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Sample records for cerebral metabolic effects

  1. The effect of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Vascular dementia is one of the most familiar types of senile dementia. Over the past few years, the research on the damage of cerebral tissues after ischemia has become a focus. The factors and mechanism of cerebral tissue damage after ischemia are very complex. The handicap of energy metabolism is regarded as the beginning factor which leads to the damage of neurons, but its dynamic changes in ischemic area and its role during the process of neuronal damage are not very clear. There are few civil reports on using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance instrument to explore the changes of cerebral energy metabolism in intravital animals. After exploring the influence of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice, we came to the conclusion that herbs can improve the cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice.

  2. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

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    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G. (NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-12-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states.

  3. Metabolic effects of perinatal asphyxia in the rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Samir Khal; Martins, Tiago Leal; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer; Silva, Roselis Silveira Martins da; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We reported previously that intrauterine asphyxia acutely affects the rat hippocampus. For this reason, the early effects of this injury were studied in the cerebral cortex, immediately after hysterectomy (acute condition) or following a recovery period at normoxia (recovery condition). Lactacidemia and glycemia were determined, as well as glycogen levels in the muscle, liver and cortex. Cortical tissue was also used to assay the ATP levels and glutamate uptake. Asphyxiated pups exhibited bluish coloring, loss of movement, sporadic gasping and hypertonia. However, the appearance of the controls and asphyxiated pups was similar at the end of the recovery period. Lactacidemia and glycemia were significantly increased by asphyxia in both the acute and recovery conditions. Concerning muscle and hepatic glycogen, the control group showed significantly higher levels than the asphyxic group in the acute condition and when compared with groups of the recovery period. In the recovery condition, the control and asphyxic groups showed similar glycogen levels. However, in the cortex, the control groups showed significantly higher glycogen levels than the asphyxic group, in both the acute and recovery conditions. In the cortical tissue, asphyxia reduced ATP levels by 70 % in the acute condition, but these levels increased significantly in asphyxic pups after the recovery period. Asphyxia did not affect glutamate transport in the cortex of both groups. Our results suggest that the cortex uses different energy resources to restore ATP after an asphyxia episode followed by a reperfusion period. This strategy could sustain the activity of essential energy-dependent mechanisms.

  4. Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, n=18, withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, n=13, and not taking metformin (noMET, n=9. Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI- based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism during isoflurane anaesthesia in man

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    Algotsson, L.; Messeter, K. (Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Rosen, I. (Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Holmin, T. (Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Seven normoventilated and five hyperventilated healthy adults undergoing cholecystectomy and anaesthetized with methohexitone, fentanyl and pancuronium were studied with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cereal metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo[sub 2]), and quantified electroencephalography (EEG) under two sets of conditions: (1) 1.7% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in air/oxygen: (2) 0.85% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O)/oxygen. The object was to study the effects of N[sub 2]O during isoflurane anaesthesia on cerebral circulation, metabolism and neuroelectric activity. N[sub 2]O in the anaesthetic gas mixture caused a 43% (P<0.05) increase in CBF during normocarbic conditions but no significant change during hypocapnia. CMRo[sub 2] was not significantly altered by N[sub 2]O. EEG demonstrated an activated pattern with decreased low frequency activity and increased high frequency activity. The results confirm that N[sub 2]O is a potent cerebral vasodilator in man, although the mechanisms underlying the effects on CBF are still unclear. (au).

  6. Effect of desipramine and fluoxetine on energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Brunello, Nicoletta; Tascedda, Fabio

    2016-08-25

    Brain bioenergetic abnormalities in mood disorders were detected by neuroimaging in vivo studies in humans. Because of the increasing importance of mitochondrial pathogenetic hypothesis of Depression, in this study the effects of sub-chronic treatment (21days) with desipramine (15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg) were evaluated on brain energy metabolism. On mitochondria in vivo located in neuronal soma (somatic) and on mitochondria of synapses (synaptic), the catalytic activities of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways were assayed. Antidepressants in vivo treatment modified the activities of selected enzymes of different mitochondria, leading to metabolic modifications in the energy metabolism of brain cortex: (a) the enhancement of cytochrome oxidase activity on somatic mitochondria; (b) the decrease of malate, succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities of synaptic mitochondria; (c) the selective effect of fluoxetine on enzymes related to glutamate metabolism. These results overcome the conflicting data so far obtained with antidepressants on brain energy metabolism, because the enzymatic analyses were made on mitochondria with diversified neuronal in vivo localization, i.e. on somatic and synaptic. This research is the first investigation on the pharmacodynamics of antidepressants studied at subcellular level, in the perspective of (i) assessing the role of energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria in animal models of mood disorders, and (ii) highlighting new therapeutical strategies for antidepressants targeting brain bioenergetics.

  7. EFFECT OF ELECTRO0-SCALP ACUPUNCTURE ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM OF THE CEREBRAL REGIONS INVOLVING MENTAL ACTIVITY IN HEAL THY PEOPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong(黄泳); Win Moe Htut; LI Dong-jiang(李东江); TANG An-wu(唐安戊); LI Qiu-shi(李求实)

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electro-scalp acupuncture on glucose metabolism of cerebral regions involving mental activity in healthy people. Methods: A total of 6 cases of volunteer healthy subjects (3 males and 3 females) ranging in age from 22 to 36 years were subjected to this study. Changes of cerebral glucose metabolism before and after electro-scalp acupuncture were observed by using positron emission tomography (PET) and semi-quantifying analysis method. Electro-scalp acupuncture stimulation (50 Hz, 2 mA) of Middle Line of Vertex (Dingzhongxian,顶中线,MS5), Middle Line of Forehead (Ezhongxian, 额中线,MS1) and bilateral Lateral Line 1 of Forehead (Epangyixian,额旁一线,MS2) was administered for 30 minutes. Then cerebral regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen and their average glucose metabolism levels (radioactivity of 18 fluorine deoxyglucose ) were analyzed. Results:After administration of electro-scalp acupuncture, the glucose metabolism levels in bilateral frontal lobes and bilateral caudate nuclei, left cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum increased significantly in comparison with those of pre-stimulation (P<0.05). Conclusion:Electro-scalp acupuncture of MS1, MS2 and MS5 can increase the glucose metabolism of certain cerebral regions involving in mental activity in healthy subjects.

  8. Effects of hyperthermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Volianitis, Stefanos

    2002-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle...... ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were determined with the Kety-Schmidt technique after 15 min of exercise when core temperature was similar across trials, and at the end of exercise, either when subjects remained normothermic (core temperature = 37.9 degrees C...... with control at the end of exercise (43 +/- 4 vs. 51 +/- 4 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1); P

  9. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE STIMULATION AT SANYINJIAO (SP 6) ON CEREBRAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN DYSMENORRHEA PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ping; ZHANG Ming-min; JIANG Li-ming; WU Zhi-jian; WANG Wei; HUANG Guang-ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the central mechanism of acupuncture stimulation of Sanyinjiao ( 三阴交 SP6) in relieving dysmenorrhea. Methods: A total of 6 dysmenorrhea volunteer patients were subjected into this study. On the first positron emission tomography (PET) scan examination, they were assigned to pseudoacupuncture group by using the acupuncture needle just to prick the skin of Sanyinjiao (SP 6); while on the second PET scans, they were assigned to acupuncture group by inserting the needle into the same acupoint.18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET of the whole brain was performed during pseudo-acupuncture and real acupuncture of Sanyinjiao (SP 6). The acquired PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software to determine changes of glucose metabolism in different cerebral regions. The patient's pain intensity was rated by using 0- 10 numerical pain intensity scale. Results: After pseudo-acupuncture stimulation of Sanyinjiao (SP 6), no significant changes were found in the pain intensity ( P >0.05), while after real-acupuncture stimulation, the pain intensity declined significantly (P < 0.01 ). Following acupuncture of the right Sanyinjiao (SP 6), multiple cerebral regions involving pain were activated (increase of glucose metabolism), including ipsilateral lenticular nucleus (globus pallidus, putamen), ipsilateral cerebellum and insular lobe, bilateral dorsal thalamus, ipsilateral paracentral lobule, bilateral amygdaloid bodies, contralateral substantia nigra of the midbrain, bilateral second somatosensory (S Ⅱ ) areas, ispsilateral hippocampal gyrus, frontal part of the ipsilateral cingulated gyrus, and bilateral mammary bodies of the hypothalamus. In addition, fewer regions of the cerebral cortex responded with decrease of the glucose metabolism after real acupuncture.

  10. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes in...... in brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  11. Effect of sevoflurane and propofol on cerebral oxygen metabolism in cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative neurological function injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhu; Wei-Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sevoflurane and propofol on cerebral oxygen metabolism in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and postoperative neurological function injury.Methods:A total of 48 cases of patients who received mitral valve replacement under CPB in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into sevoflurane group (S group) and propofol group (P group) who received sevoflurane-based intravenous inhalational anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia respectively, cerebral oxygen metabolism indexes were determined before CPB started (T0), when nasopharyngeal temperature fell to a constant low temperature (T1), when CPB ended (T2) and 1 h after CPB ended (T3) respectively during operation, and serum neurological function, cardiac function and liver function injury molecules were determined after operation.Results: Intraoperative SjvO2, AVDO2, O2ER and rSO2 were not significantly different between two groups, SjvO2 at T1 significantly increased, AVDO2 and O2ER significantly decreased and rSO2 didn’t change significantly, SjvO2 at T2 significantly decreased, AVDO2 and O2ER significantly increased and rSO2 didn’t change significantly; postoperative serum NSE, S100β, Aβ, Glu, Asp and Gly levels of S group were significantly lower than those of P group, and CK-MB, LDH, cTnI, ALT and AST levels were not significantly different from those of P group.Conclusion:Both sevoflurane and propofol can maintain the balance of cerebral oxygen metabolism in mitral valve replacement under CPB and protect the cardiac function and liver function, but sevoflurane has more ideal protective effect on postoperative neurological function.

  12. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, P L; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different levels of sleep into consideration, show that light sleep (stage II) is characterized by global levels of CBF and CMR only slightly reduced by 3-10% below the level associated with wakefulness, whereas CBF and CMR during deep sleep (stage III-IV) is dramatically reduced by 25-44%. Furthermore, recent data indicate that global levels of CBF and CMR are about the same during REM sleep as in wakefulness. On the regional level, deep sleep seems to be associated with a uniform decrease in regional CBF and CMR. Investigations concerning regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep are few but data from recent investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep.

  13. Effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 张光霁; 丁学华; 江基尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: An acute experimental closed TBI model in rats was induced by a fluid-percussion brain injury model. At five and sixty minutes after TBI, the animals were intraperitoneally injected by ganglioside GM1 (30 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline. At the 6th hour after TBI, effects of ganglioside GM1 or saline on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), contents of water, lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the injured cerebral tissues were observed.Results: After TBI, MAP decreased and contents of water, LA and LPO increased in brain injury group; however, MAP was back to normal levels and contents of water, LA and LPO decreased in ganglioside GM1 treated group, compared with those in brain injury group (P0.05) was observed.Conclusions: Ganglioside GM1 does have obvious neuroprotective effect on early TBI.

  14. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  15. Cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during human endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Qvist, Jesper;

    2002-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), has been suggested to mediate septic encephalopathy through an effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. The effect of an intravenous bolus of endotoxin on global CBF, metabolism, and net flux of cytokines...... and catecholamines was investigated in eight healthy young volunteers. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique at baseline (during normocapnia and voluntary hyperventilation for calculation of subject-specific cerebrovascular CO reactivity), and 90 minutes after an intravenous bolus...

  16. The effect of diazepam sedation on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease as measured using positron emission tomography.

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    Foster, N L; VanDerSpek, A F; Aldrich, M S; Berent, S; Hichwa, R H; Sackellares, J C; Gilman, S; Agranoff, B W

    1987-08-01

    The effect of sedation induced by intravenous diazepam on cerebral glucose metabolic activity was examined with [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in five patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Each subject was studied on 2 separate days: on one occasion at rest with eyes patched and ears open, and on the second when sedated with intravenous diazepam titrated to maintain stage II sleep by clinical and EEG criteria. Similar patterns of glucose uptake were observed in both the presence and the absence of sedation, but overall glucose utilization was depressed an average of 20% and was closely correlated with the amount of diazepam administered prior to the injection of FDG. The predominant temporoparietal hypometabolism and relative sparing of frontal metabolism observed in this disease are therefore not explained by differences in anxiety or activity level in this patient group. Utilization of diazepam sedation for PET study appears to be safe and may permit the study of patients otherwise unable to cooperate with FDG-PET procedures.

  17. Differentiated effect of ageing on the enzymes of Krebs' cycle, electron transfer complexes and glutamate metabolism of non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria from cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Hoyer, S

    2006-11-01

    The effect of ageing on the activity of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism was studied in three different types of mitochondria of cerebral cortex of 1-year old and 2-year old male Wistar rats. We assessed the maximum rate (V(max)) of the mitochondrial enzyme activities in non-synaptic perikaryal mitochondria, and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria. The results indicated that: (i) in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex the values of the catalytic activities of the enzymes markedly differed in the various populations of mitochondria; (ii) in intra-synaptic mitochondria, ageing affected the catalytic properties of the enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism; (iii) these changes were more evident in intra-synaptic "heavy" than "light" mitochondria. These results indicate a different age-related vulnerability of subpopulations of mitochondria in vivo located into synapses than non-synaptic ones.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P exercising at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (approximately 211 W). Before training, both OCI (3.9 +/- 0.9) and DeltaP(Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P ... attenuates the cerebral metabolic response to submaximal exercise, as reflected in a lower carbohydrate uptake and maintained cerebral oxygenation....

  19. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

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    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  20. Effect of ageing and ischemia on enzymatic activities linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacids metabolism of free and intrasynaptic mitochondria of cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2009-12-01

    The effect of ageing and the relationships between the catalytic properties of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacid metabolism of cerebral cortex, a functional area very sensitive to both age and ischemia, were studied on mitochondria of adult and aged rats, after complete ischemia of 15 minutes duration. The maximum rate (Vmax) of the following enzyme activities: citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase as total (integrated activity of Complex I-III), rotenone sensitive (Complex I) and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) for electron transfer chain; glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate-and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases for glutamate metabolism were assayed in non-synaptic, perikaryal mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., the light and heavy mitochondrial fraction. The results indicate that in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex, the value of the same enzyme activity markedly differs according (a) to the different populations of mitochondria, i.e., non-synaptic or intra-synaptic light and heavy, (b) and respect to ageing. After 15 min of complete ischemia, the enzyme activities of mitochondria located near the nucleus (perikaryal mitochondria) and in synaptic structures (intra-synaptic mitochondria) of the cerebral tissue were substantially modified by ischemia. Non-synaptic mitochondria seem to be more affected by ischemia in adult and particularly in aged animals than the intra-synaptic light and heavy mitochondria. The observed modifications in enzyme activities reflect the metabolic state of the tissue at each specific experimental condition, as shown by comparative evaluation with respect to the content of energy-linked metabolites and substrates. The derangements in enzyme activities due to ischemia is greater in aged than in adult animals and especially the non-synaptic and the intra-synaptic light

  1. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  2. Stress-related changes in cerebral catecholamine and indoleamine metabolism: lack of effect of adrenalectomy and corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A J

    1988-08-01

    The concentrations of catecholamine and indoleamine metabolites were measured in intact and adrenalectomized mice to determine whether adrenal hormones mediate or modulate the stress-induced responses. Thirty minutes of footshock resulted in significant increases of the ratios of the dopamine (DA) catabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), to DA in prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem, and of homovanillic (HVA)/DA ratios in nucleus accumbens, striatum, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Ratios of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol to norepinephrine (NE) were also increased in prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, septum, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brainstem. The concentration of NE was decreased in amygdala. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) ratios and free tryptophan were also increased in every brain region. Very similar data were obtained from mice restrained for 30 min. Adrenalectomy resulted in increased HVA/DA ratios in prefrontal cortex and striatum, and 5-HIAA/5-HT in septum. The stress-related changes were largely similar in adrenalectomized mice. Significant interactions between adrenalectomy and footshock treatment occurred in prefrontal cortical DOPAC/DA and hypothalamic NE which was depleted only in adrenalectomized mice, suggesting tendencies for these measures to be more responsive in adrenalectomized mice. Corticosterone administration (0.5-2.0 mg/kg s.c.) which resulted in plasma concentrations in the physiological range did not alter the concentrations of the cerebral metabolites measured in any region. We conclude that adrenal hormones do not mediate cerebral catecholamine or indoleamine metabolism in stress, although adrenalectomy may affect HVA and 5-HIAA metabolism, and there was a tendency for catecholamines to be more sensitive to stress in adrenalectomized animals.

  3. Effect of fasudil combined with conventional therapy on nerve and blood coagulation function as well as Hcy metabolism in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Lu

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of fasudil combined with conventional therapy on nerve and blood coagulation function as well as Hcy metabolism in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods:80 patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital between January 2013 and January 2013 were selected as the research subjects and divided into observation group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40) according to the random number table. Control group received conventional therapy and observation group received fasudil combined with conventional therapy. After 14 d of treatment, the levels of cerebral blood perfusion parameters, nerve function indexes, platelet function indexes and homocysteine (Hcy) of two groups of patients were determined.Results:After 14 d of treatment, middle cerebral artery and basilar artery peak systolic flow velocity (Vs), low diastolic flow velocity (Vd) and mean flow velocity (Vm) levels of observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum nerve function indexes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) content were higher than those of control group (P<0.05) while phosphatidic acid (PA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β protein (S100β), and substantia nigra divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum platelet function indexes platelet activation-dependent granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), fibrinogen receptor-1 (PAC-1), platelet activating factor (PAF) and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum Hcy content was lower than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Fasudil combined with conventional therapy can optimize the nerve function and blood coagulation function in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and also plays a positive role in reducing Hcy levels.

  4. PET measurements of cerebral metabolism corrected for CSF contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawluk, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.J.; Hurtig, H.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Reivich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-three subjects have been studied with PET and anatomic imaging (proton-NMR and/or CT) in order to determine the effect of cerebral atrophy on calculations of metabolic rates. Subgroups of neurologic disease investigated include stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, psychosis, and dementia. Anatomic images were digitized through a Vidicon camera and analyzed volumetrically. Relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue were calculated. Preliminary analysis suggests that ventricular volumes as determined by NMR and CT are similar, while sulcal volumes are larger on NMR scans. Metabolic rates (18F-FDG) were calculated before and after correction for CSF spaces, with initial focus upon dementia and normal aging. Correction for atrophy led to a greater increase (%) in global metabolic rates in demented individuals (18.2 +- 5.3) compared to elderly controls (8.3 +- 3.0,p < .05). A trend towards significantly lower glucose metabolism in demented subjects before CSF correction was not seen following correction for atrophy. These data suggest that volumetric analysis of NMR images may more accurately reflect the degree of cerebral atrophy, since NMR does not suffer from beam hardening artifact due to bone-parenchyma juxtapositions. Furthermore, appropriate correction for CSF spaces should be employed if current resolution PET scanners are to accurately measure residual brain tissue metabolism in various pathological states.

  5. Alterations in local cerebral glucose metabolism and endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rolling mouse Nagoya and effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y

    1996-11-01

    To identify the brain region(s) responsible for the expression of ataxic gaits in an ataxic mutant mouse model, Rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN), changes in local cerebral glucose metabolism in various brain regions and the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate (TRH-T), together with alterations in endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels in the brains of RMN, were investigated. Ataxic mice [RMN (rol/rol)] showed significant decreases in glucose metabolism in regions of the diencephalon: thalamic dorsomedial nucleus, lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus; brain stem: substantia nigra, raphe nucleus and vestibular nucleus; and cerebellar nucleus as compared with normal controls [RMN (+/+)]. When RMN (rol/rol) was treated with TRH-T (10 mg/kg, equivalent to 7 mg/kg free TRH), glucose metabolism was significantly increased in these regions. These results suggest that these regions may be responsible for ataxia. We also found that TRH levels in the cerebellum and brain stem of RMN (rol/rol) were significantly higher than those of RMN (+/+). These results suggest that ataxic symptoms in RMN (rol/rol) may relate to the abnormal metabolism of TRH and energy metabolism in the cerebellum and/or brain stem and that exogenously given TRH normalizes them.

  6. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon;

    2006-01-01

    In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...

  7. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Lund; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one......-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its...

  8. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  9. Cerebral vascular control and metabolism in heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bain, Anthony R; Nybo, Lars; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    in cerebral oxygen extraction. However, severe increases in whole-body and brain temperature may increase blood-brain barrier permeability, potentially leading to cerebral vasogenic edema. The cerebrovascular challenges associated with hyperthermia are of paramount importance for populations with compromised......This review provides an in-depth update on the impact of heat stress on cerebrovascular functioning. The regulation of cerebral temperature, blood flow, and metabolism are discussed. We further provide an overview of vascular permeability, the neurocognitive changes, and the key clinical...... implications and pathologies known to confound cerebral functioning during hyperthermia. A reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), derived primarily from a respiratory-induced alkalosis, underscores the cerebrovascular changes to hyperthermia. Arterial pressures may also become compromised because of reduced...

  10. Cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with spasmodic torticollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MagyarLehmann, S; Antonini, A; Roelcke, U; Maguire, RP; Missimer, J; Leenders, KL

    1997-01-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis is not clear. Basal ganglia dysfunction has been suggested to underlie this clinical syndrome. We studied resting cerebral glucose metabolism in 10 spasmodic torticollis patients and 10 healthy controls by using positron-emission tomography and [F-18]2-fl

  11. Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2007-11-01

    Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5alpha-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ERalpha (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ERalpha protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ERalpha, AR, and 5alpha-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

  12. Complementary acupuncture treatment increases cerebral metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhuo, Ying; Tang, Anwu; Wik, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) and the 18-flourodeoxyglucose tracer to study cerebral effects of complementary acupuncture in Parkinson's disease. Five patients received scalp-acupuncture and Madopa, while the other five had Madopa only. PET scans before and after 5 weeks of complementary acupuncture treatment show increased glucose metabolisms in parietal, temporal, occipital lobes, the thalamus, and the cerebellum in the light-diseased hemisphere, and in parietal and occipital lobes of the severe-diseased hemisphere. No changes were observed in the Madopa-only group. Acupuncture in combination with Madopa may improve cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium.......05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis...

  14. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki (National Central Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author).

  15. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J B; Cold, G E; Hansen, E S;

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification of the classi......Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification......). Controlled hypotension to an average MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was induced by increasing the dose of isoflurane, and maintained at an inspired concentration of 2.2 +/- 0.2%. This resulted in a significant decrease in CMRO2 (to 1.73 +/- 0.16 ml/100 g min-1), while CBF was unchanged. After the clipping...

  16. Influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Ning-Ning Cui; Bin-Cheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods:A total of 58 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease in our hospital from April 2015 to January 2016 were selected as the study object, and 58 patients were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in control group were treated with routine treatment, 29 patients in observation group were treated with remote ischemic preconditioning on the basic treatment of control group, then the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were respectively detected and compared.Results:The cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment all showed no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of observation group at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were all significantly better than those before the treatment, and the results were all significantly better than those of control group at the same time too (allP>0.05).Conclusions: The influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease are better, and its application value for the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease is higher.

  17. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  18. Metabolic Changes in Rats with Photochemically Induced Cerebral Infarction and the Effects of Batroxobin: A Study by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1H- and 31P- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管兴志; 吴卫平; 匡培根; 匡培梓; 高杨; 管林初; 李丽云; 毛希安; 刘买利

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic changes in rats with photochemically induced cerebral infarction and the effects of batroxobin were investigated 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infarction by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 1H- and 31P- magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A region of T2 hyperintensity was observed in left temporal neocortex in infarction group and batroxobin group 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infarction. The volume of the region gradually decreased from 1 day to 7 days after infarction. The ratio of NAA/Cho+Cr in the region of T2 hyperintensity in the infarction group was significantly lower than that in the corresponding region in the sham-operated group 3, 5 and 7 days after infarction respectively (P<0.05). Lac appeared in the region of T2 hyperintensity in the infarction group 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infarction, but it was not observed in the corresponding region in sham-operated group at all time points. Compared with the sham-operated group, the ratios of bATP/PME+PDE and PCr/PME+PDE of the whole brain in the infarction group were significantly lower 1, 3 and 5 days after infarction respectively (P<0.05), and the ratio of bATP/PCr also was significantly lower 1 day after infarction (P<0.05). Batroxobin significantly decreased the volume of the region of T2 hyperintensity 1 and 3 days after infarction (P<0.05), significantly increased the ratio of NAA/Cho+Cr in the region 5 and 7 days after infarction (P<0.05), significantly decreased the ratios of Lac/Cho+Cr and Lac/NAA in the region 5 and 7 days after infarction (P<0.05), and significantly increased the ratios of bATP/PME+PDE and bATP/PCr in the whole brain 1 day after infarction (P<0.05). The results indicated that the infracted region had severe edema, increased Lac and apparent neuronal dysfunction and death, and energy metabolism of the whole brain decreased after focal infarction, and that batroxobin effectively ameliorated the above-mentioned abnormal changes.

  19. The cerebral metabolic ratio is not affected by oxygen availability during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, S.; Fabricius-Bjerre, A.; Overgaard, A.;

    2008-01-01

    .2% during exercise with an inspired O(2) fraction of 0.17 and 0.30, respectively. Whilst the increase in a-v lactate difference was attenuated by manipulation of cerebral O(2) availability, the cerebral metabolic ratio was not affected significantly. During maximal rowing, the cerebral metabolic ratio...

  20. Metabolic control of resting hemispheric cerebral blood flow is oxidative, not glycolytic

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, William. J.; Videen, Tom O.; Markham, Joanne; Walter, Vonn; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the close regional coupling of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) with both cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) within individuals is well documented, there are few data regarding the coupling between whole brain flow and metabolism among different subjects. To investigate the metabolic control of resting whole brain CBF, we performed multivariate analysis of hemispheric CMRO2, CMRglc, and other covariates as predictors of resting ...

  1. Ventilatory response in metabolic acidosis and cerebral blood volume in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between alterations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and central chemosensitivity regulation was studied under neutral metabolic conditions and during metabolic acidosis. Fifteen healthy subjects (5610 years) were investigated. To induce metabolic acidosis, ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl)

  2. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hazama, Shiro; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Nobuhiro

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N- isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21 +/- 7.65 to 56.24 +/- 13.69 (p equals 0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p equals 0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p equals 0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total- Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26 +/- 9.82% to 72.98 +/- 8.09% (p equals 0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r equals 0.758, p equals 0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r equals 0.740, p equals 0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide.

  3. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

  4. Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Dehaes, Mathieu; Carp, Stefan; Fenoglio, Angela; Barbieri, Beniamino; Hagan, Katherine; Grant, P Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2013-03-14

    Perinatal brain injury remains a significant cause of infant mortality and morbidity, but there is not yet an effective bedside tool that can accurately screen for brain injury, monitor injury evolution, or assess response to therapy. The energy used by neurons is derived largely from tissue oxidative metabolism, and neural hyperactivity and cell death are reflected by corresponding changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO₂). Thus, measures of CMRO₂ are reflective of neuronal viability and provide critical diagnostic information, making CMRO₂ an ideal target for bedside measurement of brain health. Brain-imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yield measures of cerebral glucose and oxygen metabolism, but these techniques require the administration of radionucleotides, so they are used in only the most acute cases. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) provides non-invasive and non-ionizing radiation measures of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO₂) as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen consumption. However, SO₂ is less than ideal as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen metabolism as it is influenced by both oxygen delivery and consumption. Furthermore, measurements of SO₂ are not sensitive enough to detect brain injury hours after the insult, because oxygen consumption and delivery reach equilibrium after acute transients. We investigated the possibility of using more sophisticated NIRS optical methods to quantify cerebral oxygen metabolism at the bedside in healthy and brain-injured newborns. More specifically, we combined the frequency-domain NIRS (FDNIRS) measure of SO2 with the diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measure of blood flow index (CBFi) to yield an index of CMRO₂ (CMRO₂i). With the combined FDNIRS/DCS system we are able to quantify cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics. This represents an improvement over CWNIRS for detecting brain health, brain

  5. Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Energy Metabolism in Severe Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Schulz, Mette; Jacobsen, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity have remained high in bacterial meningitis. Impairment of cerebral energy metabolism probably contributes to unfavorable outcome. Intracerebral microdialysis is routinely used to monitor cerebral energy metabolism, and recent experimental studies indicate...... that this technique may separate ischemia and non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study is a retrospective interpretation of biochemical data obtained in a series of patients with severe community-acquired meningitis. METHODS: Cerebral energy metabolism was monitored in 15 patients with severe...... community-acquired meningitis utilizing intracerebral microdialysis and bedside biochemical analysis. According to previous studies, cerebral ischemia was defined as lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio >30 with intracerebral pyruvate level

  6. Effects of reactive oxygen species on metabolism monitored by longitudinal {sup 1}H single voxel MRS follow-up in patients with mitochondrial disease or cerebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M; Collet, S; Hossu, G; Courtheoux, P [MRI Unit, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Guillamo, J S; Lechapt-Zalcman, E; Valable, S [CERVOxy Group, CI-NAPS, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Cyceron, Caen, Normandy (France); Lacombe, S; Houee Levin, C [Paris-Sud 11 University-CNRS, Orsay (France); Gauduel, Y A [LOA, Ecole Polytechnique - ENSTA ParisTech, Palaiseau (France); Dou, W [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Ruan, S [CReSTIC EA 3804, IUT Troyes, Troyes (France); Barre, L [GDMTEP, Group CI-NAPS, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Cyceron, Caen (France); Rioult, F [CNRS UMR 6072, GREYC, Caen, Normandy (France); Derlon, J M [Neurosurgery and Neurology, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Chapon, F [Pathology, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Fong, V [Caen University (France); Kauffmann, F, E-mail: constans-jm@chu-caen.fr [Mathematics LMNO CNRS UMR 6139, Caen University, Caen, Normandy (France)

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals, or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), have an effect on energy and glycolytic metabolism, mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism, necrosis and apoptosis, cell proliferation, and infiltration. These changes could be monitored longitudinally (every 4 months over 6 years) in humans with glial brain tumors (low and high grade) after therapy, using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Some examples of early clinical data from longitudinal follow-up monitoring in humans of energy and glycolytic metabolism, lipid metabolism, necrosis, proliferation, and infiltration measured by conventional MRI, MRS and perfusion, and positron emission tomography (PET) are shown in glial brain tumors after therapy. Despite the difficulty, the variability and unknown factors, these repeated measurements give us a better insight into the nature of the different processes, tumor progression and therapeutic response.

  7. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  8. Effects of dopamine infusion on cerebral blood flow, brain cell membrane function and energy metabolism in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis in the newborn piglet.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Won Soon; Chang, Yun Sil; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Mi Jung; Ko, Sun Young; Kim, Sung Shin; Hwang, Jong Hee; Choi, Chang Won; Lee, Munhyang

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by pharmacologically preventing systemic hypotension with dopamine infusion would prevent cerebral ischemia and attenuate energy depletion and neuronal injury even though intracranial pressure remains elevated in a newborn piglet meningitis model. Cerebral blood flow, measured at the end of the experiment using fluorescent microspheres, was significantly increased by dopamine infusion. The decrea...

  9. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murkin, J.M.; Farrar, J.K.; Tweed, W.A.; McKenzie, F.N.; Guiraudon, G.

    1987-09-01

    Measurement of /sup 133/Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO/sub 2/ at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO/sub 2/ of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption.

  10. Imaging cerebral 2-ketoisocaproate metabolism with hyperpolarized (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Sadia Asghar; Søgaard, Lise Vejby-Christensen; Magnusson, Peter O.;

    2012-01-01

    The branched chain amino acid transaminase (BCAT) has an important role in nitrogen shuttling and glutamate metabolism in the brain. The purpose of this study was to describe the cerebral distribution and metabolism of hyperpolarized 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate (KIC) in the normal rat using magnetic...... resonance modalities. Hyperpolarized KIC is metabolized to [1-(13)C]leucine (leucine) by BCAT. The results show that KIC and its metabolic product, leucine, are present at imageable quantities 20 seconds after end of KIC administration throughout the brain. Further, significantly higher metabolism...... was observed in hippocampal regions compared with the muscle tissue. In conclusion, the cerebral metabolism of hyperpolarized KIC is imaged and hyperpolarized KIC may be a promising substrate for evaluation of cerebral BCAT activity in conjunction with neurodegenerative disease.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow...

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in patients with moyamoya disease not demonstrating either cerebral infarct or hemorrhage on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Matsushima, Toshio; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in moyamoya patients who did not demonstrate either cerebral infarct or hemorrhage on MRI. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with moyamoya disease (4 females and one male, aged from 15 to 40 ears). The CBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} of the moyamoya patients did not differ from those of the normal control subjects. The CBV did increase significantly in the cerebral cortices and striatum, but not in the cerebellum. The TT was also significantly prolonged in the frontal and parietal regions. The cerebrovascular CO{sub 2} response was markedly impaired in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortices. However, it was relatively preserved in the occipital cortex, thalamus and cerebellum. Thus, the cerebral hemodynamic reserve capacity decreased even in the moyamoya patients not demonstrating either cerebral infarct or hemorrhage on MRI, and it should be considered in the management of these patients. (author).

  12. Ozone autohemotherapy induces long-term cerebral metabolic changes in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, F; Simonetti, V; Franzini, M; Pandolfi, S; Vaiano, F; Valdenassi, L; Liboni, W

    2014-01-01

    Ozone autohemotherapy is an emerging therapeutic technique that is gaining increasing importance in treating neurological disorders. A validated and standard methodology to assess the effect of such therapy on brain metabolism and circulation is however still lacking. We used a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system to monitor the cerebral metabolism and a transcranial Doppler (TCD) to monitor the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. Fifty-four subjects (32 neurological patients and 22 controls) were tested before, during, and after ozone autohemotherapy. We monitored the concentration changes in the level of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin, and in the level of the Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CYT-c). As a primary endpoint of the work, we showed the changes in the brain metabolism and circulation of the entire population. The concentration of oxygenated haemoglobin increased after the reinjection of the ozoned blood and remained higher than the beginning for another 1.5 hours. The concentration of the deoxygenated haemoglobin decreased during the therapy and the CYT-c concentration markedly increased about 1 hour after the reinjection. No significant changes were observed on the blood flow velocity. As secondary endpoint, we compared the NIRS metabolic pattern of 20 remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients against 20 controls. We showed that by using only 7 NIRS variables it was possible to characterize the metabolic brain pattern of the two groups of subjects. The MS subjects showed a marked increase of the CYT-c activity and concentration about 40 minutes after the end of the autohemotherapy, possibly revealing a reduction of the chronic oxidative stress level typical of MS sufferers. From a technical point of view, this preliminary study showed that NIRS could be useful to show the effects of ozone autohemotherapy at cerebral level, in a long-term monitoring. The clinical result of this study is the quantitative measurement of the

  13. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... to baseline ventilation, whereas CMR(glu) increased. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, we found variable levels of CBF and cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, a low a-v DO(2), low cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose, and a cerebral lactate efflux. In these patients...

  14. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF......, but increases during cycling exercise. The increase in CMRO(2) is unaffected by beta-adrenergic blockade even though CBF is reduced suggesting that cerebral oxygenation becomes critical and a limited cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension may induce fatigue. Also, sympathetic activity may drive cerebral non...

  15. Influence of rotating magnetic field on cerebral infarction volume, cerebral edema and free radicals metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Liu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that magnetic field can improve blood circulation, decrease blood viscosity, inhibit free radicals, affect Ca2+ flow in nerve cells, control inflammatory and immunological reaction, and accelerate nerve cell regeneration. In addition, protective effect of magnetic field, which acts as an iatrophysics, on ischemic brain tissues has been understood gradually.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on volume of cerebral infarction,cerebral edema and metabolism of free radicals in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Rehabilitation Center of disabled children, Liaoniang; Department of Rehabilitation, the Second Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University; Department of Rehabilitation Physiotherapy, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 70 healthy Wistar rats aged 18-20 weeks of both genders were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group with 12 rats, control group with 20 rats and treatment group with 38 rats. The treatment group included 4 time points: immediate reperfusion with 6 ones, 6-hour reperfusion with 20 ones, 12-hour reperfusion with 6 ones and 18-hour reperfusion with 6 rats. Main instruments were detailed as follows: magnetic head of rotating magnetic device was 6 cm in diameter; magnetic induction intensity at the surface of magnetic head was 0.25 T in silence; the maximal magnetic induction intensity was 0.09 T at the phase of rotation; the average rotating speed was 2500 r per minute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the China Medical University in March 2003. Focal cerebral ischemic animal models were established with modified Longa's method. Operation was the same in the sham operation, but the thread was inserted as 10 mm. Neurologic impairment was assessed with 5-rating method to screen out cases. Those survivals with grade 1 and grade 2 after ischemia for 2

  16. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, O.; Yasaka, M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Newton, M.R.; Thomas, D.L.; Chan, C.G.; Egan, G.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O``Keefe, G.; Donnan, G.A.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for PET and Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Stroke remains a devastating clinical event with few therapeutic options. In patients with acute stroke, we studied the cerebral perfusion and metabolic patterns with {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} positron emission tomography and correlated these findings to the clinical background. Forty three patients underwent 45 studies 0-23 days post-stroke (mean 7 days). Fifteen patients showed luxury perfusion (Group A), 10 had matched low perfusion and metabolism (B) and 3 showed mixed pattern including an area of misery perfusion (C). Seventeen showed no relevant abnormality (D) and there were no examples of isolated misery perfusion. Twelve of the 15 in Group A had either haemorrhagic transformation on CT, re-opening on angiography, or a cardioembolic mechanism. In contrast only 5/10 in Group B, 0/3 in Group C and 2/17 in Group D had these features. Although 7/10 in group B had moderate or large size infarcts on CT the incidence of haemorrhagic transformation was low (2/10) and significant carotid stenoses were more common in those studied (5/8) compared with the other groups. Misery perfusion was not seen beyond five days. Thus, luxury perfusion seems to be related to a cardio-embolic mechanism or reperfusion. Matched low perfusion and metabolism was associated with a low rate of haemorrhagic transformation despite a high incidence of moderate to large size infarcts. Misery perfusion is an early phenomenon in the evolution of ischaemic stroke.

  17. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders

    2001-04-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOE{epsilon}4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the {epsilon}4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single {epsilon}4 allele. On the contrary the relation of {epsilon}4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection

  18. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON CEREBRAL IMAGES IN AUTISM CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 张继武; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on images in autism children. Methods: A total of 27 cases of autism children were subjected into this study. By using a SPECT, the cerebral images were collected before and after acupuncture treatment and analyzed according to the recommended methods in for assessing the state of blood flow, radioactivity quantity distribution and radioactivity count in bilateral hemispheres. "JIN's three-needling" was employed. The acupuncture treatment was given once every other day, with 4 months being a therapeutic course and an interval of one month between two courses. Results: After acupuncture treatment, of the 22 cases, 20 had remarkable improvement and 2 had improvement in cerebral blood flow, with the total effective rate of improving cerebral blood flow being 90.8%. Before the treatment there were significant differences between the left and right cerebrum (P0.05). After treatment, the radioactivity count in the whole brain decreased significantly in comparison with that of pretreatment (P<0.01). It indicates the improvement of cerebral blood flow and cellular metabolism after the treatment. Conclusion:Acupumcture con significantly improve cerebral blood flow in autism children.

  19. EXPLORING THE MECHANISM OF ACUPUNCTURE IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE FROM CHANGES OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN THE CEREBRAL MOTOR CENTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石现; 左芳; 关玲

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of acupuncture on cerebral glucose metabolism in stroke patients.Methods:Changes of cerebral glucose metabolism before and after acupuncture stimulation were observed in six cases of stroke patients by using positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Electroacupuncture (EA,4 Hz, continuous waves and duration of 20 min) was applied to Baihui (百会GV 20) and right Qubin (曲鬓GB 7). 18 Fluorine deoxyglucose (18FDG), a developer (radioactive form of glucose) for showing the levels of the brain functional activity was given to the patients intravenously. SPM software was used to deal with the data of each pixel point by unilateral t-test (Ts: P=0.05), then, the regions showing increase/decrease of the glucose metabolism were obtained.Results:After acupuncture stimulation, significant increase of glucose metabolism was found to be in the first somatic motor cortical region (MI), supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor area (PMC), and the superior parietal lobule (LPs) on the healthy side of the brain; while the decrease of glucose metabolism found in MI, PMC and LPs on the focus side. In addition to the cerebral regions related to the motor function, changes of glucose metabolism were also found in the parietal lobule and basal ganglion area, central parietal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, putamen, cerebellum, etc..Conclusion:Acupuncture of Qubin (GB 7) and Baihui (GV 20) can activate motor-related cerebral structures in the bilateral cerebral hemisphere and induce excitement reaction of the potentially correlative motor area so as to compensate or assist the injured motor area to play a role in improving motor function in stroke patients.

  20. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Geriatric Medicine Miyama Hospital (Japan)); Doi, C. (Tohoku Univ. School of Literature (Japan). Dept. of Psychology); Yamaguchi, T.; Sasaki, H. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Geriatric Medicine); Matsui, H.; Yamada, K. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer); Kinomura, S. (Miyama Hospital (Japan) Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer); Itoh, M. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Cyclotron Radioisotope Center)

    1991-08-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the {sup 18}-F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.).

  1. Research on the effect of remifentanil on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow of patients with severe brain injury%瑞芬太尼对重型颅脑损伤患者脑氧代谢及脑血流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王言武

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of remifentanil on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow of patients with severe brain injury.Methods Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of the 64 cases with severe head injury ad-mitted to our hospital was processed. According to the anesthetic drugs ,64 cases were divided into treatment group and control group ,the control group was treated with fentanyl for anesthesia ,the treatment group was treated with remifentanil for anes-thesia. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic indexes of the two groups before anesthesia and after anesthesia for 10min were compared.Results Before anesthesia ,brain oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic parameters of the two groups were not significantly different ,P>0.05 ;10 min after anesthesia ,CERO2 of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group ,CjvO2 ,Da-jvO2 are significantly lower than that of the control group ,P<0.05;Qmean ,Wv of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group ;DR was significantly lower than that of the control group ,P<0.05.Conclusion Remifentanil anesthesia for patients with severe head injury surgery can improve cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow ,has high security.%目的:探讨瑞芬太尼对重型颅脑损伤患者脑氧代谢的影响。方法回顾性分析我院收治的64例重型颅脑损伤患者的临床资料,根据麻醉药物不同分为治疗组和对照组,对照组采用芬太尼麻醉,治疗组采用瑞芬太尼麻醉,比较2组患者麻醉前、麻醉后10 min时脑氧代谢指标和血流动力学指标。结果麻醉前2组患者的脑氧代谢指标和血流动力学指标比较均无显著性差异(P>0.05);麻醉后10 min治疗组CERO2显著高于对照组,CjvO2、Da-jvO2均显著低于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组Qmean、Wv显著高于对照组,DR显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论瑞芬太尼在重型颅脑损

  2. Cerebral metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Kondrup, Jens;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: High circulating levels of ammonia have been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral edema and herniation in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The aim of this study was to measure cerebral metabolism of ammonia and amino acids, with special emphasis on glutamine...... metabolism. METHODS: The study consisted of patients with FHF (n = 16) or cirrhosis (n = 5), and healthy subjects (n = 8). Cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe washout technique. Blood samples for determination of ammonia and amino acids were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery...... and the internal jugular bulb. RESULTS: A net cerebral ammonia uptake was only found in patients with FHF (1.62 +/- 0.79 micromol x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)). The cerebral glutamine efflux was higher in patients with FHF than in the healthy subjects and cirrhotics, -6.11 +/- 5.19 vs. -1.93 +/- 1.17 and -1.50 +/- 0...

  3. Cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by cyanide in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Olsen, N.V.; Toft, P;

    2013-01-01

    variables related to energy metabolism. METHODS: Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in piglets and evaluated by monitoring brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2 ) and cerebral levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol bilaterally. The biochemical variables were obtained by microdialysis...... metabolism and degradation of cellular membranes, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial dysfunction is characterised by an increased LP ratio signifying a shift in cytoplasmatic redox state at normal or elevated PbtO2 . The condition is biochemically characterised by a marked increase in cerebral lactate...... with a normal or elevated pyruvate level. The metabolic pattern is different from cerebral ischemia, which is characterised by simultaneous decreases in intracerebral pyruvate and PbtO2 . The study supports the hypothesis that cerebral ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction may be identified and separated...

  4. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in adults with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The intense intrathecal inflammation observed in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is associated with pronounced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. In seven substudies, CBF and metabolism were measured in adults with ABM as well as healthy volunteers during various interventions...

  5. Effects of CAG repeat length, HTT protein length and protein context on cerebral metabolism measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bruce G; Andreassen, Ole A; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan; Leavitt, Blair; Hayden, Michael; Borchelt, David; Ross, Christopher A; Ferrante, Robert J; Beal, M Flint

    2005-10-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative illness caused by expansion of CAG repeats at the N-terminal end of the protein huntingtin. We examined longitudinal changes in brain metabolite levels using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five different mouse models. There was a large (>50%) exponential decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) with time in both striatum and cortex in mice with 150 CAG repeats (R6/2 strain). There was a linear decrease restricted to striatum in N171-82Q mice with 82 CAG repeats. Both the exponential and linear decreases of NAA were paralleled in time by decreases in neuronal area measured histologically. Yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice with 72 CAG repeats, but low expression levels, had less striatal NAA loss than the N171-82Q mice (15% vs. 43%). We evaluated the effect of gene context in mice with an approximate 146 CAG repeat on the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRT). HPRT mice developed an obese phenotype in contrast to weight loss in the R6/2 and N171-82Q mice. These mice showed a small striatal NAA loss (21%), and a possible increase in brain lipids detectable by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and decreased brain water T1. Our results indicate profound metabolic defects that are strongly affected by CAG repeat length, as well as gene expression levels and protein context.

  6. Enhanced metabolic capacity of the frontal cerebral cortex after Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchey, A K; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2008-03-18

    While Pavlovian conditioning alters stimulus-evoked metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex, less is known about the effects of Pavlovian conditioning on neuronal metabolic capacity. Pavlovian conditioning may increase prefrontal cortical metabolic capacity, as suggested by evidence of changes in cortical synaptic strengths, and evidence for a shift in memory initially processed in subcortical regions to more distributed prefrontal cortical circuits. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure cumulative changes in brain metabolic capacity associated with both cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning in rats. The cued conditioned group received tone-foot-shock pairings to elicit a conditioned freezing response to the tone conditioned stimulus, while the contextually conditioned group received pseudorandom tone-foot-shock pairings in an excitatory context. Untrained control group was handled daily, but did not receive any tone presentations or foot shocks. The cued conditioned group had higher cytochrome oxidase activity in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortex, and lower cytochrome oxidase activity in dorsal hippocampus than the other two groups. A significant increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was found in anterior cortical areas (medial, dorsal and lateral frontal cortex; agranular insular cortex; lateral and medial orbital cortex and prelimbic cortex) in both conditioned groups, as compared with the untrained control group. In addition, no differences in cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory regions and the amygdala were detected among all groups. The findings indicate that cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning induces sustained increases in frontal cortical neuronal metabolic demand resulting in regional enhancement in the metabolic capacity of anterior cortical regions. Enhanced metabolic capacity of these anterior cortical areas after Pavlovian conditioning suggests that the frontal cortex may play a

  7. Adenosine mediates decreased cerebral metabolic rate and increased cerebral blood flow during acute moderate hypoxia in the near-term fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Power, Gordon G

    2003-12-15

    Exposure of the fetal sheep to moderate to severe hypoxic stress results in both increased cortical blood flow and decreased metabolic rate. Using intravenous infusion of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that is permeable to the blood brain barrier, we examine the role of adenosine A1 receptors in mediating cortical blood flow and metabolic responses to moderate hypoxia. The effects of DPCPX blockade are compared to controls as well as animals receiving intravenous 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline) (8-SPT), a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist which has been found to be blood brain barrier impermeable. Laser Doppler flow probes, tissue PO2, and thermocouples were implanted in the cerebral cortices of near-term fetal sheep. Catheters were placed in the brachial artery and sagittal sinus vein for collection of samples for blood gas analysis. Three to seven days later responses to a 30-min period of fetal hypoxemia (arterial PO2 10-12 mmHg) were studied with administration of 8-SPT, DPCPX, or vehicle. Cerebral metabolic rate was determined by calculation of both brain heat production and oxygen consumption. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 42 +/- 7 % decrease in cortical heat production and a 35 +/- 10 % reduction in oxygen consumption. In contrast, DPCPX infusion during hypoxia resulted in no significant change in brain heat production or oxygen consumption, suggesting the adenosine A1 receptor is involved in lowering metabolic rate during hypoxia. The decrease in cerebral metabolic rate was not altered by 8-SPT infusion, suggesting that the response is not mediated by adenosine receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 35 +/- 7 % increase in cortical blood flow. DPCPX infusion did not change this increase in cortical blood flow, however 8-SPT infusion attenuated increases in flow, indicating that hypoxic

  8. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    , but not by beta1-adrenergic blockade. Furthermore, endurance training appears to lower the cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake and preserve cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. This is possibly related to an attenuated catecholamine response. Finally, exercise promotes brain health as evidenced......This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... as evidenced by pharmacological manipulation of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Cholinergic blockade by glycopyrrolate blocks the exercise-induced increase in the transcranial Doppler determined mean flow velocity (MCA Vmean). Conversely, alpha-adrenergic activation increases that expression of cerebral...

  9. Time-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide loading into patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Relationship to cerebral oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between time-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acetazolamide loading and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO{sub 2}). The subjects consisted of 30 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of either internal carotid, middle cerebral, or vertebro-basilar artery. Regional CBF was measured at the resting state and 6, 16 and 30 minutes after intravenous administration of 1 gram of acetazolamide using the positron emission tomography in combination with the [{sup 15}O] H{sub 2}O bolus-injection method. Prior to CBF study, regional cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was measured using the [{sup 15}O] O{sub 2} inhalation method. Regional CMRO{sub 2} was calculated based on CBF and OEF. According to the time-dependent changes in CBF responses to acetazolamide loading, the CBF responses are classified into good response type, paradoxical response type, and poor response type. Good response type (CBF increase rate more than 20% 6 minutes after acetazolamide loading), paradoxical response type (decrease of CBF 6 minutes after acetazolamide loading) and poor response type (CBF increase rate less than 20% 6 minutes after acetazolamide loading) were identified in 39, 11 and 10 areas, respectively. Brain areas with good response type showed normal OEF and normal CMRO{sub 2}. Brain areas with paradoxical response type showed increased OEF and normal CMRO{sub 2}. Brain areas with poor response type showed normal OEF and decreased CMRO{sub 2}. In view of these findings, the writer concludes that sequential measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acetazolamide loading enables one to know the regional cerebral oxygen metabolic state in patients with hemodynamic ischemia, and CBF should be measured at an early stage after the administration of acetazolamide to accurately detect misery perfusion. (author)

  10. Effects of desflurane on cerebral autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedforth, N M; Girling, K J; Skinner, H J; Mahajan, R P

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desflurane, at 1 and 1.5 MAC, on cerebral autoregulation. Data were analysed from eight patients undergoing non-neurosurgical procedure. The blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cerebral autoregulation was assessed by the transient hyperaemic response test. Partial pressure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide (PE'(CO(2))) and mean arterial pressure were measured throughout the study. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and was maintained with desflurane at end-tidal concentrations of 7.4% (1 MAC) or 10.8% (1.5 MAC). The order of administration of the desflurane concentrations was determined randomly and a period of 15 min was allowed for equilibration at each concentration. The transient hyperaemic response tests were performed before induction of anaesthesia and after equilibration with each concentration of desflurane. An infusion of phenylephrine was used to maintain pre-induction mean arterial pressure and ventilation was adjusted to maintain the pre-induction value of PE'(CO(2)) throughout the study. Two indices derived from the transient hyperaemic response test (the transient hyperaemic response ratio and the strength of autoregulation) were used to assess cerebral autoregulation. Desflurane resulted in a marked and significant impairment in cerebral autoregulation; at concentrations of 1.5 MAC, autoregulation was almost abolished.

  11. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  12. Effect of labetalol on cerebral blood flow and middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Schierbeck, Jens; Howardy, P;

    1991-01-01

    in normotensive subjects. Neither does it affect CO2 reactivity. The uniform results obtained with the two methods suggest TCD as a usable alternative to conventional CBF technique in the assessment of cerebral vasoactivity of various drugs in subjects with a normal cerebral circulation.......The effect of labetalol, a combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, on the cerebral circulation was investigated in 7 normotensive subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with the intravenous 133Xe method and mean flow velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery was determined...

  13. Improved cerebral energetics and ketone body metabolism in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Nissen, Jakob D; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-03-01

    It is becoming evident that type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting brain energy metabolism. The importance of alternative substrates for the brain in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ketone bodies are relevant candidates to compensate for cerebral glucose hypometabolism and unravel the functionality of cerebral mitochondria in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acutely isolated cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice were incubated in media containing [U-(13)C]glucose, [1,2-(13)C]acetate or [U-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate and tissue extracts were analysed by mass spectrometry. Oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis of brain mitochondria of db/db mice were assessed by Seahorse XFe96 and luciferin-luciferase assay, respectively. Glucose hypometabolism was observed for both cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Significant increased metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]acetate and [U-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate was observed for hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Furthermore, brain mitochondria of db/db mice exhibited elevated oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis rate. This study provides evidence of several changes in brain energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The increased hippocampal ketone body utilization and improved mitochondrial function in db/db mice, may act as adaptive mechanisms in order to maintain cerebral energetics during hampered glucose metabolism.

  14. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  15. Effects of Yunnan Baiyao through inner layer of cerebral dura mater on cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in rabbits with severe traumatic brain injury%硬脑膜夹层导入云南白药对兔重型颅脑创伤后脑灌注和氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐震; 吕晓皑; 尹利明; 竺国充; 张昕; 李徐; 陈祖鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Yunnan Baiyao through inner layer of cerebral dura mater on cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in rabbits with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: 40 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into cerebral dura mater Yunnan Baiyao group(A group), intravenous Mannitol group(B group), oral Yunnan Baiyao group (C group) and control group(D group). Record ICP, CPP and MABP. TCD measured cerebral blood flow volume. Monitor blood gas analysis in femora) artery and internal jugular venous bulb, accounting the CEO2 and D-values of glucose and lactic acid between artery and venous bulb. Results: From 12 to 36 hour after therapy: the ICP of A was highter than B, the CPP and CBFV were lower than B (P<0.05). At 48 hour: the ICP of A was highter than B and lower than C and D, the CPP was lower than B and highter than Cand D, while the CBFV of A was highter than C and D(P<0.05). From 60 to 96 hour: the ICP of A was lower than C and D, the CPP of A was highter than C and D, the CBFV of A was highter than B, C and D(P<0.05). From 36 to 96: The Glua-jv and CEO2 of A were highter than B, C and D, while the Lacjv-a was lower than B, C and D(P<0.05). Conclusion: Yunnan Baiyao through cerebral dura mater can reach effective treatment concentration in brain. By increasing the efficiency of oxygen metabolism of brain it can ameliorate brain cell hypoxia and energy metabolism handicap, adjust cerebral microcirculation, thus improves cytotoxic brain edema, decreases cerebral blood flow resistance, reduces ICP and increase the CPP and CBFV.%目的:探讨硬脑膜夹层应用云南白药对兔重型颅脑创伤后颅内压、脑血流量和脑代谢的影响.方法:将40只雄性新西兰大白兔分为硬脑膜夹层云南白药组(A组)、静脉甘露醇组(B组)、口服云南白药组(C组)和空白组(D组),制作重型颅脑创伤模型,行颅内压(ICP)监测,记录平均动脉压(MABP),计算脑灌注压(CPP),经颅多普勒(TCD)测定脑

  16. [Study of regional cerebral glucose metabolism, in man, while awake or asleep, by positron emission tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, G; Salmon, E; Poirrier, R; Sadzot, B; Franco, G

    1987-03-01

    Measurements of regional cerebral glucose uptake by the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose technique (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with polygraph recordings were made serially during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of nocturnal sleep in two right-handed normal volunteers. During stage III-IV sleep, values declined diffusely in both hemispheric regions (-31%), thalamus (-33%), cerebellum (-33%) and brain stem (-25%). During paradoxical sleep regional values increased diffusely compared with slow wave sleep. Compared to wakefulness, regional metabolic values seemed to increase but the results were more variable from one volunteer to the other. These preliminary data indicate important regional alterations in cerebral metabolism between sleep states.

  17. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole L

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... ammonia concentration and cerebral metabolic rate of blood ammonia (CMRA). We addressed these questions in a paired study design by investigating patients with cirrhosis during and after recovery from an acute episode of HE type C. CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRA were measured by dynamic positron emission...

  18. Metabolic control of resting hemispheric cerebral blood flow is oxidative, not glycolytic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William J; Videen, Tom O; Markham, Joanne; Walter, Vonn; Perlmutter, Joel S

    2011-05-01

    Although the close regional coupling of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) with both cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) within individuals is well documented, there are few data regarding the coupling between whole brain flow and metabolism among different subjects. To investigate the metabolic control of resting whole brain CBF, we performed multivariate analysis of hemispheric CMRO(2), CMRglc, and other covariates as predictors of resting CBF among 23 normal humans. The univariate analysis showed that only CMRO(2) was a significant predictor of CBF. The final multivariate model contained two additional terms in addition to CMRO(2): arterial oxygen content and oxygen extraction fraction. Notably, arterial plasma glucose concentration and CMRglc were not included in the final model. Our data demonstrate that the metabolic factor controlling hemispheric CBF in the normal resting brain is CMRO(2) and that CMRglc does not make a contribution. Our findings provide evidence for compartmentalization of brain metabolism into a basal component in which CBF is coupled to oxygen metabolism and an activation component in which CBF is controlled by another mechanism.

  19. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This model would most likely predict a decrease in the rate of cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). To test this hypothesis, we compared CMRO(2...

  20. Investigations on the effects of ``Ecstasy`` on cerebral glucose metabolism: an 18-FDG PET study; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von ``Ecstasy`` auf den zerebralen Glukosemetabolismus: eine 18-FDG-PET-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Tuttass, T.; Schulz, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Buell, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie, Universitaetsklinikum, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the `Ecstasy` analogue MDE (3,4-methylendioxyethamphetamine) on the cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers. Method: In a randomised double-blind trial, 16 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with 18-FDG PET 110-120 minutes after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Beginning two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, a constant cognitive stimulation was maintained for 32 minutes using a word repetition paradigm in order to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral 18-FDG uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash MRI, followed by manual regionalisation into 108 regions-of-interest and PET/MRI overlay. Absolute quantification of rMRGlu and comparison of glucose metabolism under MDE versus placebo were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Absolute global MRGlu was not significantly changed under MDE versus placebo (MDE: 41,8{+-}11,1 {mu}mol/min/100 g, placebo: 50,1{+-}18,1 {mu}mol/min/100 g, p=0,298). The normalised regional metabolic data showed a significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: Left frontal posterior (-7.1%, p<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, p<0.05). On the other hand, rMRGlu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, p<0.05; left: +7.6%, p<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study revealed acute neurometabolic changes under the `Ecstasy` analogon MDE indicating a fronto-striato-cerebellar dysbalance with parallels to other psychotropic substances and various endogenous psychoses respectively. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In der vorliegenden Studie sollte die Akutwirkung des `Ecstasy`-Analogons MDE (3,4-Methylendioxyethamphetamin) auf den zentralen Glukosemetabolismus (rMRGlu) gesunder Probanden untersucht werden. Methode: In einer randomisierten

  1. Local cerebral glucose metabolism during controlled hypoxemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsinelli, W A; Duffy, T E

    1979-05-11

    2-Deoxy-[14C]glucose metabolism was examined in brains of hypoxic, normotensive rats by autoradiography, which revealed alternating cortical columns of high and low metabolism. Activity in white matter was increased severalfold over that in adjacent gray matter. The columns were anatomically related to penetrating cortical arteries with areas between arteries demonstrating higher rates of metabolism. The results suggest the presence of interarterial tissue oxygen gradients that influence regional glucose metabolism. The relatively greater sensitivity of white matter metabolism to hypoxia may lead to an understanding of white matter damage in postanoxic leukoencephalopathy.

  2. Cerebral vascular effects of hypovolemia and dopamine infusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Hahn, Gitte; Heiring, Christian; Pryds, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use, effects of volume boluses and dopamine in hypotensive newborn infants remain controversial. We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature.......Despite widespread use, effects of volume boluses and dopamine in hypotensive newborn infants remain controversial. We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature....

  3. Impact of Nutrition on Cerebral Circulation and Cognition in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mellendijk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, appears to be driving the global epidemics cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Nutrition has a major impact on MetS and plays an important role in the prevention, development, and treatment of its features. Structural and functional alterations in the vasculature, associated with MetS, might form the link between MetS and the increased risk of developing CVD and T2DM. Not only does the peripheral vasculature seem to be affected, but the syndrome has a profound impact on the cerebral circulation and thence brain structure as well. Furthermore, strong associations are shown with stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. In this review the impact of nutrition on the individual components of MetS, the effects of MetS on peripheral and cerebral vasculature, and its consequences for brain structure and function will be discussed.

  4. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography...

  5. Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Retardation and Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haier, Richard J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were determined for 10 individuals with mild mental retardation (MR), 7 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and 10 matched controls. MR and DS groups both had brain volumes of about 80% compared to controls, with variance greatest within the MR group. (SLD)

  6. Cerebral perfusion and metabolism in resuscitated patients with severe post-hypoxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; de Jong, B M; Bams, J.L.; Haaxma-Reiche, H; Pruim, J; Zijlstra, J G

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used for the study of regional cerebral perfusion and metabolism in eight patients with severe post-hypoxic encephalopathy, caused by cardiac arrest and resulting in a coma lasting for at least 24 h. Using this method, we aimed to identify regional vulnerabilit

  7. Cerebral O2 metabolism and cerebral blood flow in humans during deep and rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    It could be expected that the various stages of sleep were reflected in variation of the overall level of cerebral activity and thereby in the magnitude of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The elusive nature of sleep imposes major methodological restriction...... associated with light anesthesia. During REM sleep (dream sleep) CMRO2 was practically the same as in the awake state. Changes in CBF paralleled changes in CMRO2 during both deep and REM sleep....... on examination of this question. We have now measured CBF and CMRO2 in young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep sleep (stage 3/4), and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep as verified by standard polysomnography....... Contrary to the only previous study in humans, which reported an insignificant 3% reduction in CMRO2 during sleep, we found a deep-sleep-associated statistically highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2, a magnitude of depression according with studies of glucose uptake and reaching levels otherwise...

  8. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R

    2003-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio...... young subjects. In a second experiment magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed after exhaustive exercise to assess lactate levels in the brain (n = 5). Exercise increased the AV(O2) from 3.2 +/- 0.1 at rest to 3.5 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/-s.e.m.; P ...-venous differences (AV) for O(2), glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy...

  9. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  10. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  11. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons.

  12. Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Hartwich, Doreen; Seifert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) were measured. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular vein and brachial artery to determine concentration differences for oxygen (O(2......)), glucose and lactate across the brain. The molar ratio between the cerebral uptake of O(2) versus carbohydrate (O(2)-carbohydrate index; O(2) / [glucose + 0.5 lactate]; OCI), the cerebral metabolic rate of O(2) (CMRO(2)) and changes in mitochondrial O(2) tension (P(mito)O(2)) were calculated. W...

  13. Tyrosine impairs enzymes of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2012-05-01

    Tyrosine levels are abnormally elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of patients with inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II, which is caused by deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase and provokes eyes, skin, and central nervous system disturbances. Considering that the mechanisms of brain damage in these disorders are poorly known, in this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of tyrosine on some parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of 14-day-old Wistar rats. We observed that 2 mM tyrosine inhibited in vitro the pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and that this inhibition was prevented by 1 mM reduced glutathione with 30, 60, and 90 min of preincubation. Moreover, administration of tyrosine methyl ester (TME) (0.5 mg/g of body weight) decreased the activity of PK and this reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with creatine (Cr). On the other hand, tyrosine did not alter adenylate kinase (AK) activity in vitro, but administration of TME enhanced AK activity not prevented by Cr pre-treatment. Finally, TME administration decreased the activity of CK from cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions and this diminution was prevented by Cr pre-treatment. The results suggest that tyrosine alters essential sulfhydryl groups necessary for CK and PK functions, possibly through oxidative stress. In case this also occurs in the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism alterations may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction of hypertyrosinemias.

  14. Effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoli Xia; Baoling Sun; Mingfeng Yang; Dongmei Hu; Tong Zhao; Jingzhong Niu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that although brain does not contain lining endothelial lymphatic vessel,it has lymphatic drain.Anterior lymphatic vessel in brain tissue plays a key role in introducing brain interstitial fluid to lymphatic system;however,the significance of lymphatic drain and the affect on cerebral edema remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Institute of Cerebral Microcirulation of Taishan Medical College and Department of Neurology of Affiliated Hospital.MATERIALS:A total of 63 healthy adult male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were selected in this study.Forty-seven rats were used for the morphological observation induced by lymphatic drain and randomly divided into three groups:general observation group(n=12),light microscopic observation group(n=21)and electronic microscopic observation group(n=14).The rats in each group were divided into cerebral lymphatic block subgroup and sham-operation control subgroup.Sixteen rats were divided into cerebral the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cortical evoked potential,in which the animals were randomly divided into sham-operation group(n=6)and cerebral lymphatic block group(n=10).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Institute of Cerebral Microcirculation of Taishan Medical College from January to August 2003.Rats in cerebral lymphatic block group were anesthetized and separated bilateral superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes under sterile condition. Superior and inferior boarders of lymph nodes were ligated the inputting and outputting channels, respectively, and then lymph node was removed so as to establish cerebral lymphatic drain disorder models. Rats in sham-operation control group were not ligated the lymphatic vessel and removed lymph nodes.and other operations were as the same as those in cerebral lymphatic block group

  15. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  16. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  17. Effect of intracarotid injection of iopamidol on local cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, D; Cicciarello, R; Albiero, F; Piscitelli, G; Fiori, M G; Mesiti, M; Princi, P; d'Aquino, S

    1989-01-01

    We assessed, by means of the [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography method, the effect of intracarotid injection of a nonionic, low-osmolar contrast medium (iopamidol) on local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat brain. Contrast medium was injected at 20 degrees C and at 37 degrees C, and the relative changes in local cerebral glucose utilization were measured. At 20 degrees C the viscosity of the contrast agent was about twice that of the same solution at 37 degrees C, and resulted in a statistically significant increase in local cerebral glucose utilization in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the side of intracarotid infusion. Saline control studies showed that the metabolic change was not related to either the solution temperature or the osmolality. These findings suggest that increased viscosity of a contrast medium may contribute to its neurotoxic effects during cerebral angiography, hence emphasizing the importance of preheating contrast material to avoid adverse reactions.

  18. Effects of specific multi-nutrient enriched diets on cerebral metabolism, cognition and neuropathology in AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Jansen

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can

  19. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  20. Low Cerebral Glucose Metabolism: A Potential Predictor for the Severity of Vascular Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunqi; Wei, Xiaobo; Liu, Xu; Liao, Jinchi; Lin, Jiaping; Zhu, Cansheng; Meng, Xiaochun; Xie, Dongsi; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Cheng, Muhua; Tang, Beisha; Zhang, Zhuohua; Xia, Ying; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the association between cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRGlc) and the severity of Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). A cross-sectional study was performed to compare CMRGlc in normal subjects vs. VP and PD patients. Twelve normal subjects, 22 VP, and 11 PD patients were evaluated with the H&Y and MMSE, and underwent 18F-FDG measurements. Pearson's correlations were used to identify potential associations between the severity of VP/PD and CMRGlc. A pronounced reduction of CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen was detected in patients with VP and PD when compared with normal subjects. The VP patients displayed a slight CMRGlc decrease in the caudate putamen and frontal lobe in comparison with PD patients. These decreases in CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen were significantly correlated with the VP patients' H&Y, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, MMSE, cardiovascular, and attention/memory scores. Similarly, significant correlations were observed in patients with PD. This is the first clinical study finding strong evidence for an association between low cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of VP and PD. Our findings suggest that these changes in glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms of VP and PD. As the scramble to find imaging biomarkers or predictors of the disease intensifies, a better understanding of the roles of cerebral glucose metabolism may give us insight into the pathogenesis of VP and PD.

  1. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.

  2. Fatigue in Parkinson's disease: The contribution of cerebral metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Aminian, Kelly; Li, Crystal; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease associated with a feeling of overwhelming lack of energy. The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates that may contribute to the development of fatigue in Parkinson's disease. Twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients meeting UK Brain Bank criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease were recruited and completed the 2-[(18) F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET scan. The metabolic activities of Parkinson's disease patients with fatigue were compared to those without fatigue using statistical parametric mapping analysis. The Parkinson's disease group exhibiting higher level of fatigue showed anti-correlated metabolic changes in cortical regions associated with the salience (i.e., right insular region) and default (i.e., bilateral posterior cingulate cortex) networks. The metabolic abnormalities detected in these brain regions displayed a significant correlation with level of fatigue and were associated with a disruption of the functional correlations with different cortical areas. These observations suggest that fatigue in Parkinson's disease may be the expression of metabolic abnormalities and impaired functional interactions between brain regions linked to the salience network and other neural networks. Hum Brain Mapp 38:283-292, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Typical Cerebral Metabolic Patterns in Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Laura K.; Bartels, Anna L.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Eshuis, Silvia A.; de Vries, Jeroen J.; van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2010-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases on clinical grounds is difficult, especially at an early disease stage. Several studies have found specific regional differences of brain metabolism applying [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), suggesting t

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism following transient forebrain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsinelli, W A; Levy, D E; Duffy, T E

    1982-05-01

    Progressive brain damage after transient cerebral ischemia may be related to changes in postischemic cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU) were measured in adult rats prior to, during (only rCBF), and serially after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were subjected to 30 minutes of forebrain ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries 24 hours after cauterizing the vertebral arteries. Regional CBF was measured by the indicator-fractionation technique using 4-iodo-[14C]-antipyrine. Regional CGU was measured by the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method. The results were correlated with the distribution and progression of ischemic neuronal damage in animals subjected to an identical ischemic insult. Cerebral blood flow to forebrain after 30 minutes of moderate to severe ischemia (less than 10% control CBF) was characterized by 5 to 15 minutes of hyperemia; rCBF then fell below normal and remained low for as long as 24 hours. Post-ischemic glucose utilization in the forebrain, except in the hippocampus, was depressed below control values at 1 hour and either remained low (neocortex, striatum) or gradually rose to normal (white matter) by 48 hours. In the hippocampus, glucose utilization equaled the control value at 1 hour and fell below control between 24 and 48 hours. The appearance of moderate to severe morphological damage in striatum and hippocampus coincided with a late rise of rCBF above normal and with a fall of rCGU; the late depression of rCGU was usually preceded by a period during which metabolism was increased relative to adjacent tissue. Further refinement of these studies may help identify salvageable brain after ischemia and define ways to manipulate CBF and metabolism in the treatment of stroke.

  5. APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis in human cerebral cortex neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Moore; Evans, Lewis D.B.; Therese Andersson; Erik Portelius; James Smith; Tatyana B. Dias; Nathalie Saurat; Amelia McGlade; Peter Kirwan; Kaj Blennow; John Hardy; Henrik Zetterberg; Frederick J. Livesey

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version. It was first published by Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124715003599. Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, a...

  6. Cerebral glucose metabolism in neurofibromatosis type 1 assessed with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET.

    OpenAIRE

    Balestri, P; Lucignani, G; Fois, A.; Magliani, L; Calistri, L; Grana, C.; Di Bartolo, R M; Perani, D; Fazio, F.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral PET with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose has been performed in four patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to assess the relation between cerebral metabolic activity, MRI, and the presence of neurological symptoms, including seizures, as well as mental and language retardation. Widespread hypometabolism occurred in three of the patients. The lesions on MRI, which were localised in the subcortical white matter and grey structures, had normal rates of glucose metabolism. This fi...

  7. Positron computed tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism in man: theory and application in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, M E

    1981-01-01

    The capability of positron computed tomography (PCT) to delineate the substructures of the brain and its facility for accurately measuring the local tissue radioactivity concentration allow the application of tracer kinetic models for the study of local cerebral function in man. This principle and an adaptation of the 14C-deoxyglucose (DG) model of Sokoloff et al. with 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is being used at UCLA. Brookhaven National Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, NIH, and the Massachusetts General Hospital to determine the local cerebral glucose metabolic rate (LCMRGIc) in normal man at rest and during sensory activation and the changes that occur in patients with a variety of cerebral disorders. Kinetic studies with PCT have been employed to measure the rate constants of the model in different gray and white matter structures of the brain in both normal and ischemic states. The precision of the method in normals has been shown to be about +/- 5% for 1.5-2.0 sq cm regions of the brain. Studies in normals have yielded values for hemispheric CMRGIc that are in agreement with measurement using the Kety-Schmidt technique and LCMRGIc values in agreement with values in monkeys using DG autoradiography. Studies in volunteers subjected to visual and auditory stimulation are demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the human brain's response to different stimuli. STudies in patients with stroke show excellent correlation between the degree, extent, and particular structures involved and the clinical symptoms. The method consistently detected hypometabolism in cortical, thalamic, and striatal tissues that were dysfunctional due to deactivation or damage but which appeared normal on x-ray CT. Studies in patients with partial epilepsy have shown hypometabolic zones that highly correlated anatomically with interictal EEG spike foci and were associated with normal x-ray CT studies in 77% of the patients studied. The studies on

  8. Association of genetic variants with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction in Japanese individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiji; Kato, Kimihiko; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Yokoi, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Sachiro; Metoki, Norifumi; Yoshida, Hidemi; Satoh, Kei; Ichihara, Sahoko; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi; Yasunaga, Akitomo; Park, Hyuntae; Tanaka, Masashi; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to atherothrombotic cerebral infarction among individuals with metabolic syndrome in order to allow prediction of genetic risk for this condition. The study population comprised 1284 unrelated Japanese individuals with metabolic syndrome, including 313 subjects with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction and 971 controls. The genotypes for 296 polymorphisms of 202 candidate genes were determined with a method that combines the polymerase chain reaction and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes with suspension array technology. The Chi-square test, multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and the prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus, as well as a stepwise forward selection procedure revealed that the 2445G-->A (Ala54Thr) polymorphism (rs1799883) of FABP2, the -108/3G-->4G polymorphism of IPF1 (S82168), the A-->G (Thr94Ala) polymorphism (rs2241883) of FABP1, the G-->A (Asp2213Asn) polymorphism (rs529038) of ROS1, the -11377C-->G polymorphism (rs266729) of ADIPOQ, the 162A-->C polymorphism (rs4769055) of ALOX5AP, the -786T-->C polymorphism (rs2070744) of NOS3, and the 3279C-->T polymorphism (rs7291467) of LGALS2 were associated (PA (Ala54Thr) polymorphism of FABP2 was most significantly associated with this condition. Our results suggest that FABP2, IPF1, FABP1, ROS1, ADIPOQ, ALOX5AP, NOS3, and LGALS2 are susceptibility loci for atherothrombotic cerebral infarction among Japanese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Genotypes for these polymorphisms, especially for the 2445G-->A (Ala54Thr) polymorphism of FABP2, may prove informative for the prediction of genetic risk for atherothrombotic cerebral infarction among such individuals.

  9. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes: a study in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte H Hahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline by comparing the responses to those of nonpharmacologically induced increases in blood pressure. We also searched for reasons for a mismatch between the response in perfusion and oxygenation. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets had long and short infusions of the three vasopressor-inotropes titrated to raise mean arterial blood pressure (MAP 10 mmHg in random order. Nonpharmacological increases in MAP were induced by inflation of a balloon in the descending aorta. We measured cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy, perfusion (laser-Doppler, oxygen consumption (co-oximetry of arterial and superior sagittal sinus blood, and microvascular heterogeneity (side stream dark field video microscopy. RESULTS: Vasopressor-inotropes increased cerebral oxygenation significantly less (p≤0.01 compared to non-pharmacological MAP increases, whereas perfusion was similar. Furthermore, cerebral total hemoglobin concentration increased significantly less during vasopressor-inotrope infusions (p = 0.001. These physiologic responses were identical between the three vasopressor-inotropes (p>0.05. Furthermore, they induced a mild, although insignificant increase in cerebral metabolism and microvascular heterogeneity (p>0.05. Removal of the scalp tissue did not influence the mismatch (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a moderate vasopressor-inotrope induced mismatch between cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Scalp removal did not affect this mismatch, why vasopressor-inotropes appear to have direct cerebral actions. The statistically nonsignificant increases in cerebral metabolism and/or microvascular heterogeneity may explain the mismatch. Alternatively, it

  10. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J.; Davis, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  11. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  12. Effects of propofol versus sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive outcome in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo JY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jun-ying Guo,1,* Jie-yu Fang,1,* San-rong Xu,2 Ming Wei,1 Wen-qi Huang1 1Department of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 2Department of Anesthesia, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province, Zhangzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction induced by anesthetics, particularly in elderly patients with impaired oxygenation, is a common complication of surgery and is eliciting increased interest in clinical practice. To investigate the effects of anesthetics on neurocognition, we compared the effects of propofol versus sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive outcome in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation undergoing general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-three patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation (jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation [SjvO2] <50% or cerebral blood flow/cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([CBF/CMRO2] ≤15% undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomly allocated into propofol group (group P or sevoflurane group (group S. The clinical parameters and jugular venous bulb blood gas analysis were monitored throughout the surgical procedure. Cognitive function was assessed with the mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment at day 1 and day 7 following surgery. S100β protein in plasma was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The SjvO2 increased during anesthesia induction and surgery when compared to baseline but had no significant difference between group P and group S. When compared to baseline, the CBF/CMRO2 was increased only at the end of surgery and extubation in group P; however, the CBF/CMRO2 in group S was increased during anesthesia induction at 1 hour, 2 hours, end of surgery, and extubation. Furthermore, the CBF/CMRO2 in group S was significantly higher than that in group P during anesthesia

  13. 不同麻醉方法对重症颅脑损伤患者脑氧代谢的影响%Effect of different anesthesia methods on cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different anesthesia methods on cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.Methods Forty-five patients with severe traumatic brain injury from March 2011 to March 2013 were divided into propofol intravenous anesthesia group(group A),sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia group(group B) and intravenous inhalational anesthesia group (group C) by random digits table method with 15 cases each.The mean artery pressure (MAP),heart rate (HR) before anesthesia,immediately after tracheal intubation,2 minutes after intubation,10 min and 30 min after operation set and operation end were observed.The oxygen content of jugular venous (SjvO2),jugular bulb venous oxygen content (Da-jvO2) and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CERO2) before anesthesia induction,immediately finish anesthesia induction,30 min and 1 h after operation set and operatin end were calculated.Results The SjvO2 values in three groups were at 30 min,1 h after operation set and operation end was higher than that before anesthesia induction (group A:0.662 ±0.077,0.689 ±0.067,0.685 ±0.066 vs.0.623 ±0.083; group B:0.661 ±0.074,0.681 ±0.072,0.661 ±0.069 vs.0.598 ±0.092; group C:0.715 ± 0.072,0.743 ± 0.070,0.713 ± 0.075 vs.0.631 ± 0.078),and there was significant difference (P < 0.05).The Da-jvO2 values,CERO2 at 30 min,1 h after operation set and operation end was lower than that before anesthesia induction in three groups [group A:Da-jvO2:(41.2 ± 6.3),(41.6 ± 8.1),(44.2 ± 6.3) ml/L vs.(49.2 ± 9.2) ml/L,CERO2:(33.0 ± 1.9)%,(32.7 ± 2.0)%,(32.3 ± 1.9)% vs.(36.0 ±2.3)%; group B:Da-jvO2:(41.8 ± 5.6),(40.2 ± 6.9),(41.8 ± 5.6) ml/L vs.(51.3 ± 8.6) ml/L,CERO2:(33.2 ±2.1)%,(33.0 ±2.6)%,(32.8 ±2.1)% vs.(34.7 ±3.1)% ; group C:Da-jvO2:(39.5 ±6.8),(38.7 ±7.0),(40.2 ±6.8) ml/L vs.(48.8 ±9.7) ml/L,CERO2:(31.8 ±2.9)%,(31.5 ±3.1)%,(32.9 ±2.3)% vs.(35.1 ± 2.9)%],and there was significant difference (P

  14. Neurodynamics of abnormalities in cerebral metabolism and structure in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L

    1993-01-01

    Much evidence points to the importance of intrauterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

  15. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  16. Cerebral Metabolic Profiling of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest with and Without Antegrade Selective Cerebral Perfusion: Evidence from Nontargeted Tissue Metabolomics in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua Zou; Jin-Ping Liu; Hao Zhang; Shu-Bin Wu; Bing-Yang Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background:Antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) is regarded to perform cerebral protection during the thoracic aorta surgery as an adjunctive technique to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA).However,brain metabolism profile after ASCP has not been systematically investigated by metabolomics technology.Methods:To clarify the metabolomics profiling of ASCP,12 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into 60 min DHCA with (DHCA+ASCP [DA] group,n =6) and without (DHCA [D] group,n =6) ASCP according to the random number table.ASCP was conducted by cannulation on the right subclavian artery and cross-clamping of the innominate artery.Rabbits were sacrificed 60 min after weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass.The metabolic features of the cerebral cortex were analyzed by a nontargeted metabolic profiling strategy based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Variable importance projection values exceeding 1.0 were selected as potentially changed metabolites,and then Student's t-test was applied to test for statistical significance between the two groups.Results:Metabolic profiling of brain was distinctive significantly between the two groups (Q2y =0.88 for partial least squares-DA model).In comparing to group D,62 definable metabolites were varied significantly after ASCP,which were mainly related to amino acid metabolism,carbohydrate metabolism,and lipid metabolism.Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that metabolic pathways after DHCA with ASCP were mainly involved in the activated glycolytic pathway,subdued anaerobic metabolism,and oxidative stress.In addition,L-kynurenine (P =0.0019),5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid (P =0.0499),and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (P =0.0495) in tryptophan metabolism pathways were decreased,and citrulline (P =0.0158) in urea cycle was increased in group DA comparing to group D.Conclusions:The present study applied metabolomics analysis to identify the cerebral metabolic profiling in rabbits with ASCP

  17. 针刺预防性治疗偏头痛脑内代谢变化的磁共振波谱研究%Effect of acupuncture prophylaxis on cerebral metabolism in migraine: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷涛; 林磊; 焦晟; 丁瑞庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察针刺预防性治疗偏头痛患者的脑代谢变化特征,探讨针刺预防性治疗偏头痛的中枢神经取效机制.方法 选取凤池、百会、行间作为预防性治疗穴位,对15例偏头痛患者和15例头痛患者进行连续5天的针刺治疗,应用磁共振波谱技术进行检测,观察分析针刺前后受试者左侧丘脑及中央旁小叶后部的脑代谢变化.结果 针刺预防性治疗后偏头痛组左侧丘脑的NAA/Cr、Cho/Cr水平升高,头痛组减低,差值大于0.1,两组之间有显著性差异.偏头痛组中央旁小叶后部NAA/Cr水平升高,头痛组减低,差值小于0.1,两组之间有统计学差异.中央旁小叶后部Cho/Cr针刺前后无明显变化,两组之间无差异.结论 针刺预防性治疗偏头痛的镇痛作用可能靶点是左侧丘脑及中央旁小叶,针刺治疗可对局部大脑神经元能量及代谢重新分配、平衡协调,从而起到良性的治疗效果.%Objective To observe cerebral metabolism response mode of acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis and to discuss the cerebral mechanism of acupuncture therapy for migraine. Methods We selected Fengchi, BaiHui, Xingjian as stimulating points to treat 15 migraine patients and 15 headache patients for continuous 5 days acupuncture prophylaxis treatment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy had been operated before and after course of acupuncture treatment. Metabolism changes of left thalamus and posterior part of paracentral gyrus were acquired and compared in two groups. Results After acupuncture prophylaxis treatment, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr of left thalamus in migraine group increased and decreased in headache group. The different data are larger than 0. 1. There is a significant difference between migraine and headache group. NAA/Cr of posterior part of paracentral gyrus in migraine group increased and decreased in headache group. The different data is less than 0. 1. There is a significant difference between migraine and headache

  18. Protective Effect of Extract of Folium Ginkgo on Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of extract of Folium Ginkgo (FGE) on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: The model in waking mice induced by repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were used in the experiment to observe the effect of FGE on behavior, oxygen free radical metabolism and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content by step-through experiment, diving stand and colorimetric method. Results: FGE could obviously improve the learning ability and memory of model animals, and could lower obviously the content of malonyldialdehyde, nitric oxide and PGE2, restore the lowered activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral tissue. Conclusion: FGE has highly protective effect against repeated ischemia-reperfusion injury, the mechanism might be related with its action on anti-lipid oxidatin, improve the activity of antioxidase and inhibit the producing of PGE2.

  19. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    in longitudinal studies of MS patients, but little is known about the associated changes in cerebral neural function. METHODS: The authors studied 10 patients with clinically definite MS who underwent serial measurements of CMRglc, MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), and clinical evaluation of disability...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p...OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...

  20. The Effect of Neuraxial Anesthesia on Maternal Cerebral Hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ineke R.; van Veen, Teelkien R.; Mears, Scott L.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Haeri, Sina; Belfort, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neuraxial anesthesia is known to reduce sympathetic tone and mean arterial pressure. Effects on cerebral hemodynamics in pregnancy are not well known. We hypothesize that cerebral hemodynamic parameters will change with respect to baseline following regional analgesia/anesthesia. Study Des

  1. Genetic enhancement of microsomal epoxide hydrolase improves metabolic detoxification but impairs cerebral blood flow regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowsky, Anne; Haenel, Karen; Bockamp, Ernesto; Heck, Rosario; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Mule, Nandkishor; Kindler, Diana; Rudin, Markus; Arand, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a detoxifying enzyme for xenobiotic compounds. Enzymatic activity of mEH can be greatly increased by a point mutation, leading to an E404D amino acid exchange in its catalytic triad. Surprisingly, this variant is not found in any vertebrate species, despite the obvious advantage of accelerated detoxification. We hypothesized that this evolutionary avoidance is due to the fact that the mEH plays a dualistic role in detoxification and control of endogenous vascular signaling molecules. To test this, we generated mEH E404D mice and assessed them for detoxification capacity and vascular dynamics. In liver microsomes from these mice, turnover of the xenobiotic compound phenanthrene-9,10-oxide was four times faster compared to WT liver microsomes, confirming accelerated detoxification. mEH E404D animals also showed faster metabolization of a specific class of endogenous eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Significantly higher DHETs/EETs ratios were found in mEH E404D liver, urine, plasma, brain and cerebral endothelial cells compared to WT controls, suggesting a broad impact of the mEH mutant on endogenous EETs metabolism. Because EETs are strong vasodilators in cerebral vasculature, hemodynamics were assessed in mEH E404D and WT cerebral cortex and hippocampus using cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Basal CBV0 levels were similar between mEH E404D and control mice in both brain areas. But vascular reactivity and vasodilation in response to the vasodilatory drug acetazolamide were reduced in mEH E404D forebrain compared to WT controls by factor 3 and 2.6, respectively. These results demonstrate a critical role for mEH E404D in vasodynamics and suggest that deregulation of endogenous signaling pathways is the undesirable gain of function associated with the E404D variant.

  2. Cerebral metabolic changes in neurologically presymptomatic patients undergoing haemodialysis: in vivo proton MR spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Ming-Lun; Chiang, I. Chan [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging (China); Li, Chun-Wei [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Health Science (China); Chang, Jer-Ming [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Hsiao-Kang Municipal Hospital (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine (China); Ko, Chih-Hung [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine (China); Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry (China); Chuang, Hung-Yi [Kaohsiung Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, College of Health Science (China); Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine (China); Sheu, Reu-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine (China); Lee, Chen-Chang [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Health Science (China); Kaohsiung Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (China); Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine (China); Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging (China)

    2010-06-15

    To prospectively investigate and detect early cerebral metabolic changes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by using in vivo proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). We enrolled 32 patients with ESRD and 32 healthy controls between the ages of 26 and 50 years. Short echo time single-voxel proton MRS was acquired from volumes of interest (VOIs) located in the frontal grey and white matter, temporal white matter and basal ganglia. The choline/phospatidylcholine (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and total creatine (tCr) peaks were measured and the metabolic ratios with respect to tCr were calculated. In the ESRD group, significant elevations of the Cho/tCr and mI/tCr ratios were observed for the frontal grey matter, frontal white matter, temporal white matter and basal ganglia as compared with controls. There was no significant difference in the NAA/tCr ratios at all VOIs between the ESRD patients and the healthy controls. Proton MRS is a useful and non-invasive imaging tool for the detection of early cerebral metabolic changes in neurologically presymptomatic ESRD patients. (orig.)

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  4. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  5. Effect of heat shock protein 70 on cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Yan; Xiulian Chen; Rui Chen; Shiming Xu; Lijuan Zhang; Hongjuan Wang; Chunyue Huo

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the relationship between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and cerebral ischemia.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline database was undertaken to identify relevant articles published in English from January 1980 to December 2005 by using the keywords of "heat shock protein 70, ischemia". Meanwhile, Chinese relevant articles published from January 2000 to December 2005 were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database and Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation with the keywords of "heat shock protein 70, cerebral ischemia" in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: More than 100 related articles were screened, and 29 references mainly about HSP70and cerebral ischemia were selected, including basic and clinical researches. As to the articles with similar content, those published in the authoritative journals in recent 3 years were preferential.DATA EXTRACTION : A total of 29 articles were collected and classified according to the structure, function and clinical application of HSP70. Among them, 1 article is about the structure of HSP70, 27 about the relationship between HSP70 and cerebral ischemia, and 2 about the clinical application of HSP70.DATA SYNTHESTS: HSP70 is one of the most conservative proteins during biological evolution. Experiments in cerebral ischemia revealed that HSP70 expression was time-dependent, also correlated with the injured site and severity. The cerebral ischemia induced HSP70 gene expression in hippocampus of gerbil had protection to tolerance of fatal ischemic injury for neurons. The increase of HSP70 expression may be one of the endogenous protective mechanisms during cerebral ischemia, and can effectively alleviate cerebral ischemia. Thus HSP70 protein and HSP70 mRNA have been taken as important indexes extensively applied in the basic study of cerebral ischemia by some scholars abroad.CONCLUSTON: HSP70 plays a protective role in cerebral ischemia, and a deeper research into the biological function of

  6. Comparison of Cerebral Metabolism between Pig Ventricular Fibrillation and Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhang; Chun-Sheng Li; Cai-Jun Wu; Jun Yang; Chen-Chen Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Morbidity and mortality after resuscitation largely depend on the recovery of brain function.Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VFCA) and asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA) are the two most prevalent causes of sudden cardiac death.Up to now,most studies have focused on VFCA.However,results from the two models have been largely variable.So,it is necessary to characterize the features of postresuscitation cerebral metabolism of both models.Methods:Forty-four Wuzhishan miniature inbred pigs were randomly divided into three groups:18 for VFCA group,ACA group,respectively,and other 8 for sham-operated group (SHAM).VFCA was induced by programmed electric stimulation,andACA was induced by endotracheal tube clamping.After 8 min without treatment,standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated.Following neurological deficit scores (NDS) were evaluated at 24 h after achievement of spontaneous circulation,cerebral metabolism showed as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.Levels of serum markers of brain injury,neuron specific enolase (NSE),and S100β were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:Compared with VFCA group,fewer ACA animals achieved restoration of spontaneous circulation (61.1% vs.94.4%,P < 0.01) and survived 24-h after resuscitation (38.9% vs.77.8%,P < 0.01) with worse neurological outcome (NDS:244.3 ± 15.3 vs.168.8 ± 9.71,P < 0.01).The CPR duration of ACA group was longer than that of VFCA group (8.1 ± 1.2 min vs.4.5 ± 1.1 min,P < 0.01).Cerebral energy metabolism showed as SUVmax in ACA was lower than in VFCA (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Higher serum biomarkers of brain damage (NSE,S100β) were found inACA than VFCA after resuscitation (P < 0.01).Conclusions:Compared with VFCA,ACA causes more severe cerebral metabolism injuries with less successful resuscitation and worse neurological outcome.

  7. Comparison of Cerebral Metabolism between Pig Ventricular Fibrillation and Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbidity and mortality after resuscitation largely depend on the recovery of brain function. Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VFCA and asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA are the two most prevalent causes of sudden cardiac death. Up to now, most studies have focused on VFCA. However, results from the two models have been largely variable. So, it is necessary to characterize the features of postresuscitation cerebral metabolism of both models. Methods: Forty-four Wuzhishan miniature inbred pigs were randomly divided into three groups: 18 for VFCA group, ACA group, respectively, and other 8 for sham-operated group (SHAM. VFCA was induced by programmed electric stimulation, and ACA was induced by endotracheal tube clamping. After 8 min without treatment, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was initiated. Following neurological deficit scores (NDS were evaluated at 24 h after achievement of spontaneous circulation, cerebral metabolism showed as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax was measured by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Levels of serum markers of brain injury, neuron specific enolase (NSE, and S100β were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with VFCA group, fewer ACA animals achieved restoration of spontaneous circulation (61.1% vs. 94.4%, P < 0.01 and survived 24-h after resuscitation (38.9% vs. 77.8%, P < 0.01 with worse neurological outcome (NDS: 244.3 ± 15.3 vs. 168.8 ± 9.71, P < 0.01. The CPR duration of ACA group was longer than that of VFCA group (8.1 ± 1.2 min vs. 4.5 ± 1.1 min, P < 0.01. Cerebral energy metabolism showed as SUVmax in ACA was lower than in VFCA (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Higher serum biomarkers of brain damage (NSE, S100β were found in ACA than VFCA after resuscitation (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Compared with VFCA, ACA causes more severe cerebral metabolism injuries with less successful resuscitation and worse

  8. Preoperative cerebral metabolic difference related to the outcome of cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, G. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) has known to be variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative regional glucose metabolism difference related to the speech perception outcome after CI in prelingually deaf children. Forty-one prelingually deaf children who underwent CI at age 2{approx}10 years were included. All patients underwent F-18 FDG brain PET within one month before CI and measured speech perception using the institute version of the CID at 2 years after CI. Patients were classified into younger (2{approx}6 years) and older (7{approx}10 years) groups. Each group was also divided into a GOOD (CID scores>80) and a BAD (CID scores<60) subgroup. We assessed regional metabolic difference according to CID scores and age by voxel based analysis (SPM2) comparing normal controls (n =8, 20{approx}30 years). Speech perception was good in 19 (68%) of 28 younger patients and 5 (38%) of 13 older patients after CI. Regional metabolism of both younger and older GOOD subgroup was significantly decreased in right temporal, left cerebellar and right frontal regions compared to normal controls (uncorrected p<0.001). In younger GOOD subgroup, left frontotemporal and both parietal regions showed decreased metabolism and right frontal, left temporal and anterior cingulate regions showed increased metabolism compared to BAD subgroup (uncorrected p<0.005). In younger group, regional metabolism in left superior frontal, right temporal and right occipital regions showed a significant negative correlation with CID scores (uncorrected p<0.005). In older group, the pattern of regional metabolic difference correlated with CID score was not similar to that of younger group. Preoperative regional cerebral metabolism is decreased in several brain regions related to the language in preligually deaf patients and the neuralplasty of younger patients are different according to the outcome of speech perception after CI.

  9. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-06-30

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases.

  11. Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, D. A.; Strangman, G.; Culver, J. P.; Hoge, R. D.; Jasdzewski, G.; Poldrack, R. A.; Rosen, B. R.; Mandeville, J. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the changes in oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-haemoglobin in the adult human brain during a brief finger tapping exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) can be estimated from these NIRS data provided certain model assumptions. The change in CMRO2 is related to changes in the total haemoglobin concentration, deoxy-haemoglobin concentration and blood flow. As NIRS does not provide a measure of dynamic changes in blood flow during brain activation, we relied on a Windkessel model that relates dynamic blood volume and flow changes, which has been used previously for estimating CMRO2 from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Because of the partial volume effect we are unable to quantify the absolute changes in the local brain haemoglobin concentrations with NIRS and thus are unable to obtain an estimate of the absolute CMRO2 change. An absolute estimate is also confounded by uncertainty in the flow-volume relationship. However, the ratio of the flow change to the CMRO2 change is relatively insensitive to these uncertainties. For the finger tapping task, we estimate a most probable flow-consumption ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 in agreement with previous findings presented in the literature, although we cannot exclude the possibility that there is no CMRO2 change. The large range in the ratio arises from the large number of model parameters that must be estimated from the data. A more precise estimate of the flow-consumption ratio will require better estimates of the model parameters or flow information, as can be provided by combining NIRS with fMRI.

  12. Cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstriction restrains hypoxia-mediated cerebral vasodilation in young adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, John W; Schrage, William G

    2014-01-15

    Poor cerebrovascular function in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) likely contributes to elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease in this growing clinical population. Younger MetSyn adults without clinical evidence of cerebrovascular disease exhibit preserved hypercapnic vasodilation yet markedly impaired hypoxic vasodilation, but the mechanisms behind reduced hypoxic vasodilation are unknown. Based on data from rats, we tested the hypothesis that younger adults with MetSyn exhibit reduced cerebral hypoxic vasodilation due to loss of vasodilating prostaglandins. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound in adults with MetSyn (n = 13, 33 ± 3 yr) and healthy controls (n = 15, 31 ± 2 yr). Isocapnic hypoxia was induced by titrating inspired oxygen to lower arterial saturation to 90% and 80% for 5 min each. Separately, hypercapnia was induced by increasing end-tidal CO2 10 mmHg above baseline levels. Cyclooxygenase inhibition (100 mg indomethacin) was conducted in a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design. MCAv was normalized for group differences in blood pressure (healthy: 89 ± 2 mmHg vs. MetSyn: 102 ± 2 mmHg) as cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi), and used to assess cerebral vasodilation. Hypoxia increased CVCi in both groups; however, vasodilation was ∼55% lower in MetSyn at SpO2 = 80% (P vasodilation in healthy controls, and unexpectedly increased dilation in MetSyn (P vasodilation was similar between groups, as was the decrease in vasodilation with indomethacin. These data indicate increased production of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins restrains hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in MetSyn, preventing them from responding appropriately to this important physiological stressor.

  13. Preliminary EEG study of protective effects of Tebonin in transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preventive treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761--Tebonin) in cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in rats using computerized EEG analysis. Ginkgo biloba extract, known to be, in vitro, a free radicals scavanger and a PAF.......0015). Computerized spectral analysis of EEG has shown that the percentage of slow waves at 10 minutes after reperfusion was 117% higher in control group than in Ginkgo biloba group (p

  14. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) and the oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and compared with ten patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and six normal controls. In the AD patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices compared with controls. In DLB patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices compared with controls, and were decreased more diffusely than in AD patients. rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in occipital cortex compared with AD patients. rOEF was significantly increased in the parieto-temporal cortex in AD patients compared with controls. In DLB patients, rOEF was significantly increased not only in the parieto-temporal cortex but also in the occipital and frontal cortices compared with controls, and was significantly increased in the occipital cortex compared with AD patients. The diffuse reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism including the occipital cortex may be related to visual hallucination and other visuospatial deficits frequently seen in DLB patients. The increase in rOEF may be mainly due to the reduction in the vascular bed associated with decreased activity in the vasodilatory cholinergic system. (author)

  15. RATIONALE FOR PREVENTION OF CARDIO-CEREBRAL COMPLICATIONS IN THE METABOLIC SYNDROME BASED ON MATHEMATICAL FORECASTING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Chernavskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study prevention of cardio-cerebral complications of metabolic syndrome on the basis of mathematical methods of forecasting.Subjects and methods. A discriminant analysis of clinical and instrumental data of patients with MS.Results of this study allow the early (prenosological stages of the metabolic syndrome using the linear discriminant equations to predict thedevelopment of myocardial infarction up to 89.3 %, stroke — up to 87.8 %.Conclusion. The diagnostic and treatment algorithms developed based on the stratification of cardiovascular risk index, allow us to give sound recommendations for targeted prevention of cardio-cerebral complications.

  16. Dynamic FDG PET for assessing early effects of cerebral hypoxia and resuscitation in new-born pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Charlotte de [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Paediatric Research, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, P.O. Box 4953, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Oslo (Norway); Qu, Hong [University of Oslo, Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1105, Oslo (Norway); Johnsrud, Kjersti [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); Skretting, Arne [Oslo University Hospital, The Intervention Centre, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); Saugstad, Ola Didrik [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Paediatric Research, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 1078, Oslo (Norway); Munkeby, Berit H. [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Paediatric Research, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism may be an early prognostic indicator of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury. In this study dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET was used to evaluate cerebral glucose metabolism in piglets after global perinatal hypoxia and the impact of the resuscitation strategy using room air or hyperoxia. New-born piglets (n = 16) underwent 60 min of global hypoxia followed by 30 min of resuscitation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO{sub 2}) of 0.21 or 1.0. Dynamic FDG PET, using a microPET system, was performed at baseline and repeated at the end of resuscitation under stabilized haemodynamic conditions. MRI at 3 T was performed for anatomic correlation. Global and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMR{sub gl}) were assessed by Patlak analysis for the two time-points and resuscitation groups. Global hypoxia was found to cause an immediate decrease in cerebral glucose metabolism from a baseline level (mean {+-} SD) of 21.2 {+-} 7.9 to 12.6 {+-} 4.7 {mu}mol/min/100 g (p <0.01). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cortex showed the greatest decrease in CMR{sub gl} but no significant differences in global or regional CMR{sub gl} between the resuscitation groups were found. Dynamic FDG PET detected decreased cerebral glucose metabolism early after perinatal hypoxia in piglets. The decrease in CMR{sub gl} may indicate early changes of mild cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia. No significant effect of hyperoxic resuscitation on the degree of hypometabolism was found in this early phase after hypoxia. Cerebral FDG PET can provide new insights into mechanisms of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury where early detection plays an important role in instituting therapy. (orig.)

  17. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...... nonfatiguing exercise. During exhaustive exercise, however, euhydration delayed but did not prevent the decline in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, during prolonged exercise in the heat, dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus...

  18. Pharmacologic modulation of cerebral metabolic derangement and excitotoxicity in a porcine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Jin, Guang; Imam, Ayesha M;

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic derangement and excitotoxicity play critical roles in the evolution of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have shown previously that treatment with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) decreases the size of brain lesion. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether this eff...

  19. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of rutaecarpine on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlin Yan; Ji Zhang; Shu Wang; Guiping Xue; Yong Hou

    2013-01-01

    Rutaecarpine, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Tetradium ruticarpum, has been shown to improve myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Because both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are forms of ischemic vascular disease, they are closely related. We hypothesized that rutaecarpine also has neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. A cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was established after 84, 252 and 504 µg/kg carpine were given to mice via intraperitoneal injection, daily for 7 days. Results of the step through test, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dyeing and oxidative stress indicators showed that rutae-carpine could improve learning and memory ability, neurological symptoms and reduce infarction volume and cerebral water content in mice with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Rutaecarpine could significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in mouse brain. Therefore, rutaecarpine could improve neu-rological function fol owing injury induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and the mechanism of this improvement may be associated with oxidative stress. These results verify that rutaecarpine has neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia reperfusion in mice.

  1. Effects of fluid restriction in combination with small dose of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygen metabolism in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery%限制性输液复合小剂量去甲肾上腺素对胃肠道手术老年患者脑氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓东; 居斌华; 叶卉; 陆新健; 景亮; 汤文浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of fluid restriction in combination with small dose of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygen metabolism in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.Methods Forty elderly patients of both sexes,aged 65-80 yr,with body mass index of 18-24 kg/m2,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ (NYHA Ⅰ or Ⅱ),with left ventricular ejection fraction≥50%,undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:routine fluid administration group (group S) and restricted fluid administration + small dose of norepinephrine group (group RN).In group S,lactated Ringer's solution was given routinely,ephedrine 5 mg (per time) was injected intravenously,and MAP was maintained ≥ 65 mmHg during operation.In group RN,lactated Ringer's solution was infused intravenously at 5 ml · kg-1 · h-1 starting from 30 min before anesthesia,norepinephrine was infused intravenously at 0.01-0.03 μg · kg-1 · min-1 after induction of anesthesia,and MAP was maintained ≥ 65 mmHg.Intraoperative blood loss was replaced with the equal volume of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 sodium chloride injection in both groups.At 5 min before skin incision,1 and 2 h after skin incision and postanesthesia care unit discharge time,arterial and jugular bulb venous blood samples were obtained for blood gas analysis,and arterial oxygen content,jugular bulb venous oxygen content,arteriovenous oxygen content difference,cerebral oxygen extraction rate,and the ratio of cerebral blood flow to cerebral oxygen metabolic rate were calculated.Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in arterial oxygen content,jugular bulb venous oxygen content,arteriovenous oxygen content difference,cerebral oxygen extraction rate,and the ratio of cerebral blood flow to cerebral oxygen metabolic rate.Conclusion Fluid restriction combined with small dose of norepinephrine produces no effects on cerebral oxygen

  2. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  3. Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Buckley, Erin M.; Kim, Meeri N.; Yu, Guoqiang; Choe, Regine; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Durning, Suzanne M.; Mason, Stefanie E.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Putt, Mary E.; Wang, Jiongjiong; Greenberg, Joel H.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Licht, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    We employ a hybrid diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitor for neonates with congenital heart disease (n=33). The NIRS-DCS device measured changes during hypercapnia of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentrations; cerebral blood flow (rCBFDCS); and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO2). Concurrent measurements with arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging (rCBFASL-MRI, n=12) cross-validate rCBFDCS against rCBFASL-MRI, showing good agreement (R=0.7, p=0.01). The study demonstrates use of NIRS-DCS on a critically ill neonatal population, and the results indicate that the optical technology is a promising clinical method for monitoring this population.

  4. Effects of rhynchophylline on monoamine transmitters of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYuan-Fu; XIEXiao-Long; WUQin; WENGuo-Rong; YANGSu-Fen; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of rhynchophylline ( Rhy on monoamine transmitters and its metabolites in striatum and hippocampus of cerebral ischemic rats. METItODS The cerebral ischemic injury of rat was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The extracellular fluid of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats was collected by using

  5. Neuroprotective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on focal cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Yu; Junke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride can promote microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability. However, the role of penehyclidine hydrochloride in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. In this study, in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in experimental rats, and penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment was given via intravenous injection prior to model establishment. Tetrazolium chloride, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and immunohistochemical staining showed that, penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment markedly attenuated neuronal histopathological changes in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum, reduced infarction size, increased the expression level of Bcl-2, decreased the expression level of caspase-3, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid chromogenic results showed that penehyclidine hydrochloride upregulated the activity of superoxide dismutase and downregulated the concentration of malondialdehyde in the ischemic cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced the concentration of extracellular excitatory amino acids in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, penehyclidine hydrochloride inhibited the expression level of the NR1 subunit in hippocampal nerve cells in vitro following oxygen-glucose deprivation, as detected by PCR. Experimental findings indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress injury after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  6. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

    2014-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers.

  7. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  8. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: Role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); R.J. Stolker (Robert J.); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2 -induced changes in CBF, CVR,

  9. Effects of melatonin on mitochondria after cerebral isehemic reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongyu

    2000-01-01

    Melatonin has been regarded as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant. In both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Melatonin was found to protect cells, tissues and organs against oxidative damage induced by a variety of free radical generating agents and processes, e.g., ischemic reperfusion. The mechanisms underlying these interactions have not been defined. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of melatonin on rnitochondria after cerebral ischemic reperfusion and the mechanisms of neuroprotection of melatonin by gerbil ischemic model. Male Mongolian gerbils were subjected to 10 min of forebrain ischemia by occlusion of both common carotid arteries under anesthesia. Melatonin(0.8 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneum 30 min befbre arteries occlusion. We measured the respiratory function of mitochondria, the activities of ATPase, the free mitochondrial calcium contents and the GSH level of mitochondria. The results show that oxidative phosphorylation function of mitochondria was damaged after cerebral ischemic reperfusion. And mitochondrial calcium was overloaded after cerebral ischemic reperfusion. And the level of GSH in mitochondria decreased after cerebral ischemic reperfision. It is concluded that melatonin have neuroprotection effects after cerebral ischemic repertusion and this effects probably related to the protection mitochondria.

  10. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E

    2008-01-01

    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  11. Pharmacological effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen on cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a Chinese medicine used to promote blood flow and treat vascular disease. The present article reviews the pharmacological effects of Danshen on cerebral infarction and possible interactions between Danshen and Western drugs. Danshen may reduce or prolong the development of atherosclerosis and may have anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet aggregation effects, which prevent cerebral infarction. Danshen may enhance endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme activities such as the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and may scavenge oxygen free radicals. Prevention and treatment of cerebral infarction by Danshen involves multiple pathways, including anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hypertension, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  12. The evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial tumors by stable xenon CT; The effect of glycerol administration on regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, Masami; Kawamata, Fumio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Mitsuru; Oda, Shinri; Shibuya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Isao; Sato, Osamu (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    In evaluating cerebral regional blood flow (rCBF), stable xenon-enhanced tomography (XeCT) study associated with simultaneous blood sampling was applied in 15 cases of intracranial neoplasms. The effect of intravenous glycerol infusion on rCBF was also investigated. The results indicated that intratumoral rCBF values were not only variable and unrelated to their histological types and grades, but also were not correlated with the vascularity of the lesion as demonstrated by angiography. When a tumor mass was enhanced after the injection of iodinated contrast media, it proved to be useful in distinguishing tumor mass and its associated edema that the rCBF of the peritumoral edematous region was predominantly low (10{plus minus}5 ml/100 g/min). The regional cerebral blood flow in remote areas, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion, was low in value, and there was no statistical significance between affected and sound sides. Following glycerol administration, rCBF was increased in the whole intracranial region, but not inside of the neoplasm, particularly when the intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased. It was assumed that the elevated rCBF after glycerol administration was due to the increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from the ICP reduction, the hemodilution effect, cerebral vessel dilatation after metabolic acidosis, and/or mechanically rectified microcirculation after edema reduction. (author).

  13. Depressed cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure. A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakata, Hideki; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Nakane, Hiroshi; Fujii, Ken-ichiro; Hirakata, Eriko; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Deenitchna, S.S.; Fujishima, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2001-07-01

    In order to elucidate brain oxygen metabolism in uremic patients, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction (rOEF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) were measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in both 10 hemodialysis patients (HD: male [m]/female [f]=2/8, age of 49{+-}3 [SEM] years old, HD duration of 113{+-}26 months) and 13 pre-dialysis renal failure patients (CRF: m/f=10/3, age of 61{+-}2 years old, serum creatinine (SCr) of 6.3{+-}1.0 mg/dl). Data were compared with 20 non-uremic subjects (Control: m/f=7/13, age of 62{+-}2 years old, SCr of 0.9{+-}0.1 mg/dl). They had no neurological abnormalities, congestive heart failure, history of cerebrovascular accident, diabetes mellitus, or symptomatic brain lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. The age of HD was significantly younger than the other groups (p<0.02) and the hemoglobin (Hb) levels in both HD (10.5{+-}0.5 g/dl) and CRF (9.8{+-}0.9) were significantly lower than that in Control (13.3{+-}0.3) (p<0.02). In the hemisphere, rCMRO{sub 2} in both HD (1.82{+-}0.10 ml/min/100 g) and CRF (1.95{+-}0.09) showed significantly lower values as compared to Control (2.23{+-}0.05) (p<0.01, respectively). Hemispheric rCBF in HD (35.6{+-}2.1 ml/100 g/min) and in CRF (36.1{+-}2.1) were not different from that in Control (31.8{+-}1.4). Hemispheric rOEF in CRF (45.7{+-}1.6%) was significantly higher than that in Control (40.5{+-}1.2%) (p<0.02), but that in HD (43.7{+-}1.9%) did not increase significantly. These tendencies were similar in all regions of interest, especially in the cerebral cortices, but not in the cerebellum. All PET parameters in the frontal cortices tended to show the lowest value in renal failure patients. For all HD patients, rCBF in both the frontal cortex and the white matter correlated inversely with HD duration (frontal cortex: r=-0.649, p<0.05; white matter: r=-0.706, p<0.02). Based on these data, it is concluded that brain oxygen metabolism is depressed in renal failure

  14. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Petersen, Sandra Meinich

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline...

  15. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B;

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...... reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  16. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyum-Yil Kwon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the relationship between presenting clinical manifestations and imaging features of multisystem neuronal dysfunction in MSA patients, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Methods: We studied 50 consecutive MSA patients with characteristic brain MRI findings of MSA, including 34 patients with early MSA-parkinsonian (MSA-P and 16 with early MSA-cerebellar (MSA-C. The cerebral glucose metabolism of all MSA patients was evaluated in comparison with 25 age-matched controls. 18F-FDG PET results were assessed by the Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM analysis and the regions of interest (ROI method. Results: The mean time from disease onset to 18F-FDG PET was 25.9±13.0 months in 34 MSA-P patients and 20.1±11.1 months in 16 MSA-C patients. Glucose metabolism of the putamen showed a greater decrease in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P (p=0.031. Although the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS score did not differ between possible MSA-P and probable MSA-P, the subscores of rigidity (p=0.04 and bradykinesia (p= 0.008 were significantly higher in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P. Possible MSA-C showed a greater decrease in glucose metabolism of the cerebellum than probable MSA-C (p=0.016. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that the early neuropathological pattern of possible MSA with a predilection for the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system differs from that of probable MSA, which has prominent involvement of the autonomic nervous system in addition to the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system.

  17. FDG PET in non-pharmacological therapy in Alzheimer's disease; cerebral metabolic increase correlates with clinical improvement after cognitive therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Park, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In management of AD, pharmacological treatment alone using acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is general consensus, and provides beneficial effect to prolong their progression. Combined non-pharmacological therapy, especially cognitive therapy is recently having attention with expectation of improvement in cognitive ability. This study examined the effect of combined cognitive therapy in AD patients who were maintaining AChEI using FDG PET. Four patients (689 yrs) who diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria participated in this study. 12-week cognitive therapy comprised seven fields to enhance orientation, memory, recall, visuo-motor organization, categorization and behavior modification/sequencing. They received 45-minute sessions twice per week with maintaining their previous medication. Clinical improvement was assessed by comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Two FDG PET studies were performed before cognitive therapy and in the middle of the therapy, and compared to evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy to cerebral metabolism. Two of 4 patients whose initial cognitive impairment was milder had clinical improvement after 12 weeks, the rest who were more severely impaired failed to have clinical improvement. Regional cerebral hypometabolism on initial PET was correlated with their functional status. Follow up PET of two responders demonstrated the increases in regional metabolism in the temporal and/or frontal cortex, which was associated their functional improvement. Cerebral metabolism in poor responders were minimally increased or no changed. This preliminary data suggests that cognitive therapy is potentially useful to stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance in AD patients with relatively mild cognitive dysfunction. And FDG PET could demonstrate possible candidates for cognitive therapy and the effect of the therapy.

  18. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  20. Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema.

  1. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  2. Decreased cerebral metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) with stroke and its possible improvement by Solcoseryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Senga, Y; Isogai, M; Shimizu, H; Yamori, Y

    1991-01-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was decreased in SHRSP with stroke compared with normotensive Wistar rats. The decrement of LCGU was less in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP with stroke than that in saline-treated SHRSP with stroke and these brain areas where LCGU was less damaged, in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP were consistent with the important functioning sites of emotion, motor movement and memory. The result suggests that Solcoseryl may be useful for metabolic improvement of the brain damage after stroke.

  3. Adult-onset hypothyroidism and the cerebral metabolism of (1,2-13C2) acetate as detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, F; Künnecke, B; Calvo, R; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Cerdán, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the metabolic compartmentation of the cerebral tricarboxylic acid cycle and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt have been investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats thyroidectomized as adults and age-matched controls were infused in the right jugular vein with unlabeled or (1,2-13C2) acetate solutions for 60 min. At the end of the infusion, the brains were frozen in situ and perchloric acid extracts were prepared and analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and reverse-phase HPLC. Thyroidectomized animals showed a decrease in the incorporation of 13C from (1,2-13C2) acetate in cerebral metabolites and an increase in the concentrations of unlabeled glutamate and GABA. Computer-assisted interpretation of the 13C multiplets observed for the carbons of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA indicated that adult-onset hypothyroidism produced 1) a decrease in the contribution of infused (1,2-13C2) acetate to the glial tricarboxylic acid cycle; 2) an increase in the contribution of unlabeled acetyl-CoA to the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle; and 3) impairments in the exchange of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA between the neuronal and glial compartments. Despite the fact that the adult brain has often been considered metabolically unresponsive to thyroid hormone status, present results show metabolic alterations in the neuronal and glial compartments that are reversible with substitution therapy.

  4. The Role of Exercise – Rehabilitation on Energy Cost and Metabolic Efficiency in Dipelegic Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure and metabolic efficiency before and after of aerobic exercise in spastic cerebral palsy children (mean age of 11 years and also to compare with those of normal children. Materials & Methods : Fifteen dipelegia spastic cerebral palsy children (experimental group participated in exercise–rehabilitation program by voluntarily and the peers eighteen able body children(control group were selected randomly. The experimental group(cp performed rehabilitation program for 3 months,3 session in week with work intensity(%HRR=462.5equal to144bpm of heart rate. The values were measured on tantory cycle ergometer according to Macmaster protocol.Results: Rest and exercise heart rate and exercise intensity(%HRR in patients decreased after rehabilitation program(P<0.05. The resting energy expenditure was similar in cp and normal groups. The rate of oxygen cost of patients decreased in post test(P<0.05 that showed increasing in metabolic efficiency.Conclusion: cerebral palsy children have greater exercise energy cost and lower cardiovascular fitness than normal children and exercise–rehabilitation leads to enhance of metabolic efficiency in this patients that is remarkable from clinical perception.

  5. Cerebral glucose metabolism in neurofibromatosis type 1 assessed with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, P; Lucignani, G; Fois, A; Magliani, L; Calistri, L; Grana, C; Di Bartolo, R M; Perani, D; Fazio, F

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral PET with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose has been performed in four patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to assess the relation between cerebral metabolic activity, MRI, and the presence of neurological symptoms, including seizures, as well as mental and language retardation. Widespread hypometabolism occurred in three of the patients. The lesions on MRI, which were localised in the subcortical white matter and grey structures, had normal rates of glucose metabolism. This finding suggests that the abnormalities seen on MRI are not due to defective blood supply, localised oedema, or grey matter heterotopic foci as previously hypothesised. The presence of the hypometabolic areas seems to be inconsistently related to the occurrence of seizures and is not proportional to the degree of mental impairment. This study provides evidence of a widespread cerebral hypometabolism that is not related to the presence of MRI abnormalities; conversely normal metabolism was present in the areas with an abnormal MRI signal. Images PMID:7798976

  6. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Toshiaki

    1987-12-01

    A total of 11 patients with Broca's aphasia (BA) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the purpose of investigating the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism thresholds for BA. Computed tomography (CT) was concurrently performed. In the group of 3 patients undergoing PET with C-11 glucose, both PET and CT provided abnormal findings in the region that is thought to be responsible for BA (Broca's area), including the cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure. The Broca's area in the remaining one was shown as low C-11 accumulation area on PET and as isodensity on CT. The second group, consisting of 8 BA patients and 30 control patients without BA, underwent PET using O-15 steady method. PET showed reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolic rate (rCMRO/sub 2/) in the Broca's area in all BA patients. Computed tomography showed abnormal low density in the Broca's area in 3 patients, and abnormal findings in the basal ganglionic region and subcortex without evidence for abnormal low density in the Broca's area in the other 5 patients. Comparison of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in BA patients with those in control patients may show the symptomatic thresholds to be 20 - 27 ml100 gmin for rCBF and 2.0 ml100 gmin for rCMRO/sub 2/. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Huiling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  8. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  9. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) using visual and SPM analysis, and compared with MRI findings. A total of 11 adult patients with NF type I were prospectively included in the study. All patients underwent F-18 FDG PET and brain MRI within 2 month of each other. All hypometabolic areas on PET were determined visually by 2 nuclear medicine physician and compared with MRI findings. SPM analysis was done using 42 normal controls with p = 0.005. Seven of 11 PET images showed 10 hypometabolic areas and 4 of 11 MRIs showed 6 areas of signal change brain parenchyma. Hypometabolic areas were bilateral thalamus (n=5), left temporal cortex (n=4) and dentate nucleus (n=1). In only 2 lesions (thalamus and dentate nucleus), hypometabolic foci were consistently related to signal change on MRI. SPM analysis revealed significantly decreased area in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex. F-18 FDG PET revealed significant hypometabolism in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex in adult patients with NF, and it might be helpful in understanding developmental abnormality of NF.

  10. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  11. 选择性脊神经根部分切断术对痉挛性偏侧肢体脑瘫患儿基底节区脑代谢影响%The effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy for the cerebral metabolism at basal ganglia of patients with cerebral palsy-spastic hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宇; 张发永

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究选择性脊神经后根部分切断术对偏侧肢体痉挛性瘫痪患儿早期缓解下肢痉挛作用,以及利用核磁波谱分析患儿在选择性脊神经后根部分切断术后基底节区的小分子代谢变化,探索该术式的“超节段反应”的机制。方法对12~20岁年龄段偏侧痉挛性肢体瘫患者,在接受选择性脊神经后根部分切断术前后,对髋内收肌、腘绳肌和小腿三头肌行改良的Ashworth评级。行核磁波谱分析,利用双侧基底节区域作为兴趣区。分析该区域手术前后的小分子代谢图谱。结果手术后所有患者下肢肌群肌张力有不同程度降低(P<0.01),其中4例患者称获得了类似“超节段反应”临床表现,3例患儿上肢协调性以及精细活动改善,1例患儿斜视改善。患儿对侧基底节区N-乙酰天门冬氨含量下降(P<0.05),同侧各类物质无明显改变。结论选择性脊神经后根部分切除术能有效降低偏侧肢体痉挛,对侧基底节区N-乙酰天门冬氨减少,可能是出现“超节段反应”的机制之一。%Objective To determine the metabolite profile of patients with cerebral palsy-spastic hemiplegia in the basal ganglia after selective dorsal rhizotomy ( SDR ) for researching the mechanism of the “suprasegemental benefits”. Methods The metabolite profile of patients with cerebral palsy-spastic hemiplegia in the both sides of basal ganglia were determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the muscle tone of hip adductors ,hamstrings and ankle plantar flexors in lower limb was assessed by the Ashworth scale before and two weeks after SDR .Results Seventeen patients were recruited in our study .The muscular tones of lower limb significantly were reduced following SDR at early time .N-acetylas-partate ( NAA) at the contralateral basal ganglia decreased .Four patients separately described “suprasegemental benefits”, including

  12. Age-related alterations in behavioral and cerebral metabolic responses to the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freo, U; Rapoport, S I; Soncrant, T T

    1991-01-01

    To determine the functional relevance of the age-related neurochemical changes that occur in brain serotonin systems during aging, we measured the effects of the serotonin receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP) on behavior and on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) in awake rats. rCMRglc was determined in 74 regions of Fischer-344 rats aged 3, 12 and 24 months, at 15 and 90 min after MCPP 2.5 mg/kg IP, using the quantitative, autoradiographic [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose technique. The time-course of motor performance following MCPP was assessed with a rotating rod. MCPP impaired motor performance in all ages maximally at 15-30 min. Three-month-old rats recovered completely within 60 min, whereas 12-month-old animals exhibited partial recovery and 24-month-old rats did not recover by 120 min. At 15 min after MCPP, rCMRglc was reduced in 51 of the 74 studied regions (overall decrease, 20%) of 3-month-old rats, in 21 regions (13% decrease) of 12-month-old rats and in 14 regions (2% decrease) of 24-month-old animals. Similar MCPP brain concentrations were achieved at 15 min in rats of all ages. The results suggest that the functional integrity of serotonergic transmission is reduced in aged rats and that the dysregulation is presynaptic.

  13. Cerebral metabolic responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine are reduced during its chronic administration to young and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freo, U; Larson, D M; Soncrant, T T

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP) on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) were measured in 3- and 24-month-old rats that were not pretreated or were pretreated for 2 weeks with continuous infusion of saline or MCPP. rCMRglc were measured using the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose technique in 71 brain regions at 15 min after acute administration of MCPP 2.5 mg/kg. In the absence of chronic pretreatment, intraperitoneal MCPP 2.5 mg/kg produced widespread rCMRglc reductions (41 brain areas) in 3-month-old rats and more limited rCMRglc decreases (8 brain areas) in 24-month-old rats. After chronic treatment, MCPP failed to reduce rCMRglc in any region of either group of rats. These findings indicate that mechanisms of downregulation of response to MCPP are functional in young and aged rats and suggest that the age-related reduction in rCMRglc responses to acute MCPP in non-pretreated animals may be due to compensation for age-related losses of 5-HT terminals.

  14. Time courses of behavioral and regional cerebral metabolic responses to different doses of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freo, U; Soncrant, T T; Ricchieri, G L; Wozniak, K M; Larson, D M; Rapoport, S I

    1990-03-19

    The time course and relation to dose of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) and of motor behavior were measured in awake male adult Fischer-344 rats after administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a serotonin-1B receptor agonist. rCMRglc was determined, using the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]deoxyglucose technique, in 71 brain regions at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after administration of MCPP 2.5 mg/kg i.p., and at 15 min after MCPP 25 and 40 mg/kg. The time course of performance on a rotating rod was measured periodically for 60 min after MCPP 2.5 mg/kg, a dose which impaired locomotion and reduced rCMRglc maximally at 15-30 min after its administration. At 15 min, rCMRglc declined significantly in 28 (40%) of the areas studied (mean decline 16%). Most regions affected were telencephalic or diencephalic, corresponding to the projection areas of serotonergic fibers arising from the raphe nuclei. After higher doses of MCPP, a behavioral serotonin syndrome was observed with both rCMRglc increases and decreases (25 mg/kg) or only rCMRglc increases (40 mg/kg). Whereas behavioral and metabolic activation induced by high doses of MCPP may result from stimulation at postsynaptic serotonin receptors, rCMRglc reductions and hypomotility produced by MCPP 2.5 mg/kg resemble the effects of serotonin receptor antagonists and suggest that, at this low dose, MCPP acts at modulatory serotonin autoreceptors to reduce endogenous serotonin release.

  15. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism induced by postoperative delirium in elderly patients and the effects of dexmedetomidine on it%术后谵妄老年病人脑葡萄糖代谢的变化及右美托咪定对其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昊; 欧阳文; 莫逸; 黎祖荣; 廖琴; 王懿春; 段开明; 陈明华; 廖炎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism induced by postoperative delirium in the elderly patients and the effects of dexmedetomidine on it.Methods Forty-two patients of both sexes aged 65-85 yr with a body mass index of 19-25 kg/m2 undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study.Delirium occurred during the first 2 days after operation in 39 out of the 42 patients (29/42).The 29 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups:group delirium without any treatment (group D,n =13) and group delirium + dexmedetomidine (group Dex,n =16).The remaining 13 patients did not develop delirium after operation and served as control group (group C).In group Dex a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was administered iv over 10 min after occurrence of delirium followed by continuous infusion at 0.2-0.7μg· kg-1 · h-1.PET scan was performed within the time period in which delirium occurred.18 Fluorine-deoxyglucose was injected for observation of imaging of glucose metabolism.The standard uptake value of glucose of bilateral parietal,temporal and frontal lobes was calculated.Results Delirium was controlled within 30 min after adminnistration of dexmedetomidine.Delirium significantly reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in the bilateral parietal,temporal and frontal lobes in group D as compared with group C (P < 0.05).Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated the delirium-induced decrease in cerebral glucose metabolic rate of the 3 lobes in group Dex as compared with group D (P < 0.05).Conclusion Postoperative delirium reduces cerebral glucose metabolism and dexmedetomidine can significantly control pastoperative delirium in the elderly patients.%目的 探讨术后谵妄老年病人脑葡萄糖代谢的变化及右美托咪定对其影响.方法 择期全麻下行腹部手术的老年病人,性别不限,BMI 19~ 25 kg/m2,年龄65~ 85岁,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级.术后2d内评价谵妄的发生情况,将术后谵妄

  16. The effects of propofol on cerebral perfusion MRI in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harreld, Julie H.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Sansgiri, Rakhee; Ji, Qing; Patay, Zoltan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaddoum, Roland N.; Parish, Mary Edna [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The effects of anesthesia are infrequently considered when interpreting pediatric perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objectives of this study were to test for measurable differences in MR measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) between non-sedated and propofol-sedated children, and to identify influential factors. Supratentorial cortical CBF and CBV measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 37 children (1.8-18 years) treated for infratentorial brain tumors receiving propofol (IV, n = 19) or no sedation (NS, n = 18) were compared between groups and correlated with age, hematocrit (Hct), end-tidal CO{sub 2} (ETCO{sub 2}), dose, weight, and history of radiation therapy (RT). The model most predictive of CBF and CBV was identified by multiple linear regression. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory CBF were significantly lower, and MCA territory CBV greater (p = 0.03), in IV than NS patients (p = 0.01, 0.04). The usual trend of decreasing CBF with age was reversed with propofol in ACA and MCA territories (r = 0.53, r = 0.47; p < 0.05). ACA and MCA CBF (r = 0.59, 0.49; p < 0.05) and CBV in ACA, MCA, and posterior cerebral artery territories (r = 0.73, 0.80, 0.52; p < 0.05) increased with weight in propofol-sedated children, with no significant additional influence from age, ETCO{sub 2}, hematocrit, or RT. In propofol-sedated children, usual age-related decreases in CBF were reversed, and increases in CBF and CBV were weight-dependent, not previously described. Weight-dependent increases in propofol clearance may diminish suppression of CBF and CBV. Prospective study is required to establish anesthetic-specific models of CBF and CBV in children. (orig.)

  17. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39%; despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP.

  18. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P exercise. During exhaustive exercise, however, euhydration delayed but did not prevent the decline in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, during prolonged exercise in the heat, dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 .

  19. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  20. Correlation of glucose metabolism in brain cells and brain morphological changes with clinical typing in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Huixian Qiao; Jiqing Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It is widely known that fluorino-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(18F-FDG PET)is commonly used to evaluate and diagnose epilepsy;however,whether it is beneficial to understand functional metabolism of bra in cells so as to reflect injured site and degree of brain cells or not should be studied further.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the correlation between glucose metabolism and clinical typling as well as the conelation between active function of brain cells and degree of brain injury among children with cerbral palsy with 18F-FDG PET and MRI and compare the results of them.DESIGN:Case analysis.SETTING:Department of Pediatrics,People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 31 children with cerebral palsy were selected from Out-patient Clinic and In-patient Department of People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from July 2001 to August 2004.Based on clinical criteria of cerebral palsy,patients were classified into spasm(n=10),gradual movement(n=4),mixed type(n =13)and ataxia(n=4).There were 18 boys and 13 girls aged from 10 months to 4 years.All of them were met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral palsy and all parents of them were told the facts.Exclusion cdteria:Patients who had cerebral palsy caused by genetic metabolism disease were excluded.METHODS:①All children accepted MRI examination after hospitalization with Philips Acs NT 15T superconductling magnetic resonance scanner.②All children were fasted for 4 hours.And then,PET image of brain was collected based on T+EID type.If obvious hypermetabolism or hypometabolism region successively occurred on two layers, the image was regarded as abnormality. ③Different correlations of various abnormal greups of MRI and vadous types of cerebral palsy with PET image were compared and analyzed with Erusal-Willas rank sum test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Results of 18F-FDG PET;②Results of MRI examination;③Correlation of variously abnormal groups of MRI and various types of cerebral

  1. Effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction and its disassembled recipes on rats’ neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲铁兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction(BYHWD)and its disassembled recipes on rats’neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia and to investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms.Methods Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 90 min using the

  2. The effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on cerebral oxygenation in gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kwon, Jae Young; Cho, Ah-Reum; Kim, Hae Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Both the Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide have been reported to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) and to alter cerebral blood flow or cerebral blood volume. Also anesthetic agents have variable effects on cerebral hemodynamics and ICP. The present study was conducted to determine whether regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) values differ between propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia during laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position. Met...

  3. Effects of sedation induced with dexmedetomidine versus propofol on intracranial pressure and cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with permissive hypercapnia%右美托咪啶与异丙酚镇静下允许性高碳酸血症患者颅内压及脑氧代谢的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 陈国忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of sedation induced with dexmedetomidine and propofol on intracranial pressure and cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with permissive hypercapnia. Methods Twentyfour patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n = 12 each) :dexmedetomidine group (group D) and propofol group (group P) . Their APACHE Ⅱ scores were 11-18. The patients were mechanically ventilated (VT 5-7 ml/kg, RR 12-17 bpm, PEEP 6-10 cm H2O, FiO2 40-60%). PaCO2 was maintained at 50-65 mm Hg. Radial artery was cannulated for direct BP monitoring and blood sampling. Right internal jugular vein was cannulated and the catheter was advanced cephalad until jugular bulb. Continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine was started at 0.5 μg· kg-1· h-1 and TCI of propofol was started at target plasma concentration (Cp) of 0.4 μg/ml. The infusion of both drugs was gradually increased until Ramsay score (1= fully awake, 6 =asleep, unresponsive to loud verbal stimulus) reached 3,4,5. Transcranial Doppler monitoring was used to determine cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) before administration of dexmedetomidine and propofol (T0 ) and at 30 min after the 3 levels of sedation were reached (T1-3) . Meanwhile blood samples were taken from radial artery and jugular bulb for blood gas analyses. Cerebral O2 metabolic rate (CMRO2), cerebral A-V O2 content differences (Da-jvO2) and cerebral O2 extraction rate (CERO2) were calculated .ResultsCBFV, PI, RI and CMRO2 were significantly decreased at T1-3 as compared with the baseline values at T0 in both groups. CBFV was positively correlated with CMRO2 in both group D (r = 0.80) and group P ( r = 0.76) . CBFV, PI and RI were significantly lower at T1-3 in group D than in group P. There was no significant change in Da-jvO2 and CERO2 at T1-3 as compared with the baseline values at T0 in both groups. Conclusion At different sedation levels

  4. Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic brain injury; consequently, continuous bedside monitoring to detect ischemia before irreversible damage occurs would improve patient outcome. In addition to monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) would be beneficial considering that metabolic thresholds can be used to evaluate tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that changes in absolute CMRO2 could be measured by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS). Absolute CBF was determined using bolus-tracking TR-NIRS to calibrate the DCS measurements. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation (SvO2) was determined by multiwavelength TR-NIRS measurements, the accuracy of which was assessed by directly measuring the oxygenation of sagittal sinus blood. In eight newborn piglets, CMRO2 was manipulated by varying the anesthetics and by injecting sodium cyanide. No significant differences were found between the two sets of SvO2 measurements obtained by TR-NIRS or sagittal sinus blood samples and the corresponding CMRO2 measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean CMRO2 difference of 0.0268 ± 0.8340 mLO2/100 g/min between the two techniques over a range from 0.3 to 4 mL O2/100 g/min.

  5. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    . At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...

  6. Human regional cerebral glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement sleep in relation to waking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J; Miewald, Jean M; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Sembrat, Robert C; Ombao, Hernando; Reynolds, Charles F; Monk, Timothy H; Hall, Martica; Kupfer, David J; Moore, Robert Y

    2002-05-01

    Sleep is an essential human function. Although the function of sleep has generally been regarded to be restorative, recent data indicate that it also plays an important role in cognition. The neurobiology of human sleep is most effectively analysed with functional imaging, and PET studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In this study, PET was used to determine patterns of regional glucose metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking. We hypothesized that brain structures related to waking cognitive function would show a persistence of function into the NREM sleep state. Fourteen healthy subjects (age range 21-49 years; 10 women, 4 men) underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET scans during waking and NREM sleep. Whole-brain glucose metabolism declined significantly from waking to NREM sleep. Relative decreases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM sleep occurred in wide areas of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital association cortex, primary visual cortex, and in anterior/dorsomedial thalamus. After controlling for the whole-brain declines in absolute metabolism, relative increases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM were found bilaterally in the dorsal pontine tegmentum, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and extensive regions of the mesial temporal lobe, including the amygdala and hippocampus, and in the right dorsal parietal association cortex and primary somatosensory and motor cortices. The reductions in relative metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking are consistent with prior findings from blood flow studies. The relative increases in glucose utilization in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, ventral striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and pontine reticular formation are new observations that are in accordance with the view that NREM sleep is important to brain

  7. Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-(13)C]Glucose and [1,2-(13)C]Acetate as Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, Laura F; Kornfelt, Rasmus; Walls, Anne B;

    2016-01-01

    Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few c...

  8. Alterations in Cerebral Cortical Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism Precedes Amyloid Plaques in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Aldana, Blanca I;

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in brain energy metabolism have been suggested to be of fundamental importance for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, specific changes in brain energetics in the early stages of AD are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate cerebral energy metabolism...

  9. Coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism is conserved for chromatic and luminance stimuli in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Oleg; Buracas, Giedrius T; Liang, Christine; Ances, Beau M; Perthen, Joanna E; Shmuel, Amir; Buxton, Richard B

    2013-03-01

    The ratio of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during brain activation is a critical determinant of the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cytochrome oxidase (CO), a key component of oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria, is non-uniformly distributed in visual area V1 in distinct blob and interblob regions, suggesting significant spatial variation in the capacity for oxygen metabolism. The goal of this study was to test whether CBF/CMRO(2) coupling differed when these subpopulations of neurons were preferentially stimulated, using chromatic and luminance stimuli to preferentially stimulate either the blob or interblob regions. A dual-echo spiral arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to measure CBF and BOLD responses simultaneously in 7 healthy human subjects. When the stimulus contrast levels were adjusted to evoke similar CBF responses (mean 65.4% ± 19.0% and 64.6% ± 19.9%, respectively for chromatic and luminance contrast), the BOLD responses were remarkably similar (1.57% ± 0.39% and 1.59% ± 0.35%) for both types of stimuli. We conclude that CBF-CMRO(2) coupling is conserved for the chromatic and luminance stimuli used, suggesting a consistent coupling for blob and inter-blob neuronal populations despite the difference in CO concentration.

  10. The cerebral metabolism of amino acids and related metabolites as studied by {sup 13}C and {sup 14}C labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, B.

    1995-11-01

    The present investigations show the feasibility of analyzing the cerebral metabolism of amino acids and related metabolites by {sup 13}C-and {sup 14}C-labelling using labelled acetate and glucose as markers for glial and neuronal metabolism, respectively. Using [{sup 13}C]acetate, it was shown that glial cells export {approx}60% of their TCA cycle intermediates, mostly as glutamine, and that this glutamine is used by neurons partly as an energy reserve, and partly it is converted directly to glutamate and GABA. Using [{sup 13}C]glucose, the glial process or pyruvate carboxylation was shown to compensate fully for the loss of glutamine. The mechanism of action of two neurotoxins, fluorocitrate and 3-nitropropionate was elucidated. The latter toxin was shown to inhibit the TCA cycle of GABAergic neurons selectively. Formation of pyruvate and lactate from glial TCA cycle intermediates was demonstrated in vivo. This pathway may be important for glial inactivation of transmitter glutamate and GABA. The results illustrate glianeuronal interactions, and they suggest the applicability of {sup 13}CNMR spectroscopy to the detailed study of the cerebral metabolism of amino acids in the intact, unanesthetized human brain. 174 refs.

  11. Effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine on focal cerebral ischemic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin Zhang; Huixin Zhang; Lanfang Li; Yonghui Li

    2006-01-01

    glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mitochondria; ③ Ultrastructural changes of mitochondria in brain tissue after cerebral ischemia.RESULTS: ① At 12 hour after ischemia, volume of cerebral infarction in L-NA group was lower than that in model group (P < 0.01). ② Content of NO in mitochondria in L-NA group was decreased as compared with that in model group at 2, 6 and 12 hours after ischemia (P < 0.05); swelling degree of mitochondria in brain tissue was relieved in L-NA group at 12 hour after ischemia, and content of MDA was decreased (P< 0.05); mitochondrial activity in L-NA group was increased at 12 hour after ischemia, and activities of ATPase, SOD and GSH-Px in mitochondria were increased (P < 0.05). ③ Degrees of mitochondrial injury in brain tissue were relieved in L-NA group at 12 hour after ischemia as compared with those in model group and L-NA group at 2 and 6 hours after ischemia. CONCLUSION: ① L-NA can beneficially inhibit NO production, but not protect brain against damage in ischemia acute stage. ② L-NA might have protective effects on cerebral injury through inhibiting the production of oxygen free radical, increasing antioxidation, ameliorating energy metabolism, beneficially improving the integrity of form and function of mitochondria in brain tissue during postischemia in rats.

  12. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  13. Changes in cerebral oxidative metabolism in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, P N; Larsen, F S

    2013-01-01

    acid cycle, induces substrate depletion through marked glutamate utilization for glutamine synthesis and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. In patients with acute liver failure cerebral microdialysis studies show a linear correlation between the lactate to pyruvate ratio and the glutamine...

  14. Neuroprotective effects of the immunomodulatory drug Setarud on cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzaneh Vafaee; Nasser Zangiabadi; Fatemeh Mehdi Pour; Farzaneh Dehghanian; Majid Asadi-Shekaari; Hossein Karimi Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents can alleviate ischemic cerebral injury. The immunomodulary drug Setarud, which is composed of herbal extracts including Rosa canina, Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare, supplemented with selenium exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that Setarud will have a neuroprotective effect against ischemic cerebral injury. To validate this hypothesis, rats were intraperitoneally administered with 0.66 mL/kg Setarud for 30 minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining showed that Setarud could reduce cerebral infarct volume of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Setarud could alleviate the degenerative changes in cortical neurons of rats with cerebral ischemia. The inclined plate test and prehensile test showed that Setarud could significantly improve the motor function of rats with cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that Setarud shows neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury.

  15. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON EXPERIMENTAL CEREBRAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUNG Qing; MA Ruiling; JIN Rui

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the effect of acupuncture on cerebral infarction in rats and to try providing some experimental parameters for clinical practice. Methods: 27 healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into pseudo-operation (n = 10), model (n = 8) and acupuncture (n = 9) groups. Neuro-functional defect scoring, apoptosis of single brain slice and the number of bcl-2 immuno-reaction (IR)-positive neurons in CA1 area of the hippocampus were used as the indexes to investigate the possible mechanisms of acupuncture of "Nie San Zhen" (needling three acupoints in the temporal region) and "Si Shen Zhen" (needling four acupoints in the occiput region) in treating rats with cerebral infarction. Results: There existed significant differences between acupuncture group and model group in improving neurologic functional activities, inhibiting apoptosis of the brain cells and increasing bcl-2 IR-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area (P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy can improve cerebral infarction in the rat by suppressing apoptosis and up-regulation of the bcl-2 IR-positive neuron expression.

  16. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON EXPERIMENTAL CEREBRAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objectives:To explore the effect of acupuncture on cerebral infarction in rats and to try providing some experimental parameters for clinical practice.Methods:27 healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into pseudo-operation (n=10),model (n=8) and acupuncture (n=9) groups.Neuro-functional defect scoring,apoptosis of single brain slice and the number of bcl-2 immuno-reaction (IR)-positive neurons in CA1 area of the hippocampus were used as the indexes to investigate the possible mechanisms of acupuncture of “Nie San Zhen”(needing three acupoints in the temporal region) and “Si Shen Zhen” (needling four acupoints in the occiput region) in treating rats with cerebral infarction.Results:There existed significant differences between acupuncture group and model group in improving neurologic functional activities,inhibiting apoptosis of the brain cells and increasing bcl-2 IR-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area(P<0.01).Conclusion:Acupuncture therapy can improve cerebral infarction in the rat by suppressing apoptosis and up-regulation of the bcl-2 IR-positive neuron expression.

  17. Cerebral hemodynamics: concepts of clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Bor-Seng-Shu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism are frequently impaired in a wide range of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and stroke, with several pathophysiological mechanisms of injury. The resultant uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism can trigger secondary brain lesions, particularly in early phases, consequently worsening the patient's outcome. Cerebral blood flow regulation is influenced by blood gas content, blood viscosity, body temperature, cardiac output, altitude, cerebrovascular autoregulation, and neurovascular coupling, mediated by chemical agents such as nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, eicosanoid products, oxygen-derived free radicals, endothelins, K+, H+, and adenosine. A better understanding of these factors is valuable for the management of neurocritical care patients. The assessment of both cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in the acute phase of neurocritical care conditions may contribute to a more effective planning of therapeutic strategies for reducing secondary brain lesions. In this review, the authors have discussed concepts of cerebral hemodynamics, considering aspects of clinical importance.

  18. Metabolic pattern of the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage in a novel porcine model: studies with cerebral microdialysis with high temporal resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Nyberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. OBJECTIVE: To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. METHODS: Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. RESULTS: In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. CONCLUSION: The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans.

  19. Strategies for improving the Voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies: assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Kang, Hye Jin; Im, Ki Chun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Sang Moo; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In imaging studies of the human brain, voxel-based statistical analysis method was widely used, since these methods were originally developed for the analysis of the human brain data, they are not optimal for the animal brain data. The aim of this study is to optimize the procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of cat FDG PET brain images. A microPET Focus 120 scanner was used. Eight cats underwent FDG PET scans twice before and after inducing the deafness. Only the brain and adjacent regions were extracted from each data set by manual masking. Individual PET image at normal and deaf state was realigned to each other to remove the confounding effects by the different spatial normalization parameters on the results of statistical analyses. Distance between the sampling points on the reference image and kernel size of Gaussian filter applied to the images before estimating the realignment parameters were adjusted to 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Both data was then spatial normalized onto study-specific cat brain template. Spatially normalized PET data were smoothed and voxel-based paired t-test was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism decreased significantly after the loss of hearing capability in parietal lobes, postcentral gyri, STG, MTG, lTG, and IC at both hemisphere and left SC (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). Cerebral glucose metabolism in deaf cats was found to be significantly higher than in controls in the right cingulate (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). The ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same areas as in the SPM analysis, except for some regions (P < 0.05). Method for the voxel-based analysis of cat brain PET data was optimized for analysis of cat brain PET. This result was also confirmed by ROI analysis. The results obtained demonstrated the high localization accuracy and specificity of the developed method, and were found to be useful for examining cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  20. 尼卡地平与硝酸甘油控制性降压对颅内动脉瘤夹闭术患者脑氧代谢的影响%Effects of nicardipine and nitroglycerin on cerebral oxygen metabolism during controlled hypotension in intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明明; 赵国庆; 苏毅; 高明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of controlled hypotension respectively with nicardipinc and nitroglycer-in on cerebral oxygen metabolism in intracranial ancurysm clipping surgery. Methods 40 patients, involved in this randomized, controlled and double-blind trail, undergoing intracranial ancurysm clipping surgery were devided into Nicar-dipinc( I ) Group and Nitroglycerine (Ⅱ ) Group with 20 cases each. Control hypotension at the moment of cutting dura-mater. Blood gas analyses were performed at the time of T0、Ti、T2 and T3 respectively corresponding to the moment of cutting duramatcr,ancurysm isolation completed, ancurysm clipping done and 20 min after controlled hypotension, by taking samples from radical arteries and jugular vein bulbs. Record the values of PaO2 ,PjvO2 ,SaO2 ,SjvO2 ,Hab,Hjvb and calculate the values of Da-jvO2 and COER. Rsecults Blood pressures were kept at a desirable level without significant difference (P>0. 05). Heart rates in both groups increased obviously (P0. 05) during controlled hypotension. Compared with T0 and T3 , the values of SjvO2 at T1 and T2 increased signifi-cantly(P0. 05 ). Compared with group Ⅱ ,thc values of SjvO2 at T2 and T3 were significantly higher (P<0. 05) whereas the values of Da-jvO2 and COER were significantly lower (P<0. 05) in group I . Conclusion Both nitroglyc-crin and nicardipinc can be safely used for controlling hypotension in intracranial ancurysm clipping surgery. But the later can effectively decrease cerebral oxygen metabolism and improve cerebral oxygenation which is superior to the former in terms of cerebral protection.%目的 对比尼卡地平与硝酸甘油控制性降压对颅内动脉瘤夹闭术患者脑氧代谢的影响.方法 采取随机、对照、双盲的方法将40例行颅内动脉瘤夹闭术的患者分成尼卡地平(Ⅰ)组和硝酸甘油(Ⅱ)组,每组20人.打开硬脑膜行控制性降压,并于打开硬脑膜即刻(T0)、瘤体分离结束(T1)、夹闭完毕(T2)、

  1. The role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats involves regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Shilei; Li, Yu; Wang, Peng; Li, Shuhong; Guo, Yunliang; Yao, Ruyong

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) maintains intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by transporting Ca2+ from the cell cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and is important for shaping Ca2+ signals and the activation of programmed cell death. Inhibition of MCU by ruthenium red (RR) or Ru360 has previously been reported to protect against neuronal death. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of MCU activity in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; sham, I/R, I/R + RR and I/R + spermine (Sper) and were subjected to reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h of reperfusion. A bolus injection of RR administered 30 min prior to ischemia was found to significantly decrease the total infarct volume and reduce neuronal damage and cell apoptosis compared with ischemia/reperfusion values. However, treatment with Sper, an activator of the MCU, increased the injury induced by I/R. Analysis of energy metabolism revealed that I/R induced progressive inhibition of complexes I‑IV of the electron transport chain, decreased ATP production, dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment with RR ameliorated the condition, while spermine had the opposite effect. In conclusion, blocking MCU was demonstrated to exert protective effects against I/R injury and this process may be mediated by the prevention of energy failure.

  2. Metabolic effects of continuous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M

    1990-09-01

    To study the metabolic effects of slowing absorption, as a possible mechanism for the blood glucose and lipid-lowering effects of soluble fiber and low glycemic index (GI) foods, seven healthy men consumed a liquid formula diet either as three equal meals at 4-hour intervals, or by continuously sipping the same amount of formula over the 12-hour study period. Meal-related fluctuations of blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were seen during three meals, but not during sipping. Mean 12-hour levels of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) were equivalent on sipping and three meals. The total integrated insulin area was reduced by 32% on sipping (P less than .01), but this was not explained by the 16% (NS) reduction in serum C-peptide response. Mean serum free fatty acid (FFA) and cholesterol levels were reduced by 20% and 2.6%, respectively (P less than .01). It is concluded that the reduced glycemic responses seen after soluble fiber-enriched meals and low GI foods can be explained by slow absorption. Although the overall mean daily blood glucose levels may not be reduced by slowing carbohydrate absorption in nondiabetic subjects, this is achieved at considerably lower ambient serum insulin concentrations. The reduction of insulin levels may be an important mechanism for the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of soluble fiber and low GI foods.

  3. Increased interictal cerebral glucose metabolism in a cortical-subcortical network in drug naive patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, M; Lucignani, G; Del Sole, A; Grana, C; Bressi, S; Minicucci, F; Messa, C; Canevini, M P; Fazio, F

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to assess the pattern of cerebral metabolism in different types of epilepsies. However, PET with [18F]FDG has never been used to evaluate drug naive patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy, in whom the mechanism of origin and diffusion of the epileptic discharge may differ from that underlying other epilepsies. In a group of patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy, never treated with antiepileptic drugs, evidence has been found of significant interictal glucose hypermetabolism in a bilateral neural network including the temporal lobes, thalami, basal ganglia, and cingular cortices. The metabolism in these areas and frontal lateral cortex enables the correct classification of all patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and controls by discriminant function analysis. Other cortical areas--namely, frontal basal and lateral, temporal mesial, and cerebellar cortices--had bilateral increases of glucose metabolism ranging from 10 to 15% of normal controls, although lacking stringent statistical significance. This metabolic pattern could represent a pathophysiological state of hyperactivity predisposing to epileptic discharge generation or diffusion, or else a network of inhibitory circuits activated to prevent the diffusion of the epileptic discharge. PMID:7561924

  4. 大骨瓣减压对不同年龄重型颅脑创伤患者脑血流量及脑代谢的影响%The effects of decompressive craniectomy on cerebral blood flow volume and brain metabolism in different aged patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐震; 黄李法; 吕晓皑; 王翼伟; 张昕; 竺国充; 李徐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of decompressive craniectomy on cerebral blood flow volume and brain metabolism in different aged patients with severe traumatic brain injury.Method 71 cases were divided into three groups according age:group A( <30 years) ,group B(30 ~50 years) ,group C ( > 50 years).Each group was divided into decompressive craniectomy ( DC ) treatment group and control group.Monitor dynamically blood gas analysis, glucose, lactic acid, hemoglobin in radial artery and internal jugular venous bulb, accounting the cerebral oxygen extraction ( CEO2 ) and the D - values of glucose and lactic acid respectively between radial artery and internal jugular venous bulb.Color doppler ultrasonography was used to determine the cerebral blood flow volume(CBFV).Results From the 1 st to 7th day, the CBFV and CEO2 of DC group were significantly greater than control group in group A and group B.The CBFV was significantly greater than control group while the CEO2 was lower than control group in group C ( P < 0.05 ).From third day, the D - values of glucose of DC group was significantly higher than control group while the D - values of lactic acid was lower than control group in group A and group B, the D - values of glucose of DC group was significantly lower than control group while the D - values of lactic acid was higher than control group in group C( P < 0.05 ).Conclusions Decompression craniectomy can increase the CBFV and brain oxygen metabolism in STBI patients before age 50 and increase the CBFV in patients after age 50 whereas decrease the brain oxygeon metabolism.%目的 探讨大骨瓣减压对不同年龄重型颅脑创伤患者脑血流量及脑代谢的影响.方法 将71例重型颅脑创伤患者分为<30岁组、30~50岁组和>50岁组.每组又分为治疗组和对照组,大骨瓣减压手术前后行桡动脉和颈内静脉血气分析及血糖、血乳酸、血红蛋白监测,计算动脉-颈内静脉血糖差、颈内静脉-动

  5. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  6. Cerebral white matter blood flow and energy metabolism in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Christel; D'haeseleer, Miguel; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Fierens, Yves; Cambron, Melissa; Mostert, Jop P.; Heersema, Dorothea J.; Koch, Marcus W.; De Keyser, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Objective: The objective of this article is to assess the relationship between reduced NAWM CBF and both axonal mitochondrial me

  7. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults. PMID:25463973

  8. Typical cerebral metabolic patterns in various types of dementia: an SPM analysis of 18F-FDG PET images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xue CUI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To delineate the cerebral metabolic patterns presented in 18F-FDG PET images in various types of dementia with SPM analysis.  Methods Patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET scanning with a retrospectively confirmed diagnosis according to strictly defined clinical research criteria were studied. Clinical follow-up enabled appropriate patient inclusion. A total of 62 patients were included, of which 20 patients were diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD, 20 frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 10 dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 7 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 3 primary progressive aphasia (PPA, 1 corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD, 1 multiple system atrophy (MSA. 18F-FDG PET images of each group were analyzed and compared to 20 healthy controls using SPM5. Results Disease-specific patterns of relatively decreased metabolic activity were found in AD (bilateral parietotemporal regions and frontal regions sparing sensorimotor cortex, FTD (asymmetric frontotemporal regions, DLB (occipital lobe, visual cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, PSP (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterolateral temporal regions, caudate nucleus and mesencephalon, PPA (Broca's area in left frontal lobe, left temporal cortex excepting posterior superior temporal gyrus, CBD (asymmetricly involved cortical regions, prodominately on right side, around bilateral central sulcus and right basal ganglia, MSA (bilateral cerebellum dorsolateral cortex and left putamen, and right medial temporal cortex.  Conclusions Specific dementia related cerebral metabolic patterns in 18F-FDG PET might assist in early differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.008

  9. Effects of rapamycin on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age......- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  11. Prospective randomized trial to assess effects of continuing hormone therapy on cerebral function in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L Rasgon

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT on regional cerebral metabolism in postmenopausal women (mean age = 58, SD = 5 at risk for development of dementia. The prospective clinical trial design included pre- and post-intervention neuroimaging of women randomized to continue (HT+ or discontinue (HT- therapy following an average of 10 years of use. The primary outcome measure was change in brain metabolism during the subsequent two years, as assessed with fluorodeoxyglucose-18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Longitudinal FDG-PET data were available for 45 study completers. Results showed that women randomized to continue HT experienced relative preservation of frontal and parietal cortical metabolism, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. Women who discontinued 17-β estradiol (17βE-based HT, as well as women who continued conjugated equine estrogen (CEE-based HT, exhibited significant decline in metabolism of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical (PCC area. Significant decline in PCC metabolism was additionally seen in women taking concurrent progestins (with either 17βE or CEE. Together, these findings suggest that among postmenopausal subjects at risk for developing dementia, regional cerebral cortical metabolism is relatively preserved for at least two years in women randomized to continue HT, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. In addition, continuing unopposed 17βE therapy is associated specifically with preservation of metabolism in PCC, known to undergo the most significant decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097058.

  12. Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cui, Hui Song; Shin, Seo Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-11-01

    Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1α was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1α expression.

  13. Interregional cerebral metabolic associativity during a continuous performance task (Part II) : differential alterations in bipolar and unipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brenda E; Willis, Mark W; Ketter, Terence A; Speer, Andrew; Kimbrell, Tim A; George, Mark S; Herscovitch, Peter; Post, Robert M

    2008-10-30

    Unipolar and bipolar disorders have often been reported to exhibit abnormal regional brain activity in prefrontal cortex and paralimbic structures compared with healthy controls. We sought to ascertain how regions postulated to be abnormal in bipolar and unipolar disorders were functionally connected to the rest of the brain, and how this associativity differed from healthy controls. Thirty patients with bipolar disorder (BPs), 34 patients with unipolar disorder (UPs), and 66 healthy volunteers (Willis, M.W., Benson, B.E., Ketter, T.A., Kimbrell, T.A., George, M.S., Speer, A.M., Herscovitch, P., Post, R.M., 2008. Interregional cerebral metabolic associativity during a continuous performance task in healthy adults. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 164 (1)) were imaged using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) while performing an auditory continuous performance task (CPT). Five bilateral regions of interest (ROIs), namely dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, inferior parietal cortex (INFP), thalamus and cerebellum, were correlated with normalized cerebral metabolism in the rest of the brain while covarying out Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Scores. In bipolar patients compared with controls, metabolism in the left DLPFC and INFP, and bilateral thalamus and insula had more positive and fewer negative metabolic correlations with other brain regions. In contrast, compared with controls, unipolar patients had fewer significant correlative relationships, either positive or negative. In common, bipolar and unipolar patients lacked the normal inverse relationships between the DLPFC and cerebellum, as well as relationships between the primary ROIs and other limbic regions (medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and temporal lobes) compared with controls. Associations of DLPFC and INFP with other brain areas were different in each hemisphere in patients and controls. Bipolar patients exhibited exaggerated positive coherence

  14. Effect of artificial hyperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery%过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永哲; 高明龙; 潘宁玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect ot various degree of artificial byperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery. Methods thirtysix patients (ASA Ⅰ - Ⅱ ) scheduled for intracranial aneurysm surgery were divided into there groups according to PaCO2: hypotention and PaCO2 (40 ± 2) mmHg (group A), hypotention and PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg (group B)and hypotention and PaCO2 (30 ± 2) mmHg (group C). Arterial and jugular venous blood samples were taken before hypotention (T0), after hypotention for 15 min (T1), artificial ventilation for 15 min (T2), and at the end of hypotention and artificail ventilation (T3). The arterial oxygen content (CaO2), jugular venous oxgen conent (CjvO2), arterial and jugular bulb venous O2 content difference (Da-jvO2) and cerebral oxygen extraction rate (CERO2) were calculated. Results Compared with T0, MAP has significantly decreased at T1 and T2 (P <0.05) and there was no difference at T3 between groups (P>0.05). Compared with T0, CaO2 bas no difference at all points in group C (P > 0.05), CjvO2 decreased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05), Da-jvO2 and CERO2 have increased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05). Conclusion Keeping PaCO2 (30 ± 2)mmHg leads to disorder of cerebral oxygen metabolism and it is safe to keep PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg during intracranial aneurysm surgery.%目的:研究过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响.方法:择取颅内动脉瘤患者36例,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分为正常通气组(A组,PaCO2 35 ~ 40 mmHg)、轻度通气组(B组,PaCO2 30 ~ 35 mmHg)和中度通气组(C组,PaCO2 25 ~ 30 mmHg).各组应用硝酸甘油控制性降压,降压幅度在基础值的20% ~ 25%,在降压达到目标值15 min后进行过度通气.各组于降压前(T0)、降压达到目标血压15 min后(T1)、过度通气使PaCO2达到各组预定值15 min后(T2)、MAP恢复且PaCO2

  15. Effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter on cerebral edema in a rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin Li; Shilei Wang; Haihong Luan

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red and the agonist spermine on cerebral edema in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.Left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats using the suture method.Following 24 hours of ischemic reperfusion, neurological function scores of rats with MCAO, and rats pretreated with ruthenium red and spermine were significantly lower, however, water content of brain tissue, aquaporin 4 expression and immunoglobulin G (IgG) exudation were significantly higher than those of sham-operated rats.Compared with MCAO rats and spermine-treated rats, neurological function scores were considerably higher, and brain tissue water content, aquaporin 4 expression and IgG exudation decreased in ruthenium red-treated rats.These findings suggest that preventive application of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red can significantly decrease aquaporin 4 and IgG expression, influence the permeability of the blood brain barrier, and thereby decrease the extent of cerebral edema.

  16. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Shin, Youn Kyung; Eo, Jae Sean; Won, Oh So; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17{+-}1 yr) participated in this study. Two [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100{approx}400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism.

  17. Influence of apolipoprotein E and its receptors on cerebral amyloid precursor protein metabolism following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuai; SUN Xiao-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among young individuals in our society,and globally the incidence of TBI is rising sharply.Mounting evidence has indicated that apolipoprotein E (apoE:protein; APOE:gene) genotype influences the outcome after TBI.The proposed mechanism by which APOE affects the clinicopathological consequences of TBI is multifactorial and includes amyloid deposition,disruption of lipid distribution,dysfunction of mitochondrial energy production,oxidative stress and increases intracellular calcium in response to injury.This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the influence of apoE and its receptors on cerebral amyloid betaprotein precursor metabolism following TBI.

  18. Dietary and plant polyphenols exert neuroprotective effects and improve cognitive function in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain which generally leads to irreversible brain damage. Ischemic injury is associated with vascular leakage, inflammation, tissue injury, and cell death. Cellular changes associated with ischemia include impairment of metabolism, ...

  19. Effect of glutamate on inflammatory responses of intestine and brain after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xu; Jie Sun; Ran Lu; Qing Ji; Jian-Guo Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the modulation of glutamate on post-ischemic intestinal and cerebral inflammatory responses in a ischemic and excitotoxic rat model.METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min and injection of monosodium glutamate intraperitoneally, to decapitate them at selected time points. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively.Hemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously during the whole process of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.RESULTS: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) treated rats displayed statistically significant high levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissuess within the first 6 h of ischemia. The rats with cerebral ischemia showed a minor decrease of TNF-α production in cerebral and intestinal tissuess. The rats with cerebral ischemia and treated with MSG displayed statistically significant low levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissues. These results correlated significantly with NF-κB production calculated at the same intervals. During experiment, the mean blood pressure and heart rates in all groups were stable.CONCLUSION: Glutamate is involved in the mechanism of intestinal and cerebral inflammation responses. The effects of glutamate on cerebral and intestinal inflammatory responses after ischemia are up-regulated at the transcriptional level,through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway.

  20. Improving effect of Ginkgolide B on mitochondrial respiration of ischemic neuron after cerebral thrombosis in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-qing; ZHANG Ying; YANG Li-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been known that platelet activating factor receptors (PAFR) may mediate many acute pathological responses and that PAFR antagonist Ginkgolide B (GB) possesses multiple effects, but the actions of GB on PAFR affinity and mitochondrial respiration in the ischemic neuron were unclear until now. This study explored the possible effects of GB on PAFR and the mitochondrial respiration of the neuron in the ischemic microenvironment.Methods Thrombotic cerebral ischemia in tree shrews was induced by a photochemical reaction; changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, using 99mTc tracer technique ), the brain water content (specific gravimetric method), PAFR (3H-labelled PAF assay), the respiratory control rate (RCR), the phosphorus-oxygen (P/O) ratio of mitochondrial respiration (Clark oxygen electrode), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, and the mitochondrial ultrastructure in the ischemic neurons were also observed. Data were compared between the two groups (the ischemia group vs the sham group, and the ischemia group vs the GB group).Results There were high affinity and low affinity sites for PAFR on the tree threws' brain cell membranes. The varying-affinity PAFR binding sites, the respiration state Ⅲ, the state Ⅳ, RCR, the P/O ratio of the mitochondria, and the rCBF all decreased markedly (respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05), but the water content increased (P<0.01) in the ischemia group after the application of cerebral thrombosis. In tree shrews treated with GB (5 mg/kg I.v.) 6 hours after photochemical reaction, their PAFR binding sites and respiratory state increased markedly. The rCBF gradually increased and the brain edema ameliorated (P<0.01) at 24h after cerebral ischemia. There were significant differences between the ischemia group and sham group (P<0.01). In GB treated isolated neurons' mitochondria, with or without cerebral ischemia, the energy metabolism of the mitochondria had not been changed

  1. Effect of balloon atrial septostomy on cerebral oxygenation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Verhagen, Elise A.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) on cerebral oxygenation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). METHODS: In term neonates with TGA, regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) was measured using, near-inf

  2. Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

  3. Effects of Frequency of Feedback on the Learning of Motor Skill in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool; Rostami, Leila Rashidi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of dart in individuals with cerebral palsy type I. Twenty-four individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) between the ages of 5 and 17 were chosen for this study. They were put into 3 homogenous groups according to their records after 20…

  4. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  5. Decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions in adults' with internet game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Internet Game Addiction (IGA) is known to be associated with poor decision-making and diminished impulse control; however, the underlying neural substrates of IGA have not been identified. To investigate the neural substrates of IGA, we compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA, primarily in the prefrontal brain regions, which have been implicated in inhibitory control. We studied 10 right-handed participants (5 controls: male, 23.8{+-}0.75 y, 5 IGAs: male, 22.6{+-}2.42 y) with FDG PET. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the severity of IGA. Before scanning, all subjects carried out a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), as measures of behavioral inhibitory control. Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) was used to analyze differences in regional brain glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA. Consistent with our predictions, compared to controls, significant reductions in FDG uptake in individuals with IGA were found in the bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 11, 47), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 48), cingulate cortex (BA 24), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) (BA 6); whereas increases were found in the bilateral hippocampus. Correlation analyses within the IGA group further showed that the level of glucose metabolism in the right orbitofrontal gyrus was marginally positively correlated with task scores in BART. Our results showed that IGA is associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control. This finding highlights dysfunctional inhibitory brain systems in individuals with IGA and offers implications for the development for therapeutic paradigms for IGA.

  6. Effects of hyperammonemia on brain energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Leke, Renata;

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to the effects of elevated plasma ammonia levels on brain energy metabolism is abundant, but heterogeneous in terms of the conclusions. Thus, some studies claim that ammonia has a direct, inhibitory effect on energy metabolism whereas others find no such correlation...... but related to the fact that hepatic encephalopathy is always associated with reduced brain activity, a condition clearly characterized by a decreased CMRO2. Whether this may be related to changes in GABAergic function remains to be elucidated....

  7. Hypothalamic sensing of ketone bodies after prolonged cerebral exposure leads to metabolic control dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Fioramonti, Xavier; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (neuropeptides. Moreover, insulinemia was increased and caused a decrease in glucose production despite an increased resistance to insulin. The present study confirms that ketone bodies reaching the brain stimulates food intake. Moreover, we provide evidence that a prolonged hyperketonemia leads to a dysregulation of energy homeostasis control mechanisms. Finally, this study shows that brain exposure to ketone bodies alters insulin signaling and consequently glucose homeostasis. PMID:27708432

  8. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  9. Effect of Maixuekang enteric coated tablets on absorption of hematoma and treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage patients with cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Ding Lu; Chuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Maixuekang in treating acute cerebral hemorrhage hematomas and promoting brain hemorrhage.Methods: A total of 192 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage treated within 3 hours in our hospital during April 2013 to February 2015 were selected. After admission immediately apply brain CT, blood, coagulation function tests were carried out. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. Both groups had anti-infective, mannitol and other conventional treatment. Observation group were treated with enteric-coated tablets Maixuekang on this basis. Clinical efficacy, various stages of treatment of cerebral hematoma volume, brain edema volume, NIHSS score were compared.Results: Before treatment, difference in edema volume and HIHSS scores were not statistically significant (P>0.05). After14 d and 28 d treatment, edema volume of observation group were significantly smaller than those of control group (P<0.01); NIHSS score of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.01); 28 d after treatment total effective rate of observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusions:Maixuekang enteric-coated tablets as a thrombin inhibitor, can effectively reduce a series of pathological changes after acute cerebral hemorrhage caused by partial thrombin content, promote absorption of hematoma and neurological recovery. The side effects is small, safe and worthy of promotion.

  10. Effect of retinoic acid on expression of LINGO-1 and neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hong-yi; Meng, Er-yan; Xia, Yuan-peng; Peng, Hai

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the expression of LINGO-1 after cerebral ischemia, investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of LINGO-1 and GAP-43, and the number of synapses, and to emplore the repressive effect of LINGO-1 on neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. The model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia was established by the modified suture method of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression of LINGO-1 was detected by Western blotting and that of GAP-43 by immunohistochemistry. The number of synapses was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The SD rats were divided into three groups: sham operation (sham) group, cerebral ischemia (CI) group and RA treatment (RA) group. The results showed that the expression level of LINGO-1 at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA groups was 0.266 ± 0.019, 1.215 ± 0.063 and 0.702 ± 0.081, respectively (PLINGO-1 expression is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia, and RA inhibits the expression of LINGO-1, promotes the expression of GAP-43 and increases the number of synapses. It suggests that LINGO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which may provide an experimenal basis for LINGO-1 antogonist, RA, for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.

  11. 针刺介入时机对脑梗死大鼠能量代谢和脑源性神经生长因子、酪氨酸激酶受体B的影响%Effect of acupuncture intervention time on energy metabolism and BDNF,TrKB in rats with cerebral infarc-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 赵军; 王洪; 张韧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the effects of acupuncture intervention time on energy metabolism and the expression of BDNF and TrKB in rats after ischemic stroke and explore the mechanism of acupuncture treatment and intervention time .Methods The method of permanent focal cerebral ischemia of middle cerebral artery was estab -lished in rats.Two hundreds of model were selected and divided into 5 groups:sham-operation group,model-group,2 h acupuncture group,3 d acupuncture group,7 d acupuncture group.The sodium,potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+ATPase),calcium and magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+,Mg2+ATPase) and the number of BDNF,TrKB positive nerve cells were measured at 1 d,3 d,7 d and 14 d of postoperation .Results The Na+,K+-ATPase,Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity in brain tissue of rats were sharply decreased after ischemia ,lowest at 1d,along with the changes in the extension first and then drop time .ATPase activity in acupuncture group increased significantly in 1,3,7,14 d than those in the model group (P<0.01,P<0.01).2 h group was higher than 3 d and 7 d groups (P<0.01,P<0.05),the difference was statistically significant.The BDNF,TrKB positive nerve cells were gradually increased with time(P<0.05).The BDNF,TrKB positive neural cells of each acupuncture group were increased gradually with time(P<0.01,P<0.05).The number of TrKB positive cells in 2h acupuncture group was higher than that in 3 d,7 d acupuncture group(P<0.01,P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture can improve energy metabolism of ischemic brain tissue ,increase the positive neurons cell number of BDNF and TrKB ,repair and protecte the brain injury of ischemic ,the better therapeutic effect the earlier acupuncture treatment .%目的:研究针刺介入时机对脑梗死大鼠能量代谢和脑源性神经生长因子( BDNF)、酪氨酸激酶受体B( TrKB)的影响,探讨针刺治疗脑梗死的机制及介入时机。方法采用线栓法制备大鼠局灶性永久性脑缺血模型,分

  12. Cerebral metabolic and structural alterations in hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum assessed by MRS and DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreha-Kulaczewski, Steffi [Georg August University, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Goettingen (Germany); Georg August University, MR Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Goettingen (Germany); Dechent, Peter; Helms, Gunther [Georg August University, MR Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Goettingen (Germany); Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany); Gaertner, Jutta; Brockmann, Knut [Georg August University, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is a complicated form of autosomal-recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia. Characteristic clinical features comprise progressive spastic gait, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Diagnostic MRI findings include thinning of the corpus callosum and non-progressive white matter (WM) alterations. To study the extent of axonal involvement, we performed localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the cerebral WM and cortical grey matter (GM) in a patient with HSP-TCC at 20 and 25 years of age. The second investigation included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While MRS of the GM was normal, affected WM was characterized by major metabolic alterations such as reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds as well as elevated levels of myo-inositol. These abnormalities showed progression over a period of 5 years. DTI revealed increased mean diffusivity as well as reduced fractional anisotropy in periventricular WM. The metabolic and structural findings are consistent with progressive neuroaxonal loss in the WM accompanied by astrocytic proliferation - histopathological changes known to occur in HSP-TCC. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the primary pathological process in HSP-TCC affects the axon, possibly due to impaired axonal trafficking. (orig.)

  13. Metabolic and neurological patterns in chronic cerebral infarction: a single-voxel {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North-15, West-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060 (Japan); Houkin, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North-15, West-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060 (Japan); Iwasaki, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North-15, West-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060 (Japan); Abe, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North-15, West-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060 (Japan); Kashiwaba, T. [Kashiwaba Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The details of brain metabolism in chronic cerebral infarcts have not been clarified. Using proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) at 1.5 T, we measured biochemical changes in 16 patients with large infarcts involving the motor cortex in the chronic phase (median 293.9 days) and related the findings to clinical data. Localised spectra were obtained using point-resolved spectroscopy, with an echo time of 270 ms. Regions of interest were placed on the frontal lobe, including the precentral gyrus and central sulcus. Motor function was assessed by the manual muscle power test at the time of the {sup 1}H-MRS study. Only three patients with severe paresis had no signal in the lesions and a lactate signal was obtained in 13 cases. N -acetyl aspartate (NAA) was observed in 4 cases with recanalisation of an occluded vessel. Motor function correlated strongly with the NAA/choline-containing compounds (Cho) ratio (P < 0.01) and lactate/Cho ratio (P < 0.01). We found various metabolic patterns, reflecting residual neurological function. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the general belief was that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) were healthy sugar substitutes because they provide sweet taste without calories or glycemic effects. However, data from several epidemiological studies have found that consumption of NNS, mainly in diet sodas, is associated with increased risk to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this article is to review recent scientific evidence supporting potential mechanisms that explain how “metabolically inactive” NNS, which have few, if any, calories, might promote metabolic dysregulation. Three potential mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, are presented: 1) NNS interfere with learned responses that contribute to control glucose and energy homeostasis, 2) NNS interfere with gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, and 3) NNS interact with sweet-taste receptors expressed throughout the digestive system that play a role in glucose absorption and trigger insulin secretion. In addition, recent findings from our laboratory showing an association between individual taste sensitivity to detect sucralose and sucralose’s acute effects on metabolic response to an oral glucose load are reported. Taken as a whole, data support the notion that NNS have metabolic effects. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which NNS may drive metabolic dysregulation and better understand potential effects of these commonly used food additives. PMID:26095119

  15. Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M Yanina

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the general belief was that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) were healthy sugar substitutes because they provide sweet taste without calories or glycemic effects. However, data from several epidemiological studies have found that consumption of NNSs, mainly in diet sodas, is associated with increased risk to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this article is to review recent scientific evidence supporting potential mechanisms that explain how "metabolically inactive" NNSs, which have few, if any, calories, might promote metabolic dysregulation. Three potential mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, are presented: 1) NNSs interfere with learned responses that contribute to control glucose and energy homeostasis, 2) NNSs interfere with gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, and 3) NNSs interact with sweet-taste receptors expressed throughout the digestive system that play a role in glucose absorption and trigger insulin secretion. In addition, recent findings from our laboratory showing an association between individual taste sensitivity to detect sucralose and sucralose's acute effects on metabolic response to an oral glucose load are reported. Taken as a whole, data support the notion that NNSs have metabolic effects. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which NNSs may drive metabolic dysregulation and better understand potential effects of these commonly used food additives.

  16. Effect of Salvianolic Acid B on Mitochondrial Function of Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yufeng; LUO Xuechun; WANG Ximei; FANG Lei; HUANG Qifu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of salvianolic acid B (SalB) on the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium, and apoptosis of neurons with cerebral ischemia in mice were investigated using an acute cerebral ischemia model established by ligating the bilateral common carotid arteries in mica. The MMP, the intracellular cal-cium concentration, and the apoptosis rate of cortical neurons were measured at 6 min, 12 min, 18 min, 24 min, and 30 min after cerebral ischemia by a flow cytometer. The experiments show that SalB increases the MMP and reduces the intracellular calcium and the apoptosis rate at different stages of the cerebral ischemia in mice. The results show that the protective mechanism of SalB on cerebral ischemia enhances the MMP and maintains intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  17. Greater left cerebral hemispheric metabolism in bulimia assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.C.; Hagman, J.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Blinder, B.; Derrfler, M.; Tai, W.Y.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Eight women with bulimia and eight age- and sex-matched normal control subjects were studied with positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer of brain metabolic rate. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during FDG uptake. In control subjects, the metabolic rate was higher in the right hemisphere than in the left, but patients with bulimia did not have this normal asymmetry. Lower metabolic rates in the basal ganglia, found in studies of depressed subjects, and higher rates in the basal ganglia, reported in a study of anorexia nervosa, were not found. This is consistent with the suggestion that bulimia is a diagnostic grouping distinct from these disorders.

  18. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura [University of Milan, Center for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions, Institute of Clinical Neurology, Department of Clinical Sciences, ' Luigi Sacco' Hospital, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Clinical Institute Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  19. Effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral microvessels after global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Liu, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jan-Nong; Xu, Li

    2007-03-23

    This paper studied the effects of crocin, a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L., on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice cerebral microvessels. Transient global cerebral ischemia (20 min), followed by 24 h of reperfusion, significantly promoted the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cortical microvascular homogenates, as well as markedly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and promoted the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOs). Reperfusion for 24 h led to serous edema with substantial microvilli loss, vacuolation, membrane damage and mitochondrial injuries in cortical microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC). Furthermore, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were detected in cortical microvessels after I (20 min)/R (24 h). Reperfusion for 24 h also induced membrane (functional) G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) expression, while it reduced cytosol GRK2 expression. Pretreatment with crocin markedly inhibited oxidizing reactions and modulated the ultrastructure of CMEC in mice with 20 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Furthermore, crocin inhibited GRK2 translocation from the cytosol to the membrane and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression in cortical microvessels. We propose that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and constitutes a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia.

  20. Therapeutic effects of different durations of acupuncture on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is regarded as an effective therapy for cerebral ischemia. Different acupuncture manipulations and durations may result in different therapeutic effects. In the present study, the Neiguan (PC6 acupoint of rats with occluded middle cerebral arteries was needled at a fixed frequency (3 Hz with different durations, i.e., 5, 60 and 180 seconds under a twisting-rotating acupuncture method. Results showed that different durations of acupuncture had different therapeutic effects, with 60 seconds yielding a better therapeutic effect than the other two groups. This duration of treatment demonstrated rapid cerebral blood flow, encouraging recovery of neurological function, and small cerebral infarct volume. Experimental findings indicated that under 3 Hz frequency, the treatment of needling Neiguan for 60 seconds is effective for ischemic stroke

  1. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Expression of p53 Protein in Cerebral Cortex of Rats with Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜渊; 耿德勤; 葛巍; 徐兴顺; 曾因明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of p53 protein in cerebral cortex of senile rats with global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and to explore its mechanism. Methods: The cerebral IR injury rat model was established referring to Pulsinelli 4-vessel occlusion method. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly and evenly divided into the control group, the IR group and the IR plus EA (IR-EA) group. The animals in the control group were subjected to electrocauterization of vertebral arteries in bilateral flank orifice alone with the general carotid arteries unoccluded.To rats in the IR-EA group, immediately and 24h, 48h, 72h after cerebral IR, EA treatment on bilateral acupoint "Zusanli"(ST36) was applied once a day, lasting for 60 minutes. After the final treatment, all the rats were sacrificed and their brains were taken to examine p53 protein expression by the immunohistochemical method. Results: Cells with positive p53 immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of rats in the IR group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.05), while that in the IR-EA group was significantly lower than that in the IR group (P<0.05). Conclusion: EA could remarkably reduce expression of p53 protein in the cerebral cortex of senile rats with global cerebral IR injury, which might be one of the means for EA to inhibit neuronal apoptosis after cerebral IR injury.

  2. Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two...

  3. Improved cerebral energetics and ketone body metabolism in db/db mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Nissen, Jakob D;

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming evident that type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting brain energy metabolism. The importance of alternative substrates for the brain in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ketone bodies are relevant candidates to compensate ...

  4. Reconstruction and flux analysis of coupling between metabolic pathways of astrocytes and neurons: application to cerebral hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akιn Ata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a daunting task to identify all the metabolic pathways of brain energy metabolism and develop a dynamic simulation environment that will cover a time scale ranging from seconds to hours. To simplify this task and make it more practicable, we undertook stoichiometric modeling of brain energy metabolism with the major aim of including the main interacting pathways in and between astrocytes and neurons. Model The constructed model includes central metabolism (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, lipid metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, amino acid metabolism (synthesis and catabolism, the well-known glutamate-glutamine cycle, other coupling reactions between astrocytes and neurons, and neurotransmitter metabolism. This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive attempt at stoichiometric modeling of brain metabolism to date in terms of its coverage of a wide range of metabolic pathways. We then attempted to model the basal physiological behaviour and hypoxic behaviour of the brain cells where astrocytes and neurons are tightly coupled. Results The reconstructed stoichiometric reaction model included 217 reactions (184 internal, 33 exchange and 216 metabolites (183 internal, 33 external distributed in and between astrocytes and neurons. Flux balance analysis (FBA techniques were applied to the reconstructed model to elucidate the underlying cellular principles of neuron-astrocyte coupling. Simulation of resting conditions under the constraints of maximization of glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycle fluxes between the two cell types with subsequent minimization of Euclidean norm of fluxes resulted in a flux distribution in accordance with literature-based findings. As a further validation of our model, the effect of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia on fluxes was simulated using an FBA-derivative approach, known as minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA. The results show the power of the

  5. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  6. Effect of baicalin on the autophagy and Beclin-1 expression in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Long Hong; Yue-Feng Chen; Ping-Xuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of baicalin on the autophagy and Beclin-1 expression in rats with cerebral ischemia, and the role of autophagy in the cerebral ischemia injury. Methods:The healthy male SD rats were randomized into the sham operation group, the ischemia model group, baicalin treatment group (100 mg/kg), and 3MA group (15 mg/kg), with 10 rats in each group. Transient focal cerebral ischemia injury model in rats was induced by occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 180 min. The rats were given the corresponding drugs through the tail veins 30 min before molding. Half of the specimens were used for TTC staining to analyze the cerebral infarction volume. The others were used to determine the expression of Beclin-1 in the brain tissues by Western-blot. Results:When compared with the ischemia model group, the cerebral infarction volume in 3MA group was significantly increased, while that in baicalin treatment group was significantly reduced, and the comparison among the groups was statistically significant. When compared with the ischemia model group, Beclin-1 expression level in baicalin treatment group was significantly elevated, while Beclin-1 expression level in 3MA group was significantly higher than that in the sham-operation group but lower than that in the ischemia model group. Conclusions:The autophagy level of brain tissues in normal rats is low. The cerebral ischemia can activate autophagy. The activated autophagy is probably involved in the neuroprotection of cerebral ischemia injury. Application of 3MA to inhibit the occurrence of autophagy can aggravate the cerebral injury. Baicalin can significantly improve the cerebral ischemia injury and promote the occurrence of autophagy, whose mechanism is probably associated with the up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression to promote the activation of type III PI3K signal transduction pathway.

  7. Inhibitory effect of acupuncture on neuronal apoptosis in rats after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangyu Ju; Jing Zhang; Guohua Jiang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed neuronal death after total cerebral ischemia may accompany with apoptosis, but acupuncture may play a certain role in protecting nerve through inhibiting ischemic neuronal apoptosis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture on neuronal apoptosis in rats after cerebral ischemia and analyze its cerebral protective mechanism.DESIGN: Contrast observation among groups.SETTING: Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: A total of 30 male healthy Wistar rats of general grade and weighing (250±20) g were randomly divided into three groups, including sham operation group, cerebral ischemia group and acupuncture group with 10 rats in each group. Apoptosis in situ kit was provided by Baolingman Company,Germany.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory Center, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May to November 2004. ① Rats in the cerebral ischemia group and the acupuncture group were used to establish total cerebral ischemic models with four vessels occlusion; in addition, models in the sham operation group were established with the same method as mentioned above.However, four vessels of rats in the sham operation were exposured and cerebral ischemia did not occur. Rats in the acupuncture group were given acupuncture treatment after operation. Needle of 40 mm in length was used to acupuncture bilateral Zusanli (St 36) and Quchi (LI 11) with the depth of 3 mm, and then bilateral acupoints were connected with KWD-808Ⅱ omnipotenc impulse electro-therapeutic apparatus (frequency: 1 Hz;thin waves; voltage: 2 V) once a day for totally 30 minutes. Meanwhile, needle of 25 mm in length was used to acupuncture Baihui (Du 20) with the depth of 3 mm, and then the needle was twirled once every 5 minutes for 30 minutes in total. The course was 7 days. ② Neuronal injuries in hippocampal CA1 area after cerebral ischemia were observed with Nissl body staining method at 7 days after treatment

  8. In vivo imaging of hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in acute focal cerebral ischemic rats with laser speckle imaging and functional photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zilin; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoquan; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease. The changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism associated with stroke play an important role in pathophysiology study. But the changes were difficult to describe with a single imaging modality. Here the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and oxygen saturation (SO2) were yielded with laser speckle imaging (LSI) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) during and after 3-h acute focal ischemic rats. These hemodynamic measures were further synthesized to deduce the changes in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The results indicate that all the hemodynamics except CBV had rapid declines within 40-min occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO). CBV in arteries and veins first increased to the maximum value of 112.42±36.69% and 130.58±31.01% by 15 min MCAO; then all the hemodynamics had a persistent reduction with small fluctuations during the ischemic. When ischemia lasted for 3 h, CBF in arteries, veins decreased to 17±14.65%, 24.52±20.66%, respectively, CBV dropped to 62±18.56% and 59±18.48%. And the absolute SO2 decreased by 40.52±22.42% and 54.24±11.77%. After 180-min MCAO, the changes in hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism were also quantified. The study suggested that combining LSI and PAM provides an attractive approach for stroke detection in small animal studies.

  9. Reduced blood flow response to acetazolamide reflects pre-existing vasodilation and decreased oxygen metabolism in major cerebral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Kishibe, Yoshihiko; Sugimoto, Kanji; Takahashi, Masaaki [Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, 5-4-30 Moriyama, Moriyama-city, Shiga 524-8524 (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    A decrease in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to acetazolamide may indicate an increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) caused by reduced perfusion pressure in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions. However, a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) caused by ischemic changes may also decrease the CBF response to acetazolamide by decreasing the production of carbon dioxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the values of CBV and CMRO{sub 2} are independent predictors of the CBF response to acetazolamide in major cerebral arterial occlusive disease. We used positron emission tomography to study 30 patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions. The CBF response to acetazolamide was assessed by measuring baseline CBF and CBF 10 min after an intravenous injection of 1 g of acetazolamide. Multivariate analysis was used to test the independent predictive value of the CBV and CMRO{sub 2} at baseline with respect to the percent change in CBF during acetazolamide administration. Both increased CBV and decreased CMRO{sub 2} were significant and independent predictors of the reduced CBF response to acetazolamide. CBV accounted for 25% of the variance in the absolute change in CBF during acetazolamide administration and 42% of the variance in the percent change in CBF, whereas CMRO{sub 2} accounted for 19% and 4% of the variance, respectively. In patients with major cerebral arterial occlusive disease, a decrease in CMRO{sub 2} may contribute to the reduced CBF response to acetazolamide, although an increase in CBV appears to be the major contributing factor. (orig.)

  10. Targeting Cancer Metabolism - Revisiting the Warburg Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quangdon; Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jisoo; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Park, Jongsun

    2016-01-01

    After more than half of century since the Warburg effect was described, this atypical metabolism has been standing true for almost every type of cancer, exhibiting higher glycolysis and lactate metabolism and defective mitochondrial ATP production. This phenomenon had attracted many scientists to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of, and reason for, this effect. Several models based on oncogenic studies have been proposed, such as the accumulation of mitochondrial gene mutations, the switch from oxidative phosphorylation respiration to glycolysis, the enhancement of lactate metabolism, and the alteration of glycolytic genes. Whether the Warburg phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or the cause of cancer remains unknown. Moreover, the exact reasons and physiological values of this peculiar metabolism in cancer remain unclear. Although there are some pharmacological compounds, such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, dichloroacetic acid, and 3-bromopyruvate, therapeutic strategies, including diet, have been developed based on targeting the Warburg effect. In this review, we will revisit the Warburg effect to determine how much scientists currently understand about this phenomenon and how we can treat the cancer based on targeting metabolism. PMID:27437085

  11. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  12. Emerging evidence of ozone metabolic effects and potential mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT 2014 Abstract: Invitational Emerging evidence of ozone metabolic effects and potential mechanisms U.P. Kodavanti NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC Recent evidence suggests that air pollutants are linked to metabolic syndrome and impact several key metabolic proce...

  13. Impact of Nutrition on Cerebral Circulation and Cognition in the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Mellendijk; Maximilian Wiesmann; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), defined as the clustering of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, appears to be driving the global epidemics cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nutrition has a major impact on MetS and plays an important role in the prevention, development, and treatment of its features. Structural and functional alterations in the vasculature, associated with MetS, might form the link between M...

  14. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  15. Protective effect of ginkgo proanthocyanidins against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury associated with its antioxidant effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wang-li; Huang, Hai-bo; Fang, Ling; Hu, Jiang-ning; Jin, Zhu-ming; Wang, Ru-wei

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins have been shown to effectively protect ischemic neurons, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Ginkgo proanthocyanidins (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours before reperfusion. Results showed that ginkgo proanthocyanidins could effectively mitigate neurological disorders, shorten infarct volume, increase superoxide dismutase activity, and decrease malondialdehyde and nitric oxide contents. Simultaneously, the study on grape seed proanthocyanidins (40 mg/kg) confirmed that different sources of proanthocyanidins have a similar effect. The neurological outcomes of ginkgo proanthocyanidins were similar to that of nimodipine in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our results suggest that ginkgo proanthocyanidins can effectively lessen cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and protect ischemic brain tissue and these effects are associated with antioxidant properties. PMID:28123420

  16. Effect of long-term low dose of aspirin on severity of disease following onset of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xu; Lili Cao; Xiaomei Deng; Enji Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin can decrease the incidence risk of high-risk crowdgroup of cerebral infarction, but there are still controversy if it might decrease the degree of disease in degree of patients with acute cerebral infarction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of lower dose of aspirin during taking for a long time on disease degree of disease following onset of acute cerebral infarction.DESIGN: Grouping according to the admission time and 1:1 paired observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 321 patients with acute cerebral infarction who received treatments in the Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 1999 to June 2000. There were 190 male and 131 female ,with mean (65±11 )years of age. Inclusive criteria: ① A focal neurological disturbance occurred suddenly and had lasted for more than 24 hours, patients were admitted within 3 days after onset of disease; ② A computed tomography of the brain was performed and excluded hemorrhage in all patients; ③ The patients were proved internal carotid occlusions by clinical features and image findings; ④ The functions of limbs were normal (before the first stroke) or almost normal (before the second stroke). Exclusive criteria: ①The patients who had have cardiogenic cerebral embolism; ②The patients who had taken warfarin orally and other platelet agglutination drugs.METHODS: ①All the patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether they had taken aspirin before: aspirin-treated group (n=110) and blank control group (n=211). There were 70 male and 40 female in aspirin-treated group, with average(65±10) years of age.All patients had taken 50-100 mg/d aspirin for 6 months to 10 years before onset. There were 120 male and 91 female in blank control group, with average (65±13)years of age. Patients received a clinical scoring within 3 days and similar therapeutic measures (such

  17. Cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: two sides of the same coin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfaillie, Sander C.J.; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Binnewijzend, Maja A.A.; Benedictus, Marije R.; Ossenkoppele, Rik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wattjes, Mike P.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal (FTD) dementia can be differentiated using [{sup 18}F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET. Since cerebral blood flow (CBF) is related to glucose metabolism, our aim was to investigate the extent of overlap of abnormalities between AD and FTD. Normalized FDG-PET and arterial spin labelling (ASL-MRI)-derived CBF was measured in 18 AD patients (age, 64 ± 8), 12 FTD patients (age, 61 ± 8), and 10 controls (age, 56 ± 10). Voxel-wise comparisons, region-of-interest (ROI), correlation, and ROC curve analyses were performed. Voxel-wise comparisons showed decreased CBF and FDG uptake in AD compared with controls and FTD in both precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Compared with controls and AD, FTD patients showed both hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ASL and FDG were related in precuneus (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), IPL (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and mPFC across groups (r = 0.74, p < 001). ROC analyses indicated comparable performance of perfusion and metabolism in the precuneus (AUC, 0.72 and 0.74), IPL (0.85 and 0.94) for AD relative to FTD, and in the mPFC in FTD relative to AD (both 0.68). Similar patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism were observed in regions typically associated with AD and FTD, suggesting that ASL-MRI provides information comparable to FDG-PET. (orig.)

  18. Regulation of cerebral CYP2D alters tramadol metabolism in the brain: interactions of tramadol with propranolol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Han, Xiaotong; Li, Jian; Gao, Xinghui; Wang, Yan; Liu, Mingzhou; Dong, Guicheng; Yue, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    1. Cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) protein is widely expressed across brain regions in human and rodents. We investigated the interactions between tramadol, a clinically used analgesic, and brain CYP2D regulators, by establishing concentration-time curves of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, as well as by analyzing the analgesia-time course of tramadol. 2. Propranolol (20 μg, intracerebroventricular injection), CYP2D inhibitor, prolonged the elimination t1/2 of tramadol (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) in the CSF; meanwhile, lower Cmax and AUC0-∞ values of M1 were observed. Nicotine (1 mg base/kg, subcutaneous injection, seven days), brain CYP2D inducer, induced a shorter Tmax and elevated Cmax of M1 in CSF. No differences in the peripheral metabolism of tramadol were observed following propranolol and nicotine pretreatment. Nicotine increased areas under the analgesia-time curve (AUC) for 0-45 min and 0-90 min of tramadol, which was attenuated by propranolol administration. The analgesic actions of tramadol positively correlated with cerebral M1 concentration. 3. The results suggest that the regulation of brain CYP2D by xenobiotics may cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of tramadol. Brain CYPs may play an important role in DDIs of centrally active substances.

  19. Pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism on F-18 FDG brain PET during vomiting and symptom free periods in cyclic vomiting syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is characterized by recurrent, periodic, self-limiting vomiting. However, its pathogenesis is not yet established. We investigated the changes of the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 FDG during the vomiting attack and symptom free period in two children with CVS. FDG PET study showed the markedly increased metabolism in both temporal lobes and also in the medulla and cerebellum during the vomiting period. Also, FDG PET showed the decreased metabolism in the parieto-occipital and occipital areas during the in vomiting period. The area with decreased metabolism seemed to be related with the region showing abnormalities in EEG and perfusion SPECT studies. We expect that what we observed would be a helpful finding in clarifying the pathogenesis of the CVS.

  20. Effect of adrenomedullin on the cerebral circulation: relevance to primary headache disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Birk, S; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2009-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is closely related to calcitonin gene-related peptide, which has a known causative role in migraine. Animal studies have strongly suggested that ADM has a vasodilatory effect within the cerebral circulation. For these reasons, ADM is also likely to be involved in migraine....... However, the hypothetical migraine-inducing property and effect on human cerebral circulation of ADM have not previously been investigated. Human ADM (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo (saline 0.9%) was administered as a 20-min intravenous infusion to 12 patients suffering from migraine without aura...... in a crossover double-blind study. The occurrence of headache and associated symptoms were registered regularly 24 h post infusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by (133)Xenon single-photon emission computed tomography, mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) by transcranial...

  1. Synthesis and Protective Effect of Scutellarein on Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Guang Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scutellarein, the main metabolite of scutellarin in vivo, has relatively better solubility, bioavailability and bio-activity than scutellarin. However, compared with scutellarin, it is very difficult to obtain scutellarein from Nature. Therefore, the present study focused on establishing an efficient route for the synthesis of scutellarein by hydrolyzing scutellarin. Neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume with the administration of scutellarein were then used to compare its neuroprotective effects on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with those of scutellarin. The results showed that scutellarein had better protective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion than scutellarin, which laid the foundation for further research and development of scutellarein as a promising candidate for ischemic cerebro-vascular disease.

  2. Effectiveness of Neurogenesis in treating Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan AMIRSALARI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Amirsalary S, Dehghan L, Dalvand H, Haghgoo H. Effectiveness of Neurogenesis in treating children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2:1-8. objectiveTissue-specific stem cells divide to generate different cell types for the purpose oftissue repair in the adult. The aim of this study was to detect the significance ofneurogenesis in the central nervous system in patients with cerebral palsy (CP.Materials & MethodsA search was made in Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, ISI Web of Science andGoogle Scholar from 1995 to February 2011. The outcomes measured in thereview were classified to origins, proliferation, and migration of new neurons,and neurogenesis in CP.ResultsAccording to the review of articles, neurogenesis persists in specific brainregions throughout lifetime and can be enhanced from endogenous progenitorcells residing in the subventricular zone by growth factors or neurotrophicfactors and rehabilitation program.ConclusionMost of the studies have been conducted in the laboratory and on animals,more work is required at the basic level of stem cell biology, in the developmentof human models, and finally in well-conceived clinical trials. References1. Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM. Cortical plasticity: from synapses to maps. Annu Rev Neurosci 1998; 21:149-86.2. Haghgoo H. Fundemental of neurosciences. 1st ed. Tehran; USWR Press; 2011.3. Payne BR, Lomber SG. Reconstructing functional systems after lesions of cerebral cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001 Dec;2(12:911-9.4. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, Leviton A, Paneth N, Dan B, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005 Apr;47(8:571-6.5. Joghataei M, Kazem M. Barresi sathe niazhaie jamee be khadamate behzisti colle keshvar [persian].Tehran: University of. Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 1990.6. Johnson A. Prevalence and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy in Europe. Dev Med Child Neurol

  3. ''Ecstasy''-induced changes of cerebral glucose metabolism and their correlation to acute psychopathology. A 18-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Zimny, M.; Zeggel, T.; Wagenknecht, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylene dioxyethamphetamine) on cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers and to correlate neurometabolism with acute psychopathology. In a radomized double-blind trial, 15 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) 110-120 min after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=7) or placebo (n=8). Two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, constant cognitive stimulation was started and maintained for 32 min using a word repetition paradigm to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral glucose uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by manual regionalization into 108 regions of interest and PET/MRI overlay. After absolute quantification of rMR-Glu and normalization to global metabolism, normalized rMRGlu under MDE was compared to placebo using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Acute psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and rMRGlu was correlated to PANSS scores according to Spearman. MDE subjects showed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: left frontal posterior (-7.1%, P<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, rMR-Glu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, P<0.05; left: +7.6%, P<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, P<0.05). There were positive correlations between rMRGlu in the middle right cingulate and grandiosity (r=0.87; P<0.05), both the right amygadala (r=0.90, P<0.01) and the left posterior cingulate (r=0.90, P<0.01) to difficulties in abstract thinking, and the right frontal inferior (r=0.85, P<0.05), right anterior cingulate (r=0.93, P<0.01), and left anterior cingulate (r=0.85, P<0.05) to attentional deficits. A

  4. Effects of oral motor therapy in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Nural Sigan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems. Materials and Methods: Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children′s Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Patients were randomized into two groups: The training group and the control group. One patient from the training group dropped out of the study because of not participating regularly. Following initial evaluation of all patients by a blinded physiotherapist and pedagogue, patients in the training group participated in 1 h oral motor training sessions with a different physiotherapist once a week for 6 months. All patients kept on routine physiotherapy by their own physiotherapists. Oral motor assessment form, functional feeding assessment (FFA subscale of the multidisciplinary feeding profile (MFP and the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-II were used to evaluate oral motor function, swallowing, chewing, the gag reflex, the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tongue, jaw, and mouth function, severity of drooling, aspiration, choking, independent feeding and tolerated food texture during the initial examination and 6 months later. Results: When the initial and post-therapy FFA and BSID-II scores received by patients in the training and the study group were compared, the training group showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on feeding problems in children with CP.

  5. Olanzapine-induced cerebral metabolic changes related to symptom improvement in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vicente; Gispert, Juan D; Reig, Santiago; Pascau, Javier; Martínez, Raúl; Sanz, Javier; Palomo, Tomás; Desco, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of brain metabolic changes produced by olanzapine has yet to be described, despite the theoretical and clinical interest of this new antipsychotic. We studied a group of 17 schizophrenic patients who underwent two fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies under two different conditions: a baseline scan during treatment with either conventional antipsychotics (n=15) or risperidone (n=2) and a second scan performed 17-24 weeks after switching to olanzapine. PET scans were obtained while performing a standard cognitive paradigm (Continuous Performance Test) and analysed by means of Statistical Parametric Mapping. No significant metabolic changes were found in the comparison between pre- and post-olanzapine conditions. A brain map of the statistical power of our design showed that changes up to 3% in the frontal and up to 8% in the occipital region were not likely to exist (1-beta=0.8). The degree of improvement in positive symptoms was related to the amount of activity decrease in the right orbital region and to the amount of activity increase in the primary visual area. Improvement in negative symptoms was associated with an activity increase in the dorsal prefrontal cortex, and a higher baseline activity in both temporal poles. These correlation patterns suggest that the functional mechanism of action of olanzapine may share traits from both typical and atypical neuroleptics.

  6. Lactate as a cerebral metabolic fuel for glucose-6-phosphatase deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J; Berger, R; Smit, G P

    1984-04-01

    The main substrates for brain energy metabolism were measured in blood samples taken from the carotid artery and the internal jugular bulb of four children with glycogen storage disease caused by deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase. Multiple paired arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, glycerol and O2, and the arteriovenous differences of the concentrations were calculated. In the first three patients the substrates were measured in two successive conditions with lower and higher glucose-intake, respectively, inducing reciprocally higher and lower concentrations of blood lactate. In the fourth patient medium chain triglycerides were administered simultaneously with the glucose-containing gastric drip feeding. Lactate appeared to be taken up significantly. It consumed, if completely oxidized, between 40-50% of the total O2 uptake in most cases. Only once in one patient the uptake of lactate switched to its release, when the blood lactate level decreased to normal. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate arteriovenous (A-V) differences were small to negligible and these ketone bodies, therefore, did not contribute substantially to the brain's energy expenditure. Glycerol was not metabolized by the brain. Lactate thus appeared to be the second brain fuel next to glucose. It may protect the brain against fuel depletion in case of hypoglycemia.

  7. The deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamic nucleus modifies the cerebral metabolism in {sup 18}FDG-Tep of obsessive compulsive patients; La stimulation cerebrale profonde du noyau sous thalamique modifie le metabolisme cerebral en 18FDG-TEP des patients obsessionnels compulsifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jeune, F.; Garin, E. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Eugene-Marquis, Rennes, (France); Verin, M.; Peron, J. [service de neurologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rennes, (France); Mallet, L.; Yelnik, J. [Inserm, Avenir Team, Behavior, Emotion and Basal Ganglia, IFR 70, Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, (France); Kreps, M.O. [Inserm U796, service de psychiatrie, hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris, (France); Drapier, D.; Millet, B. [service de psychiatrie adulte, centre hospitalier Guillaume-Regnier, Rennes, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this work was to find again this orbito-frontal hyper metabolism among the resistant obsessive compulsive disorder patients that are going to benefit of a deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus and to demonstrate that this new therapy approach leads a reduction of the metabolism in this area in correlation with the clinical improvement. It is about the first study realized in isotopic functional imaging on ten resistant compulsive disorder patients treated by bilateral deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus. It shows that the treatment efficiency is in relation with a reduction of the glucide metabolism in the right orbito-frontal cortex. It suggests equally that the under thalamus nucleus would be functionally linked to the orbito-frontal cortex. (N.C.)

  8. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AlSaif,Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Method...

  9. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  10. Effects of Prolonged Standing on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Lovelace-Chandler, Venita; Zabel, Reta J.; McMillan, Amy Gross

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During…

  11. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  12. Aldehyde sources, metabolism, molecular toxicity mechanisms, and possible effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter J; Siraki, Arno G; Shangari, Nandita

    2005-08-01

    Aldehydes are organic compounds that are widespread in nature. They can be formed endogenously by lipid peroxidation (LPO), carbohydrate or metabolism ascorbate autoxidation, amine oxidases, cytochrome P-450s, or myeloperoxidase-catalyzed metabolic activation. This review compares the reactivity of many aldehydes towards biomolecules particularly macromolecules. Furthermore, it includes not only aldehydes of environmental or occupational concerns but also dietary aldehydes and aldehydes formed endogenously by intermediary metabolism. Drugs that are aldehydes or form reactive aldehyde metabolites that cause side-effect toxicity are also included. The effects of these aldehydes on biological function, their contribution to human diseases, and the role of nucleic acid and protein carbonylation/oxidation in mutagenicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms, respectively, as well as carbonyl signal transduction and gene expression, are reviewed. Aldehyde metabolic activation and detoxication by metabolizing enzymes are also reviewed, as well as the toxicological and anticancer therapeutic effects of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. The human health risks from clinical and animal research studies are reviewed, including aldehydes as haptens in allergenic hypersensitivity diseases, respiratory allergies, and idiosyncratic drug toxicity; the potential carcinogenic risks of the carbonyl body burden; and the toxic effects of aldehydes in liver disease, embryo toxicity/teratogenicity, diabetes/hypertension, sclerosing peritonitis, cerebral ischemia/neurodegenerative diseases, and other aging-associated diseases.

  13. Effects of smoking on cerebral and ventricular volumes in healthy males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jun Kim; Jae-Hoon Jun; Gye-Rae Tack; Soon-Cheol Chung; Mi-Hyun Choi; Beob-Yi Lee; Su-Jeong Lee; Jae-Woong Yang; Ji-Hye Kim; Jin-Seung Choi; Dong-Won Kang; Jang-Yeon Park

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported decreased cerebral volume as a result of smoking.However,little is known about accompanying changes in ventricular volume for healthy subjects who smoke,although ventricular volume is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis who smoke.The present study analyzed whether cerebral volume decreased with smoking through the use of magnetic resonance imaging.In addition,accompanying changes in ventricular volume that resulted from decreased cerebral volume and smoking were analyzed in healthy subjects.When multivariate lysis of covariance was performed by integrating the 2 age groups,aged 20-28 years and 40-49 years,with statistical significance,results showed that cerebral volume of smokers was smaller and ventricular volume was greater compared with the non-smokers.These findings suggest that ventricular volume changes could be utilized to characterize the effects of smoking.

  14. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  15. Differential vasoactive effects of sildenafil and tadalafil on cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Gupta, Saurabh; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is associated with migraine pathophysiology, stroke recovery and vasospasm treatment. The potential vascular interplay of PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and UK-114,542 was studied by intra- versus extra-luminal administration in rat middle cerebral arteries in vi...

  16. Neuroprotective effects of tadalafil on gerbil dopaminergic neurons following cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang Taek Kim; Kyung Jin Chung; Han Sae Lee; Il Gyu Ko; Chang Ju Kim; Yong Gil Na; Khae Hawn Kim

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of dopamine function, which is known to have major effects on behaviors and cognition, is one of the main problems associated with cerebral ischemia. Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by brain injury, but not in dopaminergic regions. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of treatment with tadalafil on cyclic guanosine monophosphate level and dopamine function following cerebral ischemia. Forty adult Mongolian gerbils were randomly and evenly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): Sham-operation group, cerebral ischemia-induced and 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg tadalafil-treated groups, respectively. Tadalafil dissolved in distilled water was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, starting 1 day after surgery. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate assay and immunohistochemistry were performed for thyrosine hydroxylase expression and western blot analysis for dopamine D2 receptor expression. A decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate level following cerebral ischemia was found with an increase in thyrosine hydroxylase activity and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region. However, treatment with tadalafil increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate expression, suppressed thyrosine hydroxylase expression and increased dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region in a dose-dependent manner. Tadalafil might ameliorate cerebral ischemia-induced dopaminergic neuron injury. Therefore, tadalafil has the potential as a new neuroprotective treatment strategy for cerebral ischemic injury.

  17. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabi Shamsaei; Mehdi Khaksari; Sohaila Erfani; Hamid Rajabi; Nahid Aboutaleb

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral isch-emic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction th rough occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic ex-ercise signiifcantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration.

  18. Effect of Batroxobin on Neuronal Apoptosis During Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫平; 匡培根; 李振洲

    2001-01-01

    We have found that Batroxobin plays a protactive role in ischemic brain injury, which attracted us to investigate the effect of Batroxobin on apoptosis of neurons during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The apoptotic cells in ischemic rat brains at different reperfusion intervals were tested with method of TdT-mediated dUTP-DIG nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the effect of Batroxobin on the apoptosis of neurons was studied in left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) occlusion and reperfusion in rat models (n=18). The results showed that few scattered apoptosis cells were observed in right cerebral hemispheres after LMCA occlusion and reperfusion, and that a lot of apoptosis cells were found in left ischemic cortex and caudoputamen at 12h reperfusion, and they reached peak at 24h~48h reperfusion. However, in the rats pretreated with Batroxobin, the number of apoptosis cells in left cerebral cortex and caudoputamen reduced significantly and the neuronal damage was much milder at 24h reperfusion than that of saline-treated rats. The results indicate that administration of Batroxobin may reduce the apoptosis of neurons induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and afford significant cerebroprotection in the model of focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

  19. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by (18)F-FDG PET: a pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimajiri, Mami; Miller, Michael A; Green, Mark A; Jaeger, Christine B; Luescher, Andrew U; Hutchins, Gary D

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Protective Effects of Overexpression of bcl-xl Gene on Local Cerebral Infarction in Transgenic Mice Undergoing Permanent Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furong WANG; Yongsheng JIANG; Suming ZHANG; Wenwu XIAO; Suiqiang ZHU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effects of the overexpression of bcl-xl gene on local cerebral infarction in the transgenic mice subject to permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery, the models of bcl-xl transgenic mice were established and subjected to cerebral infarction by intralu- minal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The infarct volume and the neurological scores were observed and comparison between the wild type mice and the transgenic mice was made. It was found that the infarct volume and the neurological scores in the transgenic mice were significantly decreased as compared with those in the wild type mice. It was suggested that the overexpression of bcl-xl gene in transgenic mice could reduce the infarct volume and improve the neurological function of the mice.

  1. Brain mitochondrial function in a murine model of cerebral malaria and the therapeutic effects of rhEPO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hempel, Casper; Sjövall, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    ; infected injected with saline or with rhEPO, non-infected injected with saline or with rhEPO. Infected mice developed CM and treatment with rhEPO attenuated clinical signs of disease. There were no differences in respiratory parameters of brain mitochondria between infected and non-infected mice......Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of CM is complex. Cerebral metabolic dysfunction is implicated in CM, which may be caused by both an impaired cerebral microcirculation and a dysregulated inflammatory response affecting...

  2. Interregional cerebral metabolic associativity during a continuous performance task (Part I): healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mark W; Benson, Brenda E; Ketter, Terence A; Kimbrell, Tim A; George, Mark S; Speer, Andrew M; Herscovitch, Peter; Post, Robert M

    2008-10-30

    One emerging hypothesis regarding psychiatric illnesses is that they arise from the dysregulation of normal circuits or neuroanatomical patterns. In order to study mood disorders within this framework, we explored normal metabolic associativity patterns in healthy volunteers as a prelude to examining the same relationships in affectively ill patients (Part II). We applied correlational analyses to regional brain activity as measured with FDG-PET during an auditory continuous performance task (CPT) in 66 healthy volunteers. This simple attention task controlled for brain activity that otherwise might vary amongst affective and cognitive states. There were highly significant positive correlations between homologous regions in the two hemispheres in thalamic, extrapyramidal, orbital frontal, medial temporal and cerebellar areas. Dorsal frontal, lateral temporal, cingulate, and especially insula, and inferior parietal areas showed less significant homologous associativity, suggesting more specific lateralized function. The medulla and bilateral thalami exhibited the most diverse interregional associations. A general pattern emerged of cortical regions covarying inversely with subcortical structures, particularly the frontal cortex with cerebellum, amygdala and thalamus. These analytical data may help to confirm known functional and neuroanatomical relationships, elucidate others as yet unreported, and serve as a basis for comparison to patients with psychiatric illness.

  3. The effect of caffeine on cerebral asymmetry in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, M; Segarceanu, A; Negutu, M; Ghita, I; Fulga, I; Coman, O A

    2015-01-01

    EEG recordings reflect the gross electrical activity emanating from synaptic currents of individual neurons across large cortical areas. During periods of cortical activation, waking, and higher EEG frequencies, neurons display increased excitability and exhibit more asynchronous discharge. The activity of a number of subcortical neurotransmitter systems from several brain regions outside the thalamus can directly affect cortical activity patterns. These neurotransmitter systems are generally targets of pharmacological intervention or participate in neurological disease states. The EEG trace comprises 4 primary rhythms: alfa (α), beta (β), theta (θ) and delta (δ), which differ in frequency and amplitude. Caffeine effect on brain asymmetry will be studied in this work. The study was realized by means of Fourier spectral frequency analysis (Fast Fourier Transformation) of the EEG signal on anesthetized rats. All 3 doses of caffeine increased the global wave power of brain activity compared to the control group. All 3 doses of caffeine reduced the number of peaks for the 0.5-4 Hz frequency band, with the intermediate dose of caffeine having such an effect in the 4-7 Hz frequency band and the high dose of caffeine for the 23-33 Hz frequency band. The group that received high doses of caffeine showed an increase of the percentage of delta waves, with a concurrent decrease of the percentage of alpha1, alpha2, beta and theta 2 compared to the control group. Low-dose caffeine produced positive values of left-right difference in brain electrical activity (left predominance) for the 0.5-5 Hz and 7.8-10.3 Hz frequency intervals. The group that received high-dose caffeine exhibited a left hemisphere dominance for the 0.5-1.5 Hz; 13.9-14.1 Hz and 19-20 Hz frequency ranges while right dominance was present in the 1.7-13.9 Hz, 15-19 Hz and 21-25 Hz frequency ranges. In conclusion, all doses of caffeine modified the global power of the brain as well as the number of peaks on

  4. Anti-apoptotic effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in focal cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yuan; Shiming Zhang; Wanli Dong; Qi Fang

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are currently contentious. The present study examined the effects of subcutaneous injection of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (50 μg/kg) over 5 days in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with intraluminal filament occlusion in rats. The results indicated that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduced brain infarct volume following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, down-regulated the expression of caspase-3 mRNA (a key protease for apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone), lowered the rate of neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone, and notably ameliorated neurological function. These results indicate that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has anti-apoptotic effects on neurons following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and exerts neuroprotective effects.

  5. Effect of electric acupuncture on the expression of NgR in the cerebral cortex,the medulla oblongata,and the spinal cord of hypertensive rats after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electric acupuncture(EA)on the Nogo receptors(NgR)protein expression in the cerebral cortex,the medulla oblongata,and the spinal cord of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats(RHRSP)with middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)at different time points,and to investigate its possible mecha-

  6. Effect of pregnancy on autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in anterior versus posterior cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Bishop, Nicole; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2012-09-01

    Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with brain edema that forms preferentially in the posterior cerebral cortex possibly because of decreased sympathetic innervation of posterior cerebral arteries and less effective autoregulation during acute hypertension. In the present study, we examined the effect of pregnancy on the effectiveness of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using laser Doppler flowmetry and edema formation by wet:dry weight in acute hypertension induced by phenylephrine infusion in the anterior and posterior cerebrum from nonpregnant (n=8) and late-pregnant (n=6) Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the effect of pregnancy on sympathetic innervation by tyrosine hydroxylase staining of posterior and middle cerebral arteries (n=5-6 per group) and endothelial and neuronal NO synthase expression using quantitative PCR (n=3 per group). In nonpregnant animals, there was no difference in autoregulation between the anterior and posterior cerebrum. However, in late-pregnant animals, the threshold of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was shifted to lower pressures in the posterior cerebrum, which was associated with increased neuronal NO synthase expression in the posterior cerebral cortex versus anterior. Compared with the nonpregnant state, pregnancy increased the threshold of autoregulation in both brain regions that was related to decreased expression of endothelial NO synthase. Lastly, acute hypertension during pregnancy caused greater edema formation in both brain cortices that was not attributed to changes in sympathetic innervation. These findings suggest that, although pregnancy shifted the cerebral blood flow autoregulatory curve to higher pressures in both the anterior and posterior cortices, it did not protect from edema during acute hypertension.

  7. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  8. [Antioxidant effects of antihypoxic drugs in cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, M B; Kobzeva, E A; Plotnikova, T M

    1992-05-01

    Cerebral ischemia in rats (both carotid arteries occlusion) during 30 min, 3 hours and recirculation (1 hour) after ischemia (30 min) stimulated diene conjugates and fluorescent products accumulation in brain tissue. Intraperitoneal injection of sodium hydroxybutyrate (100 mg/kg), bemitil (50 mg/kg), ethomersol (50 mg/kg) reduced brain lipid peroxidation and did not yield in this respect to emoxypin (5 mg/kg). In contrast to emoxypin, sodium hydroxybutyrate, bemitil and ethomersol had no antiradical activity.

  9. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Kirienkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone receptor, which is synthesized as a prohormone, and then proteolytically converted into 28-amino acid peptide. This peptide stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, regulates food intake, effect on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Ghrelin enhances the bioavailability of nitric oxide and maintains the balance between endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in the vascular wall. It increases cardiac output, and reduces blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Antiinflammatory effect of ghrelin is also appreciated. Since ghrelin is a circulating peptide that stimulates appetite and regulate energy balance, and its role in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes it is the subject of intense research. A variety of metabolic functions of ghrelin requires extreme caution in the use of therapeutic approaches aimed at the stimulation or blockade of its action.

  10. Effect of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome on Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sOpioid abuse is still remained a major mental health problem, a criminal legal issue and may cause ischemic brain changes including stroke and brain edema. In the present study, we investigated whether spontaneously withdrawal syndrome might affect stroke outcomes.Materials and MethodsAddiction was induced by progressive incremental doses of morphine over 7 days. Behavioral signs of withdrawal were observed 24, 48 and 72 hr after morphine deprivation and total withdrawal score was determined. Cerebral ischemia was induced 18-22 hr after the last morphine injection by placing a natural clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 2, 24 and 48 hr after ischemia induction, and infarct size and brain edema were determined at 48 hr after stroke.ResultsMorphine withdrawal animals showed a significant increase in total withdrawal score and decrease of weight gain during the 72 hr after the last morphine injection. Compared to the addicted and control animals, infarct volume and brain edema were significantly increased in the morphine deprived animals (P< 0.05 at 48 hr after cerebral ischemia. Also, neurological deficits were higher in the morphine-withdrawn rats at 48 hr after stroke (P< 0.05. ConclusionOur data indicates that spontaneous withdrawal syndrome may worsen stroke outcomes. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of opiate withdrawal syndrome on stroke.

  11. Effect of minocycline on cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyin Zheng; Lijuan Xu; Jinbao Yin; Zhichao Zhong; Hongling Fan; Xi Li; Quanzhong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Minocylcine, a tetracycline derivate, has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. In this study, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method, and minocycline was immediately injected intraperitoneally after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (22.5 mg/kg, initially 45 mg/kg) at a 12-hour interval. Results showed that after minocycline treatment, the volume of cerebral infarction was significantly reduced, the number of surviving cell in the hippocampal CA1 region increased, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, the expression of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein was down-regulated, and the escape latency in the water maze test was significantly shortened compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. Our experimental findings indicate that minocycline can protect against neuronal injury induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion, which may be mediated by the inhibition of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein expression.

  12. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  13. Cerebral vascular effects of loading dose of dexmedetomidine: A Transcranial Color Doppler study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appavoo Arulvelan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine has been widely used in critical care settings because of its property of maintaining stable hemodynamics and inducing conscious sedation. The use of dexmedetomidine is in increasing trend particularly in patients with neurological disorders. Very few studies have focused on the cerebral hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine. This study is aimed to address this issue. Methods: Thirty patients without any intracranial pathology were included in this study. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity obtained from transcranial color Doppler was used to assess the cerebral hemodynamic indices. Mean flow velocity (mFV, pulsatility index (PI, cerebral vascular resistant index (CVRi, estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (eCPP, and zero flow pressure (ZFP were calculated bilaterally at baseline and after infusion of injection Dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/Kg over 10 min. Results: Twenty-six patients completed the study protocol. After administration of loading dose of dexmedetomidine, mFV and eCPP values were significantly decreased in both hemispheres (P < 0.05; PI, CVRi, and ZFP values showed significant increase (P < 0.05 after dexmedetomidine infusion. Conclusion: Increase in PI, CVRi, and ZFP suggests that there is a possibility of an increase in distal cerebral vascular resistance (CVR with loading dose of dexmedetomidine. Decrease in mFV and eCPP along with an increase in CVR may lead to a decrease in cerebral perfusion. This effect can be exaggerated in patients with preexisting neurological illness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on various other pathological conditions involving brain like traumatic brain injury and vascular malformations.

  14. Metabolic effects of discontinuing growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, F; Evans, W.; Gregory, J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the effects of discontinuing growth hormone (GH) treatment on energy expenditure and body composition, which might help predict those most likely to benefit from early reintroduction of GH treatment in young adult life.
METHODS—Body composition was calculated from skinfold thicknesses and dual energy x ray absorptometry (DXA). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and whole body bone mineral content (BMC) were also measured. Measurements were made before stoppi...

  15. Effects of transection of cervical sympathetic trunk on cerebral infarct volume and oxygen free radical levels in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangzhi Xiong; Yongxia Shi; Feng Xiao; Qingxiu Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stellate ganglion block (SGB) plays a protective role on the brain, but the precise mechanism of action is not clear.OBJECTIVE: To simulate SGB by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) and to investigate the TCST effects on changes in cerebral infarct volume and oxygen free radical levels in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A complete randomized control animal experiment was performed at the Institute of Neurological Diseases of Taihe Hospital, Yunyang Medical College from February to December 2005.MATERIALS: A total of 101 healthy Wistar rats, weighing 280-320g, of both genders, aged 17-18 weeks, were used in this study. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was purchased from Changsha Hongyuan Biological Company. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) assay kits were provided by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into a TCST group, a model group and a sham operation group. Successful models were included in the final analysis, with at least 20 rats in each group. After TCST, rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established in the TCST group by receiving middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal suture method for 2 hours, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were made in the model group. Rats in the sham operation group underwent experimental procedures as for the model group, threading depth of 10mm, and middle cerebral artery was not ligated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissue sections of ten rats from each group were used to measure cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining. Brain tissue homogenate of another ten rats from each group was used to detect SOD activities, MDA contents and NO levels. Rat neurological function was assessed by neurobehavioral measures.RESULTS: Cerebral infarct volume was bigger in the

  16. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-07-07

    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  17. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type by position emission tomography using 0-15 steady state technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Shizuki; Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-07-01

    In 12 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) and 5 age-matched healthy subjects, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO/sub 2/) were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) with 0-15 labeled CO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ inhalation method. There was a significant reduction in CMRO/sub 2/ of the temporal cortex in the group of mild DAT compared with the control group. In the group of moderate DAT, CBF of the temporal cortex and CMRO/sub 2/ of the temporal and parietal cortices were significantly reduced. The group of severe DAT showed a significantly reduced CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the frontal cortex, and a relatively spared occipital cortex in all stages. The results indicated that metabolic reduction in the temporal cortex first occurs, and that metabolic dysfunction in the parietal and frontal cortices results in blood flow reduction and deterioration of DAT. Right/left metabolic asymmetry in the temporal and parietal cortices was correlated with language and visuospatial functions. (Namekawa, K).

  18. 线粒体分裂抑制剂改善大鼠海马神经元缺血再灌注损伤时的能量代谢障碍%Effect of mitochondrial division inhibitor on metabolic disorder of energy in hippocampus neurons of rats after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李瑜; 王士雷; 贾长新; 周瑜; 王金英; 梁楠; 姚如永

    2014-01-01

    ,有效地改善能量代谢障碍,从而减轻脑缺血再灌注损伤.%Objective To investigate the effect of mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) on energy metabolism in hippocampus neurons of rats after ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI).Methods The hippocampus neurons fiom Wistar rats were in vitro cultured for 8 d and then,divided into four groups:normal control group,vehicle group,IRI+mdivi-1 treatment group and IRI group.IRI models in the later two groups were established by method of oxygen glucose deprivation; and pretreatment with mdivi-1 for 40 min was given to the IRI+mdivi-1 treatment group before IRI.After ischemia for 6 h and reperfusion for 20 h of hippocampus neurons,Western blotting was employed to examine the protein expressions of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1),B cell lymphoma/lewkmia-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax); mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) was examined by flow cytometry;enzyme standard instrument was used to examine the ATP content,mitochondrial complex activity,Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity.Results As compared with those in the normal control group,the expressions of Drp1 (1.001±0.276 and 1.985±0.301),Bax (2.752±0.786 and 4.225±1.107)were up-regulated markedly,those of Bcl-2 (0.749 ±0.128 and 0.336 ±0.109) were significantly down-regulated,percentage of low mitochondrial membrane potential △Ψm cells was significantly increased (72.5% and 92.7%),ATP content ([74.129±5.773] and [36.986±5.945] μmol/gprot),Na+-K+-ATPaseactivity ([4.348±0.451] and [1.709±0.477] U/mgprot),Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPaseactivity([1.955±0.287] and [1.123 ±0.181] U/mgprot) and activities of mitochondrial complex Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ [(15.445±1.699),(17.065±1.070),(32.123±1.652),(2.814±0.180) and (6.810±1.725),(9.473±0.751),(23.010±1.716),(1.598±0.181)] nmol/(min ·mg) decreased in the IRI+mdivi-1 treatment group and IRI group,with significant differences (P< 0.05).IRI+mdivi-1 treatment group had

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cédric; Berlan, Michel

    2006-02-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are essential in mammals to regulate blood volume and pressure. The functional roles of NP are not limited to natriuresis and diuresis. Several peripheral and central actions of the peptides have been characterized. Studies on transgenic mice have revealed their key function in the regulation of cardiomyocyte growth. Plasma NP levels increase in patients with cardiovascular disorders and heart failure. They represent useful clinical markers for clinicians to diagnose heart diseases. The recent discovery of their potent lipolytic action in adipose tissue is a breakthrough in cardiovascular medicine. This new function of NP in the regulation of lipid metabolism offers interesting questions in the field of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This review will briefly describe the effects of NP on the cardiovascular system and lipid metabolism.

  20. Tin chloride enhances parvalbumin-positive interneuron survival by modulating heme metabolism in a model of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Volti, Giovanni; Zappalà, Agata; Leggio, Gian Marco; Mazzola, Carmen; Drago, Filippo; La Delia, Francesco; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Giannone, Ignazio; Spatuzza, Michela; Cicirata, Valentina; Cicirata, Federico

    2011-03-29

    SnCl(2) has been reported to increase the expression of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a major antioxidant enzyme, and to decrease ischemic injury, in non-nervous tissues. This study examined the neuroprotective effect of SnCl(2) in the hippocampus of rats submitted to cerebral ischemia. SnCl(2) was administered 18 h before bilateral carotids obstruction. Changes in HO-1 expression and activity, heme content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and parvalbumin positive interneuron survival were studied. Thereafter both behavior and memory recovery were tested. The administration of SnCl(2) increased the expression of HO-1 protein and HO activity in the hippocampus and concomitantly decreased heme content at both mitochondrial and nuclear level. Furthermore, ischemized animals showed a strong increase in iNOS expression in the hippocampus, where a loss of parvalbumin positive interneurons also occurred. Pre-treatment with SnCl(2), decreased both iNOS expression in ischemized rats and increased cell survival. The beneficial effects of SnCl(2) were prevented by concomitant treatment with SnMP, a strong inhibitor of HO activity. SnCl(2) also caused an improvement in short term memory recovery. Our results showed that following SnCl(2) administration, HO-1 is strongly induced in the hippocampus and modulate iNOS expression, resulting in a strong neuroprotective effect.

  1. Effect of Korea red ginseng on cerebral blood flow and superoxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk Seong KIM; Jin Bong PARK; Kwang-Jin KIM; Seok Jong CHANG; Sung-Woo RYOO; Byeong Hwa JEON

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) on the cerebral perfusion rate in the rats and the generation of superoxide anion in the endothelial cells. METHODS: The cerebral perfusion rate was measured using laser-doppler flowmetry before and after the administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the anesthetized rats. The superoxide generation was measured by the method based on lucigeninenhanced chemiluminescence in the cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: The relative cerebral perfusion rate (rCBF) was significantly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of CS (100 mg/kg) in the rats, but SFF had no effect on the rCBF. Chronic treatment with CS for 7 d significantly inhibited the decrease of forebrain cerebral blood flow induced by clamping both carotid arteries in the rats. Furthermore, CS (0.1 g/L) significantly suppressed NADPH-induced superoxide generation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that crude saponin fraction of KRG enhanced cerebral blood flow in rats. Furthermore, crude saponin fraction of KRG abrogated the NADPH-driven superoxide generation in endothelial cells.

  2. [Cardioprotective effect of drugs with antioxidant activity in acute cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliarova, V V

    2001-01-01

    The bioelectric cardiac activity was studied in the experiments on white mice with an acute cerebral blood circulation disorder. It was found that he resulting EEG changes possess a specific character, with the sympathoadrenal system stimulation playing an important role in the acute cerebrocardiac syndrome development. The antioxidant-type agents such as emoxypine (50 mg/kg), mexidol (50 mg/kg), and cytochrome C (10 mg/kg) produce a significant cardioprotective effect in the test animals with experimental cerebral ischemia, which was comparable with the effect of propranolol (obsidane) (0.1 mg/kg).

  3. Electro-acupuncture could be an effective pretreatment for cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nElectroacupuncture, the integration of traditional Chinese acupuncture and modern electrotherapy, has been used for clinical treatment of cerebral ischemic disease in both eastern and western countries; however, the mechanism underlying its effects is still unknown. It is well known that excessive glutamate results in neuronal excitotoxicity after ischemic stroke. Previous studies have indicated that electro-acupuncture may downregulate the overactivation of glutamate after ischemia, and a recent study implied that electro-acupuncture prior to ischemia could induce brain ischemic tolerance. Based on the present information, we hypothesize that electro-acupuncture could be an effective pretreatment for cerebral ischemia by regulating the glutamatergic system.

  4. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of c-Fos and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor of the Cerebral Cortex in Rats with Cerebral Infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqiao; MEI Yuanwu; LIU Chuanyu; YU Shanchun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the neurological functional recovery and expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction was investigated. Cerebral infarction models were established by using left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into a model group (n=40) and a TMS group (n=40). TMS treatment (2 times per day, 30 pulses per time) with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 1.33 Tesla was carried out in TMS group after MCAO. Modified neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded before and 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day(s) after MCAO. The expression of c-Fos and BDNF was immunohistochemically detected 1, 7,14, 21, and 28 day(s) after infarction respectively. Our results showed that a significant recovery of NSS (P<0.05) was found in animals treated by TMS on day 7, 14, 21, and 28 as compared with the animals in the model group. The positive expression of c-Fos and BDNF was detected in the cortex surrounding the infarction areas, while the expression of c-Fos and BDNF increased significantly in TMS treatment group in comparison with those in model group 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (P<0.05) and 7,14, 21 days (P<0.01) after infarction, respectively. It is concluded that TMS has therapeutic effect on cerebral infarction and this may have something to do with TMS's ability to promote the expression of c-Fos and BDNF of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction.

  5. Towards a neurobiology of dysfunctional arousal in depression: the relationship between beta EEG power and regional cerebral glucose metabolism during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Price, J C; Meltzer, C C; Buysse, D J; Villemagne, V L; Miewald, J M; Sembrat, R C; Steppe, D A; Kupfer, D J

    2000-04-10

    This study sought to clarify the neurobiological basis of variations in one aspect of central nervous system 'arousal' in depression by characterizing the functional neuroanatomic correlates of beta electroencephalographic (EEG) power density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. First, nine healthy (n=9) subjects underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans during their first NREM period of sleep in order to generate hypotheses about specific brain structures that show a relationship between increased beta power and increased relative glucose metabolism. Second, brain structures identified in the healthy subjects were then used as a priori regions of interest in similar analyses from identical studies in 12 depressed subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify the relationship between beta power and relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) during NREM sleep. Regions that demonstrated significant correlations between beta power and relative cerebral glucose metabolism in both the healthy and depressed subjects included the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the right lateral inferior occipital cortex. During a baseline night of sleep, depressed patients demonstrated a trend toward greater beta power in relation to a separate age- and gender-matched healthy control group. In both healthy and depressed subjects, beta power negatively correlated with subjective sleep quality. Finally, in the depressed group, there was a trend for beta power to correlate with an indirect measure of absolute whole brain metabolism during NREM sleep. This study demonstrates a similar relationship between electrophysiological arousal and glucose metabolism in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in depressed and healthy subjects. Given the increased electrophysiological arousal in some depressed patients and the known anatomical relations between the ventromedial

  6. Effect of acupuncture on hippocampal Ref-1 expression in cerebral multi-infarction rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cun-Zhi; Li, Zu-Guang; Wang, De-Jin; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Li-Ying; Li, Qian-Qian; Li, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Redox effector factor (Ref-1) is a sensitive marker for oxidative cellular injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal Ref-1 expression in cerebral multi-infarction rats. The rats with reference memory impairment were randomly allocated to three groups: impaired group, acupuncture group and placebo acupuncture group. Moreover, normal group and sham-operated group were set as control groups. Morris water maze test showed that cerebral multi-infarction rats did not present significant changes in spatial working memory performance. Further investigation by immunohistochemistry revealed that acupunctural treatment significantly increased the expression of Ref-1 in the hippocampus of the impaired rats. These findings suggested that the spatial working memory was unaffected in the cerebral multi-infarction rats although spatial reference memory deficits were detected in our previous study; in addition, acupuncture could increase the Ref-1 expression, consequently exerting the anti-oxidant effects.

  7. VIP and PACAP display different vasodilatory effects in rabbit coronary and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tórur; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2003-01-01

    investigated using myographs, allowing isometric tension recordings. In order to evaluate the influence of steroid hormones, the rabbits were ovariectomized and randomized to treatment for 4 weeks with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), Norethindrone Acetate (NETA), E(2)+NETA or placebo. Ring segments of the posterior...... cerebral artery, the right proximal coronary artery and the distal left coronary artery were examined. The highest concentrations of VIP/PACAP were observed in cerebral and coronary arteries: 5.0/5.7 and 2.8/3.5 pmol/g, respectively. The peptides were localized in nerve fibres innervating the arteries....... Both peptides produced dose-dependent vasodilatory responses in all vessels investigated. While the effects of PACAP were identical in cerebral and coronary arterial segments, the effects of VIP displayed significant differences (E(max), pI(2), Hill-slope). Treatment with sex steroids induced...

  8. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of modern neuroprotectors in conditions of experimental chronic cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern pharmacological influence on the pathological changes in cerebral ischemia is actual task of the modern neurology. Aim. To make a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of modern neuroprotectors in conditions of experimental chronic cerebral ischemia. Methods and results. Experimental study of the neuroprotective effects of the citicoline, cortexin and tiocetam on the cognitive functions on the model of the chronic cerebral ischemia was conducted on 75 white rats. Biochemical, immunoassay, pharmacological, statistical methods were used. Conclusion. Obtained results showed citicoline, cortexin and tiocetam ability to positively influence on the molecular-biochemical changes in the brain cortex with ischemia. This resulted in the glutathione-dependent enzymes activity increase, recover of the thiol-disulfide system balance, nitrotyrosine concentration decrease, improvement of the cognitive function in the experimental animals.

  9. Effect of pregnancy on regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Mori, Norimasa [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1993-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) of 10 pregnant women were quantified by {sup 133}Xe SPECT study with inhalation method before and after artificial abortion. During pregnancy, value of r-CBF in each region except occipital lobe was significantly higher than that of the post abortion. Arterial blood gas was analyzed after SPECT procedure. P{sub co2} concentration increased significantly after artificial abortion. Although its mechanism is unknown, our preliminary work demonstrates that r-CBF increased by pregnancy. (author).

  10. Modifying the effects of cerebral palsy: the Gregg Mozgala story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitow, Leon; Rogoff, Tamar; Mozgala, Gregg; Chmelik, Stefan; Comeaux, Zachary; Hannon, John; Lederman, Eyal; Myers, Tom

    2010-04-01

    In response to a news report of the rehabilitation of a New York-based dancer/actor with cerebral palsy, to the point where a ballet performance was scheduled, it was determined that a report based on the individuals involved would be commissioned. The resulting reports from the choreographer responsible for the rehabilitation exercises, and the dancer, were circulated to an interdisciplinary selection of physical medicine experts, for commentary as to what clinicians might learn from the case, and what mechanisms might be involved.

  11. Neuron-Specific Enolase Is Correlated to Compromised Cerebral Metabolism in Patients Suffering from Acute Bacterial Meningitis; An Observational Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Thelin, Eric Peter; Ghatan, Per Hamid;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) with a decreased level of consciousness have been shown to have an improved clinical outcome if treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) guided therapy. By using intracranial microdialysis (MD) to monitor cerebral metabolism......) guided therapy. Serum biomarkers were obtained at admission and every 12 hours. The MD parameters glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were analyzed. Outcome was assessed at 12-55 months after discharge from hospital. Mann-Whitney U-Test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test were applied...

  12. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  13. Perivascular expression and potent vasoconstrictor effect of dynorphin A in cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Ruisanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous literary data indicate that dynorphin A (DYN-A has a significant impact on cerebral circulation, especially under pathophysiological conditions, but its potential direct influence on the tone of cerebral vessels is obscure. The aim of the present study was threefold: 1 to clarify if DYN-A is present in cerebral vessels, 2 to determine if it exerts any direct effect on cerebrovascular tone, and if so, 3 to analyze the role of κ-opiate receptors in mediating the effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of DYN-A in perivascular nerves of rat pial arteries as well as in both rat and human intraparenchymal vessels of the cerebral cortex. In isolated rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries (BAs and MCAs DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17 but not DYN-A (1-8 or dynorphin B (DYN-B induced strong vasoconstriction in micromolar concentrations. The maximal effects, compared to a reference contraction induced by 124 mM K(+, were 115±6% and 104±10% in BAs and 113±3% and 125±9% in MCAs for 10 µM of DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17, respectively. The vasoconstrictor effects of DYN-A (1-13 could be inhibited but not abolished by both the κ-opiate receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (NORBI and blockade of G(i/o-protein mediated signaling by pertussis toxin. Finally, des-Tyr(1 DYN-A (2-13, which reportedly fails to activate κ-opiate receptors, induced vasoconstriction of 45±11% in BAs and 50±5% in MCAs at 10 µM, which effects were resistant to NORBI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DYN-A is present in rat and human cerebral perivascular nerves and induces sustained contraction of rat cerebral arteries. This vasoconstrictor effect is only partly mediated by κ-opiate receptors and heterotrimeric G(i/o-proteins. To our knowledge our present findings are the first to indicate that DYN-A has a direct cerebral vasoconstrictor effect and that a dynorphin-induced vascular action may be

  14. Neuroprotective effect of butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy on progressive cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bing He

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the neuroprotective effect of butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy on progressive cerebral infarction.Methods:A total of 86 patients with progressive cerebral infarction were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=43), control group received aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy, observation group received butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy, and then the differences in platelet function, blood coagulation function, middle cerebral artery blood flow state and nerve function index levels were compared between two groups after treatment.Results: After 1 course of treatment, the relative content of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelet surface as well as TXB2, vWF and D-D content in plasma of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, while 6-Keto-PGF1 content in plasma was significantly higher than that of control group); thrombelastogram indexes R and K value were higher than those of control group while MA, Angle and CI value were lower than those of control group; middle cerebral artery PSV, EDV, Vm and PI were higher than those of control group while RI value was lower than that of control group; nerve function indexes BDNF and H2S content in plasma were higher than those of control group while NSE, MBP, S100B and MMP-9 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy can effectively optimize the platelet and blood coagulation function in patients with progressive cerebral infarction, promote the middle cerebral artery blood flow recovery and exert positive neuroprotective effect.

  15. Eupatilin exerts neuroprotective effects in mice with transient focal cerebral ischemia by reducing microglial activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Jeon, Se Jin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Sun Yeou; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong

    2017-01-01

    Microglial activation and its-driven neuroinflammation are characteristic pathogenetic features of neurodiseases, including focal cerebral ischemia. The Artemisia asiatica (Asteraceae) extract and its active component, eupatilin, are well-known to reduce inflammatory responses. But the therapeutic potential of eupatilin against focal cerebral ischemia is not known, along with its anti-inflammatory activities on activated microglia. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of eupatilin on focal cerebral ischemia through its anti-inflammation, particularly on activated microglia, employing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (tMCAO), combined with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia. Eupatilin exerted anti-inflammatory responses in activated BV2 microglia, in which it reduced secretion of well-known inflammatory markers, including nitrite, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2, in a concentration-dependent manner. These observed in vitro effects of eupatilin led to in vivo neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia. Oral administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) in a therapeutic paradigm significantly reduced brain infarction and improved neurological functions in tMCAO-challenged mice. The same benefit was also observed when eupatilin was given even within 5 hours after MCAO induction. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of a single administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) immediately after tMCAO challenge persisted up to 3 days after tMCAO. Eupatilin administration reduced the number of Iba1-immunopositive cells across ischemic brain and induced their morphological changes from amoeboid into ramified in the ischemic core, which was accompanied with reduced microglial proliferation in ischemic brain. Eupatilin suppressed NF-κB signaling activities in ischemic brain by reducing IKKα/β phosphorylation, IκBα phosphorylation, and IκBα degradation. Overall, these data indicate that eupatilin is a neuroprotective agent against

  16. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only...

  17. The effect of intravenous PACAP38 on cerebral hemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Sitarz, John Thomas; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2007-01-01

    cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is not well understood. We here present the first study of the effect of PACAP38 on cerebral hemodynamics in humans. PACAP (10 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo (0.9% saline) was infused for 20 min into 12 healthy young volunteers in a cross over, double blind study. r.......9+/-22.4% (Pvolunteers. The marked increase in heart rate and the reduction in rCBF caused by decreased P(et)CO(2) are important dose-limiting factors to consider in future clinical studies....

  18. Effect of propofol pretreatment on apoptosis in rat brain cortex after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Xu; Chengwei Zhang; Chunxiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to observe cortical expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 activity and apoptotic cell death in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion pretreated with propofol. Results showed that, propofol pretreatment significantly reduced oxidative stress levels and attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the cortex of rats. Propofol pretreatment upregulated Bcl-2 expression, and downregulated Bax expression and cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 activity. These findings indicate that propofol pretreatment inhibits cell apoptosis during focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This neuroprotective effect is most likely achieved through the Bcl-2/Bax/cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 pathway.

  19. Analyzing Ph value, energy and phospholipid metabolism of various cerebral tumors and normal brain tissue with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tan; Guangyao Wu; Junmo Sun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) can be used to non-injuredly and dynamicly detect various metabolites including phosphorus in organis and reflect changes of phospholipid metabolism and energy metabolism in tissue and pH value in cells.OBJECTIVE: To observe changes of pH value, phospholipid metabolism and energy metabolism of various cerebral tumors and normal brain tissue with 31P MRS.DESIGN: Semi-quantitative contrast observation.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 44 patients with cerebral tumor diagnosed with surgery operation were selected from the Department of Magnetic Resonance, Central South Hospital, Wuhan University from September 2004 to June 2006. All the subjects had complete 31P MRS data before steroid and operation. Among them,16 patients had glioma of grade Ⅱ-Ⅲ, 12 spongioblastoma and 16 meningioma. The mean age was (45±6)years. Another 36 subjects without focus on cerebral MRI were regarded as normal group, including 19 males and 18 females, and the mean age was (41±4) years. Included subjects were consent.METHODS: Eclipse1.5T MRS (Philips Company) was used to collect wave spectrum; jMRUI(1.3) was used to analyze experimental data and calculate pH value in voxel and ratios of phosphocreatine (PCr)/inorganic phosphate (Pi), PCr/phosphodiesterase (PDE) and phosphomonoesterase (PME)/β-adenosine triphosphate (β-ATP) of various metabolites. 31P MRS results were compared with t test between tumor patients and normal subjects.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes of phospholipid metabolism (PME/PDE), energy metabolism (PCr/ATP) and pH value of various cerebral tumors and normal brain tissues.RESULTS: A total of 44 cases with cerebral tumor and 36 normal subjects were involved in the final analysis. pH value and semi-quantitative measurements of normal brain tissues and various cerebral tumors: ① pH value at top occipital region and temple occipital region of normal brain tissue was 7.04±0.02;PCt/β-ATP was 1.51 ±0.03; PCt/Pi was 2.85

  20. Metabolic aspects of acute cerebral hypoxia during extracorporeal circulation and their modification induced by acetyl-carnitine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Menichetti, A; Cogliatti, A; Nicoli, P; Arduini, A; Damonti, W; Marchionni, A; Calvani, M

    1992-01-01

    Following their previous research experiences in human tissue hypoxia, in the present study the authors. investigated the metabolic effects of acute brain hypoxia in a group of patients in course of extracorporeal circulation for aorto-pulmonary bypass. One hundred subjects were treated, half with a placebo and half with acetyl-carnitine to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress in some brain plasmatic metabolites and to verify the effect of acetyl-carnitine on the tissue energy capacity. The levels of lactate, pyruvate, succinate and fumarate showed a significant imbalance due to hypoxia, while the acetyl-carnitine treatment confined the metabolic gradients within physiological limits. This means that during the course of extracorporeal circulation brain hypoxia plays a pathological role assuming the typical picture of cellular oxidative damage and the acetyl-carnitine antagonizes these deleterious effects of hypoxia by a protective mechanism on the energy processes and then on the cellular enzymic activities. In this regard, the d-tyrosine levels, considered as a proteolytic index, confirm the action of acetyl-carnitine on the cell morpho-functional integrity.

  1. Metabolic and adverse effects of diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C S

    1999-11-01

    Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. They enjoy a very high clinical reputation for safety and efficacy. However, more than 3 decades of clinical investigation have disclosed a number of abnormalities in fluid electrolyte handling, metabolism, and other adverse effects that can complicate therapy with diuretic drugs. Some of these complications are a direct extension of the wanted action of the drug. These include extracellular fluid volume depletion, associated orthostatic hypotension, and prerenal azotemia. Others are not a direct action of the diuretic, but can be explained as an intranephronal compensation to the diuretic action. These include hypokalemia, in part to increased potassium secretion secondary to the enhanced tubular fluid flow and aldosterone secretion induced by diuretic administration. Metabolic abnormalities are usually mild. Hyperglycemia and carbohydrate intolerance have been related to diuretic-induced hypokalemia, which inhibits insulin secretion by the beta cells, and reductions in extracellular fluid volume and cardiac output. This is compounded by increases in catecholamines from sympathetic nerve activity which decrease peripheral glucose utilization. A mild increase in serum cholesterol concentration is seen frequently during initiation of diuretic therapy, but during steady state therapy after 6 to 12 months, values usually return to baseline. Knowledge of the more common adverse effects induced by diuretics helps the physician in predicting patients at risk and taking effective steps to anticipate or treat adverse responses.

  2. The effect of S. pneumoniae bacteremia on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Brandt, Christian T.; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of bacteremia on cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation in a rat model of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Anesthetized rats were divided into five groups (A to E) and inoculated with pneumococci intravenously and normal saline intracisternally...

  3. Meta-analysis of the effect of strengthening interventions in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the evidence that strengthening interventions can improve muscle strength and activity in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search focused on studies that employed strength training for children with cerebral palsy for which six electronic databases were used to extract literature published from 2001 to 2012. The key terms used in these searches were combined strength training, strengthening, weight training, weight lifting, resistance, and cerebral palsy. The quality of each study was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Thirteen randomized controlled trial studies were selected and divided into categories according to program type, mode, and outcome measures. The overall effect sizes of each study and types of strengthening were large. Strengthening exercise improved muscle strength to a greater degree, when practiced 3 times per week in 40-50 min sessions than in other categories of session length, and greater improvement was observed in younger children than in older. The effect size of the activities and variables related to gait, except for gait endurance, were medium to large. The effect size of individual muscles was large, but the effect sizes for ankle plantar flexor, hip abductor/adductor, and extensor were insignificant. Strengthening interventions are useful for increasing muscle strength in individuals with cerebral palsy, specifically in youth and children, and optimal exercise consisted of 40- to 50-min sessions performed 3 times per week. Although strengthening interventions may improve activities, including gait, more studies that are rigorous are needed to determine the contributions to gross motor function.

  4. Effect of Task Constraint on Reaching Performance in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yun-Huei; You, Jia-Yuan; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to examine the effect of task constraint on the reaching performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to examine the correlations between the reaching performance and postural control. Eight children with CP and 16 typically developing (TD) children participated in the study. They performed a…

  5. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  6. Effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shengXUE; Bu-weiYU; Ze-jianWANG; Hong-zhuanCHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incu-bated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD(P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited thedecrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400μmol/L) partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION; Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  7. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW 78

  8. The effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Wetterslev, Jørn; Stavngaard, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, to date no effective treatment of vasospasm exists. Prostacycli...

  9. Effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Juhler, Marianne; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, no effective treatment of vasospasm exists to date. ...

  10. The effect of circulating adenosine on cerebral haemodynamics and headache generation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, S; Petersen, K.A.; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup

    2005-01-01

    been investigated in man and reports regarding the effect of intravenous adenosine on cerebral blood flow are conflicting. Twelve healthy participants received adenosine 80, 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1) and placebo intravenously for 20 min, in a double-blind, three-way, crossover, randomized design...

  11. Effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine on cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA; de Bruin, WI; van Rijk, PP

    1998-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have shown that the serotonin receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) can exacerbate symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), The aim of the present study was to study the effect of this compound on regional cerebral bloodflow (rCBF)

  12. Unbiasing the Brain: The Effects of Meditation upon The Cerebral Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, John; Pirot, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of Transcendental Meditation on the perceptual efficiency of the cerebral hemispheres in 20 right-handed men who underwent reaction time trials to an auditory stimulus. Results suggested Transcedental Meditation is an attentional strategy that disrupts the usual biases of the brain. (JAC)

  13. Effect of multilevel botulinum toxin A and comprehensive rehabilitation on gait in cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Knol, Dirk L.; Speth, Lucianne A.; Maathuis, Carel G.; Jongerius, Peter H.; Becher, Jules G.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of multilevel botulinum toxin A and comprehensive rehabilitation on gait pattern, muscle length, and spasticity, a multicenter randomized trial was performed in 46 children with spastic cerebral palsy who walk with flexed knees. Their mean age was 8.0 years (range 4 to 11 year

  14. Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Suoranta, Jutta;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT...

  15. Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, G; van Boetzelar, MC; Muller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2001-01-01

    Tilting is known to cause changes in hemodynamics due to hydrostatic pressure. The present study is an analysis of changes in cerebral hemodynamics measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) following tilting up and down in preterm and term infants. A significantly different effect of tilting up

  16. Effect of natriuretic peptides on cerebral artery blood flow in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Jeppesen, Jørgen L;

    2015-01-01

    The natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), have vasoactive functions that concern humans and most animals, but their specific effects on cerebral circulation are poorly understood. We therefore examined t...

  17. Drooling in children with cerebral palsy: effect of salivary flow reduction on daily life and care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Jongerius, P.H.; Hulst, K. van; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of salivary flow reduction on daily life and provision of care in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Parents of children with CP were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the impact of drooling on the daily life of their children and their famil

  18. Botulinum toxin effect on salivary flow rate in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Limbeek, J. van; Gabreëls, F.J.M.; Hulst, K. van; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A in reducing salivary flow rate in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with severe drooling. METHODS: During a controlled clinical trial, single-dose BoNT injections into the submandibular salivary glands were compared wi

  19. Metabolic changes of prefrontal cerebral lobe ,white matter and cerebellum in patients with post-stroke depression A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinggang Xu; Hong Cao; Qingwei Song; Jianlin Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-MRS)non-invasively detects changes in chemical substances in the brain,which reflects the pathological metabolism.OBJECTIVE:To investigate changes in N-acetyl-aspartate(NAA),choline(Cho),creatine(Cr),and myoinositol(MI)in the gray and white matter of cerebral prefrontal lobe and cerebellum of patients with differential degrees of post-stroke depression(PSD)using 1H-MRS.DESIGN:A case control study.SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of the Dalian Medical University.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 38 patients with stroke(28 male and 10 female patients,aged 40 to 79 years)were selected from the Department of Neurology,1st Atfiliated Hospital,Dalian Medical University,from February to October in 2004.All subjects met the DSM-IV criteria for cerebrovascular disease and depression.The degree of depression was defined according to Hamilton criteria.38 patients with PSD were divided into two groups according to the time after ischemia,20 patients in the acute group with less than 10 days after ischemic attack(mild:16 patients,moderate/severe:4 patients)and 18 patients in the chronic group with more than 11 days after ischemic attack(mild:15 patients,moderate/severe:3 patients).Seventeen healthy volunteers with matching age from 41 to 80 years were examined as a control group.The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht,and each participant signed an informed consent form.METHODS:Spectra were acquired by multi-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy(PRESS)sequence with GE signal.ST MP-di,localized in prefrontal cerebral lobe and cerebellum.Values of NAA,Cho,MI,and Cr ere compared between different graded PSD patients and control subjects with one-way analysis of variance in software SPSS11.5.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Metabolite concentration in different brain regions of interest.Difference in metabolites between distinctly graded PSD patients and control subjects.Exclusion of age-effects

  20. 高压氧治疗脑梗死疗效观察%Observation of therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen on cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维艳; 杨丽

    2002-01-01

    Background:Hypoxia and ischemia resulting from cerebral infarction can further cause a series of pathological changes such as hydrocephallus.Drug therapy can improve cerebral blood circulation and enhance flow volume and decrease infarction area.If hyperbaric oxygen is added,pathophysiological changes such as ischemia and hypoxia can be improved and normal metabolism of brain cells be restored.

  1. Effect of pregnancy and nitric oxide on the myogenic vasodilation of posterior cerebral arteries and the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Abbie C; Cipolla, Marilyn J; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2013-09-01

    Hemorrhage during parturition can lower blood pressure beyond the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation that can cause ischemic brain injury. However, the impact of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is unknown. We measured myogenic vasodilation, a major contributor of CBF autoregulation, in isolated posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from nonpregnant and late-pregnant rats (n = 10/group) while the effect of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation was studied in the posterior cerebral cortex during controlled hemorrhage (n = 8). Pregnancy enhanced myogenic vasodilation in PCA and shifted the lower limit of CBF autoregulation to lower pressures. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevented the enhanced myogenic vasodilation during pregnancy but did not affect the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. The shift in the autoregulatory curve to lower pressures during pregnancy is likely protective of ischemic injury during hemorrhage and appears to be independent of NOS.

  2. Regional differences in the coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes in response to activation: implications for BOLD-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Liang, Christine; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2008-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes is a sensitive tool for mapping brain activation, but quantitative interpretation of the BOLD response is problematic. The BOLD response is primarily driven by cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, but is moderated by M, a scaling parameter reflecting baseline deoxyhemoglobin, and n, the ratio of fractional changes in CBF to cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). We compared M and n between cortical (visual cortex, VC) and subcortical (lentiform nuclei, LN) regions using a quantitative approach based on calibrating the BOLD response with a hypercapnia experiment. Although M was similar in both regions (~5.8%), differences in n (2.21+/-0.03 in VC and 1.58+/-0.03 in LN; Cohen d=1.71) produced substantially weaker (~3.7x) subcortical than cortical BOLD responses relative to CMRO(2) changes. Because of this strong sensitivity to n, BOLD response amplitudes cannot be interpreted as a quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes, particularly when comparing cortical and subcortical regions.

  3. Improved light collection and wavelet de-noising enable quantification of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by a low-cost, off-the-shelf spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Wright, Eric; Toronov, Vladislav; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Broadband continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) is an attractive alternative to time-resolved and frequency-domain techniques for quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism in newborns. However, efficient light collection is critical to broadband CW-NIRS since only a small fraction of the injected light emerges from any given area of the scalp. Light collection is typically improved by optimizing the contact area between the detection system and the skin by means of light guides with large detection surface. Since the form-factor of these light guides do not match the entrance of commercial spectrometers, which are usually equipped with a narrow slit to improve their spectral resolution, broadband NIRS spectrometers are typically custom-built. Nonetheless, off-the-shelf spectrometers have attractive advantages compared to custom-made units, such as low cost, small footprint, and wide availability. We demonstrate that off-the-shelf spectrometers can be easily converted into suitable instruments for deep tissue spectroscopy by improving light collection, while maintaining good spectral resolution, and reducing measurement noise. The ability of this approach to provide reliable cerebral hemodynamics was illustrated in a piglet by measuring CBF and oxygen metabolism under different anesthetic regimens.

  4. Kinetic and metabolic considerations in the use of (I-125) HIPDM as a tracer for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, G.; Nehlig, A.; Blasberg, R.; Patlak, C.S.; Anderson, L.; Kung, H.F.; Fieschi, C.; Fazio, F.; Sokoloff, L.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of cerebral uptake and the metabolism of radioactive iodine labeled HIPDM (N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(I-125)iodobenzyl) -1,3-propanediamine)(I-125)HIPDM were studied in vivo in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of this compound for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The first pass extraction fraction of (I-125)HIPDM in brain was found to be about 80%. The arterial concentration of unmetabolized (I-125)HIPDM following an i.v. pulse drops rapidly and represents only 30% of the blood sample total radioactivity at 60 minutes, whereas 92% of the radioactivity in brain tissue at the same time is in unaltered (I-125)HIPDM. The rate constant for (I-125)HIPDM transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was calculated on the basis of a distribution model in which bi-directional exchange of the tracer between brain tissue and vascular space is assumed. A kinetic model and an operational equation have been derived for determination of rCBF with this molecule. The model and equation take into account the three following factors: (a) incomplete first pass extraction; (b) HIPDM metabolism; (c) bi-directional flux of tracer across the BBB. The observations suggest that this molecule might be of potential usefulness for rCBF measurements with single photon emission tomography, provided that all these factors are evaluated in man.

  5. Effect of siRNA‑induced inhibition of IL‑6 expression in rat cerebral gliocytes on cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Dong-Ming; Liu, Fu-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) on the inhibition of interleukin (IL)‑6 expression in rat cerebral gliocytes in vitro and rat cerebral traumatic tissues in vivo, as well as the effect of RNAi on cerebral edema. pSUPER vectors containing IL‑6 small hairpin RNA (pSUPER‑IL‑6 1‑5) were designed, constructed and transfected into C6 rat glioma cells using cationic liposomes. ELISA was used to select the plasmid with the strongest interference effect. A freefall method was used to generate a rat brain injury model and rats were randomly divided into treatment, empty plasmid and control groups (n=14/group). IL‑6 levels, water content and sodium content were determined in the brain tissues at 24 and 72 h post‑injury. pSUPER‑IL‑6 was effectively transfected into C6 cells and was found to inhibit the expression of IL‑6 rather than IL‑8. The pSUPER‑IL‑6 1 vector was most effective in inducing RNAi. In vivo, IL‑6 levels were observed to be lowest in the interference group and there were statistically significant differences in water and sodium content among the experimental groups (Pcerebral gliocytes, and the reduction of the IL‑6 levels was found to reduce post‑traumatic cerebral edema.

  6. The study of protective effects and mechanisms of rofecoxib on focal cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJuan; ZHOUYu; QIULi-Ying; CHENBai-Ling; CHENChong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM : To study the protective effects and the mechanisms of rofecoxib as a specific type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX- 2 inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury ( CIRI in rats. METHODS : The model of focal CIRI was induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAO with inserting a thread through internal carotid artery, 2 h occlusion followed

  7. The Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kai Hsun; Nixon, Gillian M.

    2008-01-01

    Benefits of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with cerebral palsy could differ from those in otherwise healthy children. We examined the effects of OSA treatment by comparing a group of children with cerebral palsy treated with adenotonsillectomy or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by nasal mask with controls who…

  8. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Tian, Mei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. {sup 18}F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  9. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent noninvasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were al-so extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation(6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while V(MCA) was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the V(MCA) response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on V(MCA)possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity.

  10. Examination of the effectiveness of DVD decision support tools for patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Okubo, Chie; Yokoyama, Yoko; Morita, Akio; Akamatsu, Rie; Nakayama, Takeo; Fukuhara, Shun-ichi; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    Preventative treatments for unruptured cerebral aneurysms include craniotomy, endovascular treatment, and follow up. Since there is no agreement as to the best procedure, it is important to provide adequate information so that the patient and physician can share in the decision-making process. A multi-media DVD was created to inform patients of the facts. This study examined how effectively this DVD changes patients' recognition including knowledge of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Forty-seven patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms who sought neurosurgery consultation between December 2005 and February 2006 completed a questionnaire before and after watching the DVD, as well as at 3 months follow up. Before watching the DVD, the average knowledge score was 8.72 out of 15 total points. The average score increased to 12.4 after watching the DVD (p DVD (p DVD (p DVD, 69.6% were satisfied with their decision after watching the DVD. All participants responded that the use of multi-media images was helpful in better understanding treatment options and in making informed decisions. The DVD was favorably accepted as a decision support tool by patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm and effectively increased patients' knowledge.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of Cerebralcare Granule after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang; Fen-fen He; Gui-lin Yan; Ha-ni Li; Dan Li; Yan-ling Ma; Fang Wang; Nan Xu; Fei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Cerebralcare Granule (CG) improves cerebral microcirculation and relieves vasospasm, but studies investigating its therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are lacking. In the present study, we administered CG (0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 g/mL intragastrically) to rats for 7 consecutive days. We then performed transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion, and administered CG daily for a further 3 or 7 days. Compared with no treatment, high-dose CG markedly improved neurological function assessed using the Bederson and Garcia scales. At 3 days, animals in the high-dose CG group had smaller infarct volumes, greater interleukin-10 expression, and fewer interleukin-1β-immunoreactive cells than those in the untreated model group. Furthermore, at 7 days, high-dose CG-treated rats had more vascular endothelial growth factor-immunoreactive cells, elevated angiopoietin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor ex-pression, and improved blood coagulation and lfow indices compared with untreated model animals. These results suggest that CG exerts speciifc neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  12. Effects of autoregulation and CO2 reactivity on cerebral oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S J; Selb, J; Boas, D A

    2009-11-01

    Both autoregulation and CO(2) reactivity are known to have significant effects on cerebral blood flow and thus on the transport of oxygen through the vasculature. In this paper, a previous model of the autoregulation of blood flow in the cerebral vasculature is expanded to include the dynamic behavior of oxygen transport through binding with hemoglobin. The model is used to predict the transfer functions for both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in response to fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and arterial CO(2) concentration. It is shown that only six additional nondimensional groups are required in addition to the five that were previously found to characterize the cerebral blood flow response. A resonant frequency in the pressure-oxyhemoglobin transfer function is found to occur in the region of 0.1 Hz, which is a frequency of considerable physiological interest. The model predictions are compared with results from the published literature of phase angle at this frequency, showing that the effects of changes in breathing rate can significantly alter the inferred phase dynamics between blood pressure and hemoglobin. The question of whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is affected under conditions of stenosis or stroke is then examined.

  13. Cerebral glucose metabolism in long-term survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with surgery and radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Krabbe, Katja; Leffers, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    a median recurrence free survival of 16 years by MRI and Positron Emission Tomography using the glucose analog 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG). Three patients were not analyzed further due to diffuse cerebral atrophy, which might be related to previous hydrocephalus. Twenty-one patients were...

  14. Synergistic effects of prostaglandin E1 and lithium in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong RAN; Bo GAO; Rui SHENG; Li-sha ZHANG; Hui-lin ZHANG; Zhen-lun GU; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important regulators of cellular survival and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia.Both prostaglandin El (PGEI) and lithium have been reported to protect neurons against ischemic injury.The present study was undertaken to examine if lithium could potentiate the neuroprotection of PGE 1 against cerebral ischemia,and if the synergetic effects take place at the level of HSPs.Methods:Brain ischemia was induced by a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats.Rats were pretreated with subcutaneous injection of lithium for 2 d and a single intravenous administration of PGEI immediately after ischemic insult.Cerebrocortical blood flow of each group was closely monitored prior to onset of ischemia,5 min,15 rain,30 min and 60 min after surgical operation.Body temperature was measured before,5 min,2 h and 24 h after the onset of pMCAO.The infarct volume,brain edema and motor behavior deficits were analyzed 24 h after ischemic insult.Cytoprotective HSP70 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were detected by immunoblotting.Brain sections from the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were double-labeled with the anti-HSP70 antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).Results:Treatment with PGEI (8 and 16 ~tg/kg,iv) or lithium (0.5 mEq/kg,sc) alone reduced infarct volume,neurological deficits and brain edema induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Moreover,a greater neuroprotection was observed when PGEI and lithium were given together.Co-administration of PGE1 and lithium significantly upregulated cytoprotective HSP70 and HO-1 protein levels.Conclusion:Lithium and PGEI may exert synergistic effects in treatment of cerebral ischemia and thus may have potential clinical value for the treatment of stroke.

  15. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  16. Baicalin and jasminoidin effects on gene expression and compatibility in the hippocampus following focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Guo; Fanyun Meng; Guodong Zhang; Jing Zhao; Zhanjun Zhang; Caixiu Zhou; Zhong Wang

    2011-01-01

    The compound traditional Chinese medicine Qingkailing, which is an ingredient used to treat cerebral ischemia, has been limited to studies concerning single genes or single pathways.Interactions and pharmacological mechanisms of the compound ingredients (baicalin and jasminoidin) remain poody understood.In the present study, baicalin and jasminoidin, as well as the combination, were used to separately treat mouse models of cerebral ischemia, cDNA microarray analyses of 374 cerebral ischemia-related genes were utilized to determine changes in gene-expression profiles.Arraytrack 3.40 and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) databases were utilized to analyze changes in gene molecular functions and network path functions.Baicalin or jasminoidin alone effectively reduced infarct area, and the combination resulted in significantly better outcomes.IPA showed inhibited cell apoptosis in the baicalin group and Ca2+ channel regulation in the jasminoidin group.The combination of baicalin and jasminoidin activated HTR3A and F5 expression, regulated Ca2+ channels, activated kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer inhibitor IKBKG in B cells to control IkB kinase/nuclear factor-kB cascade, suppressed activation of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 receptors and activated transduction of guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) signal.Results suggested that the combination of baicalin and jasminoidin resulted in similar molecular mechanisms to baicalin and jasminoidin alone.However,novel pharmacological actions of compatibility were detected, demonstrating significant protection against cerebral ischemia.

  17. THE EFFECT OF LIGUSTRAZINE ON NEUROGENESIS IN CORTEX AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Fen; Liu Yong; Zhang Pengbo; Kang Qianyan; Tian Yingfang; Chen Xinlin; Zhao Jianjun; Qi Cunfang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Ligustrazine on neurogenesis in cortex after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by left middle cerebral arteryocclusion with asuture. Two hours later, injection of Ligustrazine (80 mg/kg, 1 time/d) was performed peritoneally. Four hours after the ischemia,5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (50 mg/kg, 1 time/d) was injected peritoneally. At 7 d, 14 d and 21 d after ischemia,BrdU positive cells in the cortex were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Results In ischemic model group, at 7 day, sparsely-distributed BrdU positive cells were observed in the Ⅱ - Ⅵ layers of the ipsilateral cortex, with a band-like distribution in ischemic penumbra. With the prolongation of ischemia, the number of BrdU positive cells increased.In Ligustrazine group, BrdU positive cells were also observed in the Ⅱ - Ⅵ layers of the cortex, with an intense distribution in ischemic penumbra. The numbers of BrdU positive cells at 7 d, 14 d and 21 d were more than those in ischemic model group respectively. Conclusion Ligustrazine increases the proliferated cells in cortex after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. The results suggest that it may be useful for promoting self-repair after ischemia.

  18. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaif, Amer A; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia aged 6-10 years diagnosed with level-3 functional capabilities according to the Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) were enrolled. Participants were divided randomly into equal groups: group (A) that practiced with the Nintendo Wii Fit game for at least 20 minutes/day for 12 weeks and group (B) that underwent no training (control group). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (mABC-2) was used to assess motor performance, because it mainly involves motor tasks very similar to those involved in playing Nintendo Wii Fit games, e.g., goal-directed arm movements, balancing, and jumping. [Results] There were significant improvements in the subscales of the motor performance test of those who practiced with the Nintendo Wii, while the control group showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] Using motion interactive games in home rehabilitation is feasible for children with cerebral palsy.

  19. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  20. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  1. Effects of GSM 900 MHz on middle cerebral artery blood flow assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Rania; Thuróczy, György; Loos, Nathalie; Brenet-Dufour, Valérie; Liabeuf, Sophie; de Seze, René; Selmaoui, Brahim

    2012-12-01

    Mobile phone use has increased worldwide but its possible effects on the brain remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exposure to a radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) generated by a mobile phone operating in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) 900 MHz on cerebral blood flow. Twenty-nine volunteers attended two experimental sessions: a sham exposure session and a real exposure session in a cross-over double-blind study in which a mobile phone was positioned on the left side of the head. In one session, the mobile phone was operated without RF radiation (sham phone) and in the other study it was operated with RF radiation (real phone) for 20 min. Thus, each subject served as its own control. Middle cerebral artery blood flow was monitored noninvasively by transcranial Doppler sonography to measure middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity. Pulsatility index and resistance index were also evaluated. A voluntary breath holding physiological test was carried out as a positive control for testing cerebral vasoreactivity. Hemodynamic variables were recorded and analyzed before, during and after mobile phone exposure. No significant changes were detected in studied variables in middle cerebral arteries during sham or real exposure. In the exposed side the cerebral blood flow velocity, the pulsatility index and the resistance index during sham and real exposure were respectively: [61.9 ± 1.3, 61.7 ± 1.3 cm/s (P = 0.89)]; [0.93 ± 0.03, 0.90 ± 0.02 (P = 0.84)] and [0.58 ± 0.01, 0.58 ± 0.01 (P = 0.96)] at baseline; and [60.6 ± 1.3, 62 ± 1.6 cm/s (P = 0.40)]; [0.91 ± 0.03, 0.87 ± 0.03 (P = 0.97)]; [0.57 ± 0.01, 0.56 ± 0.01 (P = 0.82)] after 20 min of exposure. Twenty minutes of RF exposure to a mobile phone does not seem to affect the cerebral circulation.

  2. Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jay J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely

  3. The effect of isovolemic hemodilution with oxycyte, a perfluorocarbon emulsion, on cerebral blood flow in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF is auto-regulated to meet the brain's metabolic requirements. Oxycyte is a perfluorocarbon emulsion that acts as a highly effective oxygen carrier compared to blood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Oxycyte on regional CBF (rCBF, by evaluating the effects of stepwise isovolemic hemodilution with Oxycyte on CBF. METHODOLOGY: Male rats were intubated and ventilated with 100% O(2 under isoflurane anesthesia. The regional (striatum CBF (rCBF was measured with a laser doppler flowmeter (LDF. Stepwise isovolemic hemodilution was performed by withdrawing 4ml of blood and substituting the same volume of 5% albumin or 2 ml Oxycyte plus 2 ml albumin at 20-minute intervals until the hematocrit (Hct values reached 5%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the albumin-treated group, rCBF progressively increased to approximately twice its baseline level (208+/-30% when Hct levels were less than 10%. In the Oxycyte-treated group on the other hand, rCBF increased by significantly smaller increments, and this group's mean rCBF was only slightly higher than baseline (118+/-18% when Hct levels were less than 10%. Similarly, in the albumin-treated group, rCBF started to increase when hemodilution with albumin caused the CaO(2 to decrease below 17.5 ml/dl. Thereafter, the increase in rCBF was accompanied by a nearly proportional decrease in the CaO(2 level. In the Oxycyte-treated group, the increase in rCBF was significantly smaller than in the albumin-treated group when the CaO(2 level dropped below 10 ml/dl (142+/-20% vs. 186+/-26%, and rCBF returned to almost baseline levels (106+/-15 when the CaO(2 level was below 7 ml/dl. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hemodilution with Oxycyte was accompanied with higher CaO(2 and PO(2 than control group treated with albumin alone. This effect may be partially responsible for maintaining relatively constant CBF and not allowing the elevated blood flow that was observed with albumin.

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture on astrocytes in the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Nenggui Xu; Wei Yi; Yong Zi; Yixu Du

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes react sensitively to cerebral ischemia, causing reactive proliferation and activation, which may contribute to their effect in protecting or injuring neuronal regeneration. Whether acupuncture, as a treatment for cerebral ischemia, regulates the activated state of astrocytes has become a focus of recent investigations.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on ultrastructure changes and reactive proliferation of astrocytes in the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled animal study. This study was performed at the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 90 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operated, model and EA groups. Each group was subdivided into 1 hour, 1, 3, 7, and 21 days post-cerebral ischemia groups, with six animals for each time point. Rabbit anti-rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and goat anti-rabbit IgG/tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate were provided by Beijing Biosynthesis Biotechnology. The G-6805 electric acupuncture apparatus was provided by Shanghai Huayi.METHODS: Heat-coagulation-induced occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was performed to establish a model of focal cerebral ischemia, in the model and EA groups. Middle cerebral arteries were exposed without occlusion in sham operated group. EA was applied immediately after surgery in the EA group, 4/20 Hz, 2.0-3.0 V, 1-3 mA, to Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), for 30 minutes. The treatment was performed once a day. The sham operated and model groups did not receive acupuncture.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats at different time points after intervention, the ultrastructure changes of astrocytes were observed by using transmission electronic microscopy. GFAP expression in astrocytes was also measured by laser confocal

  5. The Effect of Acupuncture on Plasma Endothelin Content in Cerebral Infarction Patients——A Clinical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on content of plasma endothelin in cerebral infarction patients. Methods: The plasma endothelin content in cerebral infarction patients was observed before and after acupuncture, which was compared with that of the medication group and the healthy subjects. Results: Before treatment, the content of plasma endothelin in cerebral infarction patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy subjects (P<0.01); after acupuncture treatment, the content greatly decreased (P<0.01), and there was a statistically significant difference between the acupuncture group and the medication group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture may decrease the content of plasma endothelin in the cerebral infarction patients, improve the vascular elasticity, and improve the cerebral circulation of blood.

  6. Effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy: a focused review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Heidi; Suoranta, Jutta; Malmivaara, Antti

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a criteria-based appraisal of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized bibliographic databases were searched without language restriction up to August 2007. Reviews on trials...... physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions. Conclusions in the other reviews should be interpreted cautiously, although, because of the poor quality of the primary studies, most reviews drew no conclusions on the effectiveness of the reviewed interventions. Reviews on complex interventions...

  7. Some metabolic effects of overeating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, S L; Seaton, T B; Campbell, R G

    1986-12-01

    Metabolic responses to 20 days of overeating were examined in five healthy volunteers. Overfeeding caused a variable increase (1-18%) in basal metabolic rate but no change in metabolic rate during light exercise. Postprandial resting metabolic rate was 8-40% higher (mean 18%) during overeating. The increase in oxygen consumption during a norepinephrine infusion was the same before (20 +/- 2%) and after (17 +/- 3%) overfeeding. Overfeeding elevated basal insulin concentrations in all subjects and increased the insulin response to intravenous glucose in four of five subjects. Overfeeding did not significantly alter mean serum T3 concentrations or erythrocyte 86Rb uptake (an index of Na+,K+-ATPase activity). These data do not confirm reports that overfeeding increases metabolic rate more during exercise than during rest. They also suggest that the increase in resting metabolic rate during overfeeding is not caused by increased responsiveness to norepinephrine or increased serum T3 concentrations.

  8. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Gejl; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. The effects cause that mimetics of GLP-1 serves as treatment of type 2 diabete...... and in vivo, as in pancreas. The apparent neuroprotective potential of GLP-1, indirectly acting through changes of cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism or brain glucose concentration, or all of these, is worthy of close attention....

  9. Genetic/metabolic effect of iron metabolism and rare anemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Camaschella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in iron metabolism have allowed a novel classification of iron disorders and to identify previously unknown diseases. These disorders include genetic iron overload (hemochromatosis and inherited iron-related anemias, in some cases accompanied by iron overload. Rare inherited anemias may affect the hepcidin pathway, iron absorption, transport, utilization and recycling. Among the genetic iron-related anemias the most common form is likely the iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia (IRIDA, due to mutations of the hepcidin inhibitor TMPRSS6 encoding the serine protease matriptase-2. IRIDA is characterized by hepcidin up-regulation, decrease iron absorption and macrophage recycling and by microcytic- hypochromic anemia, unresponsive to oral iron. High serum hepcidin levels may suggest the diagnosis, which requires demonstrating the causal TMPRSS6 mutations by gene sequencing. Other rare microcytic hypochromic anemias associated with defects of iron transport-uptake are the rare hypotransferrinemia, and DMT1 and STEAP3 mutations. The degree of anemia is variable and accompanied by secondary iron overload even in the absence of blood transfusions. This is due to the iron-deficient or expanded erythropoiesis that inhibits hepcidin transcription, increases iron absorption, through the erythroid regulator, as in untransfused beta-thalassemia. Sideroblastic anemias are due to decreased mitochondrial iron utilization for heme or sulfur cluster synthesis. Their diagnosis requires demonstrating ringed sideroblasts by Perl’s staining of the bone marrow smears. The commonest X-linked form is due to deltaamino- levulinic-synthase-2-acid (ALAS2 mutations. The recessive, more severe form, affects SLC25A38, which encodes a potential mitochondrial importer of glycine, an amino acid essential for ALA synthesis and thus results in heme deficiency. Two disorders affect iron/sulfur cluster biogenesis: deficiency of the ATP-binding cassette B7 (ABCB7 causes X

  10. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references.

  11. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B Simon

    Full Text Available Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2 that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  12. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Aaron B; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Wong, Eric C; Buxton, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP) estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  13. Effect of preceding exercise on cerebral and splanchnic vascular responses to mental task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someya Nami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of preceding acute exercise on the peripheral vascular response to a mental task, we measured splanchnic and cerebral blood flow responses to performing a mental task after exercise and resting. Methods In the exercise trial, 11 males exercised for 30 min on a cycle ergometer with a workload set at 70% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate for each individual. After a 15-min recovery period, the subjects rested for 5 min for pre-task baseline measurement and then performed mental arithmetic for 5 min followed by 5 min of post-task measurement. In the resting trial, they rested for 45 min and pre-task baseline data was obtained for 5 min. Then mental arithmetic was performed for 5 min followed by post-task measurement. We measured the mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery and superior mesenteric artery and the mean arterial pressure. Results Mean arterial pressure and mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery were significantly higher than the baseline during mental arithmetic in both exercise and resting trials. Mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery during mental arithmetic was greater in the control trial than the exercise trial. Mean blood velocity in the superior mesenteric artery showed no significant change during mental arithmetic from baseline in both trials. Conclusion These results suggest that acute exercise can moderate the increase in cerebral blood flow induced by a mental task.

  14. Protective effects of mangiferin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhang; Weian, Chen; Susu, Huang; Hanmin, Wang

    2016-01-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the protective properties of mangiferin, a natural glucosyl xanthone found in both mango and papaya on the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. Wistar male rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed by 24h of reperfusion. Mangiferin (25, 50, and 100mg/kg, ig) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium was administered three times before ischemia and once at 2h after the onset of ischemia. Neurological score, infarct volume, and brain water content, some oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion. Treatment with mangiferin significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, infarct volume and brain water content after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mangiferin also reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and TNF-α, and up-regulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and IL-10 levels in the brain tissue of rats with the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, mangiferin up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results indicate that mangiferin can play a certain protective role in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the protective effect of mangiferin may be related to the improvement on the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue and the inhibition of overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms are associated with enhancing the oxidant defense systems via the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  15. Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devinsky, O.; Sato, S.; Conwit, R.A.; Schapiro, M.B. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS.

  16. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However......Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38...

  17. Cerebral glucose metabolism in long-term survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with surgery and radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Krabbe, Katja; Leffers, Anne M.;

    2003-01-01

    Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after...... that there is a general reduction in rCMRglc in long-term recurrence free survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with CRT in high doses (44-56 Gy)......Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after...... a median recurrence free survival of 16 years by MRI and Positron Emission Tomography using the glucose analog 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG). Three patients were not analyzed further due to diffuse cerebral atrophy, which might be related to previous hydrocephalus. Twenty-one patients were...

  18. Avaliação da isquemia cerebral focal induzida pela oclusão da artéria cerebral média e a ação neuroprotetora do cetoprofeno em ratos Focal cerebral ischaemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and the neuroprotective effect of ketoprofen in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO ARAUJO DIAS

    2000-12-01

    parece não interferir com o metabolismo do glutamato na sinapse. Os achados histopatológicos no córtex parietal dos animais submetidos a isquemia , tratados ou não previamente com cetoprofeno, sugerem que esta droga tem um efeito neuroprotetor.Cerebral ischaemia is eventualy observed during neurosurgical procedures and in several clinical entities that may cause severe neurological deficits and even death. Because it is a severe and complex problem, several studies have been done aiming to elucidate the mechanisms of the ischemic phenomenon and aiming to abolish or to diminish its effects, using drugs that protect the neurons from ischaemia-induced damage. Several neurotransmitters play a role in cerebral ischaemia with emphasis to glutamate by its high concentration in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat through the dosage of the glutamate and morphological findings, and to evaluate a possible protective effect of the ketoprofen to ischemic neurons. Thirty-six rats Wistar were divided into four groups. The first was a control group, the second a sham group and the animals of the third and fourth groups were submitted to induced cerebral ischaemia through selective obstruction of the midlle cerebral artery during 15, 30 and 45 minutes. Animals of the fourth group were previously treated with ketoprofen 15 minutes before the ischaemia. The ischaemia was evaluated through the histopathological examination and through dosage of the extracellular glutamate in vitro. The histopathological examination showed that there was no difference between the animals of the control and of the sham groups. In the animals submitted to ischemia histopathological alterations appeared at 30 minutes and become more intense at 45 minutes of ischaemia. The main findings were interstitial edema, chromatinic disorganization, vacuolization and nuclear desintegration. The animals treated with ketoprofen showed

  19. Effect of Rosiglitazone Maleate on Inflammation Following Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Nanxiang; SUN Fan; ZHAO Hongyang; XIANG Jizhou

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Rosiglitazone Maleate (RSG) against brain ischemic injury, the effects of Rosiglitazone Maleate on the inflammation following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion were investigated. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the intraluminal thread for cerebral middle artery (MCA) occlusion. Rosiglitazone Maleate at concentrations of 0.5,2 and 5 mg/kg was infused by intragastric gavage twice immediately and 2 h after MCA occlusion,respectively. The effects of Rosiglitazone Maleate on brain swelling, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 mRNA level in brain tissue after MCA occlusion and reperfusion were evaluated. The results showed that as compared with the model control group, RSG (0.5 mg/kg) had no significant influence on brain swelling (P>0.05), but 2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg RSG could significantly alleviate brain swelling (P<0.05). All different doses of RSG could obviously reduce MPO activity in brain tissue after MCA occlusion and reperfusion in a dose-dependent manner. RSG (0.5 and 2 mg/kg) could decrease the expression levels of IL-6 mRNA in brain tissue after MCA occlusion and reperfusion to varying degrees (P<0.05) with the difference being significant between them. It was concluded that RSG could effectively ameliorate brain ischemic injury after 24 h MCA occlusion and inhibit the inflammatory response after ischemia-reperfusion in this model.

  20. Protective effects of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase activity against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    补娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) on shape,function and inflammatory factor of microglia for mice after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

  1. Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Demonstrates Long-Term Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation in α-Mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Else R; Lund, Allan M; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    α-Mannosidosis, OMIM #248500, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by acidic α-mannosidase deficiency. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and, possibly in the future, enzyme replacement therapy. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables non......-invasive monitoring of cerebral treatment effect. Accumulated cerebral mannose-containing oligosaccharides were demonstrated by MRS in a patient who at age 2 years and 11 months received a BMT from a haploidentical non-carrier sibling. The cerebral mannose-containing oligosaccharides had disappeared as early as 9......½ months after BMT. MRS furthermore demonstrated the persistent treatment effect at regular intervals up to 5½ years after BMT. MRS is a non-invasive tool that can demonstrate the effect of BMT treatment. Likewise, MRS may be used to demonstrate the cerebral effect of other potential treatments...

  2. Closed versus open endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants: effects on cerebral oxygenation and blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F A; Colnaghi, M; Lattanzio, M; Bray, M; Pugliese, S; Fumagalli, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the effects on cerebral intracellular oxygenation and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of closed endotracheal suctioning (CS), which permits continuous ventilation of the patient, with open endotracheal suctioning (OS), which requires disconnection from the ventilator. Eleven preterm infants were studied. Each patient underwent one CS, followed, after 60 min, by one OS, or vice versa, three times during the same day. Modifications in CBV and oxidized cytochrome oxidase (CytO2) were continuously detected by NIRS; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension and mean arterial blood pressure were simultaneously recorded. Significant reductions in HR and SaO2 were observed following OS; the magnitude and duration of these negative effects of suctioning were significantly reduced with CS. In addition, the decrease in CBV was more pronounced than following CS. No changes in CytO2 concentration were seen.

  3. OBSERVATION OF CLINICAL CURATIVE EFFECT OF CEREBRAL FUNCTIONAL HEALTH INSTRUMENT FOR TREATING INSOMNIA JINZHOU KANGNING HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jinzhong

    2000-01-01

    Purpose 1t is researening to curative effect for treating the msomnia by non-medicine therapy Methods: The cases of 99 patments in acecrdance with the diagnosis standard CCMD-Ⅱ- R are applied with model BW-308 cerebral functional health instrment to be taken once every day , 15 minutes every time . A course of treatment has 15 tunes. Results The effective rate is 75 7 percent After treating the average grade of oneself meter of the sleep-disorder is distinet fall The average grade it=16 6. P<0.01) of SAS and SDS meter is distinet fall (The value t respectively is 6.4 and 7.8, p<0.01) is also distict difierent Conclusion The cerebral functional health instrument is really a efectivc supplementary instrument for treating the insomma It is specific worth to research to be used for treaung the neuropathy

  4. Neuroprotective effects of daidzein on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Bozkurt Aras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daidzein, a plant extract, has antioxidant activity. It is hypothesized, in this study, that daidzein exhibits neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally administered daidzein. Biochemical and immunohistochemical tests showed that superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 expression levels in the brain tissue decreased after ischemia and they increased obviously after daidzein administration; malondialdehyde level and apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 immunoreactivity in the brain tissue increased after ischemia and they decreased obviously after daidzein administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and luxol fast blue staining results showed that intraperitoneal administration of daidzein markedly alleviated neuronal damage in the ischemic brain tissue. These findings suggest that daidzein exhibits neuroprotective effects on ischemic brain tissue by decreasing oxygen free radical production, which validates the aforementioned hypothesis

  5. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of daidzein on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem Bozkurt Aras; Mustafa Guven; Tark Akman; Adile Ozkan; Halil Murat Sen; Ugur Duz; Yldray Kalkan; Coskun Silan; Murat Cosar

    2015-01-01

    Daidzein, a plant extract, has antioxidant activity. It is hypothesized, in this study, that daidzein exhibits neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. Rat models of middle cerebral artery oc-clusion were intraperitoneally administered daidzein. Biochemical and immunohistochemical tests showed that superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 expression levels in the brain tissue decreased after ischemia and they increased obviously after daidzein administra-tion; malondialdehyde level and apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 immunoreactivity in the brain tissue increased after ischemia and they decreased obviously after daidzein administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and luxol fast blue staining results showed that intraperitoneal administration of daidzein markedly alleviated neuronal damage in the ischemic brain tissue. These ifndings suggest that daidzein exhibits neuroprotective effects on ischemic brain tissue by decreasing oxygen free radical production, which validates the afore-mentioned hypothesis.

  7. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism differentiates danger- and non-danger-based traumas in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Amy E; Litz, Brett T; Resick, Patricia A; Woolsey, Mary D; Dondanville, Katherine A; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Adam M; Borah, Elisa V; Peterson, Alan L; Fox, Peter T

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presumably the result of life threats and conditioned fear. However, the neurobiology of fear fails to explain the impact of traumas that do not entail threats. Neuronal function, assessed as glucose metabolism with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, was contrasted in active duty, treatment-seeking US Army Soldiers with PTSD endorsing either danger- (n = 19) or non-danger-based (n = 26) traumas, and was compared with soldiers without PTSD (Combat Controls, n = 26) and Civilian Controls (n = 24). Prior meta-analyses of regions associated with fear or trauma script imagery in PTSD were used to compare glucose metabolism across groups. Danger-based traumas were associated with higher metabolism in the right amygdala than the control groups, while non-danger-based traumas associated with heightened precuneus metabolism relative to the danger group. In the danger group, PTSD severity was associated with higher metabolism in precuneus and dorsal anterior cingulate and lower metabolism in left amygdala (R(2 )= 0.61). In the non-danger group, PTSD symptom severity was associated with higher precuneus metabolism and lower right amygdala metabolism (R(2 )= 0.64). These findings suggest a biological basis to consider subtyping PTSD according to the nature of the traumatic context.

  8. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Sesamin and Sesamolin on Gerbil Brain in Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Fu-Chou; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Hou, Rolis C. W.; Tzen, Jason T. C.

    2006-01-01

    Sesamin and sesamolin, abundant lignans found in sesame oil, have been demonstrated to possess several bioactivities beneficial for human health. Excess generation of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat primary microglia cells was significantly attenuated when they were pretreated with sesamin or sesamolin. The neuroprotective effect of sesamin and sesamolin was also observed in vivo using gerbils subjected to a focal cerebral ischemia induced by occlusion of the right common ca...

  10. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri-Nikpour MR; Nazarbaghi S; Ahmadi-Salmasi B; Mokari. T.; Tahamtan U; Rezaei Y

    2014-01-01

    Mohammad Reza Amiri-Nikpour,1 Surena Nazarbaghi,1 Babak Ahmadi-Salmasi,1 Tayebeh Mokari,2 Urya Tahamtan,2 Yousef Rezaei3 1Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, 2School of Medicine, 3Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the ce...

  11. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in hypertension and effects of antihypertensive drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, David; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    If antihypertensive treatment, especially emergency blood pressure lowering, is always to be safe, more thought should be given to autoregulation of cerebral blood in the hypertensive patient. This topic is reviewed in the present article, in the hypertensive patient. This topic is reviewed...... in the present article, particular emphasis being placed on the resetting of the lower limit of autoregulation to higher pressure in hypertension and the effects of acute administration of anti-hypertensive drugs on CBF and CBF-autoregulation....

  12. Region-specific effects on brain metabolites of hypoxia and hyperoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia in young and old rats: a quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both hypoxia and hyperoxia, deregulating the oxidative balance, may play a role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders underlain by cerebral ischemia. In the present study, quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to evaluate regional metabolic alterations, following a 24-hour hypoxic or hyperoxic exposure on the background of ischemic brain insult, in two contrasting age-groups of rats: young - 3 months old and aged - 24 months old. Methods Cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of the right common carotid artery. Concentrations of eight metabolites (alanine, choline-containing compounds, total creatine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, lactate, myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate were quantified from extracts in three different brain regions (fronto-parietal and occipital cortices and the hippocampus from both hemispheres. Results In the control normoxic condition, there were significant increases in lactate and myo-inositol concentrations in the hippocampus of the aged rats, compared with the respective values in the young ones. In the ischemia-hypoxia condition, the most prevalent changes in the brain metabolites were found in the hippocampal regions of both young and aged rats; but the effects were more evident in the aged animals. The ischemia-hyperoxia procedure caused less dedicated changes in the brain metabolites, which may reflect more limited tissue damage. Conclusions We conclude that the hippocampus turns out to be particularly susceptible to hypoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia and that old age further increases this susceptibility.

  13. The significance of changes in cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism in patients with cerebral hemorrhage caused by acute hypertension%急性高血压脑出血患者脑糖氧代谢变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 陈锷峰; 屠传建; 钱辉; 骆明; 顾志伟; 张建民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of early changes in cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and with Glasgow coma score (GCS) of 5-8 caused by acute hypertension in order to find relationship between those changes and prognosis.Methods From January 1,2011 to June 30,2012,a cohort of 43 patients with cerebral hemorrhage caused by acute hypertension were enrolled for retrospective study.Radial artery and internal jugular vein were separately cannulated retrogradely for collecting blood for blood gas analysis and blood glucose tests carried out 24 hours after the onset of the cerebral hemorrhage and then every 6-8 hours and as any major changes in physical signs of patients occurred.And this monitoring kept for consecutive 3 days.The data of these laboratory findings were analyzed and calculated to determine internal jugular vein oxygen saturation (SjVO2),cerebral oxygen utilization rate (CEO2),cerebral arterio-venous oxygen difference (AVDO2),arterio-venous blood glucose difference (V-Aglu),arterio-venous lactic acid difference (V-Alac) and absolute value of carbon dioxide pressure difference between jugular vein and artery (V-APCO2).All patients met the diagnostic criteria of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage revised by the 4th National Academic Conference on cerebrovascular disease in 1995 requiring diagnosis confirmed by brain CT,admitted within 24 hours of onset,Glasgow coma score (GCS) 5-8 and a history of hypertension.Exclusion criteria were:cerebral hemorrhage caused by traumatic intracranial hematoma,spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage,arteriovenous malformation and Moyamoya disease,intracranial tumor apoplexy,cerebral bleeding derived from the disturbance of blood coagulation system,and cerebral hemorrhagic infarction.According to the short-term prognosis,the patients were divided into the death group and the survival group.Then the differences in biomarkers mentioned above between two groups were compared to

  14. Main Effects of Diagnoses, Brain Regions, and their Interaction Effects for Cerebral Metabolites in Bipolar and Unipolar Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hai-Zhu; Li, Hui; Liu, Chen-Feng; Guan, Ji-Tian; Guo, Xiao-Bo; Wen, Can-Hong; Ou, Shao-Min; Zhang, Yin-Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Chong-Tao; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Wang, Xue-Qin

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20 UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter. Main and interaction effects of cerebral metabolites across subregions of gray matter were evaluated. For example, the Glx was significantly higher in BDd compared with UDd, and so on. As the interaction analyses showed, some interaction effects existed. The concentrations of BDds’ Glx, Cho, Cr in the ACC and HCs’ mI and Cr in the PC were higher than that of other interaction effects. In addition, the concentrations of BDds’ Glx and Cr in the PC and HCs’ mI in the ACC were statistically significant lower than that of other interaction effects. These findings point to region-related abnormalities of cerebral metabolites across subjects with BDd and UDd.

  15. The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Andréa Gomes; Copetti, Fernando; Angelo, Vera Regina; Chiavoloni, Luana Leonardo; David, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years. Interventions: A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used before and after 24 sessions. [Results] Significant differences were observed for center of pressure (COP) variables, including medio-lateral (COPml), anteroposterior displacement (COPap), and velocity of displacement (VelCOP), particularly after 24 sessions. There were also significant differences in BBS scores and PEDI score increases associated with functional skills (self-care, social function, and mobility), caregiver assistance (self-care), social function, and mobility. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy resulted in improvement in postural balance in the sitting position, dynamic balance, and functionality in children with cerebral palsy, an effect particularly significant after 24 hippotherapy sessions. PMID:27630401

  16. Effects of ginsenosides on vascular reactivity in rat cerebral and renal arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Wing-tak; LEUNG Fung-ping; YUNG Lai-hang; TIAN Xiao-yu; WONG Ricky Ngok Shun; HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the antioxidant property (1) and the in vitro vasodilator effects (2) of the two ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1, in isolated rat renal and cerebral arteries. Methods Arterial rings were mounted in a multi-channel myograph for recording of isometric tension. To examine the antioxidant activity, some rings were exposed to a free radical-generating reaction (hypoxan-thine and xanthine oxidase) with and without pre-treatment with ginsenosides. The calcium antagonistic effects were tested on rings contracted by membrane depolarization in elevated extracellular potassium ions, a condition that promoted Ca2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle cells. Results Ginsenosides protected endothelial function (endothelial nitric oxide-dependent relaxation) against oxidative stress; (2) ginsenoside Rb1 reduced the high K+ -induced contractions of both renal and cerebral arteries while ginsenoside Rgl relaxed the rat cerebral artery but not the renal artery. Conclusions Ginsenosides are vaso-protective via (1) the antioxidant activity which protects endothelial cell function and (2) the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle. The vasodilator effects may suggest the potential preventive or therapeutic values of ginsenosides against stroke and renal hypertension.

  17. Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina LABAF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA How to Cite This Article: labaf S, Shamsoddini A, Hollisaz MT, Sobhani V, Shakibaee A . Effects of Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(1:37-42.AbstractObjectiveNeurodevelopmental treatments are an advanced therapeutic approach practiced by experienced occupational therapists for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. The primary challenge in children with cerebral palsy is gross motor dysfunction. We studied the effects of neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 28 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups. Neurodevelopmental therapy was given to a first group (n=15 with a mean age of 4.9 years; and a second group with a mean age 4.4 years (n=13 who were the control group. All children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure. Treatments were scheduled for three - one-hour sessions per week for 3 months.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between the baseline and post treatment in two groups. The groups were significantly different in laying and rolling (P=0.000, sitting (0.002, crawling and kneeling (0.004, and standing abilities (P=0.005. However, there were no significantdifferences in walking, running, and jumping abilities between the two groups (0.090.ConclusionWe concluded that the neurodevelopmental treatment improved gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy in four dimensions (laying and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, and standing. However, walking, running, and jumping did not improve significantly. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  18. Preventive effects of dextromethorphan on methylmercury-induced glutamate dyshomeostasis and oxidative damage in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Xu, Zhaofa; Liu, Wei; Li, Yuehui; Deng, Yu; Xu, Bin

    2014-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known environmental pollutant leading to neurotoxicant associated with aberrant central nervous system (CNS) functions, but its toxic mechanisms have not yet been fully recognized. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MeHg induces neuronal injury via glutamate (Glu) dyshomeostasis and oxidative damage mechanisms and that these effects are attenuated by dextromethorphan (DM), a low-affinity and noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into four groups of 18 animals in each group: control group, MeHg-treated group (4 and 12 μmol/kg), and DM-pretreated group. After the 4-week treatment, we observed that the administration of MeHg at a dose of 12 μmol/kg significantly increased in total mercury (Hg) levels, disrupted Glu metabolism, overexcited NMDARs, and led to intracellular calcium overload in the cerebral cortex. We also found that MeHg reduced nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, enhanced neurocyte apoptosis, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caused lipid, protein, and DNA peroxidative damage in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) appeared to be inhibited by MeHg exposure. These alterations were significantly prevented by the pretreatment with DM at a dose of 13.5 μmol/kg. In conclusion, these findings strongly implicate that DM has potential to protect the brain from Glu dyshomeostasis and oxidative damage resulting from MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rat.

  19. The effect of hippotherapy on gait in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Fízková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disorders of motor skills, especially regarding gait, are prevalent in nearly all forms of cerebral palsy. Through a horse’s back movement, the patient is exposed to proprioceptive stimulation, thus improvement in gait performance could be expected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the effect of hippotherapy on gait in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Eleven subjects (age 14.3 ± 4.8 years, height 148.2 ± 17.6 cm, weight 43.3 ± 20.2 kg with spastic cerebral palsy participated in the study. Gait assessment was performed before and after a weeklong stay. The hippotherapy was conducted daily. Kinematic data from three trials for each child was obtained using the Vicon MX system (seven infrared cameras, frequency 200 Hz. Comparison of ankle, knee, hip and pelvis movement before and after hippotherapy intervention was performed in Statistica (version 10.0 using the Wilcoxon test. To determine the effect size, Cohen’s d was used. RESULTS: After completing the short-term hippotherapy intervention, we observed a decrease in the second plantar flexion during initial swing (p < .05, decrease in knee flexion during the stance phase (p < .05, decrease in the hip range of motion in sagittal plane (p < .05 and decrease in the pelvic obliquity (p < .05. The effect size for all statistically significant differences was low. CONCLUSIONS: Hippotherapy combined with individually defined physiotherapy can lead to some changes in bipedal locomotion in terms of improvement and thus contribute to greater self-sufficiency, self-reliance and independence of patients with cerebral palsy.

  20. Neuropathological Effect of Tributyltin on the Cerebral Ganglia of the Land Snail, Eobania vermiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Soffar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the neuropathological effect of Tributyltin (TBT on the neurons of the cerebral ganglia in the land snail E. vermiculata. Sublethal dose (1/5 LD50 was used and the experiments lasted for 4 weeks. Light-and electron microscopical examination of treated animals revealed severe histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the cerebral ganglia. These alterations included hyperchromatic, pyknotic or highly shrunken nuclei, extreme indentation of plasma membrane, atrophy of the perikarya of some neurons, margination of nucleoli, fragmentation or dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, damage of mitochondria and vacuolation and destruction of cytoplasm. In addition, degenerated synaptic vesicles and increased number of autophagosomes and myelin figures were frequently observed.

  1. Analysis of the effects of phosphodiesterase type 3 and 4 inhibitors in cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitors of phosphodiesterases 3 and 4, the main cyclic AMP (cAMP) degrading enzymes in arteries, may have therapeutic potential in cerebrovascular disorders. We analysed the effects of such phosphodiesterases in guinea pig cerebral arteries with organ bath technique and cyclic nucleotide assays...... the major contributors to total cAMP hydrolysis in the arteries examined. The phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors additionally attenuated cyclic GMP (cGMP) hydrolysis, but relaxant responses were not dependent on an intact endothelium or on the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. Conversely, the phosphodiesterase 4....... Guinea pig and human cerebral arteries were used for phosphodiesterase assays. Cilostazol (6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone), a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, was compared to conventional phosphodiesterase 3 and 4 inhibitors. Phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 were...

  2. Cerebral Effects of Targeted Temperature Management Methods Assessed by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grejs, Anders Morten; Gjedsted, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized porcine study was to compare surface targeted temperature management (TTM) to endovascular TTM evaluated by cerebral diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and by intracerebral/intramuscular microdialysis. It is well...... known that alteration in the temperature affects ADC, but the relationship between cerebral ADC values and the cooling method per se has not been established. Eighteen anesthetized 60-kg female swine were hemodynamically and intracerebrally monitored and subsequently subjected to a baseline MRI...... a significantly lower median ADC than endovascular cooling: 714 (634; 804) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s versus 866 (828; 927) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s, (p edema and these low values could not be explained solely by the temperature effect per se...

  3. Mild focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. The effect of local temperature on infarct size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt-Eriksen, Elisabeth S; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2002-01-01

    We aimed at investigating a new model of mild focal cerebral ischemia in rats with repeated, noninvasive magnetic resonance scanning combined with histology. Magnetic resonance imaging yielded information about infarct development enabling us to test the putative growth of the infarct over time....... The effect of local temperature at the occlusion site in this model was furthermore tested. Thirty-three Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of simultaneous common carotid artery and distal middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham treatment. Animals were magnetic resonance-scanned repeatedly between day one...... and day 14 after surgery, then sacrificed, and paraffin brain sections stained. All animals scanned 24 h after reperfusion showed an area of edema in the affected cortex, which later was identified as an infarct. Animals with a temperature of 33.9 +/- 1.5 degrees C at the MCA site (hypothermic) showed...

  4. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles. Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and\\/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu\\'s or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.

  5. Changes of cerebral blood flow in rats with acute cerebral ischemia and the effect of nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Zhiqiang Yi; Guijun Lin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that nitric oxide donor can increase cerebral blood flow and improve the function of neurons in cerebral ischemia, but the change does not happen in all the models of cerebral ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on the cerebral blood flow, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content in cerebral cortex, infarct volume and blood pressure in acute ischemic rat brain.DESIGN: A randomized and control animal experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Aerospace Central Hospital, Peking University. MATERIALS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats of SPF grade, weighing 250-300 g, aged 10-12 weeks were randomly divided into control group (n =14) and SNAP-treated group (n =14). SNAP (5 mg/bottle) was provided by Beijing Chemical Reagent Company. Laser Doppler Flowmeter (FLO C1; Omegawave Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and immunoassay kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, UK) were applied.METHODS: ① Model establishment: In the control group, models of cerebral ischemia were induced by ligating right common, internal and external carotid arteries; In the SNAP-treated group, models of cerebral ischemia were induced by ligating right common and external carotid arteries, followed by occluding middle cerebral artery and ligating internal carotid artery. ② Administration: In the SNAP-treated group, SNAP (100 μg/kg) was intravenously infused within 2 minutes, whereas in the control group, phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 1 mL) was intravenously infused (0.5 mL per minute). Six rats were used to measure the volume of cerebral infarction, and the other 8 rats were used to determine other indexes in each group respectively. ③ Determination of indexes: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was continuously measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in the ischemic penumbra and contralateral cortex under the continuous monitoring of blood pressure, cGMP concentrations in brain tissue were determined

  6. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  7. Evaluation on the Therapeutic Effects of Digital Acupoint Pressure for Obstetric Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To probe the evaluation methods for effects of TCM treatment of cerebral palsy through clinical observation on the digital acupoint pressure in treating obstetric spastic cerebral palsy. From 1998-2003,40 cases of spastic cerebral palsy were treated with digital acupoint pressure therapy. Ten indexes including intelligence, language, salivation, hand-grasping, thumb-adduction, turnover, sitting, standing,walking, and scissors-gait were divided into the 4 grades of normal, mild abnormal, moderate abnormal,and severe abnormal (dysfunction), respectively marked as 6, 4, 2, and 0 point, with 2 points increased for improving each grade of each item after the treatment. Meanwhile, the ranges were recorded and evaluated before and after the treatment on shoulder-abduction, elbow-extension, wrist-extension,forearm-backward-rotation, hip-abduction, straight-leg-lifting, knee-extension, and ankle-dorsiflexion.Those with the improvement of 10° , 15° , 20° , 25° , and 30° in the range of movement of their contractured joints would obtain respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 points. There were significant differences before and after the treatment in the 18 items under observation except for intelligence, with obvious improvement shown after the treatment (P<0.01), the effective rate being 92.5%. The therapeutic criteria set in this research are well established in reflecting the functional improvements of the patient.

  8. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  9. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON NEUROLOGICAL DEFECTS AND DAILY LIFE ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 方邦江; 孙国杰

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture of Shuigou (GV 26), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST36), etc. on neurological defects and daily life ability in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of acute cerebral hemorrhage patients were randomized into control group (n = 28) and treatment group (n =30). Patients of two groups were both treated with intravenous infusion of Mannitol and other expectant medicines. In addition, patients of treatment group were also treated with acupuncture therapy, once daily and continuously for one month. Before and after treatment, the scores of neurological defects and daily life ability (Barthel Index) were givenfor assessing the therapeutic effect. Results: Following treatment, both scores of neurological defects of two groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the score of treatment group was strikingly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, values of Barthel Index (BI) of two groups increased considerably in comparison with pretreatment (P< 0.01 ), and the value of BI of treatment group was bigger than that of control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture can improve acute cerebral hemorrhage patients' nervous function and daily life ability.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized in Transient and Permanent Rat Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized (XST, a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk., is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats’ weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway.

  11. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Salvianolic Acids against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of salvianolic acids (SA against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, and explored whether the neuroprotection was dependent on mitochondrial connexin43 (mtCx43 via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT pathway. In vitro, we measured astrocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and also evaluated the morphology of astrocyte mitochondria with transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, we determined the cerebral infarction volume and measured superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA content. Additionally, mtCx43, p-mtCx43, AKT, and p-AKT levels were determined. In vitro, we found that I/R injury induced apoptosis, decreased cell mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and damaged mitochondrial morphology in astrocytes. In vivo, we found that I/R injury resulted in a large cerebral infarction, decreased SOD activity, and increased MDA expression. Additionally, I/R injury reduced both the p-mtCx43/mtCx43 and p-AKT/AKT ratios. We reported that both in vivo and in vitro, SA ameliorated the detrimental outcomes of the I/R. Interestingly, co-administering an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway blunted the effects of SA. SA represents a potential treatment option for cerebral infarction by up-regulating mtCx43 through the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  13. EFFECT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Kulikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction on cerebral hemodynamic in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI during acute period. Material and methods. Cerebral hemodynamics ultrasound assessment was performed in the extra-and intracranial vessels in 118 patients with STEMI. Results. Significant changes in cerebral hemodynamics were found in LV systolic dysfunction with ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40% due to hemispheric blood flow asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery (MCA as large as 45.1±6.7% with correlation coefficient r=-0.87. Compensation of cerebral blood flow was manifested in vasoconstriction or vasodilation (resistive index 0.63-0.76 and 0.49-0.43 c.u., respectively. Conclusion. A strong relationship between LV systolic dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic was found in patients with STEMI. It was manifested in significant contralateral hemispheric blood flow asymmetry in MCA in patients with LVEF ≤40%. Reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity activated autoregulation mechanism in the form of vasoconstriction or vasodilation.

  14. Alterations of interneurons of the gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: effect of pitavastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Toshiki; Hayakawa, Natsumi; Tounai, Hiroko; Sakuma, Mio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the damage of neurons and interneurons in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. Severe neuronal damage was observed in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons 5 and 14 days after ischemia. The PV immunoreactivity was unchanged up to 2 days after ischemia. At 5 and 14 days after ischemia, in contrast, a conspicuous reduction of PV immunoreactivity was observed in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 sector. Furthermore, a significant decrease of PV immunoreactivity was found in interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 sector. No damage of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons was detected in the gerbil hippocampus up to 1 day after ischemia. Thereafter, a decrease of nNOS immunoreactive interneurons was found in the hippocampal CA1 sector up to 14 days after ischemia. Pitavastatin significantly prevented the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after ischemia. Our immunohistochemical study also showed that pitavastatin prevented significant decrease of PV- and nNOS-positive interneurons in the hippocampus after ischemia. Double-labeled immunostainings showed that PV immunoreactivity was not found in nNOS-immunopositive interneurons of the brain. The present study demonstrates that cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of both PV- and nNOS-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Our findings also show that the damage to nNOS-immunopositive interneurons may precede the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector after ischemia and nNOS-positive interneurons may play some role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic diseases. Furthermore, our present study indicates that pitavastatin can

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  16. Beneficial effect of epinephrine infusion on cerebral and myocardial blood flows during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R C; Michael, J R; Guerci, A D; Chandra, N; Schleien, C L; Dean, J M; Rogers, M C; Weisfeldt, M L; Traystman, R J

    1985-08-01

    It is hypothesized that epinephrine improves the ability to resuscitate the heart through a mechanism thought to be related to the increase in aortic pressure. Our results with epinephrine infusion during CPR are consistent with this hypothesis. Epinephrine selectively increased vascular resistance in noncerebral, noncoronary vascular beds, as indicated by a decrease in microsphere-determined blood flow in these areas. This increased vascular resistance raised aortic pressure during the chest compression phase and the relaxation phase of CPR. Because intracranial and right atrial pressures were only slightly higher with epinephrine, cerebral and myocardial perfusion pressures and blood flows were significantly improved. This beneficial effect (compared to no administration of a vasopressor) was more pronounced as CPR progressed beyond ten minutes. Enhanced cerebral and myocardial perfusion occurred with epinephrine when either the conventional or simultaneous compression and ventilation (SCV) mode of CPR was employed in dogs. Similar selective perfusion was sustained for 50 minutes of SCV-CPR with epinephrine, even when the onset of CPR was delayed five minutes. Regional brain blood flow differed in the delayed-CPR group in that cerebellum, brain stem, and thalamic regions initially had higher blood flows. In an infant animal model of CPR using conventional CPR in piglets, epinephrine also was found to increase cerebral and myocardial blood flows. These results show that administration of epinephrine benefits different age groups of different species with different modes of CPR; that benefits occur even with delayed onset of CPR which is associated with additional anoxia and acidosis; and that epinephrine administration is particularly effective in sustaining cerebral and coronary perfusion during prolonged CPR.

  17. Effect of Vestibular Impairment on Cerebral Blood Flow Response to Dynamic Roll Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrador, J. M.; Black, F. O.; Schlgel, Todd T.; Lipsitz, L. A.; Wood, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Change to upright posture results in reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure due to hydrostatic pressure changes related to gravity. Since vestibular organs, specifically the otoliths, provide information on position relative to gravity, vestibular inputs may assist in adaptation to the upright posture. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of direct vestibular stimulation on cerebral blood flow (CBF). To examine the role of otolith inputs we screened 165 subjects for vestibular function and classified subjects as either normal or impaired based on ocular torsion. Ocular torsion, an indication of otolith function, was assessed during sinusoidal roll tilt of 20 degrees at 0.01 Hz (100 sec per cycle). Subjects with torsion one SD below the mean were classified as impaired while subjects one SD above the mean were considered normal. During one session subjects were placed in a chair that was sinusoidally rotated 25 degrees in the roll plane at five frequencies: 0.25 & 0.125 Hz for 80 sec, 0.0625 Hz for 160 sec and 0.03125 Hz and 0.015625 Hz for 320 sec. During testing, CBF (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres), and end tidal CO2 (Puritan Bennet) were measured continuously. Ocular torsion was assessed from infrared images of the eyes. All rotations were done in the dark with subjects fixated on a red LED directly at the center of rotation. In the normal group, dynamic tilt resulted in significant changes in both blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity that was related to the frequency of stimulus. In contrast the impaired group did not show similar patterns. As expected normal subjects demonstrated significant ocular torsion that was related to stimulus frequency while impaired subjects had minimal changes. These data suggest that vestibular inputs have direct effects on cerebral blood flow regulation during dynamic tilt. Supported by NASA.

  18. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  19. Chronic treatment with meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) alters behavioral and cerebral metabolic responses to the serotonin agonists m-CPP and quipazine but not 8-hydroxy-2(di-N-propylamino)tetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freo, U; Holloway, H W; Greig, N H; Soncrant, T T

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the serotonin (5-HT) agonists meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), quipazine and 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (DPAT) on behavior and on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) were measured in control rats or in rats pretreated for 2 weeks with continuous infusion of saline or m-CPP (2.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously). rCMRglc was measured in 71 brain regions, using the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose technique, at 15 min after acute administration of m-CPP 2.5 mg/kg, 60 min after quipazine 20 mg/kg, or 10 min after DPAT 1 mg/kg. Behavioral effects were assessed for m-CPP with an activity monitor, for quipazine by counting head shakes and for DPAT by scoring the serotonin syndrome. Chronic m-CPP pretreatment produced tolerance to hypolocomotion induced by acute m-CPP and to head shakes caused by acute quipazine, but did not alter the serotonin syndrome produced by DPAT. m-CPP 2.5 mg/kg IP produced widespread rCMRglc reductions in control rats but failed to modify rCMRglc in any region after chronic m-CPP pretreatment. Quipazine increased rCMRglc in 4 regions in control rats, but reduced rCMRglc in 14 brain areas of chronically m-CPP-pretreated animals. DPAT altered rCMRglc to the same degree in control (25 regions affected) and in chronically m-CPP-pretreated rats (28 regions affected). Reduced behavioral and metabolic effects of acute m-CPP in chronically m-CPP-pretreated rats were not due to pharmacokinetic alterations. These results demonstrate that chronic administration of m-CPP produces behavioral and metabolic tolerance to acute administration of m-CPP, but not of DPAT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Metabolic activity, experiment M171. [space flight effects on human metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab metabolic activity experiment determines if man's metabolic effectiveness in doing mechanical work is progressively altered by a simulated Skylab environment, including environmental factors such as slightly increased pCO2. This test identified several hardware/procedural anomalies. The most important of these were: (1) the metabolic analyzer measured carbon dioxide production and expired water too high; (2) the ergometer load module failed under continuous high workload conditions; (3) a higher than desirable number of erroneous blood pressure measurements were recorded; (4) vital capacity measurements were unreliable; and (5) anticipated crew personal exercise needs to be more structured.

  1. Immunohistochemical Detection of Apoptosis-Related Proteins in Gerbil Hippocampus Transient Cerebral Ischemia: Neuroprotective Effect of Pitavastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Himeda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed and selective neuronal damage was caused in the CA1 sector of hippocampus following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of apoptosis-related proteins such as bcl-2α, bcl-xs/l, bax, cytochrome c, and active caspase 3 and TUNEL staining in the hippocampus at 1 and 5 hr and 1, 2, 5 and 14 days after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and TUNEL staining in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. The alterations of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampal CA1 sector were more pronounced than the changes of hippocampal CA3 sector and dentate gyrus after cerebral ischemia. The alterations of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampal CA1 sector after cerebral ischemia preceded the neuronal damage in this region. Furthermore, the study with TUNEL staining showed that a marked increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei was evident only in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after cerebral ischemia. Our immunohistochemical study also showed that pitavastatin prevented the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and the increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after cerebral ischemia. The present study indicates that transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils causes the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Furthermore, our present study demonstrates that pitavastatin can prevent the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins and the increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1 sector after cerebral ischemia. Thus our study provides novel therapeutic strategies in clinical stroke.

  2. [Effect of nootropic agents on impulse activity of cerebral cortex neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, V V; Pravdivtsev, V A; Krylova, I N; Kozlov, S B; Provornova, N A; Ivanov, Iu V; Iasnetsov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nootropes (semax, mexidol, and GVS-111) on the activity of individual neurons in various cerebral cortex regions was studied by microelectrode and microionophoresis techniques in cats immobilized by myorelaxants. It was established that the inhibiting effect of mexidol upon neurons in more than half of cases is prevented or significantly decreased by the GABA antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. The inhibiting effect of semax and GVS-111 upon neurons in more than half of cases is related to stimulation of the M-choline and NMDA receptors, respectively.

  3. Metabolic changes in cancer: beyond the Warburg effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Wu; Shimin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells.The best-known metabolic abnormality in cancer cells is the Warburg effect,which demonstrates an increased glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen.However,tumor-related metabolic abnormalities are not limited to altered balance between glucose fermentation and oxidative phosphorylation.Key tumor genes such as p53 and c-myc are found to be master regulators of metabolism.Metabolic enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase,fumarate hydratase,pyruvate kinase,and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations or expressing level alterations are all linked to tumorigenesis.In this review,we introduce some of the cancer-associated metabolic disorders and current understanding of their molecular tumorigenic mechanisms.

  4. Effects of acupoint versus non-acupoint electroacupuncture on cerebral cortical neuronal Bcl-2,Bax and caspase-3 expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Junming Fan; Yongshu Dong; Xia Huang; Hongxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture by acupoint selection can inhibit cerebral cortical neuronal apoptosis following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To validate the effects of electroacupuncture by acupoint selection on the expression level of cortical neuronal anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and the apoptotic executive protein, caspase-3, in rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized grouping, neural cell and molecular biology animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Laboratory Animal Center of Henan Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine between November 2006 and May 2007.MATERIALS: Atotal of 40 healthy male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and evenly divided into four groups: sham-operated, model, electroacupuncture and non-acupoint control. G6895 electro-acupuncture instruments were purchased from Shanghai Huayi Instrument Factory, China. Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax kits were provided by Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in the model, electroacupuncture and non-acupoint groups. In the electroacupuncture group, the acupoints Jianyu (LI15), Waiguan (SJ5), Biguan (ST31), and Zusanli (ST36) were given electroacupuncture. In the non-acupoint control group, at each time point (immediately after ischemia and after reperfusion, or 2 hours after reperfusion), electroacupuncture was performed at the midpoints of Tianquan (PC2)-Quze (PC 3) line, Quze (PC 3)-Ximen (PC4) line, Zuwuli (LRlO)-Yinbao (LRg) line, and Xiguan (LR7)-Zhongdu (LR6) line. Electroacupuncture parameters were set with a continuous wave with a frequency of 10 Hz, wave width 0.6 ms, voltage 1.5-3.0 V, and a duration of 10 minutes. The sham-operated and model groups received only animal fixation without electroacupuncture procedure.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five rats were selected from

  5. Effects of central gastrin-releasing peptide on glucose metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Foppen, Ewout; Challet, Etienne; Kalsbeek, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) mediated signals in the central nervous system (CNS) influence many functions associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the central effect of GRP on glucose metabolism in the male rat. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administ

  6. The effect of postural control and balance on femoral anteversion in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Gulsen, Mustafa; Ozturk, Basar; Cetin, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between femoral anteversion and functional balance and postural control in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age=12.4 ± 4.5) with grosss motor functional classification system levels I, II, and III were recruited for this study. Functional balance was evaluated using the Pediatric Balance Scale, postural control was evaluated using the Trunk Control Measurement Scale, and femoral anteversion was assessed with a handheld goniometer using the great trochanter prominence method. [Results] The results indicated that there was significant correlation between femoral anteversion and Trunk Control Measurement Scale dynamic reaching score. There were no significant correlation between femoral anteversion and the Trunk Control Measurement Scale static sitting balance, Trunk Control Measurement Scale selective movement control, total Trunk Control Measurement Scale and Pediatric Balance Scale results. [Conclusion] Increased femoral anteversion has not correlation with functional balance, static sitting, and selective control of the trunk. Femoral anteversion is related to dynamic reaching activities of the trunk, and this may be the result of excessive internal pelvic rotation. It is important for the health professionals to understand that increased femoral anteversion needs to be corrected because in addition to leading to femoral internal rotation during walking, it also effects dynamic reaching activities of spastic children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27390397

  7. The effects of forward and backward walking according to treadmill inclination in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-hyo; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of forward and backward walking using different treadmill incline positions on lower muscle activity in children with cerebral palsy, to provide baseline data for gait training intensity. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects with cerebral palsy walked forward and backward at a self-selected pace on a treadmill with inclines of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialisanterior, and lateral gastrocnemius was measured using surface electromyography during the stance phase. [Results] As treadmill incline increased during forward walking, muscle activation of the paralyzed lower limbs did not significantly change. However, as treadmill incline increased during backward walking, rectus femoris activation significantly increased and a significant difference was found between treadmill inclines of 0% and 10%. A comparison of backward and forward walking showed a significant difference in rectus femoris activation at treadmill inclines of 0%, 5%, and 10%. Activation of the tibialis anterior was only significantly higher for backward walking at the 10% gradient. [Conclusion] Backward walking may strengthen the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior in walking training for cerebral palsy. Gradient adjustment of the treadmill can be used to select the intensity of walking training. PMID:27313373

  8. The effect of postural control and balance on femoral anteversion in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Gulsen, Mustafa; Ozturk, Basar; Cetin, Nuri

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between femoral anteversion and functional balance and postural control in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age=12.4 ± 4.5) with grosss motor functional classification system levels I, II, and III were recruited for this study. Functional balance was evaluated using the Pediatric Balance Scale, postural control was evaluated using the Trunk Control Measurement Scale, and femoral anteversion was assessed with a handheld goniometer using the great trochanter prominence method. [Results] The results indicated that there was significant correlation between femoral anteversion and Trunk Control Measurement Scale dynamic reaching score. There were no significant correlation between femoral anteversion and the Trunk Control Measurement Scale static sitting balance, Trunk Control Measurement Scale selective movement control, total Trunk Control Measurement Scale and Pediatric Balance Scale results. [Conclusion] Increased femoral anteversion has not correlation with functional balance, static sitting, and selective control of the trunk. Femoral anteversion is related to dynamic reaching activities of the trunk, and this may be the result of excessive internal pelvic rotation. It is important for the health professionals to understand that increased femoral anteversion needs to be corrected because in addition to leading to femoral internal rotation during walking, it also effects dynamic reaching activities of spastic children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Effect of alprostadil combined with conventional therapy on serum markers in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Lan Chen; Guo-Qiang Chen; Tao Yang; Mu-Qing Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of alprostadil combined with conventional therapy on serum markers in patients with acute cerebral infarction.Methods:Patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received alprostadil combined with conventional therapy and control group received conventional treatment. Then serum markers of both groups were compared.Results:(1) contents of serum nerve function related molecules: serum NSE and S100βcontents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and BDNF and NGF contents showed an increasing trend; (2) contents of atherosclerosis related enzymes: serum GGT, iNOS and MPO contents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and PON1 and PON2 contents showed an increasing trend; (3) platelet activation related molecules: serum PPARγ, CD62p, YKL-40, sCD40L and Fibulin-5 contents of observation group all showed a decreasing trend.Conclusions:Alprostadil combined with conventional treatment is helpful to alleviate neuronal damage and inhibit the processes of atherosclerosis and platelet activation;it’s an ideal method for treating acute cerebral infarction.

  10. Differential regional cerebral glucose metabolism in clinical syndromes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. M.; Cho, S. S.; Na, D. L.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration( FTLD) is the third most common dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neurobehavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patient with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. We analysed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral premotor are was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical features of FTLD syndromes. These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD.

  11. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- an...

  12. Effect of Cistanche Desertica Polysaccharides on Learning and Memory Functions and Ultrastructure of Cerebral Neurons in Experimental Aging Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云; 邓杨梅; 王德俊; 沈春锋; 刘晓梅; 张洪泉

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effects of Cistanche desertica polysaccharides (CDP) on the learning and memory functions and cerebral ultrastructure in experimental aging mice. Methods: CDP was administrated intragastrically 50 or 100 mg/kg per day for 64 successive days to experimental aging model mice induced by D-galactose, then the learning and memory functions of mice were estimated by step-down test and Y-maze test; organelles of brain tissue and cerebral ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscope and physical strength was determined by swimming test. Results: CDP could obviously enhance the learning and memory functions (P<0.01) and prolong the swimming time (P<0.05), decrease the number of lipofuscin and slow down the degeneration of mitochondria in neurons(P<0.05), and improve the degeneration of cerebral ultra-structure in aging mice. Conclusion: CDP could improve the impaired physiological function and alleviate cerebral morphological change in experimental aging mice.

  13. Pharmacological manipulation of brain glycogenolysis as a therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Sun, Hongbin

    2010-10-01

    Brain ischemia resulting from multiple disease states including cardiac arrest, stroke and traumatic brain injury, is a leading cause of death and disability. Despite significant resources dedicated to developing pharmacological interventions, few effective therapeutic options are currently available. The basic consequence of cerebral ischemia, characterized by energy failure and subsequent brain metabolic abnormalities, enables the protective effects by pharmacological manipulation of brain metabolism. We present here the important roles of brain glycogen metabolism and propose inhibition of glycogenolysis as a therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia.

  14. Effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution on cerebral glutamate, glycerol, lactate and free radicals in heatstroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Kuei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2004-05-01

    In the present study, we attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution in rat heatstroke. In anaesthetized rats treated with normal saline (NS) immediately after the onset of heatstroke induced by T (a) (ambient temperature) of 42 degrees C for 88 min, followed by T (a) of 24 degrees C for 12 min, the values for MAP (mean arterial pressure), ICP (intracranial pressure), CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure), CBF (cerebral blood blow), brain P O(2) (partial pressure of O(2)) and striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hydroxyl radicals and neuronal damage score were 42+/-3 mmHg, 33+/-3 mmHg, 9+/-3 mmHg, 109+/-20 BPU (blood perfusion units), 6+/-1 mmHg, 51+/-7 micromol/l, 24+/-3 micromol/l, 124+/-32, 694+/-22% of baseline and 2.25+/-0.05 respectively. In animals treated with 10% albumin immediately after the onset of heatstroke ( T (a) of 42 degrees C for 88 min), the values for MAP, ICP, CPP, CBF, brain P O(2) and striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hydroxyl radicals and neuronal damage score were 64+/-6 mmHg, 10+/-2 mmHg, 54+/-5 mmHg, 452+/-75 BPU, 15+/-2 mmHg, 3+/-2 micromol/l, 4+/-2 micromol/l, 7+/-3, 119+/-7% of baseline and 0.38+/-0.05 respectively. Apparently, the heatstroke-induced arterial hypotension, intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoperfusion, cerebral ischaemia, brain hypoxia, increased levels of striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio and hydroxyl radicals, and increased striatal neuronal damage score values were all attenuated significantly by the induction of hypervolaemic haemodilution in rats immediately at the onset of heatstroke. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution is associated with a decrease in the elevation of glutamate, glycerol, lactate and free radicals in brain exposed to experimental heatstroke-induced cerebral ischaemia/hypoxia injury.

  15. Effect of CoO nanoparticles on the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CoO nanoparticles (NPs on the brain of mice administered through gastrointestinal tract for a period of 30 days was studied. AAS analysis revealed that NPs administered orally were retained by cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb. This retention of nanoparticles by the brain promoted a significant increase in glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glycogen levels along with the concomitant increase in hexokinase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogense activities. However, a decrease in glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed in the brain regions indicating a deterioration of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, the present study suggests that the CoO NPs affect the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain.

  16. Effects of cerebrolysin on moderate cognitive impairments in cerebral vascular insufficiency (a clinical-electrophysiological study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damulin, I V; Koberskaya, N N; Mkhitaryan, E A

    2008-07-01

    The efficacy of treatment with cerebrolysin was studied in 40 patients with cerebral vascular insufficiency. Cerebrolysin (20 daily i.v. infusions of 10 ml in 200 ml of physiological saline) was found to be an effective means of treating this group of patients. Courses of cerebrolysin treatment decreased the severity of memory and attention impairments, improving the overall cognitive status of the patients. Clinical observations and neuropsychological testing were supported by electrophysiological results, in terms of the P300 cognitive evoked potential. The effects of treatment at the doses used here were delayed and were seen three months after completion of treatment.

  17. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.

  18. The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during initial recovery from global transient ischaemia/hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roehl Anna B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Neuroprotective strategies after cardiopulmonary resuscitation are currently the focus of experimental and clinical research. Levosimendan has been proposed as a promising drug candidate because of its cardioprotective properties, improved haemodynamic effects in vivo and reduced traumatic brain injury in vitro. The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during and after ischaemia/hypoxia are unknown. Methods Transient cerebral ischaemia/hypoxia was induced in 30 male Wistar rats by bilateral common carotid artery clamping for 15 min and concomitant ventilation with 6% O2 during general anaesthesia with urethane. After 10 min of global ischaemia/hypoxia, the rats were treated with an i.v. bolus of 24 μg kg-1 levosimendan followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 μg kg-1 min-1. The changes in the energy-related metabolites lactate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose and glutamate were monitored by microdialysis. In addition, the effects on global haemodynamics, cerebral perfusion and autoregulation, oedema and expression of proinflammatory genes in the neocortex were assessed. Results Levosimendan reduced blood pressure during initial reperfusion (72 ± 14 vs. 109 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.03 and delayed flow maximum by 5 minutes (p = 0.002. Whereas no effects on time course of lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glutamate concentrations in the dialysate could be observed, the lactate/pyruvate ratio during initial reperfusion (144 ± 31 vs. 77 ± 8, p = 0.017 and the glutamate release during 90 minutes of reperfusion (75 ± 19 vs. 24 ± 28 μmol·L-1 were higher in the levosimendan group. The increased expression of IL-6, IL-1ß TNFα and ICAM-1, extend of cerebral edema and cerebral autoregulation was not influenced by levosimendan. Conclusion Although levosimendan has neuroprotective actions in vitro and on the spinal cord in vivo and has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier, the present

  19. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  20. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery: a meta-analysis of 7023 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Guyan; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    In aortic arch surgery, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) combined with cerebral perfusion is employed worldwide as a routine practice. Even though antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is more widely used than retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), the difference in benefit and risk between ACP and RCP during DHCA is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare neurologic outcomes and early mortality between ACP and RCP in patients who underwent aortic surgery during DHCA. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "antegrade," "retrograde," "cerebral perfusion," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "extracorporeal circulation," and "cardiac surgery" for studies reporting on clinical endpoints including early mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction (TND), and permanent neurologic dysfunction (PND) in aortic surgery requiring DHCA with ACP or RCP. Heterogeneity was analyzed with the Cochrane Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested with Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4262 patients undergoing DHCA + ACP and 2761 undergoing DHCA + RCP. The overall pooled relative risk for TND was 0.722 (95% CI = [0.579, 0.900]), and the z-score for overall effect was 2.9 (P = 0.004). There was low heterogeneity (I(2) = 18.7%). The analysis showed that patients undergoing DHCA + ACP had better outcomes than those undergoing DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while there were no significant differences between groups in terms of PND, stroke, and early mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that DHCA + ACP has an advantage over DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while the two methods show similar results in terms of PND, early mortality, and stroke.

  1. Metabolic and kinetic considerations in the use of (/sup 125/I)HIPDM for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, G.; Nehlig, A.; Blasberg, R.; Patlak, C.S.; Anderson, L.; Fieschi, C.; Fazio, F.; Sokoloff, L.

    1985-03-01

    The metabolic degradation and the kinetics of the cerebral uptake of N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(/sup 125/I)iodobenzyl)-1, 3-propanediamine ((/sup 125/I)HIPDM) have been studied in conscious, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine its suitability as a tracer for the quantitative measurement of regional CBF (rCBF). rCBF was calculated by the indicator fractionation and the tissue equilibration methods in experiments of different durations up to 1 h. The values of rCBF obtained with (/sup 125/I)HIPDM were compared with those obtained in concurrent measurements with (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine in the same animals. Results of the experiments demonstrate that (/sup 125/I)HIPDM is an inadequate tracer for use with the indicator fractionation method and that any method that employs (/sup 125/I)HIPDM for the determination of rCBF must take into account its metabolic degradation, diffusion limitations, and bidirectional flux across the blood-brain barrier. With the tissue equilibration method, consistent determinations of rCBF may be possible with (/sup 125/I)HIPDM by measurement of the time course of its concentration in arterial blood, corrected for the presence of /sup 125/I-labeled metabolic products, and its concentration in the brain at any time up to 1 h after its administration. The method may be adapted to measure rCBF in humans by means of single-photon emission tomography with (/sup 123/I)HIPDM.

  2. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: pathogenesis and effects on the ageing and Alzheimer brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Roy O; Nicoll, James A

    2003-09-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a feature of ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD); it is also associated with intracerebral hemorrhage and stroke. Here, the pathogenesis of CAA and its effects on the brain are reviewed and the possible effects of CAA on therapies for Alzheimer's disease are evaluated. Tracer experiments in animals and observations on human brains suggest that peptides such as A beta are eliminated along the peri-arterial interstitial fluid drainage pathways that are effectively the lymphatics of the brain. In CAA, A beta becomes entrapped in drainage pathways in the walls of cerebral arteries, reflecting a failure of elimination of A beta from the ageing brain. One consequence of failure in clearance of A beta is accumulation of soluble and insoluble A beta associated with cognitive decline in AD. Replacement of vascular smooth muscle cells by A beta occurs in severe CAA with weakening of artery walls and increased risk of vessel rupture and intracerebral hemorrhage. Risk factors for CAA include mutations of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and possession of the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E. There is also evidence that cerebrovascular disease may be a factor in the failure of elimination of A beta along perivascular pathways in sporadic AD; this would link ageing in cerebral arteries with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. If therapeutic agents, including anti-A beta antibodies, are to be used to eliminate A beta in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the effects of CAA on the treatment and the effects of the treatment on the CAA need to be considered.

  3. Association between cerebral metabolism and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test performance in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Rebecca J.; Harwood, Dylan; Khoo, Theresa; Mandelkern, Mark; Sultzer, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The copy condition of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) is sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, but its neural correlates remain unclear. We used FDG-PET to elucidate this association in 77 patients with probable AD. We observed a correlation between ROCF and metabolic rate of bilateral temporal-parietal cortex and occipital lobe, and right frontal lobe. Global and local elements of the ROCF correlated with metabolic rate of these same regions. The copy approach correlated with right lateral temporal cortex. The ROCF appears reflective of posterior temporal-parietal cortex functioning, highlighting the role of visuospatial processing in constructional abilities in AD. PMID:23387510

  4. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  5. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

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    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  6. Cancer proliferation and therapy: the Warburg effect and quantum metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuszynski Jack A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cancer cells, in contrast to normal differentiated cells, rely on aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation to generate metabolic energy, a phenomenon called the Warburg effect. Model Quantum metabolism is an analytic theory of metabolic regulation which exploits the methodology of quantum mechanics to derive allometric rules relating cellular metabolic rate and cell size. This theory explains differences in the metabolic rates of cells utilizing OxPhos and cells utilizing glycolysis. This article appeals to an analytic relation between metabolic rate and evolutionary entropy - a demographic measure of Darwinian fitness - to: (a provide an evolutionary rationale for the Warburg effect, and (b propose methods based on entropic principles of natural selection for regulating the incidence of OxPhos and glycolysis in cancer cells. Conclusion The regulatory interventions proposed on the basis of quantum metabolism have applications in therapeutic strategies to combat cancer. These procedures, based on metabolic regulation, are non-invasive, and complement the standard therapeutic methods involving radiation and chemotherapy

  7. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

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    Amiri-Nikpour MR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Amiri-Nikpour,1 Surena Nazarbaghi,1 Babak Ahmadi-Salmasi,1 Tayebeh Mokari,2 Urya Tahamtan,2 Yousef Rezaei3 1Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, 2School of Medicine, 3Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23 or normal saline alone (n=23 adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results: The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008 and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001. The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05. One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%. Conclusion: Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. Keywords: ischemic stroke, cerebrolysin, neuroprotection, NIHSS, mean

  8. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

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    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  9. Folate receptor alpha defect causes cerebral folate transport deficiency: a treatable neurodegenerative disorder associated with disturbed myelin metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfeld, R.; Grapp, M.; Kraetzner, R.; Dreha-Kulaczewski, S.; Helms, G.; Dechent, P.; Wevers, R.A.; Grosso, S.; Gartner, J.

    2009-01-01

    Sufficient folate supplementation is essential for a multitude of biological processes and diverse organ systems. At least five distinct inherited disorders of folate transport and metabolism are presently known, all of which cause systemic folate deficiency. We identified an inherited brain-specifi

  10. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

  11. Effect of combined VEGF165/ SDF-1 gene therapy on vascular remodeling and blood perfusion in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Jie; Feng, Yu-Gong; Lu, Wen-Peng; Li, Huan-Ting; Xie, Hong-Wei; Li, Shi-Fang

    2016-12-16

    OBJECTIVE Therapeutic neovascularization is a promising strategy for treating patients after an ischemic stroke; however, single-factor therapy has limitations. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins synergistically promote angiogenesis. In this study, the authors assessed the effect of combined gene therapy with VEGF165 and SDF-1 in a rat model of cerebral infarction. METHODS An adenoviral vector expressing VEGF165 and SDF-1 connected via an internal ribosome entry site was constructed (Ad- VEGF165-SDF-1). A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established; either Ad- VEGF165-SDF-1 or control adenovirus Ad- LacZ was stereotactically microinjected into the lateral ventricle of 80 rats 24 hours after MCAO. Coexpression and distribution of VEGF165 and SDF-1 were examined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. The neurological severity score of each rat was measured on Days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after MCAO. Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling were evaluated via bromodeoxyuridine and CD34 immunofluorescence labeling. Relative cerebral infarction volumes were determined by T2-weighted MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative mean transmit time were assessed using perfusion-weighted MRI. RESULTS The Ad- VEGF165-SDF-1 vector mediated coexpression of VEGF165 and SDF-1 in multiple sites around the ischemic core, including the cortex, corpus striatum, and hippocampal granular layer. Coexpression of VEGF165 and SDF-1 improved neural function, reduced cerebral infarction volume, increased microvascular density and promoted angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra, and improved cerebral blood flow and perfusion. CONCLUSIONS Combined VEGF165 and SDF-1 gene therapy represents a potential strategy for improving vascular remodeling and recovery of neural function after cerebral

  12. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  13. Effects of recombinant growth hormone replacement and physical rehabilitation in recovery of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimunde, Pedro; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Alonso, Alba; Devesa, Pablo; Devesa, Jesús

    2010-11-30

    Cerebral palsy is an important health issue that has a strong socioeconomic impact. There is no cure for cerebral palsy, and therapeutic approaches only report small benefits for affected people. In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone treatment (0.3 μg/kg/day) combined with physical rehabilitation in the recovery of gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy (four males and six females, mean age 5.63 ± 2.32 years) as compared with that observed in a similar population of cerebral palsy children (five males, five females, mean age 5.9 ± 2.18 years) without growth hormone deficiency treated only with physical rehabilitation for two months. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and Modified Ashworth Scale were performed before commencing the treatment and after completion thereof. In children with cerebral palsy and growth hormone deficiency, Dimension A (P gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy.

  14. Rehabilitative training effects of severe mixed-type cerebral palsy in children One case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuyang Li; Minda Xie

    2008-01-01

    It has often been thought that severe spastic and athetoid cerebral palsy children respond poorly to rehabilitative training effects and have a poor prognosis after school age. The present study included a nine-year-old severe spastic and athetoid cerebral palsy boy, who 收稿日期 2 years of physical therapy, supplemented with drugs and orthotic devices and who acquired good therapeutic effects. The beneficial rehabilitative effects were as follows: After discharge, primitive reflex disappeared, and both vertical reflex and parachute reflex were found; In the establishment of balance reflex, sitting position was rated as level Ⅲ, and standing position was rated as level Ⅱ. The boy could independently walk for 30-50 meters. In the assessment of muscle tone, the level was rated according to the Modified Ashworth Scale and was decreased from three, four to one, two, and the level rated according to the Clonus Scale decreased from Ⅴ to Ⅱ. Motor function was noticeably improved. The level was rated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System and was decreased from Ⅴ to Ⅱ. The total score of 88 items of the Gross Motor Function Measure was increased from 6.1% to 72.2%. The Berg Balance Scale score increased from 0 to 42. The Holden Walking Functional Classification level increased from 0 to 3. The score of activities of daily living increased from 9.5 to 70. The symptoms of dysarthria were alleviated from severe to moderate, and those of salivation were alleviated from level Ⅴ to level Ⅰ. These results demonstrated that after systemic and scientific treatment and training, the spastic and athetoid cerebral palsy boy had the ability to walk independently and to care for himself.

  15. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  16. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  17. Protective effect of ginkgolide B on high altitude cerebral edema of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botao, Yu; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Wenjing; Xiang, Qingyu; Fan, Kaihua; Hou, Jun; Wu, Juan; Jing, Weihua

    2013-03-01

    Ginkgolide B (GB) is one of the ginkgolides isolated from leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GB has a protective effect on high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) of rats. HACE was induced by hypobaric hypoxia exposure for 24 hours in an animal decompression chamber with the chamber pressure of 267 mmHg to simulate an altitude of 8000 m. Before the exposure, three doses (3, 6, and 12 mg·kg(-1)) of GB were given intraperitoneally (ip) daily for 3 days. Effects of GB on brain water content (BWC), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentration of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of active caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were measured. In GB pretreatment groups (6 and 12 mg·kg(-1), but not 3 mg·kg(-1)), BWC, the concentration of MDA, the expression of active caspase-3 and PARP were reduced significantly, while the activity of SOD and concentration of GSH were significantly increased. In conclusion, these results indicate that GB has a protective effect on cerebral edema caused by high altitude in rats. The protective effect of GB might be attributed to its antioxidant properties and suppression of the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  18. Voxel-based statistical analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hoon Kim; Young-In Chung; Jung Sub Lee; In-Joo Kim; Yong-Ki Kim; Seong-Jang Kim

    2011-01-01

    The technique of region of interest-based positron emission tomography is limited by its poor reliability and relatively few examined brain regions. In the present study, we compared brain metabolism assessed using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography between 14 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and 15 normal controls with scoliosis at resting state by statistical parametric mapping. Glucose metabolism was decreased in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left hippocampus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum, left superior temporal gyrus, left insula, left medial and middle frontal gyri, right medial frontal gyrus, and left basal ganglia (putamen, amygdala, and caudate nucleus) in children with ADHD. These data suggest that children with ADHD exhibit hypometabolism in various brain regions compared to controls, indicating that ADHD symptoms are unlikely the result of abnormalities in specific areas.

  19. Objective 3D surface evaluation of intracranial electrophysiologic correlates of cerebral glucose metabolic abnormalities in children with focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Asano, Eishi; Kumar Pilli, Vinod; Nakai, Yasuo; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2017-03-21

    To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data. Hypo-/hypermetabolic maps were transformed to 3D-MRI brain surface to compare the locations of metabolic changes with electrode coordinates of the ECoG-defined seizure onset zone (SOZ) and interictal spiking. While hypometabolic clusters showed a good agreement with the SOZ on the lobar level (sensitivity/specificity = 0.74/0.64), detailed surface-distance analysis demonstrated that large portions of ECoG-defined SOZ and interictal spiking area were located at least 3 cm beyond hypometabolic regions with the same statistical threshold (sensitivity/specificity = 0.18-0.25/0.94-0.90 for overlap 3-cm distance); for a lower threshold, sensitivity for SOZ at 3 cm increased to 0.39 with a modest compromise of specificity. Performance of FDG-PET SPM was slightly better in children with smaller as compared with widespread SOZ. The results demonstrate that SPM utilizing age-matched pseudocontrols can reliably detect the lobe of seizure onset. However, the spatial mismatch between metabolic and EEG epileptiform abnormalities indicates that a more complete SOZ detection could be achieved by extending intracranial electrode coverage at least 3 cm beyond the metabolic abnormality. Considering that the extent of feasible electrode coverage is limited, localization information from other modalities is particularly important to optimize grid coverage in cases of large hypometabolic cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Sodium Butyrate against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice

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    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium butyrate (NaB is a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber and serves as an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In this study, we further investigated that NaB attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in vivo and its possible mechanisms. NaB (5, 10 mg/kg was administered intragastrically 3 h after the onset of reperfusion in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO mice. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological deficits scores were estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Apoptotic neurons were measured by TUNEL; apoptosis-related protein caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, the phosphorylation Akt (p-Akt, and BDNF were assayed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 10 mg/kg NaB treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficit and histopathology changes in cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, 10 mg/kg NaB treatment markedly restored the levels of MDA, SOD, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. 10 mg/kg NaB treatment also remarkably inhibited the apoptosis, decreasing the levels of caspase-3 and Bax and increasing the levels of Bcl-2, p-Akt, and BDNF. This study suggested that NaB exerts neuroprotective effects on cerebral I/R injury by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties and BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in antiapoptotic effect.

  1. Protective effects of icariin on neurons injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHOU Qi-xin; SHI Jing-shan

    2005-01-01

    Background It is very important to search for novel anti-ischemia/reperfusion neuroprotective drugs for prevention or treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Icariin, the major active component of traditional Chinese herb Yinyanghuo, may have a beneficial role for neurons in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion caused by accident. However, it was not clear yet. In this study, we observed the protective effects of icariin on neurons injured by ischemia/reperfusion in vitro and in vivo and investigated its protective mechanism.Methods Cerebral cortical neurons of Wistar rats in primary culture were studied during the different periods of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion with oxygen and glucose. Cell viability was determined by methyl thiazoleterazolium (MTT) assay. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leaked from neurons, cell apoptosis and the concentration of intracellular free calcium were measured respectively. On the other hand, the mice model of transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries and ischemic hypotension/reperfusion. The mice were divided into several groups at random: sham operated group, model group and icariin preventive treatment group. The changes of mice behavioral, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured, respectively. Results Treatment with icariin (final concentration 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) during ischemia/reperfusion-mimetic incubation in vitro concentration-dependently attenuated neuronal damage with characteristics of increasing injured neuronal absorbance of MTT, decreasing LDH release, decreasing cell apoptosis, and blunting elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. And in vivo the learning and memory abilities significantly decreased,activities of SOD were diminished and MDA level increased obviously in model group,compared with that in sham operated group. But pre-treatment of model mice with icariin (10, 30

  2. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying Dong; Xuhui Tong; Jun Li; Cheng Huang; Chengmu Hu; Hao Jiao; Yuchen Gu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered oral y to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly al eviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities.