,whether ship safety can be guaranteed,and etc.

  1. [Cerebral venous thrombosis imagiologic features in a pregnant woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Madalena; Rios, Ana Cristina; Fragata, Isabel; Baptista, José Tiago; Manaças, Rui; Reis, João

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively rare but serious condition potentially reversible upon accurate diagnosis and adequate therapy. The peri-partum state and pregnancy are predisposing factors and TVC accounts for about 6% of maternal deaths. Its clinical symptoms depend on the the thrombus site and extension, and also on the existing collateral vessels network. We present the case of a 33 year-old woman, 13 weeks pregnant, that complained of headaches and whose cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a subtotal oclusión of the superior sagittal sinus. We discuss the imaging features of dural venous thrombosis in the acute phase.

  2. Primaer cerebral vaskulitis hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradsgaard, Dan Østergaard; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Østergaard, John Rosendahl;

    2010-01-01

    detected by magnetic resonance were diagnosed with primary CNS vasculitis. Age at onset was three to 12 years. Acutely acquired hemiparesis was seen in five children, two had facial palsy. Among other symptoms were headache, ataxia, dysarthria, loss of consciousness and seizures. Only modest changes......INTRODUCTION: Primary cerebral vasculitis in children is a newly recognized, rare inflammatory condition affecting the vessels of the brain. It is characterized by newly acquired neurological deficit(s) with angiographic or histological evidence of central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis...

  3. [Macro- and microscopic systematization of cerebral cortex malformations in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, A P; Milovanova, O A

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in pediatric pathologicoanatomic practice the complete systematization of cerebral cortex malformations is represented. Organ, macroscopic forms: microencephaly, macroencephaly, micropolygyria, pachygyria, schizencephaly, porencephaly, lissencephaly. Histic microdysgenesis of cortex: type I includes isolated abnormalities such as radial (IA) and tangential (I B) subtypes of cortical dislamination; type II includes sublocal cortical dislamination with immature dysmorphic neurons (II A) and balloon cells (II B); type III are the combination focal cortical dysplasia with tuberous sclerosis of the hippocampus (III A), tumors (III B) and malformations of vessels, traumatic and hypoxic disorders (III C). Band heterotopias. Subependimal nodular heterotopias. Tuberous sclerosis. Cellular typification of cortical dysplasia: immature neurons and balloon cells.

  4. Measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and duplex ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Liu, Jie; Tarumi, Takashi; Lawley, Justin Stevan; Liu, Peiying; Zhu, David C; Lu, Hanzhang; Zhang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS) are commonly used for measuring cerebral blood flow in the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries. However, agreement between the two methods has been controversial. Recent development of high spatial and temporal resolution blood vessel wall edge-detection and wall-tracking methods with CDUS increased the accuracy and reliability of blood vessel diameter, hence cerebral blood flow measurement. The aim of this study was to compare the improved CDUS method with 3 T PC-MRI for cerebral blood flow measurements. We found that cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the ICA was lower using PC-MRI than CDUS (left ICA: PC-MRI, 18.0 ± 4.2 vs. CDUS, 25.6 ± 8.6 cm/s; right ICA: PC-MRI, 18.5 ± 4.8 vs. CDUS, 26.6 ± 6.7 cm/s, both p blood flow velocity measured in the left vertebral artery with PC-MRI was also lower than CDUS, but no differences in vertebral artery diameter were observed between the methods. Dynamic changes and/or intrinsic physiological fluctuations may have caused these differences in vessel diameter and velocity measurements between the methods. However, estimation of volumetric cerebral blood flow was similar and correlated between the methods despite the presence of large individual differences. These findings support the use of CDUS for cerebral blood flow measurements in the ICA and vertebral artery.

  5. Assessing cortical cerebral microinfarcts on high resolution MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veluw, Susanne J.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Luijten, Peter R.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microinfarcts are frequent findings in the post-mortem human brain, and are related to cognitive decline and dementia. Due to their small sizes it is challenging to study them on clinical MRI scans. It was recently demonstrated that cortical microinfarcts can be depicted with MRI scanners u

  6. Resolution of bilateral moyamoya associated collateral vessel aneurysms: Rationale for endovascular versus surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Amin-Hanjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of aneurysms associated with deep collateral vessels in moyamoya disease is challenging both from an endovascular and a surgical standpoint. Difficulties with access or localization, and compromise of the collateral circulation with subsequent ischemia are the primary concerns, making direct obliteration potentially unfeasible or risky. Alternatively, superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass is another potential strategy for resolution of these aneurysms. Case Description: Presented are the findings and management for a patient with moyamoya disease and bilateral deep collateral vessel aneurysms, successfully treated with endovascular obliteration following a right-sided hemorrhage and subsequently with bypass for an unruptured but growing contralateral aneurysm. Conclusions: A rationale and approach to management is outlined, as derived from review of the current literature and the illustrative case with bilateral collateral vessel aneurysms.

  7. 78 FR 47826 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAMMIN; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... small groups''. Geographic Region: ``Maryland, Virginia, Washington, DC, North Carolina, South Carolina... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  8. Transcription factor changes following long term cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhang; Weijuan Gao; Tao Qian; Jinglong Tang; Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using four-vessel occlusion and found that hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology was damaged, and that there were reductions in hippocampal neuron number and DNA-binding activity of cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, accompanied by decreased learning and memory ability. These findings indicate that decline of hippocampal cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein DNA-binding activities may contribute to neuronal injury and learning and memory ability reduction induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  9. [Lin Xue-Jian's experience on treatment of a part of cerebral diseases with scalp acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Li; Wu, Jiu-Wei

    2005-10-01

    LIN Xue-Jian adopts Chinese traditional acupuncture and moxibustion manipulation methods to stimulate the special area of scalp to treat a part of brain-derived diseases, such as infantile cerebral palsy, nerve deafness, cerebellar ataxia, lacunar cerebral infarction, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety, insomnia and central constipation, and so on. Scalp acupuncture can improve ability of blood and oxygen supply for general blood vessels; stimulation of corresponding acupoint area according to symptoms and signs can control condition of disease; and can repair, activate and regenerate the injured, dormancy and aging neurons, so as to dredge nerve network in the brain, hence better therapeutic effect.

  10. The effect of simulated microgravity on nitrergic innervation of the middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyukova, O. E.; Tarasova, O. S.; Tsvirkoun, D. V.; Buravkov, S. V.; Vinogradova, O. L.

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the density of nitrergic perivascular nerves in rat cerebral vessels after 2-week tail suspension. Preparations of middle cerebral artery (MCA) were histochemically stained for NADPH- diaphorase. A significant decrease of density of nerves exhibiting NADPH-diaphorase activity was revealed in proximal part of MCA in post-suspension rats: 28±4 vs 49±5 points per 1002 μm2 in control. Therefore, vascular alterations under conditions of microgravity may include the decreased influence of dilatory nitrergic nerves.

  11. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...

  12. Aerial Remote Radio Frequency Identification System for Small Vessel Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    26 e. Non-consumptive, “Eco- tourism ” Use...................................27 f. RFID Use in Resource Management...defined as an individual or entity who does not actively remove anything from the marine domain, e.g., whale watching (Beeh, 1999). a. Consumptive...Recreational fishermen believe that any type of interference can be construed as unconstitutional, a risk to tourism dollars, an injustice to those who solely

  13. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  14. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  15. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  16. Modelling of Heat Loss in Closed Vessels during propellant Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.P. KulKarni

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Closed vessel technique is essentially used to determine the force constant, vivacity and the burning rate of gun propellants. In fact, it is the only method to find out these three parameters experimentally. It is a well-known fact that however small the propellant burning time may be, there will be heat loss to the walls of the vessel due to conduction, convection, radiation and also due to the expansion of the vessel. This fact necessitates applying correction to the observed maximum pressure in the experiment. An analysis is presented in this paper as to how this heat loss can be modelled along with discussion about other models reported in this field.

  17. Clinical studies of cerebral circulation using single photon emission computed tomography, 2; Evaluation of cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide loading on moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Toshiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1993-09-01

    To evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with moyamoya disease, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed using acetazolamide-activated {sup 133}Xe inhalation method. In the present investigation, 15 patients were subjected: 6 pediatric cases with the mean age of 10.8 years and 9 adult cases with the mean age of 44.6 years. The regional CBF (rCBF) was measured in the territory of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was evaluated from the rCBF measured before and after administration of acetazolamide. Namely, cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was expressed as %CBF and calculated as follows: %CBF=100 x (CBF after acetazolamide administration-CBF at rest)/CBF at rest. rCBF in adult patients was decreased in the cerebral hemisphere, while that in childhood was significantly decreased in the territory of ACA. The %CBF after acetazolamide loading was decreased in the territory of ACA and MCA in both adult and childhood. When cerebral %CBF was compared to the cerebellar %CBF, the ratio of cerebral %CBF and cerebellar %CBF resulted in markedly lower in childhood than adult. rCBF and cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity were also measured before and after extracranial and intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in three pediatric moyamoya patients. Although rCBF was increased immediately after EC-IC bypass surgery, the cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity remained blunted. These results meant that in the pediatric moyamoya patients cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity is more blunted than adult moyamoya patients. Also, the cerebral vessels in moyamoya disease were considered to be dilated to their limitation by the blood supplied through the EC-IC bypass and not to be expandable any more by acetazolamide. (author) 45 refs.

  18. Region-based geometric modelling of human airways and arterial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Songlin; Ye, Yong; Tu, Jiyuan; Subic, Aleksandar

    2010-03-01

    Anatomically precise geometric models of human airways and arterial vessels play a critical role in the analysis of air and blood flows in human bodies. The established geometric modelling methods become invalid when the model consists of bronchioles or small vessels. This paper presents a new method for reconstructing the entire airway tree and carotid vessels from point clouds obtained from CT or MR images. A novel layer-by-layer searching algorithm has been developed to recognize branches of the airway tree and arterial vessels from the point clouds. Instead of applying uniform accuracy to all branches regardless of the number of available points, the surface patches on each branch are constructed adaptively based on the number of available elemental points, which leads to the elimination of distortions occurring at small bronchi and vessels.

  19. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in non-exteriorized near-term sheep fetuses using the radioactive microsphere technique. By partially occluding the umbilical vessels for a period of 1--1 1/2 hours a progressive and severe asphyxia with a final arterial pH of 6.90 was achieved. Varying...

  20. Selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors during organ culture of cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoel, N L;