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Sample records for cerebral lesions shown

  1. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

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    Aulich, A

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  2. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones Tapia, D.; Ramos Amador, A.; Monereo Alonso, A.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C 1 AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Calcification within the lesion of an old cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imamura, Toshiharu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1987-01-01

    We described a 68-year-old woman with marked calcification in the lesion of an old cerebral infarction. Calcified deposits in an old infarcted area of the left middle cerebral artery were demonstrated by CT 9 months after she had suffered a stroke, probably because of an embolism. There have been few reports of calcification associated with cerebral infarction. (author)

  4. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G.; Liu, R.S.; Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W.; Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  5. Effect of acupuncture therapy for postponing Wallerian degeneration of cerebral infarction as shown by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunxia; Li, Ming; Wei, Ruipeng; Lou, Mingwu

    2012-12-01

    One aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on cerebral function of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Another goal was to evaluate the relationship between acupuncture treatment and motor recovery patients with stroke and to provide a foundation for using acupuncture therapy for such patients. Twenty (20) patients with recent cerebral infarction were divided randomly to an acupuncture group and a control group. The infarction area in each patient was in the basal ganglia or included the basal ganglia with an area size of > 1 cm(2). Serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted imaging (T(2)WI) scans were performed on all patients and the results were evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and the Barthel Index each week. DTI images were postprocessed and analyzed. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of abnormal signals on DTI in the infarction areas and cerebral peduncles were calculated for both groups and compared with one another. (1) The ADC value of infarction lesions decreased at stroke onset; then, a significant elevation was observed after the acute stage, and a significant reduction in FA values was observed from stroke onset to the chronic stage. (2) The ADC of the bilateral cerebral peduncle was reduced on the infarction side. (3) There was a significant difference in ADC and FA values between the acupuncture and control groups. The FA value was higher in the acupuncture group than the control group. ADC and FA values might correlate to patient recovery and reveal the progress of secondary degeneration. Acupuncture treatment is effective for protecting neurons and facilitating recovery.

  6. Analysis with magnetic resonance imaging of lesions in cerebral achromatopsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kitahara, Kenji; Kumegawa, Koichi; Umahara, Takahiko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to localize the lesions associated with cerebral achromatopsia. We examined 20 patients with homonymous hemianopsia caused by cerebral infarction (17 men and 3 women aged 49 to 81 years; mean age, 65.1 years). Ishihara plates, standard pseudoiso-chromatic plates (part 2) and the panel D-15 test were used to examine color perception. Color matching tasks and color naming tasks were used to test color recognition. We tried to apply functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to lesion analysis in the brain. Cerebral achromatopsia was diagnosed in four patients. The analysis showed that lesions in the infracalcarine area (Brodmann's area 18 and 19) were associated with cerebral achromatopsia. Additionally, the lesions associated with failure of the panel D-15 (PD-15) test were located more anterior than the lesions associated with failure of Ishihara plates. We show evidence that lesions in the anterio-ventral temporo-occipital area are associated with cerebral achromatopsia. This result is in accord with past observations (autopsy, fMRI and positron emission tomography). (author)

  7. Relationship between hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and ischemic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1991-01-01

    Patchy parenchymal lesions of increased intensity were frequently identified in patients with cerebral hemorrhage in T2-weighted image of high-fields MR imaging. We studied 64 patients with brain hemorrhage to determine the frequency and distribution of those lesions. We defined an area with high intensity in T2 weighted and low or iso-intensity area in T1 weighted images smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter to be 'ischemic lesion'. Ishemic lesions were found in 48 (75%) of all cases; in 25 (75%) of 32 patients with putaminal hemorrhage, in 15 (100%) of 15 with thalamic hemorrhage, in 3 (33%) of 9 with subcortical hemorrhage. Multiple ischemic lesions were more frequently seen in thalamic hemorrhage than in putaminal hemorrhage. Only 5 (10%) of 48 cases with associated ischemic lesions had a previous history related to those lesions. Multivariable regression analysis identified hypertension as the major predictor of the presence of ischemic lesions. Patients with brain hemorrhage frequently accompanied with incidental ischemic lesions, making it difficult to establish a guideline of blood pressure control for prevention of recurrent stroke. (author)

  8. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  9. Parasitic lesion of the insula suggesting cerebral sparganosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, T.J.; Madden, J.F.; McLendon, R.E.; Gray, L.; Friedman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral sparganosis, a parasitic disease, rarely produces a chronic active inflammatory response in the brain. Clinically and radiographically the process may mimic a neoplasm. We report a 30-year-old man who underwent surgical exploration for a mass in the insular cortex. Histology revealed a densely fibrotic mass heavily infiltrated with plasma cells and lymphocytes, in which were embedded parasitic forms consistent with sparganosis. We describe the MRI appearances and pathologic features. Intracranial mass lesions secondary to sparganosis must be considered in patients with a history of travel to endemic areas, especially Asia. (orig.)

  10. The cerebral lesions of Wilson's disease on computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.

    1983-01-01

    M. Wilson is often being mistaken as such for several years and kept for psychosis or another extrapyramidal disease. When the disease causes neuro-psychiatric symptoms a certain part of cases shows typical lesions in CT mainly affecting the Nucleus lentiformis and frontal cortex. From our own material two cases of M. Wilson are shown and compared with two other cases with identical patterns of lesions following toxic and hypoxic brain damage. (orig.) [de

  11. Malnutrition and cerebral white matter lesions in dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masanori; Mukai, Kazumitsu; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Sanada, Daisuke; Shibata, Takanori; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Akizawa, Tadao; Wakasa, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the severity of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in dialysis patients. Subjects consisted of 28 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis in the affiliated hospitals of Showa University Hospital. All subjects underwent brain MRI and various clinical and laboratory tests. All subjects were divided into three groups based on the following criteria. Group I was defined as having 0 or 1 of the 4 findings of malnutrition (body mass index 2 , total lymphocyte counts 3 , serum albumin concentrations <3.5 g/dL, normalized protein catabolic rate <0.9 g/kg/day). Group II was defined as having 2 of these 4 findings, and group III was defined as having 3 or all of these 4 findings. WMLs detected on T2-weightd MRI were rated using the semiquantitative method yielding two continuous variables (perivascular hyperintensity (PVH) scores, deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH) scores). PVH and DSWMH scores were significantly higher in patients in groups III and II compared to that of those in group I. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the four findings of malnourishment described above had significant impact on PVH and DSWMH scores. These findings suggest that nutritional status (especially malnutrition) in dialysis patients may be involved in the severity of WMLs. (author)

  12. Comparing Cerebral White Matter Lesion Burdens between Parkinson’s Disease with and without Dementia

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    Sun-Ah Choi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, disability, and death. CWMLs are more common in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD than in normal elderly individuals of comparable age. Only a few studies have been done to determine whether CWMLs may influence cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fully developed PD with concurrent AD was reported to likely cause impaired cognition in spite of accumulating evidence suggesting that PD with dementia (PDD is more closely associated with Lewy body (LB pathology. Currently, contradictory data on the neuropathology of dementia in PD require further prospective clinicopathological studies in larger cohorts to elucidate the impact of AD and α-synuclein (SCNA pathologies on the cognitive status in these disorders. Previous reports did not suggest CWMLs to be associated with an increased risk of PDD. After adjusting for age at death, age at onset of PD, and duration of PD, our recent study investigating CWMLs in PDD via autopsy has shown a positive correlation between the burden of CWMLs and PDD. The frequent co-existence of both LB and AD lesions suggests that both pathologies independently or synergistically contribute to both movement disorders and cognitive impairment. The individual and cumulative burden of CWMLs, LB lesions, and AD lesions may synergistically contribute to cognitive decline in LB disorders such as PDD.

  13. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle

  14. Determinants of cerebral white matter lesions: A longitudinal population based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. de Leeuw (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractW hite matter lesions are frequently found on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of elderly non-demented and demented people. l-4 The pathogenesis of white matter lesions is largely unknown. However age and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure levels and indicators of

  15. Regional distribution of cerebral white matter lesions years after preeclampsia and eclampsia

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    Wiegman, Marjon J.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Aukes, Annet M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Faas, Marijke M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; de Groot, Jan C.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of cerebral white matter lesions in women who had eclampsia, preeclampsia, or normotensive pregnancies. The pathophysiology of these lesions, more often seen in formerly eclamptic and preeclamptic women, is unclear but may be related to a predisposition for

  16. Ischemic lesions related to cerebral angiography: Evaluation by diffusion weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Sakuma, Ikuo; Watarai, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    We examined the incidence of ischemic lesions occurring after cerebral angiography by means of diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fifty patients were included in this study. Balloon occlusion tests of the internal carotid artery were performed in 9 of the 50 patients. DWI was performed on the same day as the cerebral angiography or on the following day. No new neurological deficits were found after cerebral angiography. However, 13 of the 50 cases revealed new ischemic lesions after cerebral angiography. The incidence of ischemic lesions was significantly different between patients who underwent balloon occlusion tests and patients who did not. The incidence of ischemic lesions was not influenced by the duration of the procedure, use of additional catheters, total amount of contrast material or the type of contrast material. The incidence of clinically silent ischemic lesions related to cerebral angiography is greater than the incidence of neurological complications. In patients who underwent occlusion tests of the internal carotid artery, the incidence of silent lesions was significantly higher than in patients who did not. (orig.)

  17. The impact of fMRI on multimodal navigation in surgery of cerebral lesions: four years clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Gabriele; Schnizer, Mathilde; Fellner, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Neuronavigation with display of intraoperative structures, instrument locations, orientation and relationships to nearby structures can increase anatomic precision while enhancing the surgeon's confidence and his/her perception of safety. Combination of neuronavigation with functional imaging provides multimodal guidance for surgery of cerebral lesions. We evaluated the impact of functional MRI (fMRI) on surgical decision making and outcome. A neuronavigational device (StealthStation (tm), Medtronic Inc.) was used as platform to merge fMRI data with anatomic images, and to implement intraoperative multimodal guidance. In a 52-month period, where 977 surgical procedures were performed with the aid of neuronavigation, 88 patients underwent image-guided procedures using multimodal guidance. Patient, surgical and outcome data of this series was prospectively collected. Evaluation of 88 procedures on cerebral lesions in complex regions where fMRI data were integrated using the navigation system demonstrated that the additional information was presented in a user-friendly way. Computer assisted fMRI integration was found to be especially helpful in planning the best approach, in assessing alternative approaches, and in defining the extent of the surgical exposure. Furthermore, the surgeons found it more effective to interpret fMRI information when shown in a navigation system as compared to the traditional display on a light board or monitor. Multimodal navigation enhanced by fMRI was judged useful for optimization of surgery of cerebral lesions, especially in and around eloquent regions by experienced neurosurgeons. (orig.)

  18. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  20. Computerized tomographic evaluation of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tohgi, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between the low density areas and periventricular lucency (PVL) on CT and the histopathologic changes of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter. Thirty seven brains from chronic cases with stroke and 17 brains from patients who showed PVLs on CT were examined histologically. CT scans were performed using GE CT/T. Chronic ischemic lesions with severe demyelination or diffuse cavitation were detected as low density areas on CT. But if associated with severe gliosis, those lesions could not be detected on CT. Areas with myelin pallor could not be detected on CT. In some cases diffuse ischemic lesions as demyelination and cavitation were found in the areas corresponding to PVLs on CT. However, they were not always expressed on CT. Other cases with PVL had no histological changes in the frontal white matter. In conclusion, chronic ischemic lesions in the cerebral white matter could not always be detected as low density areas on CT. This may be partly because decreased density due to demyelination and cavitation was counterbalanced by severe gliosis which tends to increase the density. In some cases PVLs were related to diffuse ischemic lesions in the frontal white matter, but this was not always the case. (author)

  1. Improvement of cerebral hypometabolism after resection of radiation-induced necrotic lesion in a patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yae; Hirata, Kenji; Nakayama, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Yoshida, Michiharu; Onodera, Shunsuke; Manabe, Osamu; Shiga, Tohru; Terae, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman underwent radiosurgery for a left cerebral hemisphere arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and developed radiation-induced necrosis causing a massive edema in the surrounding brain tissues. Despite various therapies, the edema expanded to the ipsilateral hemisphere and induced neurological symptoms. The radiation-induced necrotic lesion was surgically removed 4 years after radiosurgery. While the preoperative FDG PET revealed severe hypometabolism in the left cerebrum, the necrotomy significantly ameliorated the brain edema, glucose metabolism (postoperative FDG PET), and symptoms. This case indicates that radiation necrosis-induced neurological deficits may be associated with brain edema and hypometabolism, which could be reversed by appropriate necrotomy

  2. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  4. The somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tract in the cerebral peduncle: a study using MRI of changes following Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle after a supratentorial vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, M.; Watanabe, H.; Iwabuchi, S.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a supratentorial vascular lesion, to identify the somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tracts. Patients with a lesion involving a large area of a cerebral hemisphere has an area of abnormal signal intensity in the whole cerebral peduncle, suggesting Wallerian degeneration of all the whole descending cortical tracts. With a small lesion confined to the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, or posterior limb of the internal capsule there was an abnormal signal at the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the precentrospinal tract. Those with a small lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus had an abnormal area slightly lateral to the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietospinal tract. Patients with a lesion of the parietal or temporal lobes, not including the paracentral or precentral gyri, corona radiata, or the posterior limb of the internal capsule, had an abnormal area laterally in the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietopontine or temporopontine tract. (orig.)

  5. Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, Masaaki; Iwabuchi, Sadamu

    1993-01-01

    We studied Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion by MRI. A total of 57 patients with palsy following a supratenotorial cerebrovascular lesion were prospectively studied. Wallerian degeneration was detected as a high signal intensity (HSI) in 37 patients between 70 days and 100 days after the onset, but not detected in the remaining 27 patients. Patient with as HSI in all areas of the cerebral peduncle had a large lesion involving the hemisphere. Patient with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patient with an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion of parietal lobe or temporal lobe which spares the corticospinal tract originating from the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. These findings suggest that as HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle may reveal Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle may show Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract. The functional recovery of paresis was poor in all patients with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle, while it was good in all patients without an HSI in that region. Our data suggested that somatotopical localization of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle may be identified by detecting Wallerian degeneration following a supratentorial lesion, and the functional recovery of patients with paresis could be predicted according to presence or absence of Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle. (author)

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging correlates with lesion volume in cerebral hemisphere infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Maija E; Jason, Eeva; Marchesotti, Silvia; Dastidar, Prasun; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Soimakallio, Seppo

    2010-01-01

    Both a large lesion volume and abnormalities in diffusion tensor imaging are independently associated with a poor prognosis after cerebral infarctions. Therefore, we assume that they are associated. This study assessed the associations between lesion volumes and diffusion tensor imaging in patients with a right-sided cerebral infarction. The lesion volumes of 33 patients (age 65.9 ± 8.7, 26 males and 7 females) were imaged using computed tomography (CT) in the acute phase (within 3-4 hours) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase (follow-up at 12 months, with a range of 8-27 months). The chronic-phase fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were measured at the site of the infarct and selected white matter tracts. Neurological tests in both the acute and chronic phases, and DTI lateralization were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The effects of thrombolytic therapy (n = 10) were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations between the measured parameters were analysed with Spearman's rho correlation. Bonferroni post-hoc correction was used to compensate for the familywise error rate in multiple comparisons. Several MD values in the right hemisphere correlated positively and FA values negatively with the lesion volumes. These correlations included both lesion area and healthy tissue. The results of the mini-mental state examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale also correlated with the lesion volume. A larger infarct volume is associated with more pronounced tissue modifications in the chronic stage as observed with the MD and FA alterations

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging of early changes in corpus callosum after acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, Andrea; Doneda, Chiara; Parazzini, Cecilia; Arrigoni, Filippo; Triulzi, Fabio; Matta, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose was to investigate any early diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes in corpus callosum (CC) associated with acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in term newborns. We retrospectively analysed 19 cases of term newborns acutely affected by focal or multi-focal lesions: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycaemic encephalopathy, focal ischemic stroke and deep medullary vein associated lesions. DTI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla with dedicated neonatal coil. DTI metrics (apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial λ parallel and radial λ diffusivity) were measured in the hemisphere lesions and in the CC. The control group included seven normal newborns. The following significant differences were found between patients and normal controls in the CC: mean ADC was lower in patients (0.88 SD 0.23 versus 1.18 SD 0.07 μm 2 /s) and so was mean FA (0.50 SD 0.1 versus 0.67 SD 0.05) and mean λ parallel value (1.61 SD 0.52 versus 2.36 SD 0.14 μm 2 /s). In CC the percentage of ADC always diminished independently of lesion age (with one exception), whereas in hemisphere lesions, it was negative in earlier lesions, but exceeded normal values in the older lesions. CC may undergo early DTI changes in newborns with acute focal or multi-focal hemisphere lesions of different aetiology. Although a direct insult to CC cannot be totally ruled out, DTI changes in CC (in particular λ parallel ) may also be compatible with very early Wallerian degeneration or pre-Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of early changes in corpus callosum after acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righini, Andrea; Doneda, Chiara; Parazzini, Cecilia; Arrigoni, Filippo; Triulzi, Fabio [Children' s Hospital V. Buzzi, ICP, Radiology and Neuroradiology Department, Milan (Italy); Matta, Ursula [University of Milan, Radiology Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The main purpose was to investigate any early diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes in corpus callosum (CC) associated with acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in term newborns. We retrospectively analysed 19 cases of term newborns acutely affected by focal or multi-focal lesions: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycaemic encephalopathy, focal ischemic stroke and deep medullary vein associated lesions. DTI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla with dedicated neonatal coil. DTI metrics (apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial {lambda} {sub parallel} and radial {lambda} diffusivity) were measured in the hemisphere lesions and in the CC. The control group included seven normal newborns. The following significant differences were found between patients and normal controls in the CC: mean ADC was lower in patients (0.88 SD 0.23 versus 1.18 SD 0.07 {mu}m{sup 2}/s) and so was mean FA (0.50 SD 0.1 versus 0.67 SD 0.05) and mean {lambda} {sub parallel} value (1.61 SD 0.52 versus 2.36 SD 0.14 {mu}m{sup 2}/s). In CC the percentage of ADC always diminished independently of lesion age (with one exception), whereas in hemisphere lesions, it was negative in earlier lesions, but exceeded normal values in the older lesions. CC may undergo early DTI changes in newborns with acute focal or multi-focal hemisphere lesions of different aetiology. Although a direct insult to CC cannot be totally ruled out, DTI changes in CC (in particular {lambda} {sub parallel}) may also be compatible with very early Wallerian degeneration or pre-Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  9. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  10. Cerebral lesions and event-related potential P300 using positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasujiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondoh, Susumu; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1993-01-01

    To determine what lesions are involved in prolonging event-related potential P300 latency, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolism were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in a total of 40 patients with neurologic diseases (12 with chronic cerebrovascular disorder, 9 with spino-cerebellar degeneration, 4 with Alzheimer's type dementia, 4 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 11 with miscellaneous diseases). There was inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in terms of any of the whole, left, and right hemispheres: P300 latency was associated with decreased rCBF. This was more noticeable in the cerebral cortex than white matter and in the right than left hemisphere, although there was no significant difference between them. In none of the regions, however, was there significant correlation between cerebral oxygen consumption and P300 latency. When the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum were examined as regions of interest, there was significantly inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in all regions except for the occipital cortex. This was more noticeable on the right than the left side, although no significant difference was observed. Cerebral oxygen consumption in these lesions did not correlate with P300 latency. In the study on bilateral rCBF difference, decreased rCBF confined to the right parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus and bilateral temporal lobes was found to be associated with a significantly prolonged P300 latency. Thus, rCBF in these regions seemed to be particularly responsible for P300 latency. (N.K.)

  11. Cerebral lesions and event-related potential P300 using positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yasujiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondoh, Susumu; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To determine what lesions are involved in prolonging event-related potential P300 latency, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolism were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in a total of 40 patients with neurologic diseases (12 with chronic cerebrovascular disorder, 9 with spino-cerebellar degeneration, 4 with Alzheimer's type dementia, 4 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 11 with miscellaneous diseases). There was inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in terms of any of the whole, left, and right hemispheres: P300 latency was associated with decreased rCBF. This was more noticeable in the cerebral cortex than white matter and in the right than left hemisphere, although there was no significant difference between them. In none of the regions, however, was there significant correlation between cerebral oxygen consumption and P300 latency. When the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum were examined as regions of interest, there was significantly inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in all regions except for the occipital cortex. This was more noticeable on the right than the left side, although no significant difference was observed. Cerebral oxygen consumption in these lesions did not correlate with P300 latency. In the study on bilateral rCBF difference, decreased rCBF confined to the right parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus and bilateral temporal lobes was found to be associated with a significantly prolonged P300 latency. Thus, rCBF in these regions seemed to be particularly responsible for P300 latency. (N.K.).

  12. CT and MRI findings of 144 patients with West syndrome. Characterization of the cerebral lesion and its topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Nara, Takahiro; Oguma, Eiji; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2002-01-01

    In West syndrome, although classified as a generalized epilepsy, there are some patients reported to have became seizure-free and have good outcomes in the developmental aspect after resections of localized lesions. We reviewed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of 144 patients with West syndrome and classified them into four categories depending on the distribution of lesion: normal group, diffuse group, disseminated group, localized group. Thirty-three patients belong to the normal group after having reviewed images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diffuse group consisted of 83 patients presenting morphologic abnormalities such as, diffuse cerebral atrophy, periventricular leukomalesia or polycystic encephalomalesia; the disseminated group included 17 patients having a diagnosis of tuberoius sclerosis, multiple cortical dysplasia or multiple cortical heterotopias. The lesions of all eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions involved the temporal and/or occipital lobes. Nine of the eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions had the lesions on the right side. These results suggest that the specificity of lesion topography of temporo-occipital regions and the right-side in West syndrome will have a close correlation with normal brain maturation, from the viewpoint of development of myelination and cerebral blood flow, and related with the genesis of West syndrome. (author)

  13. CT and MRI findings of 144 patients with West syndrome. Characterization of the cerebral lesion and its topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Nara, Takahiro; Oguma, Eiji [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Eto, Yoshikatsu [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    In West syndrome, although classified as a generalized epilepsy, there are some patients reported to have became seizure-free and have good outcomes in the developmental aspect after resections of localized lesions. We reviewed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of 144 patients with West syndrome and classified them into four categories depending on the distribution of lesion: normal group, diffuse group, disseminated group, localized group. Thirty-three patients belong to the normal group after having reviewed images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diffuse group consisted of 83 patients presenting morphologic abnormalities such as, diffuse cerebral atrophy, periventricular leukomalesia or polycystic encephalomalesia; the disseminated group included 17 patients having a diagnosis of tuberoius sclerosis, multiple cortical dysplasia or multiple cortical heterotopias. The lesions of all eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions involved the temporal and/or occipital lobes. Nine of the eleven patients with localized cerebral lesions had the lesions on the right side. These results suggest that the specificity of lesion topography of temporo-occipital regions and the right-side in West syndrome will have a close correlation with normal brain maturation, from the viewpoint of development of myelination and cerebral blood flow, and related with the genesis of West syndrome. (author)

  14. Early neuroimaging findings of glioblastoma mimicking non-neoplastic cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin

    2007-09-01

    A 54-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman presented with glioblastoma manifesting as seizure and headache, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients revealed hypointense area on T(1)-weighted imaging, and hyperintense area on T(2)-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with no enhancement after gadolinium administration. Both patients underwent conservative therapy under diagnoses of non-neoplastic cerebral lesion. Six months later, they suffered aggravated symptoms and new neurological deficits. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypointense area on diffusion-weighted imaging and ring enhancement on T(1)-weighted imaging with gadolinium at the site of the previously detected lesions. The tumors showed growth pattern of superficial origin. The large enhanced masses were totally removed through craniotomy under neuronavigator guidance. The histological diagnoses were glioblastoma. Glioblastoma may mimic non-neoplastic conditions on neuroimaging in the early stages. Close follow up of such patients is essential.

  15. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  16. Neural control of locomotion and training-induced plasticity after spinal and cerebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knikou, Maria

    2010-10-01

    Standing and walking require a plethora of sensorimotor interactions that occur throughout the nervous system. Sensory afferent feedback plays a crucial role in the rhythmical muscle activation pattern, as it affects through spinal reflex circuits the spinal neuronal networks responsible for inducing and maintaining rhythmicity, drives short-term and long-term re-organization of the brain and spinal cord circuits, and contributes to recovery of walking after locomotor training. Therefore, spinal circuits integrating sensory signals are adjustable networks with learning capabilities. In this review, I will synthesize the mechanisms underlying phase-dependent modulation of spinal reflexes in healthy humans as well as those with spinal or cerebral lesions along with findings on afferent regulation of spinal reflexes and central pattern generator in reduced animal preparations. Recovery of walking after locomotor training has been documented in numerous studies but the re-organization of spinal interneuronal and cortical circuits need to be further explored at cellular and physiological levels. For maximizing sensorimotor recovery in people with spinal or cerebral lesions, a multidisciplinary approach (rehabilitation, pharmacology, and electrical stimulation) delivered during various sensorimotor constraints is needed. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Hisashi; Senda, Shoichi; Goda, Fuminori [Kagawa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the result of brain ischemic injury and a risk factor for clinical stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the cardiac diastolic function and cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. The study subjects were 55 patients (75{+-}7 years) with risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular events were excluded from the study. Cerebral white matter lesions, which were defined as exhibiting high intensity regions on brain MRI, were evaluated with the degrees of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) according to the Japanese Brain Dock Guidelines of 2003. Peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' velocity) was measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and was used as a parameter of cardiac diastolic function. The mean value of E' velocity was decreased due to the cardiac diastolic dysfunction (5.2{+-}1.4 cm/s). In addition, the E' velocity was inversely correlated with the degree of PVH ({rho}=-0.701, p<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the decrease in the E' velocity ({beta} coefficient=-0.42, p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension ({beta} coefficient=0.31, p=0.001) were independent determinants of the degree of PVH. Thus, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is correlated to the severity of cerebral white matter lesions, suggesting the cardio-cerebral connection in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  18. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  19. New asymptomatic ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2006-01-01

    Conventional cerebral angiography (CAG) is relatively low risk for neurological complications. However, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after CAG occasionally reveal an asymptomatic ischemic lesion on the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of new asymptomatic or symptomatic DWI lesions after CAG and to clarify the factors associated with them. Fifty-six patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies including DWI were studied twice, within 48 hours before and after CAG. The following factors were assessed; age, gender, history of stroke, history of ischemic heart disease, vascular risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, stroke subtype, treatment before stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (antiplatelets or warfarin), approach for catheters (transbrachial or femoral artery), amount of contrast medium used, length of the angiographic procedure, and fluoroscophy time. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence of new DWI lesions after CAG; Positive group had new DWI lesions, whereas the Negative group had none. After CAG, no patients had new neurological deficits. New asymptomatic DWI lesions were observed in 24 patients (42.9%). The significant differences observed between two groups were as follows; age (69.8±11.3 for the Positive group versus 61.9±11.3 for the Negative group, p=0.043), female (54% versus 28%, p=0.048), non-small vessel occlusion (100% versus 66%, p=0.009), catheter approach for transfemoral artery (63% versus 13%, p<0.001), mean length of the angiographic procedure (63.1±21.6 min versus 43.7±14.2 min, p<0.001), mean fluoroscopy time (26.5±13.0 min versus 14.9±5.9 mm, p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity analysis to discriminate the positive and negative groups revealed 17 minutes to be the critical threshold point (sensitivity 66.6% and specificity 68

  20. Does supplementation of contrast MR imaging with thallium-201 brain SPECT improve differentiation between benign and malignant ring-like contrast-enhanced cerebral lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawauchi, Toshio; Sakata, Ikuko; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Kosuda, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could supplement magnetic resonance (MR) imaging diagnostic information by visual comparison of two separate data sets from patients with ring-like contrast-enhanced cerebral lesions. A combination of MR imaging and 201 Tl brain SPECT sets obtained from 13 patients (10 men, 3 women) ranging in age from 26 years to 86 years (mean 61.0 years) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 12 patients had a solitary lesion, and the others had multiple lesions. All but two intracranial foci were pathologically confirmed. The final diagnoses were six glioblastomas, two cerebral metastases from lung cancer, and one each of abscess, resolving hematoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, toxoplasmosis, and radiation necrosis. The two separate image formats (MR images and SPECT) were shown to ten readers with practical experience. All of the MR images for each patient were shown to each reader first. After interpreting them, the readers were shown the SPECT images. Images were scored in terms of how benign or malignant the foci were on a 5-point scale from ''definitely benign'' to ''definitely malignant.'' The improvement in the performance of all ten readers was from 67.7% to 93.8% in mean accuracy (P=0.0028) and from 0.730 to 0.971 in mean Az value (P=0.0069) after they were shown the 201 Tl brain SPECT images. 201 Tl brain SPECT should substantially increase confidence in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions with ring-like contrast enhancement when MR imaging does not permit differentiation between benign and malignant disease. (author)

  1. MR imaging of cerebral lesions accompanying stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaya; Fritz-Zieroth, B.; Yamaguchi, Motonori; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomoyo; Sasagawa, Sukenari; Chikugo, Taka-aki; Ohta, Yoshio; Okamoto, Kozo.

    1992-01-01

    Cerebral lesions accompanying stroke in male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP, n=10) were examined by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological evaluation. T2-weighted MR images (T2-WI), taken 1-2 days after animals showed behavioral hyperactivity, indicated hyperintense regions in the occipital cortex, caudate putamen and/or thalamus. The areas of hyperintensity on T2-WI corresponded to neurodegenerative regions including edema, gliosis, and softening of the tissue. T1-weighted images (T1-WI) did not show any hyperintense regions. However T1-weighted images enhanced by the contrast media Gd-DTPA (Gd-T1-WI) showed hyperintense spots within some of the hyperintense areas on T2-WI, which exhibited neurodegenerative regions such as thrombus, angionecrosis and hemorrhage in addition to the edematous formation. The hyperintense areas on Gd-T1-WI were smaller than those on T2-WI. In some animals, hypointense spots on T2-, T1- and Gd-T1-WI were found within the hyperintense areas, which corresponded to clots. Extensive histological examination did not reveal any additional cerebral degeneration which had not been detected on the MR images. These findings indicate that MRI is useful for detecting and differentiating various types of cerebrovascular diseases in this model. (author)

  2. MR imaging of cerebral lesions accompanying stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masaya; Fritz-Zieroth, B.; Yamaguchi, Motonori (Nihon Schering K.K., Osaka (Japan)); Ogawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomoyo; Sasagawa, Sukenari; Chikugo, Taka-aki; Ohta, Yoshio; Okamoto, Kozo

    1992-07-01

    Cerebral lesions accompanying stroke in male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP, n=10) were examined by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological evaluation. T2-weighted MR images (T2-WI), taken 1-2 days after animals showed behavioral hyperactivity, indicated hyperintense regions in the occipital cortex, caudate putamen and/or thalamus. The areas of hyperintensity on T2-WI corresponded to neurodegenerative regions including edema, gliosis, and softening of the tissue. T1-weighted images (T1-WI) did not show any hyperintense regions. However T1-weighted images enhanced by the contrast media Gd-DTPA (Gd-T1-WI) showed hyperintense spots within some of the hyperintense areas on T2-WI, which exhibited neurodegenerative regions such as thrombus, angionecrosis and hemorrhage in addition to the edematous formation. The hyperintense areas on Gd-T1-WI were smaller than those on T2-WI. In some animals, hypointense spots on T2-, T1- and Gd-T1-WI were found within the hyperintense areas, which corresponded to clots. Extensive histological examination did not reveal any additional cerebral degeneration which had not been detected on the MR images. These findings indicate that MRI is useful for detecting and differentiating various types of cerebrovascular diseases in this model. (author).

  3. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Hisashi; Senda, Shoichi; Goda, Fuminori

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the result of brain ischemic injury and a risk factor for clinical stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the cardiac diastolic function and cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. The study subjects were 55 patients (75±7 years) with risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular events were excluded from the study. Cerebral white matter lesions, which were defined as exhibiting high intensity regions on brain MRI, were evaluated with the degrees of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) according to the Japanese Brain Dock Guidelines of 2003. Peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' velocity) was measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and was used as a parameter of cardiac diastolic function. The mean value of E' velocity was decreased due to the cardiac diastolic dysfunction (5.2±1.4 cm/s). In addition, the E' velocity was inversely correlated with the degree of PVH (ρ=-0.701, p<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the decrease in the E' velocity (β coefficient=-0.42, p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension (β coefficient=0.31, p=0.001) were independent determinants of the degree of PVH. Thus, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is correlated to the severity of cerebral white matter lesions, suggesting the cardio-cerebral connection in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  4. Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion detected by MRI; The relationship between Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle and functional recovery of paresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waragai, Masaaki; Iwabuchi, Sadamu (Nanasawa Rehabilitation Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    We studied Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion by MRI. A total of 57 patients with palsy following a supratenotorial cerebrovascular lesion were prospectively studied. Wallerian degeneration was detected as a high signal intensity (HSI) in 37 patients between 70 days and 100 days after the onset, but not detected in the remaining 27 patients. Patient with as HSI in all areas of the cerebral peduncle had a large lesion involving the hemisphere. Patient with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patient with an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion of parietal lobe or temporal lobe which spares the corticospinal tract originating from the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. These findings suggest that as HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle may reveal Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle may show Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract. The functional recovery of paresis was poor in all patients with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle, while it was good in all patients without an HSI in that region. Our data suggested that somatotopical localization of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle may be identified by detecting Wallerian degeneration following a supratentorial lesion, and the functional recovery of patients with paresis could be predicted according to presence or absence of Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle. (author).

  5. Importance of anticoagulation and postablation silent cerebral lesions: Subanalyses of REVOLUTION and reMARQable studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Massimo; Swarup, Vijay; DeVille, Brian; Sussman, Jonathan; Jaïs, Pierre; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Duytschaever, Mattias; Ng, G Andre; Daoud, Emile; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya Dj; Horton, Rodney; Wickliffe, Andrew; Ellis, Christopher; Geller, Laszlo

    2017-12-01

    Silent cerebral lesions (SCLs) are a potential complication of left atrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). We aimed to compare the incidence of SCLs in patients treated with irrigated RFA multielectrode catheters (nMARQ ® Catheter group) and irrigated focal RFA catheters (NAVISTAR ® THERMOCOOL ® Catheter; TC group) after PAF ablation from subpopulation neurological assessment (SNA) cohorts of the REVOLUTION and reMARQable studies. Data from SNA cohorts in the prospective, nonrandomized REVOLUTION study (March 2011-September 2013) and the prospective, randomized, controlled reMARQable study (October 2013-November 2015) were included. The incidence of SCLs was assessed pre- and postablation using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurological deficits were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, modified Rankin Scale, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 37 patients from REVOLUTION and 76 patients from reMARQable were included in the SNA cohort of each study. In the REVOLUTION SNA cohort, the incidence of SCLs was 21.1% (4/19) in the nMARQ ® Catheter group and 5.9% (1/17) in the TC group. Findings from REVOLUTION helped inform the reMARQable study protocol's stringent anticoagulation regimen. SCL incidence was subsequently reduced in both groups (nMARQ ® Catheter, 7.9%; TC, 3.3%). No permanent neurological deficits were observed. Adherence to a stringent anticoagulation regimen prior to and during ablation procedures appears to be an important factor in minimizing the risk of SCL. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cerebral lesions on 7 tesla MRI in patients with sickle cell anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, Veronica; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Biemond, Bart J.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Mutsaerts, Henri J. M. M.; Visser, Fredy; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are at a high risk to develop cerebral damage. Most common are silent cerebral infarctions (SCIs), visible as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI in a patient without neurological deficits. The etiology of SCIs remains largely unclear. In addition,

  7. New cerebral lesions at magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Carotid endarterectomy (CEA or stenting (CAS are associated with a relatively low rate of clinical events, but diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is increasingly being used to compare the incidence of new ischemic lesions. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the occurrence of post-procedural new DWI lesions after CAS versus CEA.MEDLINE, Cochrane, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS databases were searched and 20 studies (2 randomized and 18 non-randomized with a total of 2104 procedures (CAS = 989; CEA = 1115 were included. The incidence of new DWI cerebral lesions was significantly greater after CAS than CEA (40.3% vs 12.2%; 20 studies; 2104 patients; odds ratio [OR] 5.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.31-8.06; p<0.00001. Also peri-procedural stroke (17 studies; 1833 patients; OR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.14-3.55; p=0.02 and stroke or TIA (17 studies; 1833 patients; OR 2.40; 95% CI, 1.42-4.08; p=0.001 were significantly increased after CAS. This latter clinical advantage in the CEA group over CAS was tempered when CEA procedures were performed with shunting in all instead of selective shunting or when CAS was performed with only closed cell stents instead of both closed and open cell stents, however, no significant differences between subgroups emerged.CAS is associated with an increased incidence of post-procedural brain DWI lesions. This greater amount of ischemic burden may also reflect a higher rate of cerebral events after CAS. However, whether recent technical advances mainly for CAS could potentially reduce these ischemic events still remains to be evaluated.

  8. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  9. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  10. [Recognition of onomatopoeias and animal cries during focalized lesions of the cerebral cortex (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, G; Aubert, C

    1979-01-01

    The recognition of animal cries and their onomatopoeias was compared during the course of right or left unilateral cortical lesions. A double dissociation is noted; in left-sided affections there is a more severe deficiency to onomatopoeia than to cries, whereas in right-sided lesions the quality of the performances is reversed. These results suggest that the right hemisphere is dominant in the auditive recognition of familiar sounds, and supply information as to the linguistic value of onomatopoeias.

  11. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  12. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  13. Detection of small human cerebral cortical lesions with MRI under different levels of Gaussian smoothing: applications in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor-Rivera, Diego; Goubran, Maged; Kraguljac, Alan; Bartha, Robert; Peters, Terry

    2010-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of smoothing filter selection in Voxel-Based Morphometry studies on structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Gaussian filters of 4 mm, 8 mm or 10 mm Full Width at High Maximum are commonly used, based on the assumption that the filter size should be at least twice the voxel size to obtain robust statistical results. The hypothesis of the presented work was that the selection of the smoothing filter influenced the detectability of small lesions in the brain. Mesial Temporal Sclerosis associated to Epilepsy was used as the case to demonstrate this effect. Twenty T1-weighted MRIs from the BrainWeb database were selected. A small phantom lesion was placed in the amygdala, hippocampus, or parahippocampal gyrus of ten of the images. Subsequently the images were registered to the ICBM/MNI space. After grey matter segmentation, a T-test was carried out to compare each image containing a phantom lesion with the rest of the images in the set. For each lesion the T-test was repeated with different Gaussian filter sizes. Voxel-Based Morphometry detected some of the phantom lesions. Of the three parameters considered: location,size, and intensity; it was shown that location is the dominant factor for the detection of the lesions.

  14. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting. Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.M.; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm 3 vs. 86.9 mm 3 , respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm 3 ) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm 3 and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions. (author)

  15. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting: Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Toma, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Hirose, Tomofumi; Miura, Youichi; Fujimoto, Masashi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2009-09-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm(3) vs. 86.9 mm(3), respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm(3)) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm(3) and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions.

  16. Relationship between white matter lesions and regional cerebral blood flow changes during longitudinal follow up in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Takuya; Kimura, Noriyuki; Aso, Yasuhiro; Takemaru, Makoto; Kimura, Yuki; Ishibashi, Masato; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline white matter lesions (WML) and changes in regional cerebral blood flow during longitudinal follow up of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 38 patients with AD were included in the study (16 men, 22 women; mean age 77.8 years). All patients were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at baseline with an approximately 2-year follow up. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of WML on magnetic resonance imaging. Single-photon emission computed tomography data were analyzed using a voxel-by-voxel group analysis with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and region of interest analysis using FineSRT. Changes in Mini-Mental State Examination scores and regional cerebral blood flow were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination scores in AD patients with WML significantly decreased from 19.4 ± 4.8 to 15.5 ± 6.5 (P = 0.003). Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and FineSRT analysis showed more severe and widespread regional cerebral blood flow reduction, mainly in the frontal and mesial temporal regions in AD patients with WML compared with those without WML. Baseline WML could predict a rapid progression of cognitive and brain functional impairment during longitudinal follow up in AD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 836-842. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, S.E.; Abalmasov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and development anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the X-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease [ru

  18. [Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, S; Abalmasov, V

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and developmental anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the x-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease.

  19. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  20. The correlation of the thalamic lesions on MRI with cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with lacunar infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsuda, Minoru; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuyama, Hidenao.

    1995-01-01

    We performed MRI and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 123 I-IMP SPECT microsphere model in twenty three right-handed patients with lacunar infarction. Twelve of 23 patients showed chronic deterioration of dysarthria and gait disturbance. The mental function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination. The area of high intensity on T2-weighted images was quantitatively analyzed in the cerebral white matter (WM), lenticular nucleus (LN) and thalamus (THA). The score of MMS was positively correlated with the local CBF in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.05). Also, the area of high intensity in the left THA showed a significant negative correlation with local CBF of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.001). The high intensity areas of the bilateral LN, right WM and right THA had a significant but weaker negative correlation with local CBF of some cortices. These findings suggest that thalamic lesions on the dominant side play an important role in the reduction of cortical blood flow and the deterioration of mental functions in patients with lacunar infarction. (author)

  1. Serum carotenoids and cerebral white matter lesions : The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Launer, LJ; de Groot, JG; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; van Gijn, J; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between serum levels of carotenoids and white matter lesions (WMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Evaluation of cross-sectional data from a cohort study. SETTING: The Rotterdam Scan Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three nondemented older persons,

  2. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in

  3. CT and MRI findings of cerebral ischemic lesions in the cortical and perforating arterial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Masakuni; Udaka, Fukashi; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kodama, Mitsuo; Urushidani, Makoto; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Taku [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It is clinically useful to divide the location of infarction into the cortical and perforating arterial system. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now make the point of infarction a simple and useful task in daily practice. The diagnostic modality has also demonstrated that risk factors and clinical manifestations are different for infarction in the cortical as opposed to the perforating system. In this paper, we present various aspects of images of cerebral ischemia according to CT and/or MRI findings. With the advance of imaging mechanics, diagnostic capability of CT or/and MRI for cerebral infarction has markedly been improved. We must consider these points on evaluating the previously reported results. In addition, we always consider the pathological background of these image-findings for the precise interpretation of their clinical significance. In some instances, dynamic study such as PET or SPECT is needed for real interpretations of CT and/or MRI images. We paid special reference to lacunar stroke and striatocapsular infarct. In addition, `branch atheromatous disease (Caplan)` was considered, in particular, for their specific clinical significances. Large striatocapsular infarcts frequently show cortical signs and symptoms such as aphasia or agnosia in spite of their subcortical localization. These facts, although have previously been known, should be re-considered for their pathoanatomical mechanism. (author).

  4. CT and MRI findings of cerebral ischemic lesions in the cortical and perforating arterial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Masakuni; Udaka, Fukashi; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kodama, Mitsuo; Urushidani, Makoto; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Taku

    1995-01-01

    It is clinically useful to divide the location of infarction into the cortical and perforating arterial system. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now make the point of infarction a simple and useful task in daily practice. The diagnostic modality has also demonstrated that risk factors and clinical manifestations are different for infarction in the cortical as opposed to the perforating system. In this paper, we present various aspects of images of cerebral ischemia according to CT and/or MRI findings. With the advance of imaging mechanics, diagnostic capability of CT or/and MRI for cerebral infarction has markedly been improved. We must consider these points on evaluating the previously reported results. In addition, we always consider the pathological background of these image-findings for the precise interpretation of their clinical significance. In some instances, dynamic study such as PET or SPECT is needed for real interpretations of CT and/or MRI images. We paid special reference to lacunar stroke and striatocapsular infarct. In addition, 'branch atheromatous disease (Caplan)' was considered, in particular, for their specific clinical significances. Large striatocapsular infarcts frequently show cortical signs and symptoms such as aphasia or agnosia in spite of their subcortical localization. These facts, although have previously been known, should be re-considered for their pathoanatomical mechanism. (author)

  5. Korsakoff syndrome from retrochiasmatic suprasellar lesions: rapid reversal after relief of cerebral compression in 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis E; Hollon, Todd C; Barkan, Ariel L; Sullivan, Stephen E

    2018-06-01

    Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. However, some have proposed that focal structural lesions disrupting memory circuits-in particular, the mammillary bodies, the mammillothalamic tract, and the anterior thalamus-can give rise to this amnestic syndrome. Here, the authors present 4 patients with reversible Korsakoff syndromes caused by suprasellar retrochiasmatic lesions compressing the mammillary bodies and adjacent caudal hypothalamic structures. Three of the patients were found to have large pituitary macroadenomas in their workup for memory deficiency and cognitive decline with minimal visual symptoms. These tumors extended superiorly into the suprasellar region in a retrochiasmatic position and caused significant mass effect in the bilateral mammillary bodies in the base of the brain. These 3 patients had complete and rapid resolution of amnestic problems shortly after initiation of treatment, consisting of resection in 1 case of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or cabergoline therapy in 2 cases of prolactinoma. The fourth patient presented with bizarre and hostile behavior along with significant memory deficits and was found to have a large cystic craniopharyngioma filling the third ventricle and compressing the midline diencephalic structures. This patient underwent cyst fenestration and tumor debulking, with a rapid improvement in his mental status. The rapid and dramatic memory improvement observed in all of these cases is probably due to a reduction in the pressure imposed by the lesions on structures contiguous to the third ventricle, rather than a direct destructive effect of the tumor, and highlights the essential role of the caudal diencephalic structures-mainly the mammillary bodies-in memory function. In summary, large pituitary lesions with suprasellar retrochiasmatic extension and third ventricular craniopharyngiomas can cause severe Korsakoff

  6. [Intelligence and creativity changes induced by pathological growth of space-occupying cerebral lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfil'ev, A M; Razumnikova, O M; Stupak, V V

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and intelligence changes depending on tumor localization in frontal or parietal cortex before surgical procedure in 24 patients in comparison with control group are studied. Brain damage-induced intelligence impairment and a decrease of fluency, flexibility of figural divergent thinking, and originality of verbal one without specificity of tumor localization were found. Intelligence decrease was more presented while performing of figural tasks and least of all in verbal ones. The left prefrontal brain damage induced a decrease of all components of intelligence and a trend to a decrease of verbal creativity and figural fluency. The right parietal brain lesion was more associated with a decline of divergent thinking originality.

  7. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmal, S.; Sundaram, P.S.; Kumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  8. Cerebral lesions in acute arterial hypertension: the characteristic MRI in hypertensive encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.P.; Krohmer, S.; Guenther, A.; Zimmer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: in the nine years since the posterior reversible (leuc) encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was first described, a number of causes have been under discussion. These not only include arterial hypertension, i. e. hypertensive crises, but also various toxic substances, i. e. immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic agents, that are responsible for the formation of the symptoms and characteristic MR tomographic brain findings. Materials and methods: initial and follow-up MRI examinations of 8 patients were analyzed. All patients had acute neurological symptoms (headaches, seizures, visual disorders and vigilance disturbances) together with a detectable hypertensive crisis. Results: MRI disclosed increased signal intensity in subcortical and some cortical lesions in all patient FLAIR sequences. These changes were particularly extensive in the posterior circulation (occipital, cerebellum and brain stem) although they were also detected in brain areas supplied by the carotid artery. However, a cytotoxic genesis of the changes was ruled out in each patient by means of a normal DWI. Furthermore, when the blood pressure was normalized, reversibility of the lesions as proof of the diagnosis was detectable. (orig.)

  9. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  10. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Dowson, Nicholas; Doecke, James; Fiori, Simona; Bradley, Andrew P; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children) with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) lesions. The method has better accuracy (94%) than the best current methods (73%), and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO). The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008), and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008). The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  11. [Processes of logical thought in a case of cerebral vascular lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Men ndez, R; Aguado Balsas, A M

    Reasoning and logical thought processes have traditionally been attributed to frontal lobe function or,on the other hand, have been considered as diffuse functions of the brain. However, there is today evidence enough about the possibility to find dissociations in thought processes, depending on logical structure of the experimental tasks and referring to different areas of the brain, frontal and post rolandic ones. To study possible dissociations between thought structures corresponding to categorical and relational logic, on one hand, and propositional logic on the other hand. The case of a brain injured patient with vascular etiology, localized in left frontal parietal cortex, is presented. A specific battery of reasoning tests has been administered. . A differential performance at some reasoning experimental tasks has been found depending on such logical conceptual structures. The possibility of establishing dissociations among certain logical thought and intelectual functions depending on localization of possible brain lesion (frontal versus temporal) is discussed.

  12. A radiological study of cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia using diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Hiroaki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the changes in water diffusion in the cerebral white matter and the corpus callosum in 12 patients with Binswanger's disease (BD), and 19 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), including 12 without (AD-) and 7 with periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) lesions (AD+), using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the anterior and posterior white matter were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD than in 12 age-matched controls. The ADCs were significantly higher in AD (+) than in AD (-) patients. Anisotropic ratios (ARs), defined as diffusion restricted perpendicular to the direction of the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in BD and AD (+) patients, and even in AD (-) patients, than in the controls. ARs in the anterior white matter were significantly higher in BD than in AD (+), while in the posterior white matter the ratios were significantly higher in AD (+) rather than BD patients. The ADCs and ARs in the genu of the corpus callosum were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD (+) compared to the control subjects, while ADCs and ARs in the splenium were significantly higher in patients with AD (+) and AD (-) than in those with BD. These results suggest that mild myelin loss occurs in AD patients even in apparently normal white matter and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. A definite loss of myelin and axons, including incomplete infarction, occurs preferentially in anterior white matter in BD, while in posterior white matter in AD (+), as seen on T2-weighted images as PVH. Studies with diffusion-weighted MRI may allow the characterization of different pathological processes and enable the demonstration of underlying white matter lesion in patients with dementia that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  13. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabe, Cristina; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  14. Preclinical cerebral network connectivity evidence of deficits in mild white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WMLs are notable for their high prevalence and have been demonstrated to be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to identify the brain functional and structural mechanisms underlying cognitive decline observed in mild WMLs. Multi-domain cognitive tests, as well as resting-state, diffusion tensor and structural images were obtained on 42 mild WMLs and 42 age/sex-matched healthy controls. For each participant, we examined the functional connectivity of three resting-state networks related to the changed cognitive domains: the default mode network (DMN and the bilateral fronto-parietal network (FPN. We also performed voxel-based morphometry analysis to compare whole-brain gray matter volume, atlas-based quantification of the white matter tracts interconnecting the RSNs, and the relationship between functional connectivity and structural connectivity. We observed functional connectivity alterations in the DMN and the right FPN combined with related white matter integrity disruption in mild WMLs. However, no significant gray matter atrophy difference was found. Furthermore, the right precuneus functional connectivity in the DMN exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the memory test scores. Our study suggests that in mild WMLs, dysfunction of RSNs might be a consequence of decreased white matter structural connectivity, which further affects cognitive performance.

  15. Neurocognition and Cerebral Lesion Burden in High-Risk Patients Before Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From the SENTINEL Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ronald M; Pavol, Marykathryn A; Bormann, Tobias; Dwyer, Michael G; Kraemer, Carlye; White, Roseann; Zivadinov, Robert; Wertheimer, Jeffrey C; Thöne-Otto, Angelika; Ravdin, Lisa D; Naugle, Richard; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Garmoe, William S; Stringer, Anthony Y; Bender, Heidi A; Kapadia, Samir R; Kodali, Susheel; Ghanem, Alexander; Linke, Axel; Mehran, Roxana; Virmani, Renu; Nazif, Tamim; Parhizgar, Azin; Leon, Martin B

    2018-02-26

    The authors sought to determine baseline neurocognition before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and its correlations with pre-TAVR brain imaging. TAVR studies have not shown a correlation between diffusion-weighted image changes and neurocognition. The authors wanted to determine the extent to which there was already impairment at baseline that correlated with cerebrovascular disease. SENTINEL (Cerebral Protection in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement) trial patients had cognitive assessments of attention, processing speed, executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Z-scores were based on normative means and SDs, combined into a primary composite z-score. Brain magnetic resonance images were obtained pre-TAVR on 3-T scanners with a T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Scores ≤-1.5 SD below the normative mean (7th percentile) were considered impairment. Paired t tests compared within-subject scores, and chi-square goodness-of-fit compared the percentage of subjects below -1.5 SD. Correlation and regression analyses assessed the relationship between neurocognitive z-scores and T2 lesion volume. Among 234 patients tested, the mean composite z-score was -0.65 SD below the normative mean. Domain scores ranged from -0.15 SD for attention to -1.32 SD for executive function. On the basis of the ≥1.5 SD normative reference, there were significantly greater percentages of impaired scores in the composite z-score (13.2%; p = 0.019), executive function (41.9%; p regression model between FLAIR lesion volume and baseline cognition showed statistically significant negative correlations. There was a significant proportion of aortic stenosis patients with impaired cognition before TAVR, with a relationship between baseline cognitive function and lesion burden likely attributable to longstanding cerebrovascular disease. These findings underscore the importance of pre-interventional testing and magnetic resonance imaging in any

  16. How does the interaction of presumed timing, location and extent of the underlying brain lesion relate to upper limb function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleux, Lisa; Klingels, Katrijn; Fiori, Simona; Simon-Martinez, Cristina; Demaerel, Philippe; Locus, Marlies; Fosseprez, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ortibus, Els; Feys, Hilde

    2017-09-01

    Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups. Seventy-three children with unilateral CP (mean age 10 years 2 months) were classified according to lesion timing: malformations (N = 2), periventricular white matter (PWM, N = 42) and cortical and deep grey matter (CDGM, N = 29) lesions. Neuroanatomical damage was scored using a semi-quantitative MRI scale. UL function was assessed at body function and activity level. CDGM lesions were more pronounced compared to PWM lesions (p = 0.0003). Neuroanatomical scores were correlated with a higher degree to UL function in the CDGM group (r s  = -0.39 to r s  = -0.84) compared to the PWM group (r rb  = -0.42 to r s  = -0.61). Regression analysis found lesion location and extent to explain 75% and 65% (p < 0.02) respectively, of the variance in AHA performance in the CDGM group, but only 24% and 12% (p < 0.03) in the PWM group. In the CDGM group, lesion location and extent seems to impact more on UL function compared to the PWM group. In children with PWM lesions, other factors like corticospinal tract (re)organization and structural connectivity may play an additional role. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Mebius, Mirthe J.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Objectives: Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation

  18. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Endo, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions, and provided as a dietary supplement--and its fractions on the blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm) were investigated. When SHRSP were fed on diets with supplemented Chlorella to a commercial diet (Funabashi SP), elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination revealed cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group, but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently low incidence compared to the control group. The average life-span of the Chlorella groups were significantly longer than that of the control group (p vascular function of rats.

  19. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  20. Cerebral mass lesion due to cytomegalovirus in a patient with AIDS: case report and literature review Lesão expansiva cerebral devida a citomegalovírus: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Vidal

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients most commonly presents as chorioretinitis and gastro-intestinal infection. Neurological involvement due to CMV may cause several clinical presentations: polyradiculitis, myelitis, encephalitis, ventriculo-encephalitis, and mononeuritis multiplex. Rarely, cerebral mass lesion is described. We report a 39 year-old woman with AIDS and previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. She presented with fever, seizures, and vulval ulcers. Her chest X-ray showed multiple lung nodules, and a large frontal lobe lesion was seen in a brain computed tomography scan. She underwent a brain biopsy through a frontal craniotomy, but her condition deteriorated and she died in the first postoperative day. Histopathological studies and immunohistochemistry disclosed CMV disease, and there was no evidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis, bacterial, mycobacterial or fungal infection. CMV disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. High suspicion index, timely diagnostic procedures (surgical or minimally invasive, and proper utilization of prophylactic and therapeutic medication could improve outcome of these patients.As doenças causadas pelo citomegalovírus (CMV em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida apresentam-se principalmente como corioretinite ou comprometimento gastrointestinal. No sistema nervoso central, o CMV pode causar diversas síndromes clínicas: poliradiculite, mielite, encefalite, ventrículo-encefalite e mononeurite múltipla. Raramente, lesões expansivas cerebrais são descritas. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos com antecedentes de infecção pelo HIV e toxoplasmose cerebral, que apresentou-se com febre, convulsões e úlceras vulvares. O raios-X de tórax demonstrou múltiplos nódulos pulmonares e a tomografia computadorizada de crânio evidenciou extensa lesão no lobo frontal esquerdo

  1. The transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Laura; Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Scarabelli, Chiara; Stampatori, Chiara; Mattioli, Flavia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-31

    To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred) and allocentric (world-centred) coordinates, combined into route and survey representations.Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task.Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR) mazes.Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination), previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results.Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive demanding and sensitive to cognitive decline.Human-computer interaction

  2. The transfer from survey (map-like to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stampatori Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred and allocentric (world-centred coordinates, combined into route and survey representations. Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task. Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Methods Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR mazes. Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. Results As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination, previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results. Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Conclusions Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive

  3. Constraints on grip selection in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: Effects of lesional side, end-point accuracy and context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Rosenbaum, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was concerned with the selection criteria used for grip planning in adolescents with left or right hemiparetic cerebral palsy. In the first experiment participants picked up a pencil and placed the tip in a pre-defined target region. We varied the size of the target to test the hypothesis

  4. Utility of FDG-PETCT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating between cerebral lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, Thomas D., E-mail: tdwestwood@googlemail.com [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hogan, Celia, E-mail: celiahogan@hotmail.com [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Julyan, Peter J., E-mail: Peter.Julyan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coutts, Glyn, E-mail: Glyn.Coutts@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bonington, Suzie, E-mail: suzi.bonington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, Bernadette, E-mail: Bernadette.Carrington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Ben, E-mail: Ben.taylor@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Khoo, Saye, E-mail: S.H.Khoo@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bonington, Alec, E-mail: Alec.Bonington@pat.nhs.uk [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: In HIV infected patients, MRI cannot reliably differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions, particularly cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX). This study prospectively investigates the utility of FDG PET-CT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in discriminating CNS lymphoma from non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV infected patients, and assesses the ability of FDG PET-CT to guide the use of early brain biopsy. Methods: 10 HIV patients with neurological symptoms and contrast enhancing lesions on MRI were commenced on anti-toxoplasmosis therapy before undergoing FDG PET-CT and MRS. Brain biopsies were sought in those with FDG PET-CT suggestive of CNS lymphoma, and in those with a negative FDG PET-CT scan who failed to respond to therapy. Final diagnosis was based on histology or treatment response. Results: Two patients were confirmed to have CNS lymphoma and FDG PET-CT was consistent with this diagnosis in both. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis in all of whom FDG PET-CT was consistent with non-malignant disease. One patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), FDG PET-CT was equivocal. One patient had a haemorrhagic brain metastasis and FDG PET-CT wrongly suggested non-malignant disease. MRS was performed successfully in eight subjects: three results were suggestive of CNS lymphoma (one true positive, two false positive), four suggested CTOX (two false negative, two true negative), one scan was equivocal. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT correctly identified all cases of CNS lymphoma and CTOX, supporting its use in this situation. MRS was unhelpful in our cohort.

  5. Utility of FDG-PETCT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating between cerebral lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westwood, Thomas D.; Hogan, Celia; Julyan, Peter J.; Coutts, Glyn; Bonington, Suzie; Carrington, Bernadette; Taylor, Ben; Khoo, Saye; Bonington, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: In HIV infected patients, MRI cannot reliably differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions, particularly cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX). This study prospectively investigates the utility of FDG PET-CT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in discriminating CNS lymphoma from non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV infected patients, and assesses the ability of FDG PET-CT to guide the use of early brain biopsy. Methods: 10 HIV patients with neurological symptoms and contrast enhancing lesions on MRI were commenced on anti-toxoplasmosis therapy before undergoing FDG PET-CT and MRS. Brain biopsies were sought in those with FDG PET-CT suggestive of CNS lymphoma, and in those with a negative FDG PET-CT scan who failed to respond to therapy. Final diagnosis was based on histology or treatment response. Results: Two patients were confirmed to have CNS lymphoma and FDG PET-CT was consistent with this diagnosis in both. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis in all of whom FDG PET-CT was consistent with non-malignant disease. One patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), FDG PET-CT was equivocal. One patient had a haemorrhagic brain metastasis and FDG PET-CT wrongly suggested non-malignant disease. MRS was performed successfully in eight subjects: three results were suggestive of CNS lymphoma (one true positive, two false positive), four suggested CTOX (two false negative, two true negative), one scan was equivocal. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT correctly identified all cases of CNS lymphoma and CTOX, supporting its use in this situation. MRS was unhelpful in our cohort

  6. Does the cerebral cortex exacerbate dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra of 6OHDA-lesioned rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquin, Natasha; Mitrofanis, John

    2008-01-01

    We have explored the survival of dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats with prior cortical removal. There were approximately 35% more dopaminergic cells in the ventral sector of SNc (vSNc) of 6OHDA-lesioned rats that had prior cortical removal compared to those that did not. By contrast, there were no differences in dopaminergic cell number between these experimental groups in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the dorsal sector of SNc (dSNc). Hence, prior cortical removal in 6OHDA-lesioned rats neuroprotected vSNc--but not VTA or dSNc--dopaminergic cells from death.

  7. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii irradiated with 255 Gy induces decrease of cysts and cerebral lesions in mice challenged with cysts of ME-49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Galisteo Juniorm Andres Jimenez; Nascimento, Nanci do; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions in normal individuals and several diseases in foetus, HIV infection and transplants. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle, involving cats, as the definitive host, and warm blood species, as intermediated hosts. The infection occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with infected cat faeces, contaminated milk and cheese or raw and undercook meat of the intermediated hosts. To date, there is no commercial vaccine of use in humans. In this work, tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain were irradiated with 255 Gy and inoculated in C57Bl/6j mice (3 doses, biweekly), after mice were challenged with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 25 cysts of ME-49 by oral gavage. The lesions and cysts in the brain were analyzed in all mice, after 4-week post infection. The mortality was 20% in control mice (ME-49 cysts only) and not one in immunized mice. The number of cysts was high in the control group, but low in immunized 255 Gy mice (n<100). Immunized mice showed less cerebral pathology and necrosis foci. Ionizing radiation is an important tool in the study toxoplasmosis and vaccine development. (author)

  8. Concentration of labelled polyphosphates in soft tissue lesions. Application to the study of cerebral and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemart, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    The biological behavior and tissue localization of phosphorus compounds used in Nuclear Medicine are reviewed. The mechanism of skeletal localization is emphasized. Labeled pyrophosphate compounds have proved extremely useful for skeletal imaging, however the mechanism of increased accumulation of these agents has been observed also in soft tissues. They localize in the acutely infarcted myocardium and in brain lesions. Clinical results obtained with sup(99m)Tc stannous pyrophosphate in brain and myocardium imaging are reported [fr

  9. Epidemiological data and a score-based study of renal, hepatic and cerebral lesions in feline infectious peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the epidemiological and pathological findings observed in a population of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and estimated the degree of tissue destruction in the kidney, brain, and liver. A retrospective study was performed to determine the number of cats with a histopathological diagnosis of FIP between 2005-2016, at the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The histopathological alterations in selected organs (brain, liver and kidneys associated with FIP were described and then compared with a scoring system to estimate the degree of tissue destruction. FIP was diagnosed in 3.7% (19/520 of all cats necropsied during the 11-year period; sexual and breed predominance were not identified. Cats that were less than one-year-old were more frequently diagnosed with FIP. Pyogranulomatous nephritis with vasculitis (94.7%; 18/19, coagulative renal necrosis (84.2%; 16/19, hepatocellular necrosis (57.9; 11/19, and necrotizing leptomeningitis (47.4%; 9/19 were the most frequent lesions observed. Moreover, FIP-associated renal lesions were more severe and frequently observed when compared with those in the brain and liver. It is proposed that necrosis be considered as an important lesion associated with FIP that should be included in the histopathological diagnosis of this disease.

  10. Intra-lesional spatial correlation of static and dynamic FET-PET parameters with MRI-based cerebral blood volume in patients with untreated glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Jens; Preibisch, Christine [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Lukas, Mathias; Mustafa, Mona; Schwaiger, Markus; Pyka, Thomas [TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Kluge, Anne; Kaczmarz, Stephan; Zimmer, Claus [TU Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [TU Muenchen, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Bayreuth, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences. Static FET-uptake and dynamic FET-slope were correlated with rCBV within tumour hotspots across patients and intra-lesionally using a mixed-effects model to account for inter-individual variation. Furthermore, maximal congruency of tumour volumes defined by FET-uptake and rCBV was determined. While the inter-individual relationship between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV could be confirmed, our intra-lesional, voxel-wise analysis revealed significant positive correlations (median r = 0.374, p < 0.0001). Similarly, significant inter- and intra-individual correlations were observed between FET-slope and rCBV. However, rCBV explained only 12% of the static and 5% of the dynamic FET-PET variance and maximal overlap of respective tumour volumes was 37% on average. Our results show that the relation between peak values of MR-based rCBV and static FET-uptake can also be observed intra-individually on a voxel basis and also applies to a dynamic FET parameter, possibly determining hotspots of higher biological malignancy. However, just a small part of the FET-PET signal variance is explained by rCBV and tumour volumes determined by the two modalities showed only moderate overlap. These findings indicate that FET-PET and MR-based rCBV provide both congruent and complimentary information on glioma biology. (orig.)

  11. Intra-lesional spatial correlation of static and dynamic FET-PET parameters with MRI-based cerebral blood volume in patients with untreated glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttler, Jens; Lukas, Mathias; Kluge, Anne; Kaczmarz, Stephan; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Mustafa, Mona; Meyer, Bernhard; Zimmer, Claus; Schwaiger, Markus; Förster, Stefan; Preibisch, Christine; Pyka, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    18 F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences. Static FET-uptake and dynamic FET-slope were correlated with rCBV within tumour hotspots across patients and intra-lesionally using a mixed-effects model to account for inter-individual variation. Furthermore, maximal congruency of tumour volumes defined by FET-uptake and rCBV was determined. While the inter-individual relationship between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV could be confirmed, our intra-lesional, voxel-wise analysis revealed significant positive correlations (median r = 0.374, p dynamic FET-PET variance and maximal overlap of respective tumour volumes was 37% on average. Our results show that the relation between peak values of MR-based rCBV and static FET-uptake can also be observed intra-individually on a voxel basis and also applies to a dynamic FET parameter, possibly determining hotspots of higher biological malignancy. However, just a small part of the FET-PET signal variance is explained by rCBV and tumour volumes determined by the two modalities showed only moderate overlap. These findings indicate that FET-PET and MR-based rCBV provide both congruent and complimentary information on glioma biology.

  12. Analysis of ischemic cerebral lesions using 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance angiography after revascularization surgery for ischemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Yasuo; Mizunari, Takayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Amano, Yasuo; Mizumura, Sunao; Komaba, Yuichi; Okubo, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shiro; Teramoto, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Cerebral revascularization surgery (CRS) is increasingly recognized as an important component in the treatment of complex cerebral vascular disease and tumors. CRS requires that the incidence of perioperative neurological complications should be minimized, because CRS for ischemic disease is often not the goal of treatment, but rather a prophylactic surgery. CRS carries the risk of focal postoperative neurological deficits. Little has been established concerning mechanisms of post-CRS ischemia. We used 3.0-T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to analyze the incidence and mechanism of ischemic lesions. We studied the anterior circulation territory after 20 CRS procedures involving 33 vascular anastomosis procedures (13 double anastomoses and 7 single anastomoses) in 12 men and 8 women between June 2007 and October 2011. The operations included single or double superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis to treat internal carotid artery/MCA occlusions or severe MCA stenosis. A combined STA-MCA anastomosis and indirect bypass were performed for moyamoya disease. Postoperative DWI and MRA were obtained in all patients between 24 and 96 h after surgery to detect thromboembolism, hypoperfusion, or procedural ischemic complications and vasospasms of the donor STA. Follow-up DWI and MRA were carried out 1.8±0.6 days after CRS (range, 1-4 days). Temporary occlusion time for anastomoses averaged 18.9 min (range, 16-32 min). Asymptomatic new hyperintensities occurred in the ipsilateral hemisphere of 2 patients on postoperative DWI (10% patients/6.0% anastomoses), and 1 moyamoya patient (5.0% patients/3.0% anastomoses) developed a symptomatic hyperintensity in the ipsilateral occipital lobe in response to the operation. Two abnormal small (3.0-T DWI study of CRS and related clinical events. The incidence of symptomatic postoperative DWI abnormalities was restricted to 1 moyamoya patient

  13. Constraints on grip selection in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: effects of lesional side, end-point accuracy, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Bert; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Rosenbaum, David A

    2004-04-01

    This study was concerned with selection criteria used for grip planning in adolescents with left or right hemiparetic cerebral palsy. In the first experiment, we asked participants to pick up a pencil and place the tip in a pre-defined target region. We varied the size of the target to test the hypothesis that increased end-point precision demands would favour the use of a grip that affords end-state comfort. In the second experiment, we studied grip planning in three task contexts that were chosen to let us test the hypothesis that a more functional task context would likewise promote the end-state comfort effect. When movements were performed with the impaired hand, we found that participants with right hemiparesis (i.e., left brain damage) aimed for postural comfort at the start rather than at the end of the object-manipulation phase in both experiments. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis (i.e., right brain damage) did not favour a particular selection criterion with the impaired hand in the first experiment, but aimed for postural comfort at the start in the second experiment. When movements were performed with the unimpaired hand, grip selection criteria again differed for right and left hemiparetic participants. Participants with right hemiparesis did not favour a particular selection criterion with the unimpaired hand in the first experiment and only showed the end-state comfort effect in the most functional tasks of the second experiment. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis showed the end-state comfort effect in all conditions of both experiments. These data suggest that the left hemisphere plays a special role in action planning, as has been recognized before, and that one of the deficits accompanying left brain damage is a deficit in forward movement planning, which has not been recognized before. Our findings have both theoretical and clinical implications.

  14. The value of intraoperative ultrasound (IUS) examination for the visualization of metastatic cerebral lesions, compared with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacikowska, M.; Szczerbicki, M.; Grzesiakowska, U.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is: 1. to assess the value of intraoperative ultrasonographic examination (IUSG) in confirming intraoperatively the presence of metastatic tumours detected preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance tomography (MRI), 2. to evaluate an accordance of the numbers, localization and dimensions of metastatic tumours recognized preoperatively (CT and MRI) with those shown by intraoperative USG, 3. to comparatively assess the images of metastatic tumours found in preoperative CT and MRI examinations and in intraoperative USG examinations. Sixteen patients were operated upon for metastatic intracranial tumours from various primary foci. All patients had diagnostic brain examinations before the operation: MRI and CT in 7 cases, only MRI in 3 cases, only CT in 6 cases. Intraoperative USG examination was done in all cases. Retrospective analysis included: 1. comparative assessment of the images of metastatic tumours in intraoperative USG versus preoperative MRI and CT findings, 2. analysis of the number, localization and dimensions of metastatic tumours detected preoperatively and in intraoperative USG examination. The comparison of the greatest dimensions of metastatic lesions measured in CT and MRI findings, and in intraoperative USG based on Student t test showed no statistically significant differences between the examinations performed, p=0.2449. No statistically significant difference were found either between the numbers of metastatic lesions detected by these methods, p=0.71830. In the analysis of the images of metastatic lesions in preoperative examinations, the non--homogenous foci with margin enhancement after administration of gadolinium or contrast medium, with inner area not enhanced (necrosis?) were found in 8 cases (10 foci lesions), and in USG in 6 cases (9 focal lesions). In one case (one lesion) USG showed that the tumour was hypo echogenic as a whole, without areola around it. Intraoperative USG examination

  15. A Patient with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Presenting with Executive Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Kasuga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects males who are carriers of a premutation of a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene. In Asian populations, FXTAS has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a Japanese FXTAS patient who showed predominant executive cognitive deficits as the main feature of his disease. In contrast, the patient exhibited only very mild symptoms of intention tremor and ataxia, which did not interfere with daily activities. A gene analysis revealed that the patient carried a premutation of a CGG expansion (111 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. The mRNA expression level of FMR1 in the patient was 1.5-fold higher than in controls. On brain MRI scans, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed high-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles and the cerebral white matter, with a frontal predominance. The present case extends previous notions regarding the cognitive impairment in FXTAS patients. Recognizing FXTAS patients with predominant cognitive impairment from various ethnic backgrounds would contribute to our understanding of the phenotypic variation of this disease.

  16. Microembolism after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Nagata, Izumi

    2000-01-01

    Acute microemboli are detected more precisely with the recently developed diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). We happened to obtain 24 DWIs after 350 diagnostic cerebral angiographies in 1999. DWIs after cerebral angiographies showed bright lesions in 7 patients (28%), of whom 6 had no neurological symptoms after cerebral angiography. Seven of the 24 patients had risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Only one patient had embolic events due to angiography. Microemboli related to cerebral angiographies are inevitable in some patients. Most are silent, however, we should investigate the cause of microemboli and should make cerebral angiography safer. (author)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging for cerebral lesions during minimal invasive mitral valve surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Cristina; Ricci, Davide; Cura Stura, Erik; Pellegrini, Augusto; Marchetto, Giovanni; ElQarra, Suad; Boffini, Massimo; Passera, Roberto; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2017-02-21

    Recent data have highlighted a higher rate of neurological injuries in minimal invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) compared with the standard sternotomy approach; therefore, the role of specific clamping techniques and perfusion strategies on the occurrence of this complication is a matter of discussion in the medical literature. The purpose of this trial is to prospectively evaluate major, minor and silent neurological events in patients undergoing right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve surgery using retrograde perfusion and an endoaortic clamp or a transthoracic clamp. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled study on the rate of neurological embolizations during MIMVS started at the University of Turin in June 2014. Major, minor and silent neurological events are being investigated through standard neurological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging assessment. The magnetic resonance imaging protocol includes conventional sequences for the morphological and quantitative assessment and nonconventional sequences for the white matter microstructural evaluation. Imaging studies are performed before surgery as baseline assessment and on the third postoperative day and, in patients who develop postoperative ischemic lesions, after 6 months. Despite recent concerns raised about the endoaortic setting with retrograde perfusion, we expect to show equivalence in terms of neurological events of this technique compared with the transthoracic clamp in a selected cohort of patients. With the first results expected in December 2016 the findings would be of help in confirming the efficacy and safety of MIMVS. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02818166 . Registered on 8 February 2016 - trial retrospectively registered.

  18. Involvement of lipoprotein(a) phenotypes in the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion seen in the elderly with geriatric syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiki; Koyama, Syun-ichi; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Arai, Hisayuki

    2009-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an apolipoprotein(a) combined with apoB100 protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, has a variety of phenotypes, mainly due to the number of kringle 4 type 2 within the apolipoprotein(a), and kringle 4 type 2 is extremely similar to plasminogen. Lp(a) is well-known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, however, the association between Lp(a) phenotypes and the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion, so-called leukoaraiosis seen commonly in the elderly, remains unclear. We therefore conducted a study in 113 elderly patients with geriatric syndrome by assessing MR images and determining the Lp(a) phenotypes. They were divided into 4 groups according to the Fazekas scale for grading leukoaraiosis, and we compared the distribution of Lp(a) phenotypes and background factors in each group. Factors related to severe leuko-araiosis were also studied by multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences in age or gender among groups. Alzheimer disease and cardioembolic stroke were frequently seen in groups without leukoaraiosis or with mild leukoaraiosis, whereas the frequencies of vascular risks, previous history of stroke and vascular dementia were high in group with severe leukoaraiosis. Multivariate analysis showed strong association of S4 homozygote of the Lp(a) phenotype to severe leukoaraiosis, indicating the S4 homozygote as an independent factor for severe leukoaraiosis as well as hypertension, a high level of Lp(a) of 40 mg/dl or more. Among all patients, a high Lp(a) level and S4 homozygote, showing a low level of Lp(a), were seen in 20.4%, respectively. This contradictory finding that high levels of Lp(a) and S4 homozygote were both associated with severe leukoaraiosis indicated the possibility of different mechanisms for developing white matter lesions; a high level of Lp(a) (LDL cholesterol and apoB100 protein rich) promotes atherosclerosis of major arteries such as the carotid artery, while S4 homozygote [low

  19. Low cerebral blood flow in hypotensive perinatal distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, H.C.; Lassen, N.A.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1977-01-01

    Hypoxic brain injury is the most important neurological problem in the neonatal period and accounts for more neurological deficits in children than any other lesion. The neurological deficits are notably mental retardation, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. The pathogenesis has hitherto been poorly understood. Arterial hypoxia has been taken as the obvious mechanism but this does not fully explain the patho-anatomical findings. In the present investigation we have examined the arterial blood pressure and the cerebral blood flow in eight infants a few hours after birth. The 133Xe clearance technique was used for the cerebral blood flow measurements. The study confirmed that perinatal distress may be associated with low arterial blood pressure, and it was shown that cerebral blood flow is very low, 20 ml/100 g/min or less, in hypotensive perinatal distress. It is concluded that cerebral ischaemia plays a crucial role in the development of perinatal hypoxic brain injury. (author)

  20. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.R.; Birzgalis, A.R.; Ramsden, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    Intralabyrinthine schwannomas are rare benign tumours which present with progressive or fluctuant audiovestibular symptoms and may mimic Menieres disease. The size and position of these lesions make preoperative diagnosis unusual and most are discovered incidentally at labyrinthectomy. A case is reported which was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgery. (orig.)

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rhijn Lodewijk W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial.

  2. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  3. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Mebius, Mirthe J; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2017-01-01

    In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) between infants with LSOL with antegrade and retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta and with and without diastolic backflow in the descending aorta. Based on 2 echocardiograms, the study group was categorized according to the direction of blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta. We measured cerebral and renal rSO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy and calculated fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE). Nineteen infants with LSOL, admitted to the NICU between 0 and 28 days after birth, were included. Infants with antegrade blood flow (n = 12) and infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta (n = 7) had similar cerebral rSO2 and FTOE during both echocardiograms. Only during the first echocardiogram, infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta had lower renal FTOE (0.14 vs. 0.32, p = 0.04) and tended to have higher renal rSO2 (80 vs. 65%, p = 0.09). The presence of diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with cerebral or renal rSO2 and FTOE during the first (n = 8) as well as the second echocardiogram (n = 10). Retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta was not associated with cerebral oxygenation, while diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with renal oxygenation in infants with LSOL. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [Cerebral protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    metabolic standpoint, exposure to isoflurane at concentration of 2 MAC is credited with providing the same potential for protection as high dose barbiturate (isoelectric EEG). A possible major difference between barbiturates and isoflurane is the modest cerebral vasodilation induced by the latter while barbiturates are associated with decreased CBF. This suggests that in focal ischemia isoflurane may elicit an intracerebral steal. 3) Calcium entry blockers. Some calcium entry blockers with the distinctive feature of acting preferably on cerebral as opposed to systemic vascular smooth muscles may exert beneficial effects during or after brain ischemia. Two such drugs which have shown promise are nimodipine and lidoflazine. In animal and human studies nimodipine has been reported to improve the neurologic outcome of both the cerebral vasospasm and the postischemic hypoperfusion state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  5. The CT manifestations and clinical analysis of traumatic cerebral infarction in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianbo; Lin Shunfa; Huang Xiaohui; Xiao Zhe; Lu Sifang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pathogenesis, CT manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of traumatic cerebral infarction in children. Methods: Axial head CT scanning was performed in 35 cases, meanwhile the treatment included vessel dilatation, anti-spasm, nerve nourishment and anti-coagulation. Results: The traumatic cerebral infarction in children was commonly located in the basal ganglia. CT scan revealed low dense lesions in all cases. 33 patients out of 35 convalesced gradually, when no anomaly was shown on CT. The rest 2 patients improved, whose lesions decreased in size on CT images. Conclusion: The major pathophysiology of traumatic cerebral infarction in children is occlusion of cerebral microcirculation and convulsion of vein after trauma. CT scan and follow-up are of great value in monitoring the damages. Early diagnosis and treatment result in good prognosis

  6. Tracking the Evolution of Cerebral Gadolinium-Enhancing Lesions to Persistent T1 Black Holes in Multiple Sclerosis: Validation of a Semiautomated Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermatt, Simon; Papadopoulou, Athina; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Cattin, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials. We created a semiautomated workflow for tracking the evolution of individual MS lesions, to calculate the proportion of enhancing lesions becoming persistent BHs at follow-up. Our workflow automatically coregisters, compares, and detects overlaps between lesion masks at different time points. We tested the algorithm in a data set of Magnetic Resonance images (1.5 and 3T; spin-echo T1-sequences) from a phase 3 clinical trial (n = 1,272), in which all enhancing lesions and all BHs had been previously segmented at baseline and year 2. The algorithm analyzed the segmentation masks in a longitudinal fashion to determine which enhancing lesions at baseline turned into BHs at year 2. Images of 50 patients (192 enhancing lesions) were also reviewed by an experienced MRI rater, blinded to the algorithm results. In this MRI data set, there were no cases that could not be processed by the algorithm. At year 2, 417 lesions were classified as persistent BHs (417/1,613 = 25.9%). The agreement between the rater and the algorithm was > 98%. Due to the semiautomated procedure, this algorithm can be of great value in the analysis of large clinical trials, when a rater-based analysis would be time-consuming. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. The value of qualitative and quantitative assessment of lesion to cerebral cortex signal ratio on double inversion recovery sequence in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques from non-specific T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan; Tasdemir, Serdar [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Yalcin [Golcuk Military Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  9. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Ahishali, B.; Rozanes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  10. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  11. Metabolite changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebral hemispheres in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ruan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia not only causes pathological changes in the ischemic areas but also induces a series of secondary changes in more distal brain regions (such as the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The impact of supratentorial lesions, which are the most common type of lesion, on the contralateral cerebellum has been studied in patients by positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. In the present study, we investigated metabolite changes in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere after supratentorial unilateral ischemia using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomics. The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke was established in rats. Rats were randomly divided into the middle cerebral artery occlusion 1-, 3-, 9- and 24-hour groups and the sham group. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect metabolites in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Compared with the sham group, the concentrations of lactate, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, choline and glycine in the ischemic cerebral hemisphere were increased in the acute stage, while the concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate, creatinine, glutamate and aspartate were decreased. This demonstrates that there is an upregulation of anaerobic glycolysis (shown by the increase in lactate, a perturbation of choline metabolism (suggested by the increase in choline, neuronal cell damage (shown by the decrease in N-acetyl aspartate and neurotransmitter imbalance (evidenced by the increase in γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine and by the decrease in glutamate and aspartate in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. In the contralateral hemisphere, the concentrations of lactate, alanine, glycine, choline and aspartate were increased, while the concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate and creatinine were decreased. This suggests that there is a

  12. Bilateral basal ganglia necrosis following exogenous toxins shown on computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S

    1982-09-01

    By means of cranial computer tomography, it is possible to demonstrate the cerebral consequences of severe intoxications in vivo. A variety of different toxic agents produce similar disease patterns, which are thought to be due to fall in blood pressure caused by the toxin. The lesions are mainly localised in the basal ganglia at the borders of contiguous vascular territories. Six patients observed by the authors are described.

  13. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  14. Prospective study of p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine and SPECT for the evaluation of newly diagnosed cerebral lesions: specific confirmation of glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Dirk; Schaefer, Andrea; Farmakis, Georgios; Grgic, Aleksandar; Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ketter, Ralf; Moringlane, Jean R.; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Homburg (Germany); Romeike, Bernd F.M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Institute of Neuropathology, Homburg (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-University, Department of Neuropathology, Jena (Germany); Samnick, Samuel [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The differentiation between gliomas, metastases and gliotic or inflammatory lesions by imaging techniques remains a challenge. Gliomas frequently exhibit increased uptake of radiolabelled amino acids and are thus amenable to PET or SPECT imaging. Recently, p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine (IPA) was validated for the visualization of glioma by SPECT and received orphan drug status. Here we investigated its diagnostic performance for differentiating indeterminate brain lesions. This prospective open study included 67 patients with newly diagnosed brain lesions suspicious for glioma (34 without and 33 with contrast enhancement in the MRI scan). Patients received 250 MBq IPA intravenously after overnight fasting. SPECT images at 30 min and 3 h post-injection were iteratively reconstructed and visually interpreted after image fusion with an MRI brain scan (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence or T1-weighted contrast-enhanced image). Findings were correlated with results of stereotactic or open biopsies or serial imaging. Twenty-seven low-grade (2 WHO I, 25 WHO II) and 24 high-grade gliomas (1 WHO III, 23 WHO IV), 3 metastases originating from lung cancer as well as 13 non-neoplastic lesions were proven. All non-neoplastic lesions and all metastases were negative with IPA SPECT. Forty gliomas were true-positive (TP) and 11 false-negative (FN) findings (8 WHO II, 1 WHO III, 2 WHO IV) occurred. There were no false-positive (FP) findings. For the differentiation of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions, sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 100%. In 34 lesions without contrast enhancement in MRI, IPA SPECT resulted in 17 TP, 8 true-negative, 9 FN and no FP findings (sensitivity 65%, specificity 100%). In patients with suspected glioma, IPA SPECT shows a high specificity, but especially in low-grade gliomas FN findings may occur. Due to the high positive predictive value a positive finding allows a suspected glioma to be confirmed. (orig.)

  15. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  16. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  17. Pharmacologic modulation of cerebral metabolic derangement and excitotoxicity in a porcine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Jin, Guang; Imam, Ayesha M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic derangement and excitotoxicity play critical roles in the evolution of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have shown previously that treatment with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) decreases the size of brain lesion. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether...

  18. Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparética em crianças com lesões predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de crânio Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetraparetic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iwabe

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a distribuição e intensidade do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparética espástica (PC-T, correlacionando os dados clínicos com a localização da lesão no sistema nervoso central. MÉTODO: Foram incluídas 12 crianças de dois a quatro anos de idade com lesões predominantemente corticais (seis crianças e subcorticais (seis crianças. O tono foi analisado nos membros superiores (MMSS e inferiores (MMII baseado no protocolo de Durigon e Piemonte. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante quanto à intensidade e distribuição de tono em MMSS e MMII nos dois grupos. Comparando os MMSS e MMII de sujeitos do mesmo grupo, os MMII apresentaram mais assimetrias e maior intensidade do tono do que os MMSS. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, crianças com PC devido a lesões predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais apresentam déficit semelhante na modulação de tono, ocasionando distribuição simétrica e homogênea de hipertonia que predomina em MMII.OBJECTIVE: To compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetraparetic cerebral palsy (CP, correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. METHOD: Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children and subcortical lesions (six children were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL and lower limbs (LLLL based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. RESULT: There was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. CONCLUSION: In this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL.

  19. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Detected Ischemic Lesions following Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K M; Brinjikji, W; Murad, M H; Kallmes, D F; Cloft, H J; Lanzino, G

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is associated with the risk of thromboembolic ischemic complications. Many of these events are asymptomatic and identified only on diffusion-weighted imaging. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. A comprehensive literature search identified studies published between 2000 and April 2016 that reported postprocedural DWI findings in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The primary outcome was the incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events. We examined outcomes by treatment type, sex, and aneurysm characteristics. Meta-analyses were performed by using a random-effects model. Twenty-two studies with 2148 patients and 2268 aneurysms were included. The overall incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events following endovascular treatment was 49% (95% CI, 42%-56%). Treatment with flow diversion trended toward a higher rate of DWI positive for lesions than coiling alone (67%; 95% CI, 46%-85%; versus 45%; 95% CI, 33%-56%; P = .07). There was no difference between patients treated with coiling alone and those treated with balloon-assisted (44%; 95% CI, 29%-60%; P = .99) or stent-assisted (43%; 95% CI, 24%-63%; P = .89) coiling. Sex, aneurysm rupture status, location, and size were not associated with the rate of DWI positive for lesions. One in 2 patients may have infarcts on DWI following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. There is a trend toward a higher incidence of DWI-positive lesions following treatment with flow diversion compared with coiling. Patient demographics and aneurysm characteristics were not associated with DWI-positive thromboembolic events. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  1. Directional character of spreading of vasogenic cerebral edema after radiation damage in rhesus monkeys, and effects of removal of the primary lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Iguchi, Takahiko; Nakagaki, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Black, P.; O'Neill, R.R.; Caveness, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Five pubescent rhesus monkeys were exposed to 35 Gy of orthovoltage x-irradiation in a single dose to the right visual cortex. Twenty to 36 weeks later the irradiated region broke down rather abruptly. Steep rise of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) indicated disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) and tissue breakdown. Visual evoked response (VER), funduscopic and clinical findings suggested disfunction of neural tissues and increased intracranial pressure. Extraordinary brain swelling and distortion were observed at the time of sacrifice. The most striking finding was that the ipsilateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, where radiation did not affect directly, were selectively swollen and edematous sparing the superior temporal gyrus. Corticocortical neuronal connections between visual cortex and inferior convexity of the temporal lobe has been demonstrated by Kuypers et al. Our previous studies also disclosed selective swelling of other remote visual association areas, i. e., ipsilateral lateral geniculate body and uncinate fasciculus. Thus, edema fluid might propagate from the site of the lesion through the anatomic pathways. In the group of monkeys, which received surgical removals of damaged right occipital lobes where BBB was disrupted, CSF protein and LDH drastically returned to the normal base line values after the surgery. Furthermore, no swelling of ipsilateral middle and inferior temporal gyri was observed in this group at the time of sacrifice, indicating that spreaded vasogenic edema could be subdued by removing the primary lesion. (author)

  2. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru

    1992-01-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  3. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  4. Estudo prospectivo comparativo entre a endarterectomia e a angioplastia com stent e proteção cerebral no tratamento das lesões ateroscleróticas carotídeas: resultados em 30 dias Prospective and comparative study between endarterectomy and stent angioplasty with cerebral protection in carotid atherosclerotic lesions: 30-day results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Carlos de Almeida Tinoco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente os resultados, em 30 dias, entre a endarterectomia e a angioplastia com stent auto-expansível e filtro de proteção cerebral, avaliando a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral e óbito, bem como o tempo de permanência hospitalar no tratamento das lesões ateroscleróticas da bifurcação carotídea. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, em que foram tratados 80 pacientes, sintomáticos e assintomáticos, com lesões estenóticas maiores que 60 e 70%, respectivamente, da bifurcação carotídea. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de 40 pacientes, que foram avaliados quanto a sexo, idade, comorbidades associadas e tabagismo. RESULTADOS: A taxa de acidente vascular cerebral e óbito foi de 5,0% em ambas as técnicas. Ocorreu um caso (2,5% de ataque isquêmico transitório no grupo endovascular e nenhum na endarterectomia. No que se refere ao tempo de internação, o tratamento endovascular apresentou menor tempo em relação à endarterectomia, sendo estatisticamente significativo (P OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the 30-day results between endarterectomy and angioplasty using self-expandable stent and filter protection in the treatment of carotid bifurcation atherosclerotic lesions. The primary endpoint was to analyze stroke and death rate, as well hospitalization time. METHODS: Comparative and prospective study in 80 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, with carotid bifurcation stenotic lesions greater than 60 and 70%, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups of 40 and assessed according to gender, age, associated comorbid conditions and smoking. RESULTS: The stroke and death rate was 5.0% for both techniques. There was only one case of transient ischemic attack (2.5% in the endovascular group. Regarding hospitalization time, it was significantly lower in favor of the endovascular technique, with statistical significance (P < 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a 5

  5. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  6. Surgical pathology of epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic cerebral lesions: a brief introduction with special reference to hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Hori, Tomokatsu; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    Among epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic lesions, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) and malformation of cortical development (MCD) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are the two most frequent causes of drug-resistant focal epilepsies constituting about 50% of all surgical pathology of epilepsy. Several distinct histological patterns have been historically recognized in both HS and FCD, and several studies have tried to perform clinicopathological correlation; results, however, have been controversial, particularly in terms of postsurgical seizure outcome. Recently, the International League Against Epilepsy constituted a Task Forces of Neuropathology and FCD within the Commission on Diagnostic Methods, to establish an international consensus of histological classification of HS and FCD, respectively, based on agreement with the recognition of the importance of defining a histopathological classification system that reliably has some clinicopathological correlation. Such consensus classifications are likely to facilitate future clinicopathological study. Meanwhile, we reviewed neuropathology of 41 surgical cases of mTLE, and confirmed three type/patterns of HS along with no HS, based on the qualitative evaluation of the distribution and severity of neuronal loss and gliosis within hippocampal formation; i.e., HS type 1 (61%) equivalent to ‘classical’ Ammon’s horn sclerosis, HS type 2 (2%) representing CA1 sclerosis, HS type 3 (17%) equivalent to end folium sclerosis, and no HS (19%). Furthermore we performed a neuropathological comparative study on mTLE-HS and dementia associated HS (d-HS) in elderly, and confirmed that neuropathological features differ between mTLE-HS and d-HS in the distribution of hippocampal neuronal loss and gliosis, morphology of reactive astrocytes and their protein expression, and presence of concomitant neurodegenerative changes particularly Alzheimer type and TDP-43 pathologies. These

  7. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  8. Attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Shiraishi, Junzo

    1982-06-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms.

  9. Cerebral fat embolism. Case report and its computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-11-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semicoma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment.

  10. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  12. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  13. Cerebral microangiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  14. Cerebral MR imaging in vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.; Geissler, A.; Peter, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for the detection of cerebral involvement in vasculitis. Seventy-six patient with proved systematic vasculitis and two with isolated cerebral vasculitis were examined. Half of them had central nervous system symptoms. T2-weighted sequences were performed at 2 T in most cases. All but two symptomatic and one-third of the asymptomatic patients showed pathologic changes in the white matter. The distribution and shape of lesions depend on the caliber of the involved vessel. In small-vessel vasculitis, the distribution was mostly subcortical, the average size was 0.5--10 mm, and lesions were predominantly round

  15. Misdiagnosis of intraspinal lesions in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... Three children with intraspinal mass lesions in whom the diagnosis was .... received occupational therapy and physiotherapy. From the age of 10 ... a cerebral palsy school at the age of 12 years with the diagnosis o~ cerebral ... exercise) or sensory abnormalities in the limbs (such as 'pins and needles' ...

  16. Current status and outlook of endovascular therapy for cerebral ischemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minghua; Zhao Jungong

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of diagnostic technology and increasing advent of new materials for intervention has created a new area for endovascular therapy of cerebral ischemic diseases. Current research findings have shown that endovascular thrombolysis in acute stage of cerebral infarction can accelerate the rate of re-canalization of occluded arteries and greatly decrease the morbidity and mortality of cerebral ischemic vascular diseases. Stenting of arterial stenosis can the improve of blood supply distal to the lesion, prevent recurrent cerebral ischemic stroke. As a result, endovascular thrombolysis for acute cerebral infarction and stenting for intracranial and carotid arterial stenosis are booming both at home and abroad. Proper selection of patients of acute cerebral infarction for endovascular thrombolysis with less complications could be achieved through CT perfusion, MR perfusion-weighted image (PWI) and diffusion-weighted image (DWI), non-invasive vascular imaging technology including CEMRA and CTA for confirming and demonstrating the sites and causes of cerebral ischemia, and furthermore for evaluating the survival ability and etc. The research team administered albumin and magnesium sulfate as neurological protection drug to treat rat infarction model within 6 hours of onset resulting with the same effect of decreasing the damage of ischemic cerebral tissue and without hemorrhagic complication. It is certain that hemorrhagic complication in thrombolysis is a result of multiple factors with no single drug being able to solve the problem. It is predictable that, based on semi-quantitative or quantitative parameters of CT or MRI in conjunction with PWI/DWI mismatch model rather than simply on the onset time of infarction for proper selection of patients of cerebral infarction, mechanic thrombus-disruption and/or intra-arterial thrombolysis together with intervention of neurological protection drug will be the trend for treating acute cerebral infarction in the future

  17. Cerebral Oximetry in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of numerous current references, the review describes different neuromonitoring methods during cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. It shows that it is important and necessary to make neuromonitoring for the early diagnosis and prevention of neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Particular attention is given to cerebral oximetry; the possibilities and advantages of this technique are described. Correction of cerebral oximetric values is shown to improve survival rates and to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Lack of cerebral oximetry monitoring denudes a clinician of important information and possibilities to optimize patient status and to prevent potentially menacing complications, which allows one to conclude that it is necessary to use cerebral oximetry procedures within neu-romonitoring in cardiac surgery. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  18. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  19. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  20. Cerebral Dysfunctions Related to Perinatal Organic Damage: Clinical-Neuropathologic Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Recent neuropathology studies identify hypoxia as the main cause of perinatal cerebral damage. Cerebral lesions present at birth, with transition to chronic scar lesions, are correlated to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and minimal brain dysfunction. Gestation age and severity of hypoxic exposure essentially determine the cerebral…

  1. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  2. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  3. An attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Junzo.

    1982-01-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms. (author)

  4. Remote multiple intracranial hemorrhage in multiple metastatic lung adenocarcinoma following decompression of posterior fossa lesion: Unknown cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas Konar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastasis can present with hemorrhage. However, multiple hemorrhages in metastatic lesions following surgical decompression of a single lesion are never reported. We report a case of cerebral metastasis from lung cancer that developed multiple hemorrhages in supratentorial metastatic lesions following surgical resection of an infratentorial lesion.

  5. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  6. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Enzensberger, W. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral infarcts resulting from trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.

    1985-01-01

    Vascular occlusions due to cerebral trauma have always been regarded as great rarities. However, we have found hypo-dense foci of vascular distribution in 3.5% of 3500 CT examinations for trauma during the late phase. Lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery are usually the result of supratentorial pressure rise from epidural and subdural haematomas, leading to compression of the vessels against the edge of the tentorium. Typical infacts in the territory of the medial and anterior cerebral arteries were found only rarely by CT after cerebral trauma. Infarcts at the watersheds between the three vascular territories were found with surprising frequency and small infarcts were found in the basal ganglia. It is assumed that these were due to ischaemic or hypoxic events due to cardiac or pulmonary complications during the initial phase. (orig.) [de

  8. NMR imaging of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Yamaoka, Naoki; Doi, Kazuaki; Okada, Keisei

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and five patients with cerebral infarction were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) CT (resistive type of magnet with strength of 0.1 tesla) and X-ray CT. Pulse sequences used saturation recovery (Tr = 600 mSec), Inversion recovery (Tr = 500 mSec, Td = 300 mSec) and spin echo (Tr = 1500 mSec, Te = 40, 80, 120, 160 mSec). Fifteen cases were examined by NMR-CT within 24 hours from onset. Proton NMR imaging could not detect cerebral ischemia as early as 2 hours after onset, but except could detect the lesions in Se image the area of cerebral infarct 3 hours after onset. After 5 hours from onset image changes in SE were evident and corresponded to the area of cerebral infarct, but image changes in IR could not fully delineate the infarcted area. NMR images of 41 year-old woman with cerebral embolism by MCA trunck occlusion associated with mitral stenosis were presented, and NMR-CT was examined 10 hours, 9th and 43th days after episode of MCA occlusion. Sixty patents (64 times) with lacunar infarction were studied by NMR-CT and X-ray CT. The inversion recovery images were used mainly for detection of lesions and comparison with X-ray CT. In 160 lesions which were detected by NMR-CT or X-ray CT, could 156 lesions be detected by NMR-CT and 78 lesions by X-ray CT. Inversion recovery images were more useful for detection of lacunes than X-ray CT. Calculated T1 and T2 values prolonged with time course from onset. (author)

  9. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca; Narchiori, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  10. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardamaglia, L.; Desmond, P.M.; Gonzales, M.F.; Bendrups, A.; Brodtmann, A.

    2001-01-01

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T 1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  11. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  12. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  13. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  14. Histopathologically verified cerebral CT findings in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H.; Iglesias-Rozas, J.R.; Ruf, B.

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomographic and histopathological findings in 55 patients who died of the complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were reviewed retrospectively. In 23 patients (42%) an increased space of the internal or external cerebral spinal fluid was diagnosed. 20 patients (36%) had focal lesions. We differentiated between single, multiple and ring-shaped lesions with contrast enhancement and hypodense lesions. In 12 cases (22%) no CT abnormalities were found. Focal lesions proved to be secondary to toxoplasmosis in 85%. Single lesions were never caused by toxoplasmosis. (orig.) [de

  15. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  16. Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogaki, Satoko; Suzuki, Masatsune; Shimano, Hitoshi; Toyoshima, Hideo; Sone, Hirohito; Okuda, Yukichi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma. A 55-year-old woman was hospitalized to check for aldosteronism, post-operative pituitary function, and recurrence of thyroid cancer. She had short-term memory disturbance beginning two months prior to admission. Brain MRI showed a T1 and T2 high intensity lesion of her left anterolateral thalamus. Brain MRA revealed a narrowing in her left middle cerebral artery. The abnormal brain lesion was diagnosed as cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. She had received radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma 20 years earlier. It was considered that her cerebral hemorrhagic infarction was caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Modulation of cerebral blood flow with transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Stewart, Roy; Staal, Michiel J; Elting, Jan-Willem J.

    ObjectivesTranscutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) and spinal cord stimulation have been shown to increase peripheral and cerebral blood flow. We postulate that certain pathological conditions attenuate cerebral autoregulation, which may result in a relative increase of the importance of

  18. Modulation of cerebral blood flow with transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, M. ter; Dijk, J.M. van; Stewart, R.; Staal, M.J.; Elting, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) and spinal cord stimulation have been shown to increase peripheral and cerebral blood flow. We postulate that certain pathological conditions attenuate cerebral autoregulation, which may result in a relative increase of the importance of

  19. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation; Toxoplasmose cerebral na SIDA - avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Servico de Radiologia; Narchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  20. [Advances in genetic research of cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Fang; Luo, Rong; Qu, Yi; Mu, De-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of syndromes caused by non-progressive brain injury in the fetus or infant and can cause disabilities in childhood. Etiology of cerebral palsy has always been a hot topic for clinical scientists. More and more studies have shown that genetic factors are closely associated with the development of cerebral palsy. With the development and application of various molecular and biological techniques such as chromosome microarray analysis, genome-wide association study, and whole exome sequencing, new achievements have been made in the genetic research of cerebral palsy. Chromosome abnormalities, copy number variations, susceptibility genes, and single gene mutation associated with the development of cerebral palsy have been identified, which provides new opportunities for the research on the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. This article reviews the advances in the genetic research on cerebral palsy in recent years.

  1. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Grandse, D.; Equidazu, J.; Elizagaray, E.; Grande, J.; Carrandi, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  3. Radiologic findings of cerebral septic embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim Tae Hoon; Kim, Seung Chul; Kim, Jae Seung; Pai, Hyun Joo [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To determine the MR and CT findings which differentiate cerebral septic embolism from thrombotic infarction. Cerebral septic embolism was confirmed by blood culture in six patients and autopsy in two. The number, size, distribution, contrast enhancement, and hemorrhage of the lesions, as seen on MR and CT, were retrospectively analyzed, and four patients were followed up for between one week and seven months. In a total of eight patients, infective endocarditis (n=5) and sepsis (n=3) caused cerebral septic embolism. The number, of lesions was 3 {approx} 7 in six patients, over 10 in one, and innumerable in one: these varied in size from punctate to 6 cm and were distributed in various areas of the brain. Gyral infarction was noted in five patients: non-enhancing patchy lesions involving the basal ganglia or white matter were found in five, tiny isolated nodular or ring-enhancing small lesions involving the cortex and white matter in three, peripheral rim-enhancing large lesions in one, and numerous enhancing nodules disseminated in the cortex in one. Hemorrhage had occurred in six. follow-up studies in four patients showed that initial lesions had enlarged in two and regressed in two: new lesions had appeared in two. Multiple lesions of different sizes and various patterns which include gyral infarction, patchy or nodular lesion in the cortex, white mater of basal ganglia, and isolated small ring-like or nodular enhancement or frequent hemorrhage are findings which could be helpful in the radiologic diagnosis of cerebral septic embolism. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Radiologic findings of cerebral septic embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim Tae Hoon; Kim, Seung Chul; Kim, Jae Seung; Pai, Hyun Joo; Kim, Dong Ik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Woo Suk

    1998-01-01

    To determine the MR and CT findings which differentiate cerebral septic embolism from thrombotic infarction. Cerebral septic embolism was confirmed by blood culture in six patients and autopsy in two. The number, size, distribution, contrast enhancement, and hemorrhage of the lesions, as seen on MR and CT, were retrospectively analyzed, and four patients were followed up for between one week and seven months. In a total of eight patients, infective endocarditis (n=5) and sepsis (n=3) caused cerebral septic embolism. The number, of lesions was 3 ∼ 7 in six patients, over 10 in one, and innumerable in one: these varied in size from punctate to 6 cm and were distributed in various areas of the brain. Gyral infarction was noted in five patients: non-enhancing patchy lesions involving the basal ganglia or white matter were found in five, tiny isolated nodular or ring-enhancing small lesions involving the cortex and white matter in three, peripheral rim-enhancing large lesions in one, and numerous enhancing nodules disseminated in the cortex in one. Hemorrhage had occurred in six. follow-up studies in four patients showed that initial lesions had enlarged in two and regressed in two: new lesions had appeared in two. Multiple lesions of different sizes and various patterns which include gyral infarction, patchy or nodular lesion in the cortex, white mater of basal ganglia, and isolated small ring-like or nodular enhancement or frequent hemorrhage are findings which could be helpful in the radiologic diagnosis of cerebral septic embolism. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated

  6. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction. (J.P.N.)

  7. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  9. Epilepsy: unusual presentation of cerebral hydatid disease in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions even in the countries where the disease is endemic. Intracranial hydatid cysts are more common in children and occur more frequently in the supratentorial space. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristic features ...

  10. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT. (orig.)

  11. Low cerebral blood flow in hypotensive perinatal distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1977-01-01

    was used for the cerebral blood flow measurements. The study confirmed that perinatal distress may be associated with low arterial blood pressure, and it was shown that cerebral blood flow is very low, 20 ml/100 g/min or less, in hypotensive perinatal distress. It is concluded that cerebral ischaemia plays...... a crucial role in the development of perinatal hypoxic brain injury....

  12. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  13. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  14. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  15. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  16. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Masquerading Cns Lymphoma on FDG PET-CT in Post Renal Transplant Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation. PMID:28533649

  17. Stereotaxic microsurgical procedures of cerebral intracranial tumors guided by image and attended by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Flores, Gerardo; Guerra Figueredo, Eritk; Ochoa Zaldivar, Luis

    2000-01-01

    It is reported that spatial guidance during microsurgery is an essential element. This application of stereotaxic surgery is shown at the International Center of Neurological Restoration (Cirene) from May, 1994, to February, 1998, on describing the performance of 65 microsurgical procedures under stereotaxic conditions among 62 patients with cerebral intracranial tumors. The procedure was divided into 3 stages: image acquisition, Cat, surgical planning , with Stasis planning system, and microsurgical procedures that included the Leksell, Micromar and Esteroflex stereotaxic systems. 27 of the total of patients presented glial tumors; 33, non-glial; and only 2 non-neoplastic lesions of diverse localization and size. 30 total resections We're made. Surgical morbidity was minimum and there was no surgical mortality. The main advantages of this method are: exact localization of the craniotomy, easy spatial guidance, and the opportunity to distinguish the limits between the tumor and the sound tissue. The possibility to apply Esteroflex to cerebral microsurgery was demonstrated

  18. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  19. Scintigraphy of cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine in cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1985-01-01

    In 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident, cerebral blood flow was estimated with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) using a rotating gamma camera, and the findings were compared with those of X-CT or angiography. 123 I-IMP study demonstrated the areas of diminished cerebral blood flow in 14 cases. X-CT also demonstrated lesions in 14 cases, however, 123 I-IMP study delineated the lesions more precisely corresponding to the neurological findings. In cases with cerebellar hemorrhage or reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND), the lesion could be established only by 123 I-IMP study. It was demonstrated by 123 I-IMP study that vascular stenosis or abnormal vessels seen on angiography in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency or venous angioma was not necessarily accompanied by diminished blood flow. It was shown that scintigraphy with 123 I-IMP was a non-invasive, safe and extremely useful method to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow. (author)

  20. MR angiography of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Hitoshi; Tanada, Shuji; Sakaki, Saburo; Hamamoto, Ken; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA are examined clinically for evaluating cerebral aneurysms. In the morphological diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, three-dimensional (3D) MRA is superior to two-dimensional (2D) MRA because 3D MRA has a higher S/N ratio and a higher spatial resolution. However, it is difficult to decide which, 3D TOF MRA or 3D PC MRA, is superior, for both methods have many scan parameters. In our study, 3D PC MRA was performed using two methods; one had the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, while the other had the same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA. The detectability of aneurysms by each MRA method was evaluated in comparison with 3D TOF MRA. In fifteen patients (6 males and 9 females), a total of 16 cerebral aneurysms (3 ruptured and 13 unruptured) were studied. The lesion sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 mm. All the 16 lesions were examined by means of 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA, and conventional angiography. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 tesla MRI system (Signa). All of the 16 cerebral aneurysms were detected by 3D TOF MRA, while only 11 of them were detected by 3D PC MRA. When 3D PC MRA was performed with the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing one of the 7 aneurysms. When 3D PC MRA was performed with same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing two of the 10 aneurysms. 3D TOF MRA was superior to 3D PC MRA in the detection of cerebral aneurysms because of the long acquisition times and the different flow velocity, which induced different signal intensities between the aneurysms and parent arteries in 3D PC MRA. 3D PC MRA was superior to 3D TOF MRA in patients with large thrombotic aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. We consider that 3D TOF MRA should be the first choice for screening and following-up cerebral aneurysms. 3D PC MRA should then be performed for large cerebral aneurysms in addition to 3D TOF MRA. (author)

  1. Differential diagnosis of mesiotemporal lesions: case report of neurosyphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Santos, A.; Matias, S.; Saraiva, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a clinical and imaging case of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis subsequently diagnosed as neurosyphilis based on positive antibodies in the CSF. MRI of the brain showed cortical and subcortical lesions in the mesial temporal region, septal area, insula and cingulated gyrus of the right cerebral hemisphere. Neurosyphilis should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesial temporal region lesions on MRI. (orig.)

  2. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii irradiated with 255 Gy induces decrease of cysts and cerebral lesions in mice challenged with cysts of ME-49; Taquizoitos de Toxoplasma gondii irradiados com 255 Gy induzem diminuicao de cistos e lesoes cerebrais em camundongos desafiados com cistos da cepa ME-49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Galisteo Juniorm Andres Jimenez; Nascimento, Nanci do; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: rmhiramoto@bol.com.br; hfandrad@usp.br

    2002-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions in normal individuals and several diseases in foetus, HIV infection and transplants. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle, involving cats, as the definitive host, and warm blood species, as intermediated hosts. The infection occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with infected cat faeces, contaminated milk and cheese or raw and undercook meat of the intermediated hosts. To date, there is no commercial vaccine of use in humans. In this work, tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain were irradiated with 255 Gy and inoculated in C57Bl/6j mice (3 doses, biweekly), after mice were challenged with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 25 cysts of ME-49 by oral gavage. The lesions and cysts in the brain were analyzed in all mice, after 4-week post infection. The mortality was 20% in control mice (ME-49 cysts only) and not one in immunized mice. The number of cysts was high in the control group, but low in immunized 255 Gy mice (n<100). Immunized mice showed less cerebral pathology and necrosis foci. Ionizing radiation is an important tool in the study toxoplasmosis and vaccine development. (author)

  3. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  4. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  5. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  6. Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camuset Guillaume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects. Case presentation A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis. Conclusion This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.

  7. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isezaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T{sub 2}-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T 2 -weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  9. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm 2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  10. MRI of patients with cerebral palsy and normal CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, P. van; Szliwowski, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP. (orig.)

  11. MRI of patients with cerebral palsy and normal CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, P. van; Szliwowski, H.B. (Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Baleriaux, D.; Christophe, C. (Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology))

    1992-02-01

    Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP. (orig.).

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...... meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not receive any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow...... maps, regardless of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain...

  13. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  14. Pediatric Awake Craniotomy for Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Ali; Rükşen, Mete; Çetin, H Yurday; Seval, H Özer; İşlekel, Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a special method to prevent motor deficits during the resection of lesions that are located in, or close to, functional areas. Although it is more commonly performed in adult patients, reports of pediatric cases undergoing awake craniotomy are limited in the literature. In our clinic, where we frequently use awake craniotomy in adult patients, we performed this method in 2 selected pediatric cases for lesion surgery. At an early age, these 2 cases diagnosed with epilepsy presented cerebral lesions, but since the lesions enclosed functional areas, surgical resection was not regarded as a treatment option at this time. In these 2 pediatric cases, we successfully completed lesion surgery with awake craniotomy. The method and the techniques employed during surgery are presented concomitant with other reports in the literature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cerebral tuberculoma in a patient receiving anti-TNF alpha (adalimumab) treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Karen

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of a cerebral tuberculoma in a 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis while receiving the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, adalimumab (Humira), for active disease. MR brain imaging for dyspraxia revealed a left parietal ring-enhancing lesion, which on resection was shown to be a necrotizing granuloma. There were no associated pulmonary lesions, and the patient was systemically well. Sputum and urine cultures were negative for tuberculosis. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medications and made an excellent recovery. We consider this to be the first documented case of tuberculosis involving the central nervous system occurring in the setting of adalimumab treatment.

  16. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  17. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  18. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  19. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  20. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  1. An assessment on the incremental value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to identify culprit plaques in atherosclerotic disease of the middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Graves, Martin J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Peng, Wenjia; Zhan, Qian; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shiyue; Tian, Xia; Chen, Luguang; Lu, Jianping; Brown, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Although certain morphological features depicted by high resolution, multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI) have been shown to be different between culprit and non-culprit middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic lesions, the incremental value of hrMRI to define culprit lesions over stenosis has not been assessed. Patients suspected with MCA stenosis underwent hrMRI. Lumen and outer wall were segmented to calculate stenosis, plaque burden (PB), volume (PV), length (PL) and minimum luminal area (MLA). Data from 165 lesions (112 culprit and 53 non-culprit) in 139 individuals were included. Culprit lesions were larger and longer with a narrower lumen and increased PB compared with non-culprit lesions. More culprit lesions showed contrast enhancement. Both PB and MLA were better indicators than stenosis in differentiating lesion types (AUC were 0.649, 0.732 and 0.737 for stenosis, PB and MLA, respectively). Combinations of PB, MLA and stenosis could improve positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity significantly. An optimal combination of stenosis ≥ 50 %, PB ≥ 77 % and MLA ≤ 2.0 mm 2 produced a PPV = 85.7 %, negative predictive value = 54.1 %, sensitivity = 69.6 %, specificity = 75.5 %, and accuracy = 71.5 %. hrMRI plaque imaging provides incremental information to luminal stenosis in identifying culprit lesions. (orig.)

  2. Importância da avaliação dos movimentos generalizados espontâneos no prognóstico neurológico de recém-nascidos pré-termo The role of spontaneous general movement assessment in the neurological outcome of cerebral lesions in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Garcia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação entre a qualidade, tipos e trajetória dos movimentos generalizados espontâneos em recém-nascidos pré-termo com os achados da ultra-sonografia de crânio neonatal e com a evolução neurológica. MÉTODO: 40 recém-nascidos pré-termo, com idade gestacional OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship among the quality, type, and trajectory of general movements in preterm infants and neonatal cranial ultrasonography findings and neurological outcome. METHOD: Forty preterm newborn infants, with gestational ages under 35 weeks, had their general movements recorded through video-tape during the preterm, term (37th - 42nd postconceptional weeks of age and post-term (49th - 56th postconceptional weeks of age periods, and were prospectively followed up to one-year conceptional age. RESULTS: Our results showed that the quality of general movements, particularly in the post-term period (p = 0.009, were related with the presence of severe cerebral lesions in the neonatal cranial ultrasonography and the neurological outcome. While the presence of severe ultrasonography lesions was associated with an adverse neurological outcome (p = 0.01, the finding of normal general movements patterns was associated with a normal neurological outcome, with negative predictive values of 100%, for the preterm, and 80%, for both term and post-term periods. CONCLUSIONS: When concurrently used, these evaluation methods may increase the specificity and sensitivity in detecting the group of preterm infants at high-risk for neurological disturbances in long-term follow-up.

  3. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  4. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... sizes for clinical trials with pure WML progression vs combined WML progression-cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Those 394 participants of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS) study with magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and 3-year follow-up were analyzed. WML progression rating...

  5. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT.

  6. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Koichi

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT. (Nishio, M.)

  7. Dynamic digitized cerebral parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, J.; Alachkar, F.; Nelson, M.; Mazia, D.

    1992-01-01

    Aortic arch injections centred on the head have been performed routinely in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Digital angiograms with modified windowing (low and narrow) have been used. This 'cerebral' arch injection allows much improved analysis of the cerebral parenchymal vascularization, giving better understanding of hemispheric ischaemia and making the decision about revascularization more rational. (orig.)

  8. Polyuria and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert J.; Epling, Brian P.; Staff, Ilene; Fortunato, Gilbert; Grady, James J.; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Natriuresis with polyuria is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Previous studies have shown an increased risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with hyponatremia and/or the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). However, natriuresis may occur in the absence of hyponatremia or hypovolemia and it is not known whether the increase in DCI in patients with CSW is secondary to a concomitant hypovolemia or because the phys...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  10. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 , and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  11. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W R.W.; Beckman, J H; Calne, D B; Adam, M J; Harrop, R; Rogers, J G; Ruth, T J; Sayre, C I; Pate, B D [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility

    1984-02-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra.

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.W.; Beckman, J.H.; Calne, D.B.; Adam, M.J.; Harrop, R.; Rogers, J.G.; Ruth, T.J.; Sayre, C.I.; Pate, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra

  13. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  14. Effects of Milrinone continuous intravenous infusion on global cerebral oxygenation and cerebral vasospasm after cerebral aneurysm surgical clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ghanem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Milrinone improved significantly the global cerebral oxygenation and reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during the dangerous period of cerebral spasm after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  15. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)

  16. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-03-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author).

  17. A schizophrenic patient with cerebral infarctions after hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the fourth case of cerebral infarction, concomitant with hemorrhagic shock, in English literature. A 33-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and given a prescription for Olanzapine, was discovered with multiple self-inflicted bleeding cuts on his wrist. On arrival, he was in hemorrhagic shock without verbal responsiveness, but his vital signs were normalized following infusion of Lactate Ringer′s solution. The neuroradiological studies revealed multiple cerebral ischemic lesions without any vascular abnormality. He was diagnosed with speech apraxia, motor aphasia, and dysgraphia, due to multiple cerebral infarctions. As there was no obvious causative factor with regard to the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the patient, the hypoperfusion due to hemorrhagic shock, and the thromboembolic tendency due to Olanzapine, might have acted together to lead to the patient′s cerebral ischemia.

  18. Inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumor with hemorrhage masquerading high grade cerebral neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demyelinating pseudotumors are rare, benign, solitary intracranial space occupying lesions which masquerade cerebral neoplasms. Contrast MRI shows open ring enhancement which is fairly specific for this entity. Advanced MRI techniques like MR spectroscopy and magnetizing transfer techniques can help differentiating these lesions. NAA/Cr ratio is significantly elevated in central regions of demyelinating pseudotumors than in gliomas and other lesions. Presence of abundant foamy macrophages, lymphoid inflammatory infiltrates around blood vessels, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes with well-developed processes, well defined border of the lesion absence of neovascularity and necrosis should help us diagnose demyelinating pseudotumor fairly confidently on histopathology.

  19. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Tamiko; Matsubara, Etsuro; Shoji, Mikio; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-02-01

    To find the real incidence and risk factors in asymptomatic cerebral infarction, a retrospective review was made on magnetic resonance (MR) images, which were obtained from 713 outpatients seen at the Geriatrics Research Institute Hospital between March and November of 1990. The criteria for asymptomatic cerebral infarction are: high signal intensity areas larger than 3 mm in diameter on T2-weighted image; no history of stroke; no neurological and psychological signs or symptoms with or without subjective symptoms. Symptomatic cerebral stroke was defined as stroke episodes associated with neurological signs and infarction lesions on CT or MR imaging. Of a total of 713 patients, 215 (30.2%) had symtomatic cerebral infarction and 384 (53.9%) had no cerebral lesions. The incidence of asymptomatic cerebral infarction increased with aging. Cerebral risk factors, i.e. hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus, were more significantly common in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups than the normal control group. In the group of asymptomatic patients, T2-weighted images showed hyperintensity in the corona radiata in 60.9%, in the frontal lobe in 32.1%, in the semioval center in 28.8%, and in the basal ganglia in 23.7%. Periventricular hyperintensity was present in 124 of all 713 patients (17.4%). Common complaints in asymptomatic patients were headache (40.0%), dizziness (14.4%), and neck muscle contraction (9.8%). In conclusion, MR imaging may contribute to manage asymptomatic patients. (N.K.).

  20. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Tamiko; Matsubara, Etsuro; Shoji, Mikio; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1994-01-01

    To find the real incidence and risk factors in asymptomatic cerebral infarction, a retrospective review was made on magnetic resonance (MR) images, which were obtained from 713 outpatients seen at the Geriatrics Research Institute Hospital between March and November of 1990. The criteria for asymptomatic cerebral infarction are: high signal intensity areas larger than 3 mm in diameter on T2-weighted image; no history of stroke; no neurological and psychological signs or symptoms with or without subjective symptoms. Symptomatic cerebral stroke was defined as stroke episodes associated with neurological signs and infarction lesions on CT or MR imaging. Of a total of 713 patients, 215 (30.2%) had symtomatic cerebral infarction and 384 (53.9%) had no cerebral lesions. The incidence of asymptomatic cerebral infarction increased with aging. Cerebral risk factors, i.e. hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus, were more significantly common in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups than the normal control group. In the group of asymptomatic patients, T2-weighted images showed hyperintensity in the corona radiata in 60.9%, in the frontal lobe in 32.1%, in the semioval center in 28.8%, and in the basal ganglia in 23.7%. Periventricular hyperintensity was present in 124 of all 713 patients (17.4%). Common complaints in asymptomatic patients were headache (40.0%), dizziness (14.4%), and neck muscle contraction (9.8%). In conclusion, MR imaging may contribute to manage asymptomatic patients. (N.K.)

  1. MR findings of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Choong Gom [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To describe MR findings of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We reviewed 11 MR images of six patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The MR images were retrospectively analyzed in terms of location and signal intensity of the thrombi, parenchymal lesions such as hemorrhage and edema, and changes in follow up study obtained in 4 patients. The thrombus in venous sinus was visualized on MRI in all six patients. The most frequently involved sites were superior sagittal sinus(n=4) and left transverse sinus(n=4). Signal intensity of the thrombus was isointense or hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with loss of normal signal void of the sinus on all sequences in all patients. Parenchymal lesion was patients in five of six cases, manifested as local hemorrhage in three and edema in three cases(one case overlapped). Local edema seen in three patients was completely resolved on follow up study of seven to 29 days intervals. It is concluded that iso- or high signal intensity with loss of signal void in venous sinus is virtually diagnostic of venous sinus thrombosis. If there are local parenchymal lesions such as hemorrhage and/or edema of unknown causes, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be included in differential diagnosis.

  2. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  3. Hemodialysis Induces an Acute Decline in Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder-Bos, Harmke; Vállez García, David; Kuipers, Johanna; Elting, Jan Willem J.; Aries, M.J.H.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Groen, Hendrik; Willemsen, Antoon; van Laar, Peter; Strijkert, Fijanne; Luurtsema, Geert; Slart, Riemer; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gaillard, Carlo A.; Franssen, Casper

    The initiation of hemodialysis is associated with an accelerated decline of cognitive function and an increased incidence of cerebrovascular accidents and white matter lesions. Investigators have hypothesized that the repetitive circulatory stress of hemodialysis induces ischemic cerebral injury,

  4. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  5. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  6. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  7. Unilateral traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion and bihemisferic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the various injuries caused by the cerebral tramatic lesion are traumatic brain contusions. Hemorrhagic contusions of the basal ganglia are unusual. Different injuries such as cranial fractures, epidural hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage among others may be associated with brain contusions. In some cases traumatic brain injury arises. We present a case of a patient with unilateral cerebral contusion associated with bihemispheric cerebral infarction.

  8. Acute effects of thalamotomy and pallidotomy on regional cerebral metabolism, evaluated by PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, JML; de Jong, BM; Pruim, J; Staal, MJ; Rutgers, AWF; Haaxma, R

    The subacute effect of thalamotomy and pallidotomy on regional cerebral metabolism was studied by means of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this way we aimed to identify the pattern of functional deafferentiation following a specific lesion in the basal ganglia. The cerebral distribution of

  9. Influence of spinal cord injury on cerebral sensorimotor systems : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Curt, A; Otte, A; Missimer, J; Maguire, RP; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL

    Objectives-To assess the effect of a transverse spinal cord lesion on cerebral energy metabolism in view of sensorimotor reorganisation. Methods-PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose were used to study resting cerebral glucose metabolism in 11 patients with complete paraplegia or tetraplegia after spinal

  10. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: A case report | Bedu-Addo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of HIV infection with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is an AIDS- related infection and is one of the causes of CNS mass lesions in AIDS. A 36-year-old male was admitted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) for a week. He had focal seizures for which he was treated as an “epileptic” ...

  11. Correlation of computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in cerebral infartion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Chizuko; Chuda, Moriyoshi; Taka, Toshihiko

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated neurological findings in 75 patients of cerebral infarction, and correlated computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MRI was found to have the advantage when the lesion were multiple, or in the posterior fossa. MRI demonstrates the anatomical details, and lacks the bony artifact, so it is an excellent method for identification of cerebral infarction. (author)

  12. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  13. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  14. Age and the risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing supratentorial cerebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F G; Chang, S M; Huhn, S L; Davis, R L; Gutin, P H; McDermott, M W; Wilson, C B; Prados, M D

    1997-09-01

    It is often assumed that a cerebral lesion that is nonenhancing on a magnetic resonance imaging study with gadolinium contrast is a low grade tumor. Some physicians recommend observation rather than biopsy for such lesions. The authors prospectively evaluated the incidence of anaplastic tumor histology in a consecutive series of patients who presented to a neuro-oncology service with a nonenhancing mass of the cerebral hemisphere. During a 5-month period, the authors evaluated 31 patients who had a nonenhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere on initial magnetic resonance images. Thirty patients underwent stereotactic biopsy (27%) or open resection (73%). The median patient age was 36 years (range, 6-63 years). There was no mortality or permanent neurologic morbidity from surgery. Twenty-eight patients had pathologic confirmation of diagnosis while their lesions were still nonenhancing. Of these patients, 9 (32%) had Grade 3 lesions (anaplastic astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma), 13 (43%) had Grade 2 lesions (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoastrocytoma), and 2 (7%) had Grade 1 lesions (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors). Two additional patients (ages 33 and 59 years) who developed enhancement within their lesions during preoperative periods of observation had glioblastomas at surgery. Logistic regression was used to relate patient age to the risk of anaplasia in a nonenhancing cerebral mass lesion. Older age predicted a significantly higher risk of anaplasia (P = 0.025). The model predicted that nonenhancing cerebral masses in patients older than 44 years were more likely to be anaplastic tumors than low grade tumors. There was no "safe" age below which low grade histology could be confidently assumed. Magnetic resonance-nonenhancing cerebral lesions may be histologically anaplastic, even in young patients. The risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing lesions increases significantly with patient age.

  15. Is there any evidence that cerebral protection is beneficial? Experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the available experimental data from the world literature on the use of cerebral protection devices during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Clinical studies relying on surrogate markers of cerebral embolisation in place of neurological event rate as primary outcome measures are evaluated alongside bench-top and animal studies. These surrogate markers include evaluations of outcomes using procedural transcranial Doppler (TCD) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of brain (DWI). Pathological analyses of debris retrieved from in-vivo analyses of protection devices are also included in this review because although the focus of these studies was primarily clinical, the laboratory data will be preferentially presented and it provides interesting insights. It can be shown that each of the three philosophies of cerebral protection, namely flow arrest (proximal or distal), flow reversal and distal filtration is capable of the entrapment of sizeable debris that would logically threaten devastating stroke if it embolized to the brain. Whilst balloon occlusion significantly reduces the procedural microembolic load (particles less than 60 mm) and flow reversal may be the first means to entirely eliminate it, filters may be associated with increased microembolization. This has been described by some workers as controlled embolization. Certainly, particles smaller than the pore size of currently available filters (60-140 mm) will readily evade capture due to filter periflow and through-flow. There is evidence to suggest that tens of thousands of particles of this size may be released during CAS and there is some evidence that this may be associated with more new white lesions on DWI of brain. The clinical consequences of this controlled embolization however, remain unclear and sophisticated neuropsychometric test batteries may need to be applied at later time points to detect subtle injury that may be compounded by a late inflammatory response

  16. Preliminary studies of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients with leukoaraiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yaming; Ren Yan; He Qiu

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in leukoaraiosis (LA) lesion and cortical regions and analyse the relation between rCBF changes and dementia. METHODS: Regional cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging with SPECT was performed in 49 patients with subcortical multiple cerebral infarction, including 24 cases company LA [LA(+)], 25 cases not company LA[LA(-)] and 10 normal subjects. The relative analysis was made between rCBF changes and cognitive scores. RESULTS: Compared the LA(+) with control, the rCBFs in frontal, parietal, temporal cortexes and LA lesion significantly decreased (P<0.05). The rCBF of frontal, parietal cortexes and LA lesions was also significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with LA(-) groups. The cognitive scores were significantly related with rCBF changes in frontal cortex and LA lesion (r = 0.765, P<0.01 and r = 0.439, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with subcortical multiple cerebral infarction company LA lesion, there were extensive ischemic hypoperfusion changes in the cortical regions and LA lesion, which may response to decreased cerebral function and had certain relationship with dementia. The examination with SPECT cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging had unique advantage and value

  17. Globus pallidus high-signal lesions: A predominant MRI finding in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions of the brain, recognized as unidentified bright objects (UBOs, are commonly observed as areas of increased T2-weighted signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Identification of these lesions is not currently encompassed in the National Institute of Health (NIH diagnostic criteria for NF1. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of UBOs in children with NF1 and identify areas of the brain that are commonly affected by these lesions, allowing us to evaluate whether UBOs should be included in the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of NF1. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the cranial MRI scans of 22 children who had been diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 in accordance with the criteria established by NIH. UBOs were present in 81% of the children with NF1. Results: These lesions have a predilection for specific areas of the brain, including the globus pallidus (72%, cerebellum (66%, brainstem (27% and cerebral hemispheres (16%. The prevalence of UBOs identified varied significantly with age and sex; they were infrequent in children less than 4 years of age but were common in those aged between 4 and 12 years of age. UBOs were more commonly seen in males (66.6% compared with females (33.3%. Repeat MRI scan on a subset of these patients with UBOs did not show any significant changes despite a worsening in clinical symptoms. Conclusion and Discussion: We have shown that UBOs are a common finding in children with NF1, and are most prevalent between the ages of 4 and 12 years. Many sites of the brain are affected by these lesions, most notably the globus pallidus and the cerebellum. Further research must be conducted to elucidate the significance of UBOs in patients with NF1 and whether these lesions have any utility in the clinical detection of NF1.

  18. The association of cognitive impairment with gray matter atrophy and cortical lesion load in clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Sevda; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Kurne, Aslı; Göçmen, Rahşan; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Karabudak, Rana

    2016-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome performed significantly worse than healthy controls on tests that evaluated verbal memory, visuospatial learning and memory, and verbal fluency. Significant deep gray matter atrophy was found in the patients but cortical volume was not lower than the controls. Visual memory tests correlated with the volume of the hippocampus, cerebral white matter and deep gray matter structures and with cerebellar cortical atrophy. Cortical or white matter lesion load did not affect cognitive test results. In our patients with CIS, it was shown that cognitive impairment was mainly related to cerebral white matter, cerebellar cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, but not with cortical inflammation, at least in the early stage of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional MRI in Patients with Intracranial Lesions near Language Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, B; Erdogan, C; Yildirim, N; Bora, I; Bekar, A; Parlak, M

    2006-06-30

    We aimed to depict Broca's area and Wernicke's area by word generation and sentence formation paradigms in patients with various intracranial lesions adjacent to language areas using functional MRI technique and to evaluate the ability of functional MRI to lateralize the hemispheric dominance for language. Twenty-three right-handed patients were included in this study. Lesions were classified as low-grade glioma (n=8), high-grade glioma (n=9), metastasis (n=1), meningioma (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=2) and mesial temporal sclerosis (n=2). We performed blood-oxygenated-level-dependant functional MRI using a 1.5-T unit. Word generation and sentence formation tasks were used to activate language areas. Language areas were defined as Brodmann 44, 45 (Broca's area) and Brodmann 22 area (Wernicke's area). Laterality index was used to show the dominant hemisphere. Two poorly cooperative patients showed no activation and were excluded from the study. Broca's area was localized in 21 patients (100 %). Wernicke's area, on the other hand, could only be localized in eight of the 21 patients (38 %).The left hemisphere was dominant in 86% of patients while atypical language lateralization (right or bilateral) was demonstrated in 14% of the patients. Bilateral activation areas were shown in 10% of those patients while right cerebral hemisphere was dominant in 4% of the patients. Word generation and sentence formation tasks are especially helpful in localizing Broca's area. Wernicke's area could also be demonstrated in some of the cases. Functional MRI can be used as an important and useful means of demonstrating language areas in patients with lesions adjacent to those areas and depicting the hemispheric dominance.

  20. Cerebral infarction secondary to temporal lobe herniation in head trauma: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Park, Eui Dong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Han, Jong Woo; Chung, Sung Hoon; Ha, Choong Kun; Kim, Jae Il [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Cerebral infarction is a known complication of temporal lobe herniation caused by a traumatic intracranial lesion. To ascertain the frequency, time of recognition, and influence on mortality of posttraumatic cerebral infarction secondary to temporal lobe herniation, we retrospectively reviewed brain CT scans and clinical records of 55 patients who had CT and clinical signs of temporal lobe herniation on admission date. Cerebral infarctions were recognized in seven (12.7%) patients on CT scans taken within two days after admission (mean: 1.3 days). Cerebral infarctions were in the terrtiories of the posterior cerebral artery in all seven patients, two of whom had infarctions of the anterior choroidal artery as well. Mortality (71.4%) for these seven patients was not statistically significant from that (50%) of patients without cerebral infarction admitted with the same range of Glasgow Coma Scale score. The result suggests that such cerebral infarction dose not greatly influence patient's mortality.

  1. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and 4D MR angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in anterior cerebral artery ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gawlitza

    Full Text Available To assess FLAIR vascular hyperintensities (FVH and dynamic (4D angiograms derived from perfusion raw data as proposed magnetic resonance (MR imaging markers of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in patients with ischemia in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA.Forty patients from two tertiary care university hospitals were included. Infarct volumes and perfusion deficits were manually measured on DWI images and TTP maps, respectively. FVH and collateral flow on 4D MR angiograms were assessed and graded as previously specified.Forty-one hemispheres were affected. Mean DWI lesion volume was 8.2 (± 13.9; range 0-76.9 ml, mean TTP lesion volume was 24.5 (± 17.2, range 0-76.7 ml. FVH were observed in 26/41 (63.4% hemispheres. Significant correlations were detected between FVH and TTP lesion volume (ρ = 0.4; P<0.01 absolute (ρ = 0.37; P<0.05 and relative mismatch volume (ρ = 0.35; P<0.05. The modified ASITN/SIR score correlated inversely with DWI lesion volume (ρ = -0.58; P<0.01 and positively with relative mismatch (ρ = 0.29; P< 0.05. ANOVA of the ASITN/SIR score revealed significant inter-group differences for DWI (P<0.001 and TTP lesion volumes (P<0.05. No correlation was observed between FVH scores and modified ASITH/SIR scores (ρ = -0.16; P = 0.32.FVH and flow patterns on 4D MR angiograms are markers of perfusion deficits and tissue at risk. As both methods did not show a correlation between each other, they seem to provide complimentary instead of redundant information. Previously shown evidence for the meaning of these specific MR signs in internal carotid and middle cerebral artery stroke seems to be transferrable to ischemic stroke in the ACA territory.

  2. Cerebral abscess in dog - a Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Castro Cosme

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cosme J.C., Silva M.A., Santos R.P., Andrade Júnior P.S.C. & Nunes L.C. Cerebral abscess in dog - a Case report. [Abscesso cerebreal em cão - Relato de caso.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:15-19, 2015. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário, s/nº Cx Postal 16, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: louisiane.nunes@ufes.br; louisianecn@yahoo.com.br Cerebral abscess is an affection of the nervous system with rare manifestation in dogs, caused by proliferation of pyogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to describe the clinical and pathological findings in a case of cerebral abscess in dog, as well as to discuss the adopted treatment procedures. A 48-day old, male labrador dog was examined at the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES, exhibiting a lesion caused by trauma on the frontal left region of the skull. The animal presented signs of ataxia and apathy, and received antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. The animal died 30 days after consultation. Among other macroscopic findings, necroscopic examination revealed cutaneous scabby lesion on the frontal left region of the skull, cerebellar herniation, and increase of the left hemiencephalon. Microscopical analyses showed neutrophilic leptomeningitis of brain, cerebellum and cord, neuropil vacuolation, and neutrophilic infiltrate in the perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces of the brain. Staphylococcus sp. was evidenced by microbiological isolation. The non-specificity of the clinical signs in cases of cerebral abscess may hinder the establishment of an early diagnosis, thus reducing the treatment and survival chances of the animal.

  3. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  4. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  5. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  6. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO{sub 2} extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO{sub 2} observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO{sub 2} secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author).

  7. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO 2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO 2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO 2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  8. Subcortical aphasia and cerebral blood flow using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celsis, P.; Puel, M.; Demonet, J.P.; Bonafe, A.; Cardebat, D.; Viallard, G.; Pujol, T.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Rascol, A.

    1985-01-01

    Possible cerebral blood flow (CBF) alteration in subcortical aphasia was investigated by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). The results confirm the capsulo-striatal lesions and also point to the high rate of ipsilateral thalamic and cortical dysfunction. (author). 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological

  10. Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy in Children (Under Five) in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive disorder of posture and movement due to brain damage/insult/lesion before birth, during delivery or in the perinatal period. It is a neurological disorder of childhood with significant medico-social implications. A retrospective hospital based cross sectional study was conducted to ...

  11. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus.

  12. Cerebral sparganosis in children: epidemiological, clinical and MR imaging characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Caigui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral sparganosis in children is an extremely rare disease of central nervous system, and caused by a tapeworm larva from the genus of Spirometra. In this study, we discussed and summarized epidemiological, clinical and MR imaging characteristics of eighteen children with cerebral sparganosis for a better diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods Eighteen children with cerebral sparganosis verified by pathology, serological tests and MR presentations were retrospectively investigated, and the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the disease were studied. Results Twenty-seven lesions were found in the eighteen children. Twelve lesions in twelve patients were solitary while the lesions in the rest six patients were multiple and asymmetrical. The positions of the lesions were: seven in frontal, eleven in parietal, four in temporal and two in occipital lobes, one in basal ganglia, one in cerebella hemisphere and one in pons. The lesions were presented as slight hypointensity on T1-weighted images but moderate hyperintensity on T2-weighted images with perilesional brain parenchyma edema. Enhanced MR scans by using Gadopentetic Acid Dimeglumine Salt were performed in the patients, and the images demonstrated abnormal enhancements with the patterns of a peripheral ring, or a tortuous beaded, or a serpiginous tubular shape. Follow-up MR scans were preformed for eight patients, and three out of the eight cases exposed migrations and changes in shapes of the lesion areas. Conclusions The MR presentations in our study in general were similar to those in previous studies. However serpiginous tubular and comma-shaped enhancements of lesions have not been previously reported. The enhanced MR imaging and follow-up MR scans with the positive results from serological tests are the most important methods for the clinical diagnosis of cerebral sparganosis in children.

  13. Cerebral venous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  15. Watershed Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Ozelsancak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure can cause neurologic manifestations such as mood swings, impaired concentration, tremor, stupor, coma, asterixis, dysarthria. Those findings can also be a sign of cerebral infarct. Here, we report a case of watershed cerebral infarction in a 70-year-old female patient with acute renal failure secondary to contrast administration and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Patient was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging because of dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed milimmetric acute ischemic lesion in the frontal and parietal deep white matter region of both cerebral hemisphere which clearly demonstrated watershed cerebral infarction affecting internal border zone. Her renal function returned to normal levels on fifth day of admission (BUN 32 mg/dl, creatinine 1.36 mg/dl and she was discharged. Dysarthria continued for 20 days.

  16. The evaluation of diffusion weighted imaging in acute cerebral infarction with permanent type MR scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Sen; Ye Wenwei; Luo Zhongrao; Yang Zenian; Zhang Zhongwei; Li Ziping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in acute cerebral infarction using permanent type MR scanner. Methods: DWI and conventional MRI sequences were done in 77 patients suspected with cerebral infarction. The sensitivity of DWI and conventional MRI was comparatively evaluated on lesion signal intensity and size. The characteristics and orderliness of lesions were studied. Results: (1) DWI has higher sensitivity than conventional MRI. (2) The higher b value was applied in the imaging, the higher signal intensity of acute cerebral infarction was revealed. The lesions were easier to identify on DWI images than on conventional MRI. Conclusion: DWI of permanent type MR imager is a feasible imaging modality, which is valuable in early diagnosis and management of acute cerebral infarction. (authors)

  17. Transarterial embolization in head and neck lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1985-01-01

    The transarterial embolization procedures have been performed in a total of 38 patients with head and neck lesions, including 5 carotid-cavernous fistulas, 1 internal carotid aneurysm, 10 meningiomas, 16 nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, 1 post-traumatic epistaxis and 5 other vascular tumors, over the 18 months-period. Six cases of C-C fistula and ICA aneurysm were treated with the detachable balloon catheter technique. The meningiomas, angiofibromas and all other lesions were embolized with superselection of the branches of the external carotid artery such as the internal maxillary, the middle meningeal, the ascending pharyngeal the facial or other branches, using Berenstein superselective catheters or conventional angiographic catheters. The PVA (polyvinyl alcohol foam) and/or Gelfoam particles were used as embolic materials in these cases. Most of the lesions were successfully embolized with minor transient complications such as pain, headache, vomiting, fever and etc. But in 4 cases occurred the serious complications; one cerebral hemorrhage, two cerebral infarctions, and one acute laryngeal edema. The selection of the embolic materials and the catheters, and the complications are briefly discussed

  18. Transarterial embolization in head and neck lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    The transarterial embolization procedures have been performed in a total of 38 patients with head and neck lesions, including 5 carotid-cavernous fistulas, 1 internal carotid aneurysm, 10 meningiomas, 16 nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, 1 post-traumatic epistaxis and 5 other vascular tumors, over the 18 months-period. Six cases of C-C fistula and ICA aneurysm were treated with the detachable balloon catheter technique. The meningiomas, angiofibromas and all other lesions were embolized with superselection of the branches of the external carotid artery such as the internal maxillary, the middle meningeal, the ascending pharyngeal the facial or other branches, using Berenstein superselective catheters or conventional angiographic catheters. The PVA (polyvinyl alcohol foam) and/or Gelfoam particles were used as embolic materials in these cases. Most of the lesions were successfully embolized with minor transient complications such as pain, headache, vomiting, fever and etc. But in 4 cases occurred the serious complications; one cerebral hemorrhage, two cerebral infarctions, and one acute laryngeal edema. The selection of the embolic materials and the catheters, and the complications are briefly discussed.

  19. Concentric structure of thalamic lesions in acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Nakano, I.; Hayashi, M.; Kuwashima, M.; Yoshida, K.; Nakai, Y.; Itoh, M.; Takashima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANE) is characterized by multiple, symmetrical brain lesions affecting the bilateral thalami, putamina and cerebral white matter, which often show a concentric structure on CT and MRI. To reveal the pathological substrate of this finding, comparison was made between CT and necropsy findings of three fatal cases of ANE. Cranial CT demonstrated a concentric structure of the thalamocerebral lesions in one patient who died 3.5 days after the onset of encephalopathy, but not in the other two patients who died within 30 h. Neuropathological examination of postmortem brains revealed laminar changes of vascular and parenchymal pathology in all the cases. Excessive permeability of blood vessels and resultant vasogenic edema became more prominent with increasing depth from the cerebral surface. The deep portion of the lesions showed severe perivascular hemorrhage, accounting for the central high density on the CT images of one patient. (orig.)

  20. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  1. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Ko, Young Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia in 8 patients, of which 5 cases were angiographically documented, are reported. The ecstatic arteries, located predominantly in the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns, appeared as serpignous, tubular structures on the unenhanced scan. The enhanced CT scan demonstrated dense, sharply defined, homogeneous intraluminal enhancement. Until recently, the diagnosis of cerebral arterial ectasia was usually established by angiography. With introduction of CT it has become possible to noninvasively identify and characterize this vascular disorder and its associated intracranial complications. The vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia may be diagnosed by CT as an extra-axial lesion in the cerebellopontine angle. It enhances in a tubular fashion after intravenous injection of contrast.

  2. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  3. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  4. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  5. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus. (orig.) [de

  6. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  7. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenan, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Lewis, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  8. Advances in the management of cerebral malaria in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Saroj K; Wiese, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral malaria continues to be a substantial cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many studies deal with cerebral malaria in children, only very few pertain to adults. Presence of multiorgan failure makes the prognosis poor. Various mechanisms in the pathogenesis...... of cerebral malaria and the role of adjuvant therapy will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Artemisinin-based therapies have improved antiparasitic treatment, but in-hospital mortality still remains high, as do neurological sequelae. Several recent studies have given new insights in the pathophysiology...... of cerebral malaria particularly the role of immune mechanisms in disease progression. Recent findings have identified several potential candidates for adjuvant neuroprotective treatment. Recombinant human erythropoietin has shown beneficial effect in experimental cerebral malaria and will soon enter...

  9. Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laurent

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating recovery of learning is discussed.

  10. Value of three-dimensional computed tomography in screening cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Tamaki; Sugiura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yamagata, Yoshitaka [Hyogo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We performed three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) in 6 patients of cerebral aneurysm. Prior cerebral angiography showed a total of 17 aneurysms. 3D-CT alone detected 10 cerebral aneurysm (59%). It was possible to identify aneurysms larger than 10 mm even when located near the circle of Willis. It was difficult to identify aneurysms when smaller than 7 mm regardless of their location. 3D-CT was of limited value in detecting cerebral aneurysms, particularly when located near the circle of Willis with complex vascular network. As cases of oculomotor palsy may be caused by lesions other than cerebral aneurysm, we advocate that 3D-CT be performed after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in screening cases of suspected cerebral aneurysm. (author)

  11. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  12. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment.We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth.Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  13. Computerized tomography of the brain and associated risk factors in 240 patients iwth reversible cerebral ischemic attacks (RIAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzao, L.; Fantozzi, L.M.; Carolei, A.; Pappata, S.; Vesentini, G.; Allori, L.; Rasura, M.; Fieschi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of focal low density cerebral ischemic lesions in RIA patients with regard to factors as age at onset, number and temporal profile of the reversible cerebral ischemic events on admission, presence of associated medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, have been investigated with computerized tomography of the brain. (author). 7 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  15. CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions, 3. Non-tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-08-01

    A study is made of the usefulness and limitations of the CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions other than tumors. This study is based on 112 verified cases at Nagoya University Hospital from October, 1976, to December, 1981. The lesions included in this study are classified into four groups: vascular, inflammatory, traumatic lesion, and congenital anomaly. Although cerebral angiography is the cardinal method for the diagnosis of vascular lesions, CT is useful for the evaluation of a giant aneurysm, the localization of bleeding, or infarction by a ruptured aneurysm. Radiation brain necrosis, a special form of vascular lesion, can also be diagnosed if the critical analysis is made after previous irradiation. CT findings are helpful for the local diagnosis of acute inflammatory lesions, such as basal meningitis or abscess, but specific diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical signs and CSF study. Abnormal CT findings are obtained from a chronic inflammatory process, such as arachnoiditis adhesiva, glanuloma, or mucocele. Differential diagnosis is necessary with brain tumors. The CT findings of an arachnoid cyst are often diagnostic. Metrizamide or air cisternography, either combined with CT or without it, is important for the diagnosis of basal meningoencephalocele and hypothalamic hamaroma. Pneumocephalus and an intracranial foreign body resulting from a head injury can be diagnosed by plain skull and CT. The diagnosis of CSF leakage or prolapse cerebri associated with a skull-base fracture has been most difficult, but even it is possible by a combination of polytomography and high-resolution CT with metrizamide cisternography.

  16. Cerebral vasculitis and its simulators. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Hideki; Nakajima, Kazuaki; Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ayami; Sakugawa, Takayuki; Morikawa, Minoru; Inuzuka, Michiko; Kimura, Seigo

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis, although rare in general, is an important cause of cerebral ischemia, because the treatment strategy is different from that of usual cerebral infarction. On the other hand, a variety of common and uncommon nonvasculitic disorders may mimic vasculitis angiographically or clinically. It is also important to distinguish these vasculitis simulators from true vasculitis in order to avoid the unnecessary and harmful side effects of corticosteroid and immunosuppressant, the mainstay of drug therapy for vasculitis. The diagnosis is often difficult. Angiography is expected to demonstrate the underlying vascular pathology; however, many vasculitides affect small arteries beyond the spatial resolution of conventional angiography. The most important role of the diagnostic imaging is the identification of brain lesions consistent with cerebral vasculitis. Multiple lesions in more than one vascular territory should raise this suspicion, although no specific pattern for this entity exists. In large and medium-sized vessel vasculitis, MRI can directly demonstrate mural thickening and enhancement, which is considered to specific for active inflammation. We propose here a classification for cerebral vasculitis and simulators according to the size of the affected brain vessels, which would help us to make a differential diagnosis. We also review the endovascular techniques for this entity, and its indications. (author)

  17. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Going to an Occupational Therapist Scoliosis In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  18. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  19. Cerebral venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  20. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    OpenAIRE

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  1. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  2. Clinical experience of cerebral protection with balloon occlusion during carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mathias, K.D.; Drescher, R.; Bockisch, G.; Hauth, E.; Demirel, E.; Gissler, H.M.; Witten/Herdecke Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the technical feasibility and the results of cerebral protection with the GuardWire Plus Temporary Occlusion and Aspiration System during carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenosis. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients 20 carotid artery stenoses were treated with stent placement under cerebral protection. A contralateral carotid occlusion was an exclusion criteria for the use of the protection device. In all cases only aspiration, but no flushing was used before deflation of the occlusion balloon. In 17 of 20 patients diffusion-weighted (DW-)MRT imaging of the brain was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. In 3 patients neurologic symptoms occurred during the occlusion time. In these 3 patients the symptoms immediately disappeared after deflation of the balloon. In one case there was dilatation of the internal carotid artery at the site of the balloon inflation. In 3 of the 17 DW-MR images new ipsilateral cerebral lesions, in one case a new contralateral lesion occurred after the procedure. Conclusions: The cerebral protection procedure is technically feasible. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery was not tolerated by all patients. The DW-MR imaging demonstrated cerebral lesions indicating the occurrence of cerebral microemboli during the procedure. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the use of the cerebral protection device will improve the results of the carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenoses. (orig.) [de

  3. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis; With special reference to the neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.).

  4. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  5. MR and CT imaging of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Xu Jianmin; Wan Xiaohong; Chen Yu; Guo Yi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics and imaging features of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). Methods: The clinical features and imaging appearances of 3 cases with acute CFE were analyzed. Results: (1) 3 non-head injured cases had sudden mental status changes after leg injury. (2) The main clinical manifestation was vigil coma. (3) MRI showed lesions of the brain in all 3 cases. Cranial CT showed lesions in only 1 case. (4) MRI and CT showed spotty and patchy symmetrical lesions, which were low signal on T 1 WI and high signal on T 2 WI, and low density on CT scan. The lesions were distributed in the white matter along the boundary zones of the major vascular territories, thalamus and basal ganglia, internal capsule, corpus callosum, brain stem, and cerebellum. The margins of the lesions were obscure. (5) 1 case received MRI examination after therapy for 3 months, which showed no lesions in the brain. Conclusion: Cerebral fat embolism has its own clinical features and imaging characteristics. MRI is superior to CT in diagnosing CFE

  6. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  7. Randomized comparison of distal and proximal cerebral protection during carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel N; Kambara, Antônio M; de Cano, Silvia J F; Pezzi Portela, Luiz Antônio; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Costa, J Ribamar; Abizaid, Alexandre Antônio Cunha; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Sousa, Amanda G M R; Sousa, J Eduardo Moraes Rego

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to randomly compare cerebral protection with ANGIOGUARD (Cordis Corporation, Bridgewater, New Jersey) with Mo.Ma (Invatec/Medtronic Vascular Inc, Santa Rosa, California) during carotid artery stenting (CAS), using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to detect new ischemic cerebral lesions. The number, size, and location of lesions were analyzed. The choice of the type of cerebral protection during CAS is controversial. From July 2008 to July 2011, 60 patients undergoing CAS were randomized to ANGIOGUARD or Mo.Ma, distributed by chance, 30 patients for each group. All patients underwent DW-MRI before and after CAS. An independent neuroradiologist blinded to the cerebral protection used analyzed the images. Univariate and multivariate logistic models were fitted to analyze new ischemic lesions. Alternatively, a propensity score approach was used to reduce the bias due to differences between the groups. For the number of lesions, we used Poisson regression models. New ischemic lesions seen on DW-MRI were present in 63.3% of the ANGIOGUARD group versus 66.7% of the Mo.Ma cohort (p = 0.787). The number of ischemic cerebral lesions per patient, when present, was significantly lower in the Mo.Ma group (a median of 6 lesions per patient vs. a median of 10 in the ANGIOGUARD, p minor stroke during CAS (1.66%). New ischemic lesions seen on DW-MRI were present in both groups in >60%, but the number of lesions per patient was greater in the ANGIOGUARD group. No death or disabling stroke occurred during at least 1 year of follow-up in both cohorts. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral Aneurysm in the Evolution of Cardiac Myxoma: Clinical and Physiopathological Interpretations; El aneurisma cerebral en la evolucion del mixoma cardiaco: planteamientos clinicos y fisopatologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, M. L. [Hospital General Universitario Morales Meseguer. Murcia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We present the case of a patient with stroke, cerebral aneurysms (small distal and large proximal) who had been treated for cardiac myxoma 18 years earlier. We compared the imaging findings (localization, size, density and associated cerebral lesions) with those of other publications. The data obtained from other works and those that we could derive from our patient suggest that the cerebral aneurysms are responsible for neurological symptoms observed some time after removal of the tumor. On the other hand, such aneurysms tend to grow larger and more proximal with increasing time after surgery. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Imaging manifestation of cerebral gumma: report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ming; Miao Tizong; Zheng Luping; Zhang Shilin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma. Methods: Three cases of surgically proved cerebral gumma were analyzed. All patients had history of ultra-marriage sexual life, and the laboratory tests, including the serums and/or the cerebrospinal fluid test, highly indicated the diagnosis of syphilis. Pathological results demonstrated cerebral gumma after operation. Results: On CT scan, case 1 showed a 5.0 cm x 3.5 cm hypo-density area at left temporal lobe with obvious mass effect, and post-contrast CT scan revealed a rim enhancement. MR scanning was not performed. In case 2, a mixture lesion was detected on right frontal lobe on pre-contrast CT scan, and spot-like central enhancement and mild mass effect were demonstrated on postcontrast CT scan. Pre-contrast T 1 WI showed 2 round lesions situated at right frontal lobe (1.5 cm in diameter) and right periventricular areas (1.0 cm in diameter), separately, which showed iso-signal on T 1 WI and hyper-signal on T 2 WI, and ring-like enhancement with slight compression of the right lateral ventricle. In case 3, CT plain scan demonstrated multiple hypo-dense lesions, most of the lesions located on both frontal lobe and left temporal lobe, and enhanced CT scan was not performed. MR imaging revealed many nodule and mass lesions with hypo-signal on T 1 WI and hyper-signal on T 2 WI, located on both hemispheres with nodular or circular enhancement after injection of contrast media. Conclusion: The imaging manifestations of cerebral gumma were nonspecific. Thus, the preoperational diagnosis should be made combining the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data

  10. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  11. The role of preoperative cerebral magnetic resonance angiography in the prevention of cerebral complications following cardiovascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Masakazu; Sakai, Akira; Kodera, Koujirou; Sudo, Kyouichi; Oosawa, Mikio [Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Screening of carotid and intracranial artery diseases by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in forty-one adult patients prior to elective cardiovascular surgery. In twenty patients (48.8%), MRA demonstrated significant cerebrovascular lesions: carotid or main cerebral artery stenosis in 7, diffuse cerebral arteriosclerotic change in 6, vertebral artery lesion in 5 and berry aneurysm in 2. Advanced age (over 70 years) and previous cerebrovascular events increased the incidence of cerebrovascular lesions on MRA. Forty patients underwent scheduled surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass, and pulsatile flow perfusion was used in patients in whom significant cerebrovascular lesions were demonstrated on MRA. One patient with aortic arch aneurysm was judged to be an unacceptable candidate for surgery in light of his marked diffuse arteriosclerotic lesions on MRA. In five patients, staged operation was performed from 10 to 30 days after cerebrovascular surgery (bypass surgery for internal carotid occlusion in 2, aneurysm clipping in 2, carotid endarterectomy in 1). Postoperative neurological complications occurred in one patient (2.5%). In conclusion, screening of carotid and intracranial artery diseases by MRA is a safe and useful method for evaluation of cerebrovascular lesions in patients with advanced age, previous cerebrovascular events and/or arteriosclerotic diseases. (author)

  12. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  13. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  14. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  15. A study of cerebral circulation, metabolism and MRI findings in patients with chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency (CCCI) is a recently proposed clinical entity characterized by symptoms such as dizziness, a feeling of heavy-headedness or vague numbness without any neurological signs or organic vascular lesions on CT. In order to elucidate its pathogenesis, ultrasonic quantitative blood flow measurement system, positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were employed to study three groups of subjects: 60 subjects with CCCI (group A), 44 subjects with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease but without neurological abnormalities (group B), and 40 normal healthy volunteers (group C). The results are summarized as follows: Mean common carotid blood flow decreased with age in all groups. Common carotid blood flow was lowest in group A and second lowest in group B in every decade of patient age. PET study revealed that CBF and CMRO 2 in all regions examined were significantly lower in group A than in group C. The incidence of MR signal abnormalities in the white matter increased with age. Group A had the highest incidence, and group C had the lowest. Reduction in mean common carotid blood flow and cerebral blood flow was associated with increasing incidence and severity of MR signal abnormalities. These findings indicate that CCCI is a pathologic condition closely related to diffuse cerebral low perfusion resulting from cerebral arteriosclerosis. The symptoms seen in this condition, which are apt to be taken lightly, may warn of impending ischemic stroke. (author)

  16. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  17. Pharmacologic approaches to cerebral aging and neuroplasticity: insights from the stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, François

    2013-03-01

    Brain plasticity is an intrinsic characteristic of the nervous system that allows continuous remodeling of brain functions in pathophysiological conditions. Although normal aging is associated with morphological modifications and decline of cerebral functions, brain plasticity is at least partially preserved in elderly individuals. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive enrichment and aerobic training induce a dynamic reorganization of higher cerebral functions, thereby helping to maintain operational skills in the elderly and reducing the incidence of dementia. The stroke model clearly shows that spontaneous brain plasticity exists after a lesion, even in old patients, and that it can be modulated through external factors like rehabilitation and drugs. Whether drugs can be used with the aim of modulating the effects of physical training or cognitive stimulation in healthy aged people has not been addressed until now. The risk:benefit ratio will be the key question with regard to the ethical aspect of this challenge. We review in this article the main aspects of human brain plasticity as shown in patients with stroke, the drug modulation of brain plasticity and its consequences on recovery, and finally we address the question of the influence of aging on brain plasticity.

  18. Computed microtomography visualization and quantification of mouse ischemic brain lesion by nonionic radio contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrivojević, Marina; Bohaček, Ivan; Erjavec, Igor; Gorup, Dunja; Gajović, Srećko

    2013-02-01

    To explore the possibility of brain imaging by microcomputed tomography (microCT) using x-ray contrasting methods to visualize mouse brain ischemic lesions after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Isolated brains were immersed in ionic or nonionic radio contrast agent (RCA) for 5 days and subsequently scanned using microCT scanner. To verify whether ex-vivo microCT brain images can be used to characterize ischemic lesions, they were compared to Nissl stained serial histological sections of the same brains. To verify if brains immersed in RCA may be used afterwards for other methods, subsequent immunofluorescent labeling with anti-NeuN was performed. Nonionic RCA showed better gray to white matter contrast in the brain, and therefore was selected for further studies. MicroCT measurement of ischemic lesion size and cerebral edema significantly correlated with the values determined by Nissl staining (ischemic lesion size: P=0.0005; cerebral edema: P=0.0002). Brain immersion in nonionic RCA did not affect subsequent immunofluorescent analysis and NeuN immunoreactivity. MicroCT method was proven to be suitable for delineation of the ischemic lesion from the non-infarcted tissue, and quantification of lesion volume and cerebral edema.

  19. Activation-induced resetting of cerebral oxygen and glucose uptake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Linde, R; Hasselbalch, S G

    1998-01-01

    In the clinical setting it has been shown that activation will increase cerebral glucose uptake in excess of cerebral oxygen uptake. To study this phenomenon further, this study presents an experimental setup that enables precise determination of the ratio between cerebral uptake of glucose...... and oxygen in the awake rat. Global CBF was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique, and the ratio between cerebral uptake rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate was calculated from cerebral arterial-venous differences. During baseline conditions, rats were kept in a closed box designed to minimize...... interference. During baseline conditions CBF was 1.08 +/- 0.25 mL x g(-1) x minute(-1), and the cerebral oxygen to glucose uptake ratio was 5.5. Activation was induced by opening the sheltering box for 6 minutes. Activation increased CBF to 1.81 mL x g(-1) x minute(-1). During activation cerebral glucose...

  20. Fast FLAIR MR imaging finidngs of cerebral infarction : comparison with T2-weighted spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Keun Young; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of FLAIR(Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) MR imaging in cerebral infarction by comparing its results with those of T2-weighted spin-echo imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images and conventional spin echo images of 82 patients (47 men and 20 women ; median age 60.9 years) with cerebral infarction. MR imaging used a 1.5T MR unit with conventional T2(TR 3900, TE 90) and fast FLAIR sequence (TR 8000, TE 105, TI 2400). We analysed the size of the main lesion and number of lesions, and discrimination between old and new lesions and between small infarction and perivascular space. When T2-weighted and FLAIR imaging were compared, the latter showed that the main lesion was larger in 38 cases (46%), similar in 38 (46%), and smaller in six (7%). The number of lesions was greater in 23 cases(28%), similar in 52 (63%), and fewer in seven (9%). FLAIR images discriminated between old and new lesions in 31 cases ; perivascular space and small infarotion were differentiated in eight cases, and CSF inflowing artifact was observed in 66 (80%). In the diagnosis of cerebral infaretion, fast FLAIR provides images that are equal or superior to T2-weighted images. The fast FLAIR sequence may therefore be used as a part of routine MR brain study in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction

  1. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging of compressed air divers in diving accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G K; Wu, D; Yang, Y; Yu, T; Xue, J; Wang, X; Jiang, Y P

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of compressed air divers in diving accidents, we conducted an observational case series study. MRI of brain were examined and analysed on seven cases compressed air divers complicated with cerebral arterial gas embolism CAGE. There were some characteristics of cerebral injury: (1) Multiple lesions; (2) larger size; (3) Susceptible to parietal and frontal lobe; (4) Both cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter can be affected; (5) Cerebellum is also the target of air embolism. The MRI of brain is an sensitive method for detecting cerebral lesions in compressed air divers in diving accidents. The MRI should be finished on divers in diving accidents within 5 days.

  2. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  3. Clinical study on the efficacy of Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N; Girish, K J; Arun Raj, G R

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a static encephalopathy that may be defined as a non-progressive disorder of posture and movement often associated with epilepsy and abnormalities in speech, vision and intellect resulting from a defect or lesion of the developing brain. There are 25 lakhs cerebral palsy affected children in India. To assess the efficacy of Rajayapana Basti (RB) and Baladi Yoga in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children. Total 98 children satisfying diagnostic criteria and between the age group of 2-10 years were included and randomly divided into two groups. In RB with Baladi group (n = 40) patients were treated with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti for 8 days, followed by oral administration of Baladi Yoga with honey and ghee for 60 days. Before administering Basti, patients were subjected to Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda. In the control group (n = 40), patients were given tablets of Godhuma Choorna for 60 days. Before administering the placebo tablet, the patients of the control group were given Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda for 8 days. The patients of the control group were given Basti with lukewarm water for 8 days. RB group has shown improvements in understanding ability (13.43%), speech (10%) and performance skill (11.11%), in fine motor functions such as putting small object in to a container (14.3%), throws the ball in all direction (21.8%), use of thumb and index finger (10.93%), retaining 2 inch cube in fist (19.04%), folds paper and inserts into envelope (10.30%), in gross motor functions such as in crawling (26.7%), sitting (31.7%), standing (13.75%), walking (9.5%) and claps hands (13.9%) respectively. Mustadi RB along with Baladi Yoga provided a significant improvement in all the parameters and has promising result in managing motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children.

  4. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with 99m Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by 133 Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with 99m Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with 133 Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with 133 Xe SPECT and 99m Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author)

  5. Reversible Splenial Lesion Syndrome (RESLES) Following Glufosinate Ammonium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae Oh; Yoon, Jae Chol; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2015-01-01

    Isolated and reversible lesion restricted to the splenium of the corpus callosum, known as reversible splenial lesion syndrome, have been reported in patients with infection, high-altitude cerebral edema, seizures, antiepileptic drug withdrawal, or metabolic disturbances. Here, we report a 39-year-old female patient with glufosinate ammonium (GLA) poisoning who presented with confusion and amnesia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed cytotoxic edema of the splenium of the corpus callosum. The lesion was not present on follow-up MR imaging performed 9 months later. We postulate that a GLA-induced excitotoxic mechanism was the cause of this reversible splenial lesion. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of the splenic abscess, shown by three rare cases; Diagnostik und Therapie des Milzabszesses am Beispiel dreier seltener Faelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riediger, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Schareck, W.D. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik; Pfeffer, F. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik; Sievers, K.W. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Hopt, U.T. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik

    1997-08-01

    The diagnostic tools and possible treatments are shown with the example of the three cases. The radiologic interventions may, in some cases, avoid surgery, but their potentials are restricted by a couple of conditions such as localisation of the lesions near to the hilus, multiple abscesses, ropy pus, or fistulae. Therefore, splenectomy continues to be the golden standard. Given adequately fast diagnosis and therapy, lethality can be reduced today to less than 10 %.

  7. Power plant instrumentation and control. Innovations shown at the Interkama '99 trade fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullemeyer, M.; Fritz, P.

    2000-01-01

    At the Interkama '99 trade fair, innovative software and hardware solutions for the power industry 'from power plant to the plug' were shown. The report mentions the companies and explains their new developments and systems. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  9. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenroth, M.; Saam, T.; Haehnel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  10. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  11. Diaschisis with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, R.; Reivich, M.; Goldberg, H.; Banka, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients admitted to Philadelphia General Hospital with acute strokes had repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow measured by the /sup 133/X inhalation method. A progressive decline in cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was observed during the first week after infarction in twelve of these patients. This decline could be partially explained by loss of autoregulation, but could not be correlated with level of consciousness, clinical status of PCO2. This progressive decline in flow in the non-ischemic hemisphere indicates a process more complex than a simple destruction of axonal afferants to neurons as implied by the term diaschisis. The flow changes in the non-ischemic hemisphere are likely caused by a combination of the immediate effects of decreased neuronal stimulation modified by loss of autoregulation, release of vasoactive substances, cerebral edema, and other factors.

  12. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 ± 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  13. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang [Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medicine University, Xi an (China)

    2011-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 {+-} 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  14. CYSTIC LESIONS OF THE BRAIN - A CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PATHOGENESIS, WITH CONSIDERATION OF HISTOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL FEATURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; HEW, JM; KAMMAN, RL; MOLENAAR, WM; PRUIM, J; BLAAUW, EH

    A classification of the existing multitude of cystic lesions of the brain is proposed, which allows an understanding of their genesis and consequent therapeutic implications, as well as their diagnostic characteristics. Essentially, cerebral cystic lesions may be classified into the following

  15. Computer tomography of the brain and spectrophotometry of the CSF in cerebral concussion and contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergvall, U.; Kjellin, K.G.; Levander, B.; Svendsen, P.; Soederstroem, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) and spectrophotometry of CSF were performed in 30 patients with the clinical diagnosis of cerebral concussion or contusion. The patients with concussion all had normal CT-findings. Spectrophotometry of CSF was sometimes positive for cerebral contusion with normal CT-findings, but the two methods were complementary so that the extent of the lesion was determined by CT and spectrophotometry of CSF indicated the cause. (Auth.)

  16. Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine

  17. Computed tomographic (CT) scans in cerebral palsy (CP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolawole, T.M.; Patel, P.J.; Mahdi, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    The CT findings in 120 cerebral palsied children are analysed. The 72.5% positive findings are correlated with the clinical types, as well as the aetiological basis for the cerebral palsy. The spastic type, 83.3% of the total number of children, had the highest positive findings. The yield was increased in children with seizures (91.3%) and those in the postnatal group (90%), as well as those with birth trauma and neonatal asphyxia (94%). The findings were those of atrophy in 30.8%, hydrocephalus, in 10%, infarct in 11.6%, porencephaly in 8.3% and others. The atropic changes and their patterns are explained. Treatable lesions, such as tumour, hydrocephalus, subdural haematoma, porencephaly and hygroma were identified in 22.5% of cases. It is concluded that CT scan is definitely efficacious in the management of cerebral palsied children. (orig.)

  18. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  19. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  20. Twelve years nuclear medicine - results and outlook - illustrated by 7414 cerebral scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeger, R.

    1981-01-01

    It is a fact that until the invention of computerized tomography, scintiscanning was an excellent method for diagnosing tumours, metastases, vascular processes, inflammations and traumatic lesions. Now even the differential diagnosis is possible, and also follow-up examinations are often carried out. On the basis of the 7414 considered and studied scintigrams we came to the positive result that in most cases with deliberate questions directed to specific facts, this examination procedure was applied. Scintigraphy can be considered as the predecessor of computerized tomography. With respect to differential diagnostics the following can be said: Cerebral scintigraphy measures in cases of cerebral lesions only masses, whereas the computerized tomograph permits within certain limits even the differentiation between lesion and perifocal oedema. The tomographs of the last generation even differentiate between white and grey cerebral substance. Nevertheless, the residual domaine of scintigraphy remains untouched: the patients with non-focal symptoms, including headaches, general behaviour disorders and psychiatric processes. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  2. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  3. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A.; Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  4. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  5. Clinico-anatomical correlations of left posterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Osamu; Shiota, Junichi; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizou; Maki, Toshiyuki.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between neurological signs and symptoms and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was examined in 11 cases of occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery. All the patients were righthanded. Right homonimous hemianopia was noted in 8 cases, right upper quadrantanopia in 2 cases, and right lower quadrantanopia in 1 case. Of the 11 cases, alexia without agraphia was noted in 9 cases, all 9 of which showed lesions of inferior occipital cortex (lingual and fusiform gyri) and subjacent white matter. Lesions of splenium were found in only 5 of the cases of alexia without agraphia. In 2 cases with neither alexia nor agraphia, lesions were seen in the medial occipital cortex and the subjacent white matter but not in the inferior occipital lobe. Three patients had color anomia which was accompanied by memory disturbances and alexia without agraphia. In 2 of these 3, lesions were widespread in the region of the left posterior cerebral artery. Memory disturbances were observed in 6 cases, all of which also showed alexia without agraphia. The lesions extended not only of the inferior surface of the occipital lobe and along the interhemispheric fissure, but also of hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri. In 3 cases of alexia without agraphia in which no memory distrubance was found, the symptoms of alexia were slight and disappeared at an early stage. (J.P.N.)

  6. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Dynamic CT brain scanning in the haemodynamic evaluation of cerebral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.M.; Melbourne Univ.; Tress, B.M.; Hopper, J.L.; Rossiter, S.C.; Kaye, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic cerebral CT scanning (DCT) was used to quantitatively analyse the haemodynamic effects of extracranial and intracranial arterial occlusive lesions in 17 patients with TIA's or minor cerebral infarcts. Using DCT and gamma variate curve fitting, mean transit times were determined for the terminal internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries and middle cerebral-supplied Sylvian cortex at the level of the Circle of Willis. Six patients were studied sequentially, four before and after transcranial bypass surgery. No arterial or tissue delays were found in patients without haemodynamic arterial lesions or cortical infarcts. Seven of nine patients with haemodynamic, extracranial carotid lesions showed ipsilateral delays in arterial or tissue transit times. Tissue delays usually correlated with CT or clinical evidence of infarction. Improved haemodynamics in patients re-studied correlated with the effects of surgery or clinical recovery. DCT has several important limitations but has the potential to provide additional haemodynamic information about the cerebral circulation in selected patients with cerebral arterial occlusive disease. (orig.)

  8. Crossed aphasia following cerebral infarction in a right-handed patient with atypical cerebral language dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoping; Guo, Yang; Dun, Saihong; Sun, Hongzan

    2018-05-18

    Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI). Brain MRI at 24 h after admission showed a large cerebral infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, including the posteroinferior part of Broca's area in the right frontal lobe, the right temporal lobe, and the right occipital lobe. The patient exhibited a non-fluent aphasia on a standard language test (the Aphasia Battery of Chinese [ABC]) performed on the 7th day after onset. Thus, atypical language dominance was suspected. One week after admission, ASL imaging showed high perfusion in the infarct core zone and low perfusion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. Two months later, PET/MRI demonstrated low metabolism in the posterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, temporal occipital junction area, and the right basal ganglia. The findings suggest that the patient has right-sided cerebral language dominance, or that both hemispheres have linguistic functions. Not all patients show linguistic capabilities on the side opposite hand preference. The language dominance should be predicted by a combination of clinical manifestations and functional imaging techniques.

  9. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  10. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Moyses Vilela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the case of a 43-year-old diabetic patient with facial pain, protruding eyes, nasal congestion and decreased right vision (involvement of the ipsilateral cranial nerves III, IV and V. Computed tomography showed diffuse sinusitis at right, cribriform plate erosion and presence of a hypodense collection in the frontal lobe with peripheral enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a cerebral abscess. Samples were collected from the lesion, confirming hyphae compatible with mucormycosis.

  11. Post Traumatic Cerebral Oedema in Severe Head Injury is Related to Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure but not to Cerebral Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Nujaimin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Kelantan. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and was conducted between November 2005 and September 2007 with a total of 30 patients included in the study. In our study, univariate analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between mean intracranial pressure (ICP as well as cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP with both states of basal cistern and the degree of diffuse injury and oedema based on the Marshall classification system. The ICP was higher while CPP and compliance were lower whenever the basal cisterns were effaced in cases of cerebral oedema with Marshall III and IV. In comparison, the study revealed lower ICP, higher mean CPP and better mean cerebral compliance if the basal cisterns were opened or the post operative CT brain scan showed Marshall I and II. These findings suggested the surgical evacuation of clots to reduce the mass volume and restoration of brain anatomy may reduce vascular engorgement and cerebral oedema, therefore preventing intracranial hypertension, and improving cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral compliance. Nevertheless the study did not find any significant relationship between midline shifts and mean ICP, CPP or cerebral compliance even though lower ICP, higher CPP and compliance were frequently observed when the midline shift was less than 0.5 cm. As the majority of our patients had multiple and diffuse brain injuries, the absence of midline shift did not necessarily mean lower ICP as the pathology was bilateral and even when after excluding the multiple lesions, the result remained insignificant. We assumed that the CT brain scan obtained after evacuation of the mass lesion to assess the state basal cistern and classify the diffuse oedema may prognosticate the intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure

  12. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aribandi, M.; Bazan, C.; Rinaldi, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribandi, M; Bazan Iii, C; Rinaldi, M G

    2005-04-01

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aribandi, M; Bazan, C [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Rinaldi, M G [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    2005-04-15

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Yee; Liu, Jia-Shou; Lai, Shung-Lon; Wu, Hsiu-Shan; Lan, Min-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Nattokinase is used as a health-promoting medicine for preventing thrombosis due to its fibrinolytic activity. Cerebral microbleed is remnant of blood extravasations from the damaged vessels related to cerebral microangiopathies. We report a patient, having used aspirin for secondary stroke prevention, who had an acute cerebellar hemorrhage after taking nattokinase 400 mg daily for 7 consecutive days. In addition to the hemorrhagic lesion, multiple microbleeds were demonstrated on brain MR images. We suggest that nattokinase may increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients who have bleeding-prone cerebral microangiopathy and are receiving other antithrombotic agent at the same time.

  17. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  18. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  19. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor.

  20. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu

    1985-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor

  1. ''Dural tail'' adjacent to a giant posterior cerebral artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, C.D.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; Taylor, W.J.; Harkness, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    The ''dural tail'' sign on gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced MRI has been described in association with meningiomas. Various series with histopathological correlation have shown that in some cases there is tumour invasion into the dura mater, but in the majority of cases it represents a hypervascular, non-neoplastic reaction. While this sign was originally thought to be specific for meningioma, subsequent case reports have described the presence of a dural tail in other intra- and extra-axial lesions. We present a patient with a giant aneurysm arising from the P2 segment of the right posterior cerebral artery, adjacent to the tentorium, with a prominent dural tail on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In this location, differentiation of an aneurysm from a meningioma was critical. (orig.). With 2 figs

  2. The Precautionary Principle Has Not Been Shown to Be Incoherent: A Reply to Peterson : Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this journal, I have objected to Peterson's 2006 claim that the precautionary principle is an incoherent decision rule. I defend my objections to Peterson's recent replies, and I still claim that the precautionary principle has not been shown to be incoherent.

  3. The Precautionary Principle Has Not Been Shown to Be Incoherent: A Reply to Peterson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this journal, I have objected to Peterson's 2006 claim that the precautionary principle is an incoherent decision rule. I defend my objections to Peterson's recent replies, and I still claim that the precautionary principle has not been shown to be incoherent. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  5. Evaluation of the cerebral vasculature by intrarterial DSA - with emphasis on in vivo resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Bussaka, H.; Nakagawa, N.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative study was performed between IA DSA and stereoscopic magnification angiography in relation to small vessel resolution, image quality of the vessels and image quality of various pathologic lesions. The vessels of various diameters accurately measured by stereoscopic magnification angiography, were localized on IA DSA and their resolution was carefully assessed. The vessels more than 1 mm in diameter were equally visualized on IA DSA and conventional angiography. The vessels between 1 mm and 0.5 mm showed fair resolution on IA DSA, whereas IA DSA did not resolve the vessels smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter to good advantage. In addition, image quality of the vessels on IA DSA was compared with the conventional methods. Cerebral gyrus, venous sinuses, and intracerebral veins are often shown better on DSA. The small vessels such as lenticulostriate, small cortical, thalamoperforate and meningohypophyseal arteries were not defined on DSA. Equal or better image quality was obtained in more than 85% of cases with pathologic lesions. Examinations were performed faster with lower cost and lower complication rate. Information provided by DSA was often sufficient for managements of patients. Combined use of DSA and conventional angiography will improve diagnostic accuracy and decrease the complication rate. (orig.)

  6. Neuroprotective effects of NAP against excitotoxic brain damage in the newborn mice: implications for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, P; Passemard, S; Mok, A; Schwendimann, L; Gozes, I; Gressens, P

    2011-01-26

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was shown to be essential for embryogenesis and brain development while NAP, an active motif of ADNP, is neuroprotective in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined the protective potential of ADNP/NAP in a mouse model of excitotoxic brain lesion mimicking brain damage associated with cerebral palsy. We demonstrated that NAP had a potent neuroprotective effect against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic damage in the cortical plate and the white matter of P5 mice, and moderate against brain lesions of P0 mice. In contrast, endogenous ADNP appears not to be involved in the response to excitotoxic challenge in the studied model. Our findings further show that NAP reduced the number of apoptotic neurons through activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway in the cortical plate or both PI-3K/Akt and MAPK/MEK1 kinases in the white matter. In addition, NAP prevented ibotenate-induced loss of pre-oligodendrocytes without affecting the number of astrocytes or activated microglia around the site of injection. These findings indicate that protective actions of NAP are mediated by triggering transduction pathways that are crucial for neuronal and oligodendroglial survival, thus, NAP might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating developing brain damage. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  8. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  9. What are we drinking? Beverages shown in adolescents’ favorite TV shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. Objective This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Design Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed using a detailed coding instrument. Key measures Beverage incidents (i.e. beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks and coffee. Characters were coded with regards to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general or adult audience. Statistical analyses Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Results Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0–25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSB. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across age groups. Almost half of young adults’ (49.2%) or adults’ (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Conclusions Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSB) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the

  10. Post-stroke hemiparesis: Does chronicity, etiology, and lesion side are associated with gait pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Gabriela Lopes; Larissa, Coutinho de Lucena; Brasileiro, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Lima; Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes de Souza; Galvão, Élida Rayanne Viana Pinheiro; Maciel, Álvaro Cavalcanti; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Studies that evaluate gait rehabilitation programs for individuals with stroke often consider time since stroke of more than six months. In addition, most of these studies do not use lesion etiology or affected cerebral hemisphere as study factors. However, it is unknown whether these factors are associated with post-stroke motor performance after the spontaneous recovery period. To investigate whether time since stroke onset, etiology, and lesion side is associated with spatiotemporal and angular gait parameters of individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty individuals with chronic hemiparesis (20 women) were evaluated. The sample was stratified according to time since stroke (between 6 and 12 months, between 13 and 36 months, and over 36 months), affected cerebral hemisphere (left or right) and lesion etiology (ischemic and hemorrhagic). The participants were evaluated during overground walking at self-selected gait speed, and spatiotemporal and angular gait parameters were calculated. Results Differences between gait speed, stride length, hip flexion, and knee flexion were observed in subgroups stratified based on lesion etiology. Survivors of a hemorrhagic stroke exhibited more severe gait impairment. Subgroups stratified based on time since stroke only showed intergroup differences for stride length, and subgroups stratified based on affected cerebral hemisphere displayed between-group differences for swing time symmetry ratio. In order to recruit a more homogeneous sample, more accurate results were obtained and an appropriate rehabilitation program was offered, researchers and clinicians should consider that gait pattern might be associated with time since stroke, affected cerebral hemisphere and lesion etiology.

  11. Lesion patterns in patients with cryptogenic stroke with and without right-to-left-shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, R; Sadikovic, S; Esposito, L; Schwarze, J; Bockelbrink, A; Hemmer, B; Sander, D; Poppert, H

    2009-10-01

    Despite numerous studies, the role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) as a risk factor for stroke due to paradoxical embolism is still controversial. On the assumption that specific lesion patterns, in particular multiple acute ischaemic lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, indicate a cardioembolic origin, we compared the MRI findings in stroke patients with right-to-left shunt (RLS) and those without. The records of 486 patients with diagnosis of cerebral ischaemia were reviewed. For detection of RLS, contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) was carried out in all patients. An MRI scan of the brain was performed in all patients. Affected vascular territories were divided into anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, vertebrobasilar artery system including posterior cerebral artery, brain stem and cerebellar stroke, and strokes occurring in more than one territory. We did not find a specific difference in neuroradiological lesion patterns in patients with RLS compared with patients without RLS. In particular, 23 of 165 patients (13.9%) with RLS showed multiple ischaemic lesions on MRI in comparison with 45 of 321 patients (14.0%) without RLS (P = 0.98). These findings also applied for the subgroup of cryptogenic strokes with and without RLS. We found no association between an ischaemic lesion pattern that is considered as being typical for stroke due to cardiac embolism and the existence of PFO. Therefore, our findings do not provide any support for the common theory of paradoxical embolism as a major cause of stroke in PFO carriers.

  12. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  14. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  15. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  16. Mechanisms of Acupuncture Therapy for Cerebral Ischemia: an Evidence-Based Review of Clinical and Animal Studies on Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Ye, Yang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been shown to be effective in promoting recovery after stroke. In this article, we review the clinical and experimental studies that demonstrated the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia. Clinical studies indicated that acupuncture activated relevant brain regions, modulated cerebral blood flow and related molecules in stroke patients. Evidence from laboratory indicated that acupuncture regulates cerebral blood flow and metabolism after the interrupt of blood supply. Acupuncture regulates multiple molecules and signaling pathways that lead to excitoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, neurons death and survival. Acupuncture also promotes neurogenesis, angiogenesis as well as neuroplasticity after ischemic damage. The evidence provided from clinical and laboratory suggests that acupuncture induces multi-level regulation via complex mechanisms and a single factor may not be enough to explain the beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia.

  17. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  18. Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

  19. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral blood flow assessed by brain SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO utilising the acetazolamide test in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Romanowicz, G.; Koseda-Dragan, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Cerebrovascular diseases are one of the most important complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The diagnostic imaging of neuropsychiatric SLE complications presents many problems. This study was undertaken to investigate cerebral blood flow char s and its reactivity to hypercapnia by means of acetazolamide test in SLE patients. Methods: Brain SPECT studies using 99mTc-HMPAO were performed in 50 patients with SLE. Acetazolamide test was performed in 35 patients 3 days after the baseline study by means of repetitive scanning 20 min after i.v. injection of 1.0 g of acetazolamide. Results: Significant interhemispheric hypoperfusion areas were shown in 76.3% of all patients, 83.8% symptomatic and 63.1% asymptomatic. Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome showed multifocal perfusion deficits. The reaction of cerebral perfusion to acetazolamide was heterogenous and showed increase, decrease, no change or mixed reaction of baseline-study-found focal hypoperfusion. Acetazolamide test revealed hypoperfusion in two patients with normal baseline study. MRI scanning revealed cerebral lesions in 41% of patients. Conclusions: CBF asymmetries in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with SLE are frequent. Regional CBF alterations seem to be different in patients with and without antiphospholipid syndrome. The part of the patients with SLE shows no or paradoxically inversed reaction to acetazolamide. (author)

  1. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  2. Cranio-cerebral gunshot wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Majer1, G. Iacob2

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranio-cerebral gunshots wounds(CCGW are the most devastating injuriesto the central nervous system, especiallymade by high velocity bullets, the mostdevastating, severe and usually fatal type ofmissile injury to the head.Objective: To investigate and compare,using a retrospective study on five cases theclinical outcomes of CCGW. Predictors ofpoor outcome were: older age, delayedmode of transportation, low admissionCGS score with haemodynamic instability,CT visualization of diffuse brain damage,bihemispheric, multilobar injuries withlateral and midline sagittal planestrajectories made by penetrating highvelocity bullets fired from a very closerange, brain stem and ventricular injurywith intraventricular and/or subarachnoidhemorrhage, mass effect and midline shift,evidence of herniation and/or hematomas,high ICP and/or hypotension, abnormalcoagulation states on admission ordisseminated intravascular coagulation. Lessharmful effects were generated by retainedmissiles, bone fragments with CNSinfection, DAI lesions and neuronaldamages associated to cavitation, seizures.Material and methods: 5 patients (4 maleand 1 female, age ranged 22-65 years, withCCGW, during the period 2004-2009,caused by military conflict and accidentalfiring. After initial resuscitation all patientswere assessed on admission by the GlasgowComa Scale (GCS. After investigations: Xrayskull, brain CT, Angio-CT, cerebralMRI, SPECT; baseline investigations,neurological, haemodynamic andcoagulability status all patients underwentsurgical treatment following emergencyintervention. The survival, mortality andfunctional outcome were evaluated byGlasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score.Results: Referring on five cases weevaluate on a retrospective study the clinicaloutcome, imagistics, microscopic studies onneuronal and axonal damage generated bytemporary cavitation along the cerebralbullet’s track, therapeutics, as the review ofthe literature. Two patients with anadmission CGS 9 and 10

  3. Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the example of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.; Markus, B.; Dietrich, T.; Schmitt Glaeser, W.

    1977-01-01

    The lectures printed here, partly in revised form, were given at a University meeting for teachers in adult education on July 9th and 10th 1976 in Bayreuth, with the main theme of 'Adult education as information and help in forming opinions shown from the subject of nuclear power'. It should be shown by examples related to this problem, which urgently requires more objectivity, and which will be freed of emotional opinions with extraordinary difficulty, how complex such objects can be and how many different aspects have to be taken into account. The grouping of scientific referees, a teacher, a nuclear physicist, a radiation biologist and a lawyer, makes the plurality of the aspects quite clear. Themes: 1) The contribution of adult education to de-idealogising the population, 2) The scientific and technical basis of generation and use of nuclear power, 3)Radiation stresses of living organismus, particularly human being. 4) Smug authorities, protesting citizens, overload judges. (GL) [de

  4. Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct (PPCI) trial - the importance of mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent cerebral complications after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G.; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Debilitating brain injury occurs in 1.6–5 % of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported stroke-like lesions in up to 51 % of patients after cardiac surgery. The majority of the lesions seem...... to be caused by emboli, but inadequate blood flow caused by other mechanisms may increase ischaemia in the penumbra or cause watershed infarcts. During cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure can be below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation. Although much debated, the constant blood flow provided...... by the cardiopulmonary bypass system is still considered by many as appropriate to avoid cerebral ischaemia despite the low blood pressure. Methods/design: The Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct trial is a single-centre superiority trial with a blinded outcome assessment. The trial is randomising 210 patients...

  5. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  6. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  7. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  8. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  9. Checking the numbers for the labyrinths shown in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Reviewed are the designs for access labyrinths presently shown in the Conceptual Design Report to see if they are reasonable for radiation protection purposes. This matter was previously studied two years ago in a Fermilab TM (Co85a). The methods used are based upon scaling the results of calculations done by Gollon and Awschalom. Confidence in the results has been fortified by a successful experimental test. The Conceptual Design Report shows two types of access labyrinths which are significantly different. The first type is that at a Sector Service Area, while the second is that provided for personnel entry to the Interaction Regions

  10. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  12. Recent concepts concerning cerebral ischaemia in man and their implications in therapeutic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depresseux, J C

    1987-06-18

    Recent concepts concerning focal cerebral ischaemia in man and resulting from the data obtained with positron emission tomography are reported. The evolutive steps in the ischaemic process are divided into: perfusion reserve; extraction reserve recruitment; ischaemic penumbra; lesional process and post-lesional developments. Circulatory and metabolic patterns corresponding to these evolutive steps are described and illustrated. The potentials of these data as guide-lines in therapeutic trial methodology are discussed.

  13. Recent concepts concerning cerebral ischaemia in man and their implications in therapeutic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent concepts concerning focal cerebral ischaemia in man and resulting from the data obtained with positron emission tomography are reported. The evolutive steps in the ischaemic process are divided into: perfusion reserve; extraction reserve recruitment; ischaemic penumbra; lesional process and post-lesional developments. Circulatory and metabolic patterns corresponding to these evolutive steps are described and illustrated. The potentials of these data as guide-lines in therapeutic trial methodology are discussed [fr

  14. Metabolic and circulatory evaluation of acute cerebral ischaemic accidents in man by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depresseux, J C; Franck, G., Van Cauwenberge, H.

    1987-06-18

    Positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 were used to evaluate the effects of an almitrine-raubasine combination on cerebral blood flow and oxydative metabolism in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia. In 5 patients, aged between 58 and 74 years, with cerebral ischaemic accident in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, blood flow rate, oxygen consumption and brain oxygen extraction were measured before and after a 90-min intravenous infusion of almitrine bismesilate 15 mg and raubasine 5 mg. Only one patient presented with initial relative luxury perfusion, the intensity of which was reduced by the combined treatment. The other 4 patients had focal reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption prior to treatment. Satistical analysis conducted on three cerebral areas (epicentre of the lesion, anterior and posterior juxtalesional areas and homologous heterolateral areas) showed a significant 3.6% increase of oxygen consumption in the epicentre, both hemispheres included, and a significant increase of cerebral blood flow in all three areas (3% on the healthy side, 13% on the diseased side). No significant change in oxygen extraction was demonstrated. The authors conclude that acute almitrine-raubasine treatment has beneficial effects on the brain immediately after a cerebral vascular accident, reflecting respect of the circulation-metabolism couple.

  15. Metabolic and circulatory evaluation of acute cerebral ischaemic accidents in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.; Franck, G.; Van Cauwenberge, H.

    1987-01-01

    Positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 were used to evaluate the effects of an almitrine-raubasine combination on cerebral blood flow and oxydative metabolism in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia. In 5 patients, aged between 58 and 74 years, with cerebral ischaemic accident in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, blood flow rate, oxygen consumption and brain oxygen extraction were measured before and after a 90-min intravenous infusion of almitrine bismesilate 15 mg and raubasine 5 mg. Only one patient presented with initial relative luxury perfusion, the intensity of which was reduced by the combined treatment. The other 4 patients had focal reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption prior to treatment. Satistical analysis conducted on three cerebral areas (epicentre of the lesion, anterior and posterior juxtalesional areas and homologous heterolateral areas) showed a significant 3.6% increase of oxygen consumption in the epicentre, both hemispheres included, and a significant increase of cerebral blood flow in all three areas (3% on the healthy side, 13% on the diseased side). No significant change in oxygen extraction was demonstrated. The authors conclude that acute almitrine-raubasine treatment has beneficial effects on the brain immediately after a cerebral vascular accident, reflecting respect of the circulation-metabolism couple [fr

  16. Computed tomographic features of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Hoch, H.; Azevedo, M. de L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this m anuscript is to present the use of CT in the evaluation of 42 cases of orbital lesions studied at the National Institute of Cancer in an one year and half period. Correlation with clinical and pathological data was performed and the results compared with those of the literature. Four cases of rare lesions are shown: alveolar soft tissue sarcoma, giant cell tumor and hematogenic metastatic deposits of a clear cell sarcoma and epidermoid carcinoma. The value of CT in the evaluation of all orbital masses is emphasized. (author) [pt

  17. Sensitivity of rCBF to focal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, J.H. Jr.; Nakai, K.; Wariyar, B.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of the 133Xenon inhalation method to lateralize cerebral infarctions visible on CT scan was tested in 39 patients. At each of 7 hemispheric regions the flow rate in the lesioned hemisphere was divided by that in the unaffected hemisphere and this ratio was compared with the corresponding ratio for normal subjects. The fast compartment relative flow f1 correctly lateralized the lesion in only 6 patients with no false lateralizations. If the fast compartment relative weight w1 was also considered, the correct lateralizations were increased to about 50%. With the less well-known ISI and the Fractional Flow considered together, the laterality of the lesion was identified correctly in 85% of cases, with no false lateralizations

  18. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  19. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  20. The influence of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) on human cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.; Fidler, Vaclav; Staal, Michiel J.

    It has been shown that transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) reduces sympathetic tone. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven qualities to improve coronary, peripheral, and cerebral blood circulation. Therefore, we postulate that TENS and SCS affect the autonomic nervous system in

  1. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  3. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mouchtouris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics.

  4. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  5. The mechanism of cerebral aneurysmal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, Toshihiro; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a disease of poor prognosis and MR- and CT-angiographies are used for its diagnosis and in the preventive therapy of its rupture. Here discussed are formation and growth leading to rupture of the lesion for its advanced diagnosis and prevention of rupturing. Beginning from findings in animal experimentation in mice, rats and monkeys, discussed are pathology of the aneurysm, genes related with its formation, molecular biological approaches concerning apoptosis and NF-kB/TNF-α related inflammatory reactions, participation of sex hormone, clinical hemodynamic analyses based on 3D data from CT and MRI findings, and clinical studies. Authors consider that local hemodynamic stress loading is possibly related to cerebral aneurysm formation as it is yielded at the loading part of the vessel in human and in animal models. The aneurysm is possibly a result of remodeling disturbance by the load and subsequent excessive involution of the artery. In the process, probably included are the inflammation, apoptosis, degradation of extracellular matrix and functional impairment of endotherial cells. Future elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aneurismal growth and rupture will bring about the improved treatment to prevent the disease by stabilizing the aneurismal wall. (T.T.)

  6. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpo...

  7. Home Literacy Environment: Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various aspects of the home literacy environment are considered to stimulate the emergent literacy development in children without disabilities. It is important to gain insight into the home literacy environment of children with cerebral palsy given that they have been shown to have difficulty acquiring literacy skills. Aims: The aims…

  8. Home literacy environment: characteristics of children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.H.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various aspects of the home literacy environment are considered to stimulate the emergent literacy development in children without disabilities. It is important to gain insight into the home literacy environment of children with cerebral palsy given that they have been shown to have

  9. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Weon Tae; Jung, Min Ki; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De

    1988-01-01

    Authors analyzed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 cases pathologically and clinically proven cerebral paragonimiasis that were performed at Chonnam University Hospital from April 1983 through March 1987. The results were as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 15:4 and the most prevalent age group was 3rd decade (7 cases). The common symptoms were epileptic seizure (16 cases) and headache (12 cases). 2. The multiplicity of cerebral paragonimiasis was 7 of 19 cases and the distributions of lesion were occipital (11 cases), temporal (6 cases), frontal (5 cases) and parietal (5 cases) lobe. 3. The calcification on CT scan were single (7 cases) or multiple (7 cases) and the shape of calcification were nodular (10 cases), soap babble of ring (8 cases), and stippled (6 cases). The pattern of contrast enhancement were ring (5 cases) or nodular (1 case), and along the basal cistern (1 case with arachnoiditis). 4. 12 out of 13 cases, had long clinical symptoms over 3 years with calcifications, could be analyzed according to Valentine's vascular territory; 6 cases in PCA territory, 3 in MCA and 3 in ACA. 5. CT findings were noted according to the duration of symptoms; 5 cases, had symptoms less than 1 year, showed abscess (5 cases) and arachnoiditis (1 case) with brain edema, mass effect, hydrocephalus and contrast enhancement but no calcification in all. One case, had symptom of 1 year and 2 months, showed partially calcified granulomatous lesion with perifocal edema and contrast enhancement, 13 cases, had symptoms over 3 years, showed multiple calcification with brain atrophy (10 cases), but no contrast enhancement in all cases.

  10. Cerebral aspergillosis: comparison of radiological and neuropathologic findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Gilead Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Hettmann, M.; Schwechheimer, K. [Dept. of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Maschke, M. [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Thirty-six lesions in six patients who died from cerebral Aspergillus infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were studied with regard to signal intensity, contrast enhancement, size, and location. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by autopsy. Retrospective correlation of histopathological and radiological findings was possible for 14 lesions. Most of the lesions (22/36) had isointense to low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Histopathologically, hemorrhagic necrosis was determined in three of them. Areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) were related to gross hemorrhage. Two infarctions showed intravascular accumulation of fungal hyphae with secondary thrombosis of the vessel. The remaining 12 lesions had high signal intensity on T2WI and low on T1WI. Histopathologically, four were infectious and four were unspecific demyelinated lesions. In conclusion, cerebral aspergillosis typically presented with large lesions showing isointense to low signal intensity on T2WI that could have areas of high signal on T1WI. Contrast enhancement was only visible in 15 lesions, and the predominant locations were the subcortical white matter, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. Small lesions with high signal on T2WI and low signal on T1WI could not necessarily be related to Aspergillus infection. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral aspergillosis: comparison of radiological and neuropathologic findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, U.; Hettmann, M.; Schwechheimer, K.; Maschke, M.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-six lesions in six patients who died from cerebral Aspergillus infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were studied with regard to signal intensity, contrast enhancement, size, and location. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by autopsy. Retrospective correlation of histopathological and radiological findings was possible for 14 lesions. Most of the lesions (22/36) had isointense to low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Histopathologically, hemorrhagic necrosis was determined in three of them. Areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) were related to gross hemorrhage. Two infarctions showed intravascular accumulation of fungal hyphae with secondary thrombosis of the vessel. The remaining 12 lesions had high signal intensity on T2WI and low on T1WI. Histopathologically, four were infectious and four were unspecific demyelinated lesions. In conclusion, cerebral aspergillosis typically presented with large lesions showing isointense to low signal intensity on T2WI that could have areas of high signal on T1WI. Contrast enhancement was only visible in 15 lesions, and the predominant locations were the subcortical white matter, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. Small lesions with high signal on T2WI and low signal on T1WI could not necessarily be related to Aspergillus infection. (orig.)

  12. The relationship between cerebral infarction on MR and angiographic findings in moyamoya disease: significance of the posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Song, Soon Young [College of Medicine, Kwangdong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Bong Gak; Kag, Si Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA Univ., Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between changes in the posterior and anterior circulation, as seen at angiography, and the frequency and extent of cerebral infarction revealed by MR imaging in moyamoya disease. This study involved 34 patients (22 females and 12 males, aged 2-52 years) in whom cerebral angiography revealed the presence of moyamoya disease (bilateral; unilateral= 24:10; total hemispheres=58) and who also underwent brain MR imaging. To evaluate the angiographic findings, we applied each angiographic staging system to the anterior and posterior circulation. Leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was also assigned one of four grades. At MR imaging, areas of cerebral cortical or subcortical infarction in the hemisphere were divided into six zones. White matter and basal ganglionic infarction, ventricular dilatation, cortical atrophy, and hemorrhagic lesions were also evaluated. To demonstrate the statistical significance of the relationship between the angiographic and the MR findings, both the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for trend and the chi-square test were used. The degree of steno-occlusive PCA change correlated significantly with the internal carotid artery (ICA) stage (p<0.0001). As PCA stages advanced, the degree of leptomeningeal collaterals from the PCA decreased significantly (P<0.0001), but ICA stages were not significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of infarction showed significant correlation with the degree of steno-occlusive change in both the ICA and PCA. The degree of cerebral ischemia in moyamoya patients increased proportionally with the severity of PCA stenosis rather than with that of steno-occlusive lesins of the anterior circulation. Infarctions tended to be distributed in the anterior part of the hemisphere at PCA state I or II, while in more advanced PCA lesions, they were also found posteriorly, especially in the territories of the posterior middle cerebral artery

  13. Functional Topography of Early Periventricular Brain Lesions in Relation to Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Martin; Ticini, Luca F.; Grodd, Wolfgang; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Early periventricular brain lesions can not only cause cerebral palsy, but can also induce a reorganization of language. Here, we asked whether these different functional consequences can be attributed to topographically distinct portions of the periventricular white matter damage. Eight patients with pre- and perinatally acquired left-sided…

  14. Gd-DTPA-enhanced lesions in the brain of patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Frederiksen, J L; Henriksen, O

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres of 19 patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (AMON) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Using T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging sequences it was disclosed that 14 of 19 patients had lesions...

  15. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopman, D.S.; Rubens, A.B.; Selnes, O.A.; Klassen, A.C.; Meyer, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery

  16. Sequential assessment of regional cerebral blood flow, regional cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier in focal cerebral ischemia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Piero, V.; Perani, D.; Savi, A.; Gerundini, P.; Lenzi, G.L.; Fazio, F.

    1986-01-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were evaluated by N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-[123I]iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine-2 HCl- and /sup 99m/TC-labeled red blood cells, respectively, and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in a patient with focal cerebral ischemia. Sequential transmission computerized tomography (TCT) and SPECT functional data were compared with clinical findings to monitor the pathophysiological events occurring in stroke. A lack of correlation between rCBF-rCBV distributions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was found in the acute phase. In the face of more prolonged alteration of BBB, as seen by TCT enhancement, a rapid evolution of transient phenomena such as luxury perfusion was shown by SPECT studies. Follow-up of the patient demonstrated a correlation between the neurological recovery and a parallel relative improvement of the cerebral perfusion

  17. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  18. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. Determination of wall tension in cerebral artery aneurysms by numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, J.G.; Bazilevs, Y.; Kvamsdal, T.

    2008-01-01

    a computational model for simulation of fluid-structure interaction in cerebral aneurysms based on patient specific lesion geometry, with special emphasis on wall tension. METHODS: An advanced isogeometric fluid-structure analysis model incorporating flexible aneurysm wall based on patient specific computed...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breath-Hold Divers with Cerebral Decompression Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cerebral decompression sickness (DCS is still unclear. We report 2 cases of breath-hold divers with cerebral DCS in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated distinctive characteristics. One case presented right hemiparesthesia, diplopia, and gait disturbance after breath-hold diving into the sea at a depth of 20 m. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR sequence revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right frontal lobe, bilateral thalamus, pons, and right cerebellar hemisphere. The second case presented visual and gait disturbance after repetitive breath-hold diving into the sea. FLAIR imaging showed hyperintense areas in the bilateral occipito-parietal lobes. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping revealed hyperintense areas in the lesions identified by FLAIR. Moreover, follow-up MRI showed attenuation of the FLAIR signal abnormalities. These findings are suggestive of transient hyperpermeability in the microvasculature as a possible cause of cerebral DCS.

  3. Small brain lesions and incident stroke and mortality: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, B Gwen; Deere, Bradley; Griswold, Michael E.; Wang, Wanmei; Bezerra, Daniel C; Shibata, Dean; Butler, Kenneth; Knopman, David; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Heiss, Gerardo; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Background Although cerebral lesions ≥3mm on imaging are associated with incident stroke, lesions stroke risks associated with subclinical brain lesions by size (stroke; average 14.5 years follow-up. Measurements MRI lesions: none (n=1611), stroke (n=157), overall mortality (n=576), stroke mortality (n=50). Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated with proportional hazards models. Results Compared to no lesions, stroke risk was tripled with lesions Stroke risk doubled with WMH ≥3 (HR=2.14, 95% CI:1.45-3.16). Stroke mortality risk tripled with lesions stroke events (n=147), especially hemorrhagic (n=15); limited numbers of participants with only lesions ≤3mm (n=50) or with both lesions ≤3mm and 3–20mm (n=35). Conclusions Very small cerebrovascular lesions may be associated with increased risks of stroke and mortality; having both < 3 mm and ≥3 mm lesions may represent a particularly striking risk increase. Larger studies are needed to confirm findings and provide more precise estimates. PMID:26148278

  4. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography: principles and application to functional studies of the language areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh, Y.R.; Seylaz, J.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a new technique which is particularly suitable for routine studies of cerebro-vascular diseases. SPECT can be used to examine the deep structures of the brain and cerebellum. The functional areas of the brain, which have hitherto been only accessible by clinical-anatomical methods, can be imaged by this technique, based on the correlation between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The demonstration of preferential activation of temporal and frontal zones in the left hemisphere by active speech stimulation confirms the general principles of hemispheric lateralization of cerebral functions. In addition to this role in studying the physiology of normal subjects, the technique has practical pathological applications. Knowledge of hemispheric lateralization of spoken language should be a pre-operative test for cerebral lesion when there is a risk that surgical intervention may produce irreversible neuropsychological lesions [fr

  5. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  6. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  7. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Tests using 133 Xe inhalation method and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with acetazolamide (Diamox) were performed in 23 patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, before and after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery or carotid-endarterectomy. All patients complained of TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with 133 Xe SPECT, and was measured 15 minutes after intravenous administration of 10-12 mg/kg Diamox, which is known as a cerebral vasodilatory agent (Diamox test). Our results revealed that all patients could be divided into four types according to their resting rCBF and Diamox reactivity. The patients who had normal resting rCBF and normal Diamox reactivity (type 1) were considered to have well-developed collateral circulation and normal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in spite of severe occlusive lesions in the carotid system. Moderate vasodilation due to reduced CPP was considered to occur in patients who had normal resting rCBF and decreased Diamox reactivity (type 2). The resting rCBF remained unchanged, but Diamox reactivity improved to normal after surgery in the patients of type 2, which indicated the improvement of CPP and the resolution of the autoregulatory vasodilation. Maximum vasodilation or dysautoregulation was considered to occur due to the inadequate collateral flow and the severely reduced CPP in patients whose findings revealed decrease in the resting rCBF and impaired Diamox reactivity (type 3). Remarkable improvement was seen in both resting rCBF and Diamox reactivity after surgery in the patients of type 3. In the patients who had decreased resting rCBF and normal Diamox reactivity (type 4), the decreased resting rCBF was considered to result from the reduction in metabolic demand because of irreversible ischemic neuronal damage. (J.P.N.)

  8. Cerebral and meningeal manifestations of AIDS: comparison of plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images in 105 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Henkes, H.; Steinkamp, H.J.; Terstegge, K.; Hosten, N.; Ruf, B.; Schoerner, W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of T1-weighted Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging in the diagnosis of cerebral manifestations of AIDS. 105 patients with AIDS were imaged with plain T2-weighted images as well as with Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted pulse sequences. Our study revealed comparable sensitivities in the detection of morphological changes as shown on plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images in 55% of patients (normal and pathologic findings). Plain T2-weighted images were superior in 28.5% and provided significantly better results in 8.5% of patients. Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were superior in only 5% cases and revealed significantly better results in 3%. As a result, T2-weighted plain images were superior in approximately 40% of patients concerning detection of morphologic changes. In almost 10% of patients with parechymal and meningeal lesions, Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images, however, were superior or even significantly better compared to T2-weighted plain images. The detection of morphologic changes in MR imaging can be further increased with Gd-DTPA. With regard to differential diagnosis and diesease activity, plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images revealed comparable results in 42% of patients (normal and pathologic findings). T2-weighted plain images were superior in 2% of cases whereas Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were superior in as much as 56% of patient. MR imaging enhanced with Gd-DTPA yielded additional information on disease activity in 73% of patients with pathologic findings in the cerebral parechyma and the meninges. The surplus of information also refers to the etiology of cerebral pathology and differential diagnosis. Because of the frequency of cerebral manifestations in AIDS, early diagnosis for initiation of therapy and follow-up studies to monitor therapy are crucial. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  10. Techniques in cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.

  11. Neonatal cerebral infarction; Symptoms, CT findings and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author).

  12. Cerebral aneurysms – an audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Abstract. We performed an audit to determine the profile of cerebral aneurysms at the Universitas Hospital Bloem- fontein, the only government hospital with a vascular suite in the Free State and Northern Cape area. Two hun- dred and twenty-three government patients, diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms during the period.

  13. US evaluation of volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, R.V.; Chua, G.T.; Fry, F.J.; Franklin, T.D.; Wills, E.R.; Hastings, J.S.; Sanghui, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US in the right cerebral hemispheres of research canines were evaluated by diagnostic US from immediately after ablation up to 62 days later. Animals were killed and perfused for whole-brain recovery. US evaluation of whole-brain specimens was performed. Histologic analysis of brain sections verified lesion placement, size, and tissue response to US. These sections were compared with US studies for correlation data. Correlation data suggest that US visualization may aid in accurate placement of volume brain lesions and in evaluation of effects of high-intensity focuses US in normal brain

  14. Value of cerebral blood flow rate and regional oxygen consumption studies in cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanet, M

    1987-06-18

    Studies of experimentally-induced ischaemia have shown that the intensity of neuronal suffering is related to the fall in perfusion rate. Below a certain level, called functional threshold, cerebral function is reversibly altered, whereas at a lower level (tissue necrosis threshold) the damage inflicted on neurons is irreversible. Between these two thresholds lies a ''penumbra zone''. This concept of thresholds must be mitigated by 2 parameters: duration of ischaemia and selective vulnerability of the various structures affected. Variations in blood flow rate only indirectly affect the state of tissues. Techniques developed from positron emission tomography make it possible to evaluate the metabolic activity of brain tissue in vivo: oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/), oxygen extraction (EO/sub 2/) and glucose consumption (CMRG) which are thus correlated to cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, sometimes also to tissue pH. Normal relations between blood flow rate and metabolism may be altered. Misery perfusion reflects a fall in cerebral blood flow with an increase in EO/sub 2/ and often a decrease in CMRO/sub 2/, whereas luxury perfusion reflects an increase in cerebral blood flow rate with reduction of CMRO/sub 2/, EO/sub 2/ and CMRG. The type of alteration encountered in human ischaemia varies according to the nature of the accident: studies of transient accidents emphasize the different haemodynamic aspects of occlusion of the wider arteries. The metabolic and haemodynamic profiles of established ischaemic accidents vary according to their type and to the time of the study, reflecting the complexity of the physiopathological mechanisms involved; they are frequently associated with metabolic repercussions at a distance from the ischaemic focus, which supports the concept of diaschisis.

  15. Value of cerebral blood flow rate and regional oxygen consumption studies in cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanet, M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of experimentally-induced ischaemia have shown that the intensity of neuronal suffering is related to the fall in perfusion rate. Below a certain level, called functional threshold, cerebral function is reversibly altered, whereas at a lower level (tissue necrosis threshold) the damage inflicted on neurons is irreversible. Between these two thresholds lies a ''penumbra zone''. This concept of thresholds must be mitigated by 2 parameters: duration of ischaemia and selective vulnerability of the various structures affected. Variations in blood flow rate only indirectly affect the state of tissues. Techniques developed from positron emission tomography make it possible to evaluate the metabolic activity of brain tissue in vivo: oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction (EO 2 ) and glucose consumption (CMRG) which are thus correlated to cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, sometimes also to tissue pH. Normal relations between blood flow rate and metabolism may be altered. Misery perfusion reflects a fall in cerebral blood flow with an increase in EO 2 and often a decrease in CMRO 2 , whereas luxury perfusion reflects an increase in cerebral blood flow rate with reduction of CMRO 2 , EO 2 and CMRG. The type of alteration encountered in human ischaemia varies according to the nature of the accident: studies of transient accidents emphasize the different haemodynamic aspects of occlusion of the wider arteries. The metabolic and haemodynamic profiles of established ischaemic accidents vary according to their type and to the time of the study, reflecting the complexity of the physiopathological mechanisms involved; they are frequently associated with metabolic repercussions at a distance from the ischaemic focus, which supports the concept of diaschisis [fr

  16. EBV-positive B cell cerebral lymphoma 12 years after sex-mismatched kidney transplantation: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder or donor-derived lymphoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    We present a follow-up case report of possible transmission of lymphoma 12 years after deceased-donor renal transplantation from a male donor who was found at autopsy to have had an occult lymphoma. The female recipient underwent prompt transplant nephrectomy. However, 12 years later, she presented with cerebral B cell lymphoma. A donor origin for the cerebral lymphoma was supported by in situ hybridization demonstration of a Y chromosome in the lymphoma. There was a dramatic resolution of the cerebral lesions with tapering of immunosuppression and introduction of rituximab treatment. The finding of a Y chromosome in the cerebral lymphoma does not exclude a host contribution to lymphoma development.

  17. Computerized detection method for asymptomatic white matter lesions in brain screening MR images using a clustering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Takuya; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Hara, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Asymptomatic white matter lesions are frequently identified by the screening system known as Brain Dock, which is intended for the detection of asymptomatic brain diseases. The detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions is important because their presence is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Therefore, we have developed a computerized method for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in order to assist radiologists in image interpretation as a ''second opinion''. Our database consisted of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of the white matter lesions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. In order to restrict the area to be searched for white matter lesions, we first segmented the cerebral region in T 1 -weighted images by applying thresholding and region-growing techniques. To identify the initial candidate lesions, k-means clustering with pixel values in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. To eliminate false positives (FPs), we determined the features, such as location, size, and circularity, of each of the initial candidate lesions. Finally, a rule-based scheme and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed to distinguish between white matter lesions and FPs. The results showed that the sensitivity for the detection of white matter lesions was 93.2%, with 4.3 FPs per image, suggesting that our computerized method may be useful for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images. (author)

  18. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  20. Maduración cerebral y desarrollo cognoscitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La maduración cerebral se correlaciona con muchos de los cambios cognoscitivos y de comportamiento observados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. En este artículo se revisa el concepto de maduración cerebral y su asociación con el desarrollo de la preferencia manual, del lenguaje verbal y de la función ejecutiva en el niño. Se describe el incremento de las arborizaciones dendríticas como el cambio cortical más importante asociado a la adquisición de funciones cognoscitivas complejas. Se asocia la maduración del hemisferio derecho con la conducta emocional y la maduración del hemisferio izquierdo con el lenguaje. La maduración de las áreas prefrontales se correlaciona con el desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas. Se presentan ejemplos específicos sobre la existencia de asimetría cerebral motriz desde el nacimiento y sobre la lateralización posterior de funciones visuales, auditivas y táctiles. Se analiza la participación cualitativamente diferente de los hemisferios cerebrales en los procesos cognoscitivos durante las distintas etapas del desarrollo del niño. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de las secuelas cognoscitivas secundarias a lesiones cerebrales tempranas como un método más para entender la ontogenia de la asimetría cerebral

  1. Maduración cerebral y desarrollo cognoscitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Roselli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La maduración cerebral se correlaciona con muchos de los cambios cognoscitivos y de comportamiento observados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. En este artículo se revisa el concepto de maduración cerebral y su asociación con el desarrollo de la preferencia manual, del lenguaje verbal y de la función ejecutiva en el niño. Se describe el incremento de las arborizaciones dendríticas como el cambio cortical más importante asociado a la adquisición de funciones cognoscitivas complejas. Se asocia la maduración del hemisferio derecho con la conducta emocional y la maduración del hemisferio izquierdo con el lenguaje. La maduración de las áreas prefrontales se correlaciona con el desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas. Se presentan ejemplos específicos sobre la existencia de asimetría cerebral motriz desde el nacimiento y sobre la lateralización posterior de funciones visuales, auditivas y táctiles. Se analiza la participación cualitativamente diferente de los hemisferios cerebrales en los procesos cognoscitivos durante las distintas etapas del desarrollo del niño. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de las secuelas cognoscitivas secundarias a lesiones cerebrales tempranas como un método más para entender la ontogenia de la asimetría cerebral.

  2. An investigation of cerebral magnetic resonance angiography, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Sadanori; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Ohue, Shiro; Todo, Hirooki; Sakaki, Saburo.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies of MR angiography (MRA) as a noninvasive screening method for vascular diseases have been reported recently. Almost all of them were investigated using high tesla magnets (1.5 tesla). We have been investigating three-dimensional MRA using a medium tesla (0.5 tesla) system (HITACHI G-50). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of 3-D MRA for the screening of cerebral aneurysms. Twenty patients with 25 cerebral aneurysms were included in this study. The sizes of the aneurysms ranged from 2 to 35 mm. Twenty-three aneurysms were located on the anterior circulation, and 2 on the posterior circulation. MR angiography was performed with a gradient-echo sequence at a TR of 50 msec, a TE of 16 msec, and a flip angle of 25 degrees. The imaging volumes ranged in thickness from 48 to 64 mm, with 32 partitions. We used a sequence-subtraction technique composed of rephased and dephased sequences; it provides a good visualization of the main cerebral arteries. Cerebral aneurysms were detected on 3-D MRA in 23 lesions (92%). We consider that 0.5 tesla 3-D MRA could be useful for the screening of nonruptured aneurysms. (author)

  3. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition in patient with acute leukaemia: unusual involvement of caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aprile, P.; Tarantino, A.; Carella, A. [Division of Neuroradiology, Policlinico, Univ. of Bari (Italy); Santoro, N. [Inst. of Paediatric Clinic I, Policlinico, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with leukaemia and Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition. MRI showed unusual bilateral lesions of the caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, as well as typical lesions surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct. After intravenous thiamine, the patient improved, and the abnormalities on MRI disappeared. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  5. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  6. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  8. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  9. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  11. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang-Hung Yang; Tsung-Szu Yeh; Tung-Ping Su; Jyh-Cheng Chen; Ren-Shyan Liu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  12. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Lin, X.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between dopamine (DA) D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemiparkinsonism rats. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to screen that rats, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional brain biodistribution were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure the concentration of DA and it metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dehydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in bilateral striatum (ST). The lesioned side ST DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated control group, ST/cerebellum (CB) 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 ±0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 99m Tc 30.1±4.53% enhancement as compared to the intact side, and also show good correlation with 30 min Apo induced rotation numbers (r=0.98), the regional cerebral blood flow study didn't show significant difference between bilateral brain cortex area (p>0.05). The DA content decreased significantly and induced an up-regulation of ST D 2 receptor binding sites in 6-OH-DA lesioned side in hemi-parkinsonism rats, the increased percentage of lesioned-intact side ST/CB 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Compare with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  13. Neurological Injury and Cerebral Blood Flow in Single Ventricles Throughout Staged Surgical Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Elci, Okan U; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J; Wilson, Felice; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Diaz, Laura; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Mascio, Christopher; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2017-02-14

    Patients with a single ventricle experience a high rate of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome; however, the incidence of brain abnormalities throughout surgical reconstruction and their relationship with cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, and carbon dioxide reactivity remain unknown. Patients with a single ventricle were studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans immediately prior to bidirectional Glenn (pre-BDG), before Fontan (BDG), and then 3 to 9 months after Fontan reconstruction. One hundred sixty-eight consecutive subjects recruited into the project underwent 235 scans: 63 pre-BDG (mean age, 4.8±1.7 months), 118 BDG (2.9±1.4 years), and 54 after Fontan (2.4±1.0 years). Nonacute ischemic white matter changes on T2-weighted imaging, focal tissue loss, and ventriculomegaly were all more commonly detected in BDG and Fontan compared with pre-BDG patients ( P <0.05). BDG patients had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients. The odds of discovering brain injury with adjustment for surgical stage as well as ≥2 coexisting lesions within a patient decreased (63%-75% and 44%, respectively) with increasing amount of cerebral blood flow ( P <0.05). In general, there was no association of oxygen delivery (except for ventriculomegaly in the BDG group) or carbon dioxide reactivity with neurological injury. Significant brain abnormalities are commonly present in patients with a single ventricle, and detection of these lesions increases as children progress through staged surgical reconstruction, with multiple coexisting lesions more common earlier than later. In addition, this study demonstrated that BDG patients had greater cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients and that an inverse association exists of various indexes of cerebral blood flow with these brain lesions. However, CO 2 reactivity and oxygen delivery (with 1 exception) were not associated with brain lesion development. URL: http

  14. Radiology in cases of cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, M.; Reith, W.; Kummer, R. von; Sartor, K.

    1993-01-01

    Today radiologic methods play an important role in the diagnosis of cerebral stroke. The aim of the radiologist, however, should not only be to classify the stroke into the four main categories (ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, sinovenous thrombis), but also to interprete the findings with regard to the etiology of the disease. The pattern of lesions gives information about the etiology of ischemic stroke; the correct interpretation of these lesion patterns allows one to optimize therapeutic decisions. This paper additionally focusses on the differential diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage and the CT and MR signs of sinovenous thrombosis. New developed concepts in the field of stroke therapy and prophylaxis call for authority and continuous education of the radiolgist on this topic. Pure descriptions of radiologic findings without an understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease will be ignored by the clinician. On the other hand, the radiologist can turn the therapeutic decisions in the right direction by combining morphological descriptions with pathogenetic orientated interpretations. In this way, the radiolgist can contribute to the reduction of costs in the public health system. (orig.) [de

  15. Brain MRI lesions in neuromyelitis optica: clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales Bravo, Luis Guillermo; Heyden Cordero, Marvin; Chinchilla Weinstok, Dennis; Mendelewicz Goldwaig, Isaias

    2011-01-01

    Many cases of patients with neuromyelitis optica have submitted without demyelinating lesions in the cerebral white matter, it has documented that this entity can cause from the onset of illness or through its natural evolution. Diagnostic methods currently as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and specific antibodies in plasma (such as antiaquaporin-4) have been diagnosed of neuromyelitis optica cases that were initially confused with multiple sclerosis. Disease in Costa Rica has been little prevalent and is not exactly known what the prevalence and incidence. The degree of disorder is illustrated through a case study, both in the cerebral white matter as spinal cord, in a patient with neuromyelitis optica during a follow-up period of 4 years. This is the first case that has been reported in the scientific literature of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  16. Role of dynamic CT perfusion study in evaluating various intracranial space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Ravindra B; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N; Shivashankar, Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating intracranial mass lesions on CT scan is challenging. The purpose of our study was to determine the perfusion parameters in various intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOL), differentiate benign and malignant lesions, and differentiate between grades of gliomas. We performed CT perfusion (CTP) in 64 patients, with age ranging from 17 to 68 years, having space-occupying lesions in brain and calculated relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV). We found significantly lower perfusion in low-grade gliomas as compared to high-grade tumors, lymphoma, and metastases. Similarly in infective lesions, TWT and abscesses showed significantly lower perfusion compared to TOT. In ring enhancing lesions, capsule of TWT showed significantly lower perfusion as compared to abscesses, TOT, and metastases. Thus, in conclusion, infective lesions can be differentiated from tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, or metastases based on perfusion parameters. The cut off value of rCBV 1.64 can be used to differentiate between low grade and high grade gliomas. However, depending only on perfusion parameters, differentiation between the tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, and metastases may not be possible

  17. Role of dynamic CT perfusion study in evaluating various intracranial space-occupying lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Kamble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Differentiating intracranial mass lesions on CT scan is challenging. The purpose of our study was to determine the perfusion parameters in various intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOL, differentiate benign and malignant lesions, and differentiate between grades of gliomas. Materials and Methods: We performed CT perfusion (CTP in 64 patients, with age ranging from 17 to 68 years, having space-occupying lesions in brain and calculated relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV. Results: We found significantly lower perfusion in low-grade gliomas as compared to high-grade tumors, lymphoma, and metastases. Similarly in infective lesions, TWT and abscesses showed significantly lower perfusion compared to TOT. In ring enhancing lesions, capsule of TWT showed significantly lower perfusion as compared to abscesses, TOT, and metastases. Conclusion: Thus, in conclusion, infective lesions can be differentiated from tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, or metastases based on perfusion parameters. The cut off value of rCBV 1.64 can be used to differentiate between low grade and high grade gliomas. However, depending only on perfusion parameters, differentiation between the tumors like lymphomas, high-grade gliomas, and metastases may not be possible.

  18. Cortical hypometabolism and its recovery following nucleus basalis lesions in baboons: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyosawa, M.; Pappata, S.; Duverger, D.

    1987-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured serially with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose in five baboons with stereotactic electrocoagulation of the left nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). Four days after lesion, a significant metabolic depression was present in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, most marked in the frontotemporal region, and which recovered progressively within 6-13 weeks. These data demonstrate that adaptive mechanisms efficiently compensate for the cortical metabolic effects of NbM-lesion-induced cholinergic deafferentation. Moreover, unilateral NbM lesions also induced a transient reduction in contralateral cortical metabolic rate, the mechanisms of which are discussed. Explanation of these effects of cholinergic deafferentation in the primate could further our understanding of the metabolic deficits observed in dementia of the Alzheimer's type

  19. Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients with Acute Stroke-Related Calcified Cerebral Emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Esther; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke from calcified cerebral emboli. Procedural results were reviewed for acute stroke patients with clinically neurological deficits who underwent recanalization from October 2012 through September 2015. Initial imaging studies and cerebral angiography were analyzed. Of the total number of patients with acute stroke, 5 patients were confirmed to have acute ischemic stroke by calcified cerebral emboli. On initial brain computed tomographic imaging, all patients showed small, dense single calcifications in the middle cerebral artery with no definitive ischemic low-density lesions (M1: 3, M2: 2, mean size: 4.8 mm). All patients had angiographic findings of filling defects from calcified emboli. Four patients had good collateral flow and two had continuous distal flow. All patients underwent MAT using a Penumbra catheter (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, CA). MAT did not remove calcified emboli in all patients. Two patients with good collateral flow had favorable functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2). Four patients had diffuse calcification in the aortic arch, carotid artery, and aortic valve. Cerebral angiography supports a diagnosis of stroke when calcified cerebral emboli have contrast-filling defects and a degree of vascular occlusion. However, in this study, MAT was not an effective treatment for patients with calcified cerebral emboli because of hardness of the calcified plaque and packing into the arterial lumen. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarctions from the Aorta in a Patient with Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a rare complication of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and its pathogenesis has not been well clarified yet. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a patient with CSS due to embolism from a thrombus on the wall of the aorta. A 39-year-old man had multiple cerebral infarctions with symptoms of mild left hemiparesis and reduced vision. He was clinically diagnosed to have CSS based on remarkable eosinophilia, history of asthma, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, and histologically proven extravascular eosinophilic infiltrates in the specimen of gastric mucosa. Cerebral angiography did not show any stenotic lesions in cerebral arteries. A thrombus was detected on the wall of the aorta by transesophageal echocardiography, which was considered as the source of embolism. The thrombus resolved on follow-up examination 3 months after the onset of the stroke. This is the first case report on cerebral infarction caused by aortogenic thromboembolism in a CSS patient. Other than cerebral vasculitis, embolism from cardiovascular system, including the wall of the aorta, is a possible cause of cerebral infarctions in a CSS patient. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between cerebral blood flow and later cognitive decline in hypertensive patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Oku, Naohiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Sakoda, Saburo; Kimura, Yasuyuku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Vascular risk factors are thought to be important for dementia. However, there is little evidence for a prospective association between cerebral blood flow and the risk of cognitive decline. Twenty-seven cognitively intact hypertensive patients aged 55 years and older with lacunar infarction or white matter lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 3 years later with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Patients whose MMSE score fell by more than three points were classified as having cognitive decline. Six patients showed cognitive decline. Baseline CBF in these patients was significantly lower than that of the 21 patients without cognitive decline (31.2±2.4 vs. 42.6±5.9 ml per 100 gmin -1 , respectively; P<0.001). A moderate linear association was found between CBF and change in MMSE score over a 3-year period (r=0.59, P=0.001), not between CBF and baseline MMSE score. In contrast, no association between CVR and later cognitive decline was found. This study suggests that cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with later cognitive decline. (author)

  2. Autoregulation of cerebral circulation in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandgaard, S.

    1978-01-01

    The present work deals with the effects of high blood pressure on cerebrovascular autoregulation, i.e. the mechanism that ensures a constant blood flow in the brain tissue by way of varying the calibre of the smallest resistance vessels. It has been shown that in patients with severe, untreated or uncontrolled hypertension, the lower limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is shifted towards high blood pressure, thus decreasing the tolerance to acute hypotension. This is a functional correlate of the morphological changes present in hypertensive arterioles, i.e. wall thickening and luminal narrowing. Observations in a group of effectively treated hypertensive patients strongly suggest that a readaptation of autoregulation towards normal may take place during long-term entihypertensive treatment. Thus, the present findings should not be interpreted as a warning against clinical blood pressure lowering, which is known from other studies to protect the patient against stroke. Rather, the present observations are a support of the view that a severely elevated blood pressure should be lowered gradually, without aiming at an immediate normalization. It has also been demonstrated that some hypertensive patients do not readapt their cerebrovascular autoregulation towards normal during treatment, and may be better served in the long run with a blood pressure somewhat above normal. An upper blood pressure limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated in man and experimental animal in the present and other investigations. With a blood pressure rise of 40-60% above the resting awake level, autoregulation may fail, and cerebral blood flow increases. At the upper limit of autoregulation, a ''sausage-string'' pattern has been observed in the cat's pial arterioles. It has been shown by vessel calibre measurements to consist of localized dilatations superimposed on autoregulatory arteriolar constriction. At higher pressures, vasodilatation becomes

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient leads to diagnosis of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Soleimani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite, with a worldwide distribution from 30%–75% seroprevalence in different countries. In patient with immunosuppression such as AIDS, the parasite can be reactivated and causes the disease. We report on the case of a 36–year–old man admitted to MadaniHospital with Imbalance and loss of consciousness. He has been suffering headache, impaired speech and inability to walk since two weeks ago. In magnetic resonance imaging multiple space occupying lesions in bilateral cerebral hemispheres with ring enhancement after contrast injection were seen. HIV test for HIV-1 was reactive, Toxoplasma serology was revealed raised immunoglobulin G antibody levels of 650 IU/mL. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in this patient leads to diagnosis of HIV infection at advanced stage. The patient treated successfully with alternative drug but we need more activity in education of high risk people to get tested for HIV in our country, Iran.

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviopierre, A.M.; Lawler, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis now constitutes a relatively frequent central nervous system (CNS) complication of AIDS, primary CNS lymphoma being far less common. CT scanning using the double-dose delayed (D-D-D) scan technique has proved an effective way of helping in the diagnosis of these complications. 16 patients with CNS complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are described. All patients were male homosexuals. The most common demonstrable lesion in the parenchyma was toxoplasmosis, which produced an area of focal oedema, usually containing a central zone of nodular or ring-shaped enhancement. Cerebral atrophy was also a common finding. One patient had diffuse peri-ventricular lymphomatous infiltration, and a further two patients had both cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. A delayed double dose contrast examination appears to be the most accurate method of outlining the total extent of CNS disease in these patients. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Word and face recognition deficits following posterior cerebral artery stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...

  6. Cerebral perfusion changes in schizophrenia patients evaluated with Tc-99 HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehweil, A.; El-Hilu, S.; Jahan, S.; Higazi, E.; Salhat, M.; Al-Mohannadi, S.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tc-99m HMPAO has been used to image cerebral perfusion changes in 20 chronic schizophrenia patients (19 men and 1 woman), with an average age of 29 years (range, 22-48 years). All were receiving neuroleptic drugs. Twelve had received electroconvulsive therapy. All patients had abnormal studies (except one, which was normal) and poor response to treatment. Ventricular dilation and cerebral atrophy were seen in 11 patients. Seventy-seven focal lesions were detected. Forty-two lesions showed increased HMPAO retention: 26 in the basal ganglia in 14 patients (12, bilateral, two unilateral), 10 along the sylvian fissure in the parietotemporal region, three in the frontal region, and one in each of the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Thirty-five focal lesions showed decreased perfusion: 10 parietal, eight frontal, seven temporal, six cerebellar, and four occipital. This study demonstrates the potential value of Tc-99m HMPAO in the study of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders

  7. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  8. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira; Aida, Noriko; Okano, Souzo; Matsushita, Hiroko; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo

    2009-01-01

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Aida, Noriko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Okano, Souzo; Matsushita, Hiroko [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Biomechanical bases of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.

  11. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  12. Ischemic lesion volume determination on diffusion weighted images vs. apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtane, Bernt Tore; Bastan, Birgul; Fisher, Marc; Bouley, James; Henninger, Nils

    2009-07-07

    Though diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is frequently used for identifying the ischemic lesion in focal cerebral ischemia, the understanding of spatiotemporal evolution patterns observed with different analysis methods remains imprecise. DWI and calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were serially obtained in rat stroke models (MCAO): permanent, 90 min, and 180 min temporary MCAO. Lesion volumes were analyzed in a blinded and randomized manner by 2 investigators using (i) a previously validated ADC threshold, (ii) visual determination of hypointense regions on ADC maps, and (iii) visual determination of hyperintense regions on DWI. Lesion volumes were correlated with 24 hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC)-derived infarct volumes. TTC-derived infarct volumes were not significantly different from the ADC and DWI-derived lesion volumes at the last imaging time points except for significantly smaller DWI lesions in the pMCAO model (p=0.02). Volumetric calculation based on TTC-derived infarct also correlated significantly stronger to volumetric calculation based on last imaging time point derived lesions on ADC maps than DWI (pdetermined lesion volumes on ADC maps and DWI by both investigators correlated significantly with threshold-derived lesion volumes on ADC maps with the former method demonstrating a stronger correlation. There was also a better interrater agreement for ADC map analysis than for DWI analysis. Ischemic lesion determination by ADC was more accurate in final infarct prediction, rater independent, and provided exclusive information on ischemic lesion reversibility.

  13. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute stage of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Sen; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Ihara, Ikuo

    1986-01-01

    The value of the nuclear magnetic resonance image (MRI) was investigated in the acute stage of experimental cerebral ischemia. The MRI system employed was designed for clinical use, and the superconducting magnet was operated at a field strength of 1.5 tesla. Ischemic insult was made by transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) permanently in 4 cats and temporarily in 2 cats. After MCA occlusion the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured on the affected cortex, and 5 cats with rCBF below 10 ml/100 g/min and one with rCBF over 15 ml/100 g/min were studied. In the permanent occlusion group, MRI was performed every 2 hours from 4 to 12 hours after MCA occlusion and another MRI was carried out 20 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) intravenous administration. The earliest changes were found 6 to 8 hours after MCA occlusion on the spin echo image (repetition time = 1.4 sec, echo time = 70 msec) in 3 cats with severe ischemia. It was postulated that the ischemic lesion could be depicted less than 6 hours on more T 2 -weighted images. The increased intensity area was markedly enhanced with Gd-DTPA 12 hours after occlusion. In the recirculation group, the increased intensity area was observed on enhanced MRI in a cat with recirculation as early as one hour after MCA occlusion, although it was not found on the plain MRI. In the other cat with recirculation after 2 hours' occlusion, definite lesion was found in all parameter images without enhancement. The results suggest that changes in cerebral ischemia can be obtained on the MRI earlier than X-ray computed tomography, and that it may be possible to determine the severity of the ischemic brain injury by the MRI findings. (author)

  15. Splenial lesions of the corpus callosum: Disease Spectrum and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Hwa Seon; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of more than 200–250 million axons that provide a large connection mainly between homologous cerebral cortical areas in mirror image sites. The posterior end of the CC is the thickest part, which is called the slenium. Various diseases including congenital to acquired lesions including congenital anomalies, traumatic lesions, ischemic diseases, tumors, metabolic, toxic, degenerative, and demyelinating diseases, can involve the splenium of the CC and their clinical symptoms and signs are also variable. Therefore, knowledge of the disease entities and the imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium is valuable in clinical practice. MR imaging is useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of splenial lesions of the CC. In this study, we classify the disease entities and describe imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium of the CC based on our experiences and a review of the literature.

  16. Brain MRI lesions in neuromyelitis optica: clinical case; Lesiones cerebrales de resonancia magnetica en neuromielitis optica: caso clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Bravo, Luis Guillermo; Heyden Cordero, Marvin; Chinchilla Weinstok, Dennis; Mendelewicz Goldwaig, Isaias, E-mail: neurologia.cima@gmail.com [Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Hospital Mexico, Div. de Neurologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2011-10-15

    Many cases of patients with neuromyelitis optica have submitted without demyelinating lesions in the cerebral white matter, it has documented that this entity can cause from the onset of illness or through its natural evolution. Diagnostic methods currently as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and specific antibodies in plasma (such as antiaquaporin-4) have been diagnosed of neuromyelitis optica cases that were initially confused with multiple sclerosis. Disease in Costa Rica has been little prevalent and is not exactly known what the prevalence and incidence. The degree of disorder is illustrated through a case study, both in the cerebral white matter as spinal cord, in a patient with neuromyelitis optica during a follow-up period of 4 years. This is the first case that has been reported in the scientific literature of Costa Rica. (author) [Spanish] Muchos casos de pacientes con neuromielitis optica se han presentado sin lesiones desmielinizantes en la sustancia blanca cerebral, se ha documentado que esta entidad puede causarlas desde el inicio de la enfermedad o a traves de su evolucion natural. Los metodos de diagnostico en la actualidad como la Imagen por Resonancia Magnetica (IRM) y la determinacion de anticuerpos especificos en plasma (como la antiaquaporina-4) han logrado diagnosticar algunos casos de neuromielitis optica que inicialmente fueron confundidos con esclerosis multiple. La enfermedad en Costa Rica ha sido poco prevalente y no se ha conocido con exactitud cual es la prevalencia e incidencia. El grado de afeccion ha sido ilustrado a traves de un caso clinico, tanto en la sustancia blanca cerebral como espinal, en un paciente con neuromielitis optica durante un periodo de seguimiento de 4 anos. Este es el primer caso que ha sido reportado en la literatura cientifica de Costa Rica. (autor)

  17. Cerebral metastases from multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, J.; Wist, E.; Dahl, I.M.; University Hospital, Tromsoe

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a patient with multiple intracerebral lesions from myeloma. The case also demonstrates that myeloma is a radiosensitive tumour and that radiotherapy is important to keep in mind when intracranial lesions are revealed. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  19. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  20. Frontal intradiploic epidomoid cyst with orbital and out cerebral extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Latorre, F.; Revert Ventura, A.; Diaz Ramon, C.; Arana, E.; Esteban Masanet, J.M.; Tortosa Giner, A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied six patients with exophthalmos and inferior displacement of the eyeball produced by orbital extension of a frontal intradiploic epidermoid cyst. All the patients were studied by conventional radiography five with CT and three with MR. Plain x-ray disclosed a single, well-defined lytic lesion with sclerosis margin, located in the outer supraorbital region of the frontal bone in all cases. CT revealed the intradiploic site of the lesion, its expansive nature, the state of the bone tables and demonstrated the existence of an intra orbital mass. MR showed a lesion with a greater signal intensity than LCR, similar to the white matter in T1-weighted sequences in two cases and hyperintense in a third. The lesions were hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. The preoperative presumed diagnosis was established by means of plain radiography on the basis of site and the sclerosis ring surrounding the lesion. CT disclosed the bone structures and confirmed the existence of an intra orbital mass containing soft portions. The basic contribution of MR was in the assessment of the intracranial extension and in ruling out cerebral involvement.(Author)

  1. Is stereotactic large-core needle biopsy beneficial prior to surgical treatment in BI-RADS 5 lesions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorntje, LE; Peeters, PHM; Mali, WPTM; Rinkes, IHMB

    Introduction. Due to screening mammography, more nonpalpable mammographic lesions warrant histological evaluation. Stereotactic large-core needle biopsy (SLCNB) has been shown to be as effective in diagnosing these lesions as diagnostic surgical excision, and has become the preferred diagnostic

  2. The role of cerebral resonance behavior in the control of music performance : an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons in the cerebral cortex have been shown to fire not only during performance but also during visual and auditory observation of activity. This phenomenon is commonly called cerebral resonance behavior. This would mean that cortical motor regions would not only be activated while

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow and periventricular hyperintensity in silent cerebral infarction. Comparison with multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Tsuganesawa, Toshikazu; Terashi, Akiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the white matter lesions on MRI in silent cerebral infarction, we quantitatively measured rCBF by 123 I-IMP autoradiography method (IMP ARG method) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) in 36 patients with silent cerebral infarction (SCI group), 22 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID group), and 16 control subjects without periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and lacunar infarction on MRI (CL group). Regions of interest (ROIs) on rCBF images were set in the frontal (F), temporal (T), parietal (P), occipital (O) cortex, and the cerebral white matter (W). The severity of PVH on MRI T 2 -weighted image was divided into four grades (grade 0-3). Though the frequency of hypertension was significantly higher in SCI group and MID group compared with CL group, no significant difference was seen in the mean age among these three groups. rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices except the occipital cortex in SCI group was significantly low compared with CL group (rCBF SCI /rCBF CL : W 0.87, F 0.87, T 0.87, P 0.88, O 0.92). rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex, in MID group was significantly low compared with SCI group (rCBF MID /rCBF CL : W 0.69, F 0.71, T 0.74, P 0.75, O 0.81). The mean grade of PVH in MID group was significantly higher than that in SCI group (SCI 1.1 vs MID 2.5). The severity of PVH was significantly correlated with each rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the quantitative measurement of rCBF by IMP ARG method is useful for the follow-up study in the patients with silent cerebral infarction as well as the evaluation of the severity of PVH on MRI. (author)

  4. Cerebral Pathophysiology in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Pitfalls in Daily Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Omar Kazmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a life-saving technique that is widely being used in centers throughout the world. However, there is a paucity of literature surrounding the mechanisms affecting cerebral physiology while on ECMO. Studies have shown alterations in cerebral blood flow characteristics and subsequently autoregulation. Furthermore, the mechanical aspects of the ECMO circuit itself may affect cerebral circulation. The nature of these physiological/pathophysiological changes can lead to profound neurological complications. This review aims at describing the changes to normal cerebral autoregulation during ECMO, illustrating the various neuromonitoring tools available to assess markers of cerebral autoregulation, and finally discussing potential neurological complications that are associated with ECMO.

  5. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon

    2006-01-01

    and cerebral metabolism could not be explained by alterations in blood pH or arterial CO2 tension. By measuring cerebral intracellular pH by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, it could further be concluded that the brain pH was unchanged during acute hyperketonemia. These observations indicate......In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...... that the mechanism responsible for the increase in CBF is rather a direct effect on the cerebral endothelium than via some metabolic interactions...

  6. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  7. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  8. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  9. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  10. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  11. Distribution and natural course of intracranial vessel wall lesions in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA at 7.0 tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, Anja G. van der; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brundel, Manon; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies using intracranial vessel wall MRI techniques showed that over 50 % of patients with ischemic stroke or TIA had one or more intracranial vessel wall lesions. In the current study, we assessed the preferential location of these lesions within the intracranial arterial tree and their potential changes over time in these patient groups. Forty-nine patients with ischemic stroke (n = 25) or TIA (n = 24) of the anterior cerebral circulation underwent 7.0 T MRI, including a T{sub 1}-weighted magnetization-preparation inversion recovery turbo-spin-echo (MPIR-TSE) sequence within one week and approximately one month after symptom onset. Intracranial vessel wall lesions were scored for multiple locations within the arterial tree and differences between one-week and one-month images. At baseline, 132 intracranial vessel wall lesions were found in 41 patients (84 %), located primarily in the anterior cerebral circulation (74 %), with a preferential location in the distal internal carotid artery and M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery. During follow-up, presence or enhancement patterns changed in 14 lesions (17 %). A large burden of intracranial vessel wall lesions was found in both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Most lesions were found to be relatively stable, possibly indicating a more generalized atherosclerotic process. (orig.)

  12. Lesions causing freezing of gait localize to a cerebellar functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Laganiere, Simon E.; Lam, Susy; Fox, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, but the brain regions involved in symptom generation remain unclear. Here we analyze brain lesions causing acute onset freezing of gait to identify regions causally involved in symptom generation. Methods Fourteen cases of lesion-induced freezing of gait were identified from the literature and lesions were mapped to a common brain atlas. Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location, not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. This technique, termed lesion network mapping, has been recently shown to identify regions involved in symptom generation across a variety of lesion-induced disorders. Results Lesion location was heterogeneous and no single region could be considered necessary for symptom generation. However, over 90% (13/14) of lesions were functionally connected to a focal area in the dorsal medial cerebellum. This cerebellar area overlapped previously recognized regions that are activated by locomotor tasks, termed the cerebellar locomotor region. Connectivity to this region was specific to lesions causing freezing of gait compared to lesions causing other movement disorders (hemichorea or asterixis). Interpretation Lesions causing freezing of gait are located within a common functional network characterized by connectivity to the cerebellar locomotor region. These results based on causal brain lesions complement prior neuroimaging studies in Parkinson’s disease patients, advancing our understanding of the brain regions involved in freezing of gait. PMID:28009063

  13. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  14. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    ) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P...... = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed...

  15. Septic Cerebral Embolisation in Fulminant Mitral Valve Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemina Doolub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male with known intravenous drug use was admitted with an acute onset of worsening confusion and speech impairment. His vitals and biochemical profile demonstrated severe sepsis, with a brain CT showing several lesions suspicious for cerebral emboli. He then went on to have a bedside transthoracic echocardiogram that was positive for vegetation on the mitral valve, with associated severe mitral regurgitation. Unfortunately, before he was stable enough to be transferred for valve surgery, he suffered an episode of acute pulmonary oedema requiring intubation and ventilation on intensive care unit.

  16. Token test and computed tomogram in cerebral apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanazono, Toshihide; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Hojo, Kei; Sato, Tokijiro; Hirano, Takashi; Metoki, Hirofumi.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients (103 with cerebrovascular disorder and 15 with head injury or cerebral tumor) who developed aphasia were examined using computed tomography (CT). Token test (TT) scores and the presence or absence of lesions on CT were inputted onto microcomputer. The affected area was drawn by hand using a standardized matrix and a digitizer. There was linear correlation between measured TT scores and expected TT scores from CT. There was no evidence of relationship between TT scores and the lateral lobe which has been considered responsible for speech function. CT seemed to predict TT scores to some extent. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Abnormal radionuclide cerebral angiograms and scans due to seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.S.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of recent seizures on the brain scan was determined in a retrospective study of patients who had had seizures. All patients who underwent brain scanning within eight days of seizures and who did not have a specific intracranial lesion were included. The /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate cerebral angiogram and/or delayed scan was abnormal in 73 percent of 22 patients. The data suggest that if seizures occur within six days of the brain imaging, the image is likely to be abnormal. (auth)

  18. Simultaneous and sequential hemorrhage of multiple cerebral cavernous malformations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Nundia; Marsh, Robert

    2016-02-09

    The etiology of cerebral cavernous malformation hemorrhage is not well understood. Causative physiologic parameters preceding hemorrhagic cavernous malformation events are often not reported. We present a case of an individual with sequential simultaneous hemorrhages in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations with a new onset diagnosis of hypertension. A 42-year-old white man was admitted to our facility with worsening headache, left facial and tongue numbness, dizziness, diplopia, and elevated blood pressure. His past medical history was significant for new onset diagnosis of hypertension and chronic seasonal allergies. Serial imaging over the ensuing 8 days revealed sequential hemorrhagic lesions. He underwent suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesions located in the fourth ventricle and right cerebellum. One month after surgery, he had near complete resolution of his symptoms with mild residual vertigo but symptomatic chronic hypertension. Many studies have focused on genetic and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture, but few have reported on the potential of hemodynamic changes contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture. Systemic blood pressure changes clearly have an effect on angioma pressures. When considering the histopathological features of cerebral cavernous malformation architecture, changes in arterial pressure could cause meaningful alterations in hemorrhage propensity and patterns.

  19. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  20. Clinical study of correlation of pre-senile and senile depressive stage with silent cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Tokumi; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Fujita, Yasunobu; Shibata, Youko; Touhouda, Yoshikuni.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between the pre-senile/senile depressive state and silent cerebral infarction was examined by MRI. Consecutive 56 depressive patients aged 50 years or older underwnt MRI. MRI revealed silent cerebral infarction in 60.3% of patients in whom depression occurred at the age of less than 65 years. The complication rate was significantly higher in these patients than the younger patients (60.9% vs 20%). Complications of silent cerebral infarction were found in 53.6% for patients in whom depression occurred at the age of less than 65 years and symptoms were deteriorated at the age of 65 years or older and in 100% for patients in whom it occurred at the age of 65 years or older and hospitalization was simultaneously required. These figures were remarkably higher than the age-related complication rate of silent cerebral infarction in non-depressive normal persons. This suggested that approximately half of depressive patients of pre-senile onset and majority of depressive patients of senile onset might have parenchymal involvement due to silent cerebral infarction. Both perforating-type and cortical-type infarcts were found. This has a implication for the involvement of multiple infarct-related foci in depressive state. For cortical-type infarcts, partial lesions were predominant, followed by frontal and temporal lesions. The incidence of left frontal infarcts was significanly higher than that of right frontal infarcts. Infarcts in both the parietal and left frontal lobes may be responsible for depressive state. (N.K.)

  1. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  2. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon

    1994-01-01

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs

  3. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  4. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B.; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and

  5. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  6. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  7. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  8. The evaluation of cerebral oxygenation by oximetry in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet G

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of estimation of the regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 in the patients with ischaemic stroke by the cerebral oximetry during acute, sub-acute and chronic phases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 24 patients with ischaemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory were included. A detailed clinical examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were carried out. The rSO2 was determined by oximetery (INVOS 3100-SD bilaterally on the first, third, seventh, and fifteenth days. The blood pressure, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and the arterial blood gas values were noted too. the changes were evaluated along with Glasgow coma scale (GCS using unpaired student t-test and one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the rSO2 values in acute, subacute and chronic phases on the side of the lesion (p value < 0.05. The values of oxygen saturation gradually increased throughout the chronic phase. These values showed a positive correlation with GCS, but the results were not significant statistically. The rSO2 values were also significantly higher on the non-lesional side than those on the lesion side in the acute phase (p= 0.0034, the discrepancy disappeared during the sub-acute and chronic phases. CONCLUSION: Cerebral oximetry can be used as a measure to evaluate the cerebral oxygenation during the various phases of ischaemic stroke. It has a potential to serve as a useful marker for detection of cerebral oxygenation imbalances, to judge the effectiveness of the management and for the follow-up of patients with ischaemic stroke.

  9. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebr...

  10. Cerebral Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Haciyakupoglu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts can occur through inflammatory, traumatic, chemical irritation, skin tumor and postoperative processes. It is diagnosed and differentiated by magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography from other lesions. Its differential diagnosis includes colloid cyst , craniopharyngioma, prosencephaly, holoprosencephaly , epidermoid cyst, hydatid cyst, low grade glial tumors, infarcts and subdural hygroma. Most of them are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. Treatment methods such as simple cyst aspiration , total excision of the cyst, basal cysternostomy, ventricular fenestration, cysto or ventriculoperitoneal shunt can be performed by various endoscopic surgery and craniotomy. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 259-268

  11. Mental Symptoms in Huntington's Disease and a Possible Primary Aminergic Neuron Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Stanley, Michael; Gershon, Samuel; Rossor, M.

    1980-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was higher in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of patients dying from Huntington's disease than in controls. Enzyme kinetics and multiple substrate studies indicated that the increased activity was due to elevated concentrations of monoamine oxidase type B. Concentrations of homovanillic acid were increased in the cerebral cortex but not in the basal ganglia of brains of patients with Huntington's disease. These changes may represent a primary aminergic lesion that could underlie some of the mental symptoms of this disease.

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of ring-enhancing intracerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youcheng; Li Jiance; Tian Wei; Li Zongfang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR Imaging (DWI) in ring-enhancing intracerebral lesions. Methods: Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of ninty-three patients presenting with ring-ehancing intracerebral lesions diagnosed by clinical or histopathologic findings were studied retrospectively, including 21 gliomas, 26 metastases, 13 pyogenic abscesses, 18 neurocysticercoses and 15 subacute intracerebral hematomas. The signal intensity ratio on diffusion-weighted images and exponential diffusion coefficient images was calculated respectively in ring walls, central contents, and perilesional edemas of ring-enhancing lesions, and normal contralateral cerebral parenchyma was used for comparison. ADC values of interest of lesions, contralateral cerebral parenchyma and CFS were calculated as well. Results: In pyogenic abscesses and subacute intracerebral hematomas, the central content was always extremely hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images, and showed low ADCs [(0.56 ± 0.20) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (0.69 ± 0.16) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively]. On the other hand the central content of gliomas, metastases and neurocysticercoses was hypointense, and showed high ADCs [(2.76 ± 0.41 ) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (2.31 ± 0.39 ) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (2.10 ± 0.32) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively]. The ADCs of the first two lesions were significantly lower than of the last three lesions (P 2 -weighted images should be reviewed in daily clinical practice. (authors)

  13. Adoptive regulatory T-cell therapy preserves systemic immune homeostasis after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiying; Mao, Leilei; Zhou, Guoqing; Leak, Rehana K; Sun, Bao-Liang; Chen, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral ischemia has been shown to result in peripheral inflammatory responses followed by long-lasting immunosuppression. Our recent study demonstrated that intravenous delivery of regulatory T cells (Tregs) markedly protected against transient cerebral ischemia by suppressing neutrophil-derived matrix metallopeptidase 9 production in the periphery. However, the effect of Tregs on systemic inflammatory responses and immune status has not been fully characterized. Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes in mice or 120 minutes in rats. Tregs were isolated from donor animals by CD4 and CD25 double selection and transferred intravenously to ischemic recipients at 2 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were euthanized on different days after reperfusion. The effects of Tregs on systemic inflammation and immune status were evaluated using flow cytometry, ELISAs, and immunohistochemistry. Systemic administration of purified Tregs raises functional Tregs in the blood and peripheral organs, including spleen and lymph nodes. These exogenous Tregs remain in the blood and peripheral organs for ≥12 days. Functionally, Treg adoptive transfer markedly inhibits middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α) in the blood. Furthermore, Treg treatment corrects long-term lymphopenia and improves cellular immune functions after ischemic brain injury. As a result, Treg-treated animals exhibit decreased bacterial loads in the blood during recovery from cerebral ischemic attack. Treg treatment did not exacerbate poststroke immunosuppression. On the contrary, Treg-treated animals displayed improved immune status after focal cerebral ischemia.

  14. CT and MR Studies of Giant Dermoid Cyst Associated to Fat Dissemination at the Cortical and Cisternal Cerebral Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Amore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on CT and MR studies of adult patient with giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa associated with micro- and macroaccumulations with density and signal like “fat” at the level of the cortical and cisternal cerebral spaces. This condition is compatible with previous asymptomatic ruptured dermoid cyst. Histological findings confirm the hypothesis formulated using the imaging. We also integrate elements of differential diagnosis by another giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa.

  15. Distribution of ischemic leukoaraiosis in MRI. A difference from white matter lesions in CADASIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Ohtani, Ryo; Wakita, Hideaki; Lin, Jin-Xi; Miki, Yukio; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the distribution of white matter lesions in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) has been reported to be distinct from those in patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis and Binswanger's disease. In earlier European studies, diagnostic significance of white matter lesions in the temporopolar region (Tp), medial frontopolar region (Fp) and external capsule (EC) was stressed in diagnosing CADASIL. More recently, however, high sensitivity and specificity of Tp lesions have been demonstrated. In Japan, prevalence of CADASIL is lower, and those of ischemic leukoaraiosis and Binswanger's disease, likely related to small artery disease, are much higher than in Caucasian countries. Therefore, we examined the frequencies of CADASIL-associated lesions in 17 non-demented patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis and 20 patients with Binswanger's disease. The Binswanger's disease group showed a significantly lower scores for Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale Revised (HDSR) and a higher prevalence of hypertension, compared to the ischemic leukoaraiosis group. There was only 1 patient with Tp lesions in each group, while Fp lesions were found in 12% and 50% in the ischemic leukoaraiosis group and Binswanger's disease group, respectively, and EC lesions in 59% and 80%. These results indicated that Tp lesions were useful diagnostic marker in diagnosing CADASIL, whereas Fp and EC lesions were non-specifically observed. (author)

  16. Asterixis in the leg induced by anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Yoo, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Choe, Yeo Reum; Lee, Ko-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Asterixis commonly occurs in a patient with metabolic encephalopathy, whereas focal brain lesions such as thalamus, cerebellum, or frontal area also cause focal or unilateral asterixis in the arms. We report a novel case of asterixis in the leg after unilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. A 76-year-old man was admitted with sudden-onset mild right leg weakness and postural instability due to knee buckling. He was diagnosed with ischemic stroke in the left prefrontal area and cingulated gyrus by brain magnetic imaging. Needle electromyography of the right vastus lateralis muscle while standing showed intermittent periods of EMG silence, consistent with asterixis. There were no abnormal involuntary movements in the upper extremities. This case suggests that gait disturbance or postural instability after structural lesions in the prefrontal area may be directly related to asterixis in the leg, not in the arm associated with postural failure.

  17. Procesos de plasticidad cerebral en pacientes con daño adquirido

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Noriego, Blanca Esther

    2016-01-01

    Los accidentes cerebrovasculares y los traumatismos craneoencefálicos son las dos patologías principales causantes de daño cerebral adquirido. Los avances médicos han permitido disminuir considerablemente la mortalidad derivada de dichas patologías. Consecuentemente, el número de personas que padecen déficits derivados de estas lesiones aumenta a nivel mundial. Estos déficits son consecuencia del daño cerebral, el cual puede afectar a varias áreas, según las características propias de la lesi...

  18. Posttherapeutic cerebral radionecrosis: a complication of head and neck tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, C.; Weems, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Patients with treated head and neck cancer may have focal neurologic symptoms and personality changes due to delayed cerebral radionecrosis. A history of past treatment should direct the physician to consider these lesions in the differential diagnosis. Craniotomy is the management recommended. Histopathologic changes include fibrotic response of the meninges with pleomorphic and vacuolated fibroblasts, capillary hyperplasia, reactive astrocytes, and fibrosis of the blood vessels. Amyloid is deposited in the arteriolar walls and extracellular space. Ischemic, autoimmune, or vascular mechanisms, and glial alterations have all been considered in the pathogensis of delayed cerebral radionecrosis. Some researchers have concluded that chemotherapeutic agents, such as methotrexate, may contribute to its production

  19. Case of radiation necrosis with vascular changes on main cerebral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Y; Okada, H; Mineura, K; Kodama, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    A 64-year-old woman had received radiotherapy, following surgery of a chromophobe pituitary adenoma. Six years after irradiation she began to complain of headache and dementia. Right vertebrogram demonstrated a right temporal mass lesion, stenosis and dilatation of middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery in the field of irradiation. CT scan showed the irregular low density area at the right temporal region, and the irregular enhancement after an intravenous injection of contrast medium was seen at the small part of affected area. From these findings, radiation necrosis at the right temporal lobe was diagnosed. Reports of vascular changes of the main cerebral arteries due to radiation are rare.

  20. A case with post-irradiation cerebral vascular disease accompanied by Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Keiichi; Kuriyama, Takanobu; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Junta; Mozai, Toshiji

    1986-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with Cushing's disease developed cerebral infarction 13 years after Co-60 irradiation of a total dose of 60 Gy for pituitary adenoma. Cerebral angiography showed stenosis or occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries and basilar artery which were in the radiation fields. A basophilic adenoma was resected, and symptoms of Cushing's disease have resolved. The vascular lesions are likely to be not only radiation-induced, but also stimulated by hyperlipemia and hypertension associated with Cushing's disease. It is recommended to eliminate factors, such as hyperlipemia and hypertension, stimulatig vascular damage in the management of patients treated with radiation therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed. (Namekawa, K.)