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Sample records for cerebral fdg studies

  1. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  2. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUVmax, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUVmax with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

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    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  4. Investigations on the effects of ''Ecstasy'' on cerebral glucose metabolism: an 18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylendioxyethamphetamine) on the cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers. Method: In a randomised double-blind trial, 16 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with 18-FDG PET 110-120 minutes after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Beginning two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, a constant cognitive stimulation was maintained for 32 minutes using a word repetition paradigm in order to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral 18-FDG uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash MRI, followed by manual regionalisation into 108 regions-of-interest and PET/MRI overlay. Absolute quantification of rMRGlu and comparison of glucose metabolism under MDE versus placebo were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Absolute global MRGlu was not significantly changed under MDE versus placebo (MDE: 41,8±11,1 μmol/min/100 g, placebo: 50,1±18,1 μmol/min/100 g, p=0,298). The normalised regional metabolic data showed a significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: Left frontal posterior (-7.1%, p<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, p<0.05). On the other hand, rMRGlu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, p<0.05; left: +7.6%, p<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study revealed acute neurometabolic changes under the 'Ecstasy' analogon MDE indicating a fronto-striato-cerebellar dysbalance with parallels to other psychotropic substances and various endogenous psychoses respectively. (orig.)

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism associated with ataxic gait. An FDG-PET activation study in patients with olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy

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    Mishina, Masahiro; Ohyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akirou [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Senda, Michio; Ishii, Kenji

    1995-11-01

    In 7 patients with olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), regional cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET under two different conditions; 30 minutes` treadmill walking, and supine resting. The two sets of PET images were three-dimensionally registered to the MRI. Then, the PET images were normalized by the global value. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, pons, and thalamus, and FDG uptake was obtained to calculate the activation ratio (=[FDG uptake under walking]/ [FDG uptake under resting]) for each region. Normalized resting FDG uptake had no significant difference between controls and OPCA patients in any region. Activation ratio of OPCA patients was significantly decreased in the cerebellar vermis compared with the controls. In the controls, FDG uptake had little difference between resting and walking in the cerebellar hemisphere, pons and thalamus. On the other hand, the FDG uptake of OPCA patients was moderately increased by walking in these regions. The reduction of activation ratio in the cerebellar vermis reflects the dysfunction caused by degeneration. The result suggests that the PET activation study can demonstrate cerebellar dysfunction in the early phase of OPCA, in which other neuro-imaging methods cannot detect the tissue atrophy, hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the resting state. In the cerebellar hemisphere, pons and thalamus, the activation ratio was nearly equal to one in control subjects, while it was larger in OPCA patients. The instability during the ataxic gait increases the inputs from the vestibular, somatosensory and visual systems to these regions and outputs from these regions to the other neural systems. In conclusion, PET activation study is a useful and noninvasive technique for investigating the brain function associated with human gait. (H.O.).

  6. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 ± 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 ± 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  7. ''Ecstasy''-induced changes of cerebral glucose metabolism and their correlation to acute psychopathology. A 18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylene dioxyethamphetamine) on cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers and to correlate neurometabolism with acute psychopathology. In a radomized double-blind trial, 15 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) 110-120 min after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=7) or placebo (n=8). Two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, constant cognitive stimulation was started and maintained for 32 min using a word repetition paradigm to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral glucose uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by manual regionalization into 108 regions of interest and PET/MRI overlay. After absolute quantification of rMR-Glu and normalization to global metabolism, normalized rMRGlu under MDE was compared to placebo using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Acute psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and rMRGlu was correlated to PANSS scores according to Spearman. MDE subjects showed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: left frontal posterior (-7.1%, P<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, rMR-Glu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, P<0.05; left: +7.6%, P<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, P<0.05). There were positive correlations between rMRGlu in the middle right cingulate and grandiosity (r=0.87; P<0.05), both the right amygadala (r=0.90, P<0.01) and the left posterior cingulate (r=0.90, P<0.01) to difficulties in abstract thinking, and the right frontal inferior (r=0.85, P<0.05), right anterior cingulate (r=0.93, P<0.01), and left anterior cingulate (r=0.85, P<0.05) to attentional deficits. A negative

  8. Investigations on the effects of ``Ecstasy`` on cerebral glucose metabolism: an 18-FDG PET study; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von ``Ecstasy`` auf den zerebralen Glukosemetabolismus: eine 18-FDG-PET-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Tuttass, T.; Schulz, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Buell, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie, Universitaetsklinikum, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the `Ecstasy` analogue MDE (3,4-methylendioxyethamphetamine) on the cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers. Method: In a randomised double-blind trial, 16 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with 18-FDG PET 110-120 minutes after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Beginning two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, a constant cognitive stimulation was maintained for 32 minutes using a word repetition paradigm in order to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral 18-FDG uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash MRI, followed by manual regionalisation into 108 regions-of-interest and PET/MRI overlay. Absolute quantification of rMRGlu and comparison of glucose metabolism under MDE versus placebo were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Absolute global MRGlu was not significantly changed under MDE versus placebo (MDE: 41,8{+-}11,1 {mu}mol/min/100 g, placebo: 50,1{+-}18,1 {mu}mol/min/100 g, p=0,298). The normalised regional metabolic data showed a significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: Left frontal posterior (-7.1%, p<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, p<0.05). On the other hand, rMRGlu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, p<0.05; left: +7.6%, p<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions: The present study revealed acute neurometabolic changes under the `Ecstasy` analogon MDE indicating a fronto-striato-cerebellar dysbalance with parallels to other psychotropic substances and various endogenous psychoses respectively. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In der vorliegenden Studie sollte die Akutwirkung des `Ecstasy`-Analogons MDE (3,4-Methylendioxyethamphetamin) auf den zentralen Glukosemetabolismus (rMRGlu) gesunder Probanden untersucht werden. Methode: In einer randomisierten

  9. Typical cerebral metabolic patterns in various types of dementia: an SPM analysis of 18F-FDG PET images

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Rui-Xue; Niu, Na; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Jing; Li, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To delineate the cerebral metabolic patterns presented in 18F-FDG PET images in various types of dementia with SPM analysis.  Methods Patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET scanning with a retrospectively confirmed diagnosis according to strictly defined clinical research criteria were studied. Clinical follow-up enabled appropriate patient inclusion. A total of 62 patients were included, of which 20 patients were diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 frontotemporal dementia ...

  10. Differential regional cerebral glucose metabolism in clinical syndromes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. M.; Cho, S. S.; Na, D. L.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration( FTLD) is the third most common dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neurobehavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patient with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. We analysed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral premotor are was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical features of FTLD syndromes. These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD.

  11. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura [University of Milan, Center for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions, Institute of Clinical Neurology, Department of Clinical Sciences, ' Luigi Sacco' Hospital, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Clinical Institute Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  12. ''Ecstasy''-induced changes of cerebral glucose metabolism and their correlation to acute psychopathology. A 18-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Zimny, M.; Zeggel, T.; Wagenknecht, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylene dioxyethamphetamine) on cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers and to correlate neurometabolism with acute psychopathology. In a radomized double-blind trial, 15 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) 110-120 min after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=7) or placebo (n=8). Two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, constant cognitive stimulation was started and maintained for 32 min using a word repetition paradigm to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral glucose uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by manual regionalization into 108 regions of interest and PET/MRI overlay. After absolute quantification of rMR-Glu and normalization to global metabolism, normalized rMRGlu under MDE was compared to placebo using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Acute psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and rMRGlu was correlated to PANSS scores according to Spearman. MDE subjects showed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: left frontal posterior (-7.1%, P<0.05) and right prefrontal superior (-4.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, rMR-Glu was significantly increased in the bilateral cerebellum (right: +10.1%, P<0.05; left: +7.6%, P<0.05) and in the right putamen (+6.2%, P<0.05). There were positive correlations between rMRGlu in the middle right cingulate and grandiosity (r=0.87; P<0.05), both the right amygadala (r=0.90, P<0.01) and the left posterior cingulate (r=0.90, P<0.01) to difficulties in abstract thinking, and the right frontal inferior (r=0.85, P<0.05), right anterior cingulate (r=0.93, P<0.01), and left anterior cingulate (r=0.85, P<0.05) to attentional deficits. A

  13. Cerebral metabolic changes (F-18-FDG PET) during selective anterior temporal lobe amobarbital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Hajek, M; Antonini, A; Maguire, P; Muller, S; Valavanis, A; Leenders, KL; Regard, M; Schiess, R; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilisation using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. F-18-FDG was injected intrave

  14. Dynamic FDG PET for assessing early effects of cerebral hypoxia and resuscitation in new-born pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism may be an early prognostic indicator of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury. In this study dynamic 18F-FDG PET was used to evaluate cerebral glucose metabolism in piglets after global perinatal hypoxia and the impact of the resuscitation strategy using room air or hyperoxia. New-born piglets (n = 16) underwent 60 min of global hypoxia followed by 30 min of resuscitation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 0.21 or 1.0. Dynamic FDG PET, using a microPET system, was performed at baseline and repeated at the end of resuscitation under stabilized haemodynamic conditions. MRI at 3 T was performed for anatomic correlation. Global and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRgl) were assessed by Patlak analysis for the two time-points and resuscitation groups. Global hypoxia was found to cause an immediate decrease in cerebral glucose metabolism from a baseline level (mean ± SD) of 21.2 ± 7.9 to 12.6 ± 4.7 μmol/min/100 g (p gl but no significant differences in global or regional CMRgl between the resuscitation groups were found. Dynamic FDG PET detected decreased cerebral glucose metabolism early after perinatal hypoxia in piglets. The decrease in CMRgl may indicate early changes of mild cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia. No significant effect of hyperoxic resuscitation on the degree of hypometabolism was found in this early phase after hypoxia. Cerebral FDG PET can provide new insights into mechanisms of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury where early detection plays an important role in instituting therapy. (orig.)

  15. Double-injection FDG method to measure cerebral glucose metabolism twice in a single procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Ueno, Makoto; Shimono, Taro; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Hiroto

    2001-06-01

    [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) may be used to examine changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in two physiological conditions. We proposed and evaluated a double injection-single session FDG method with biological constraints for this purpose. Simulated brain time-radioactivity curves (TACs) generated by using a plasma TAC from an actual study and physiological combinations of input values in a kinetic model were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The reproducibility of the estimated values obtained by this method was tested in five normal volunteers who were studied with a dynamic PET scan and two injections of FDG in a single session while fasting. The simulation study showed that the estimated values obtained by the proposed method agreed well with the input values. In the human study, plasma glucose levels were 5.3{+-}0.2 and 5.0{+-}0.2 mM in the first and second measurements, respectively. The difference between the plasma glucose measurements was small but statistically significant (p<0.05). Although no systematic deviations were noted in K{sup *}{sub 1} or rCMRglc, there were small deviations in K{sup *} (less than 10%) and LC (less than 5%) with a statistical significance (p<0.01). The deviation between the measurements in K{sup *} and LC seemed to relate to the difference in the plasma glucose level. The double-injection FDG method with biological constrains can be used to estimate rCMRglc and LC sequentially in a single PET scanning session. (author)

  16. Regional cerebral metabolic changes after acupuncture by FDG PET: Effects and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Objectives: To observe the regional cerebral metabolism changes in cerebrovascular ischemic patients and normal volunteers while acupuncture by using FDG PET. To definite the locations of the influence of these acupoints on brain function in certain regions of the cerebrum, as well as to explore the laws of therapeutic effects of acupuncture on subjects and established the One-day method for brain FDG PET scan. Methods and Materials Using FDG PET, cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral functional changes before and after electro-acupuncture treatment were investigated in 12 normal volunteers and 8 cerebrovascular ischemic patients. These subjects were treated with acupuncture in the following points: Hegu (LI4) and Quchi (LI11) of Hand Yang-Ming meridian, Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) of Foot Yang-Ming meridian and added Motor Area and Fengchi (B20). Limbs points were contralateral to the brain points. In the normal group, the side of the body treated by acupuncture was randomly selected and in the patients groups, the sides treated were on the side of paralysis. PET imaging was read by visual interpretation and calculated in multiple ROI semi-quantitative analysis method. Therefore, the image subject method was used to demonstrate the variety of glucose metabolism after acupuncture. Results One-day method was established in these studies. PET imaging was read by visual interpretation in blind method and calculated by semi-quantitative analysis. This results shows that cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral functional activity of the normal is higher in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus, Sensorimotor, Parietal bilaterally and cerebellum contralaterally. After acupuncture, the increase ratio of ipslateral glucose metabolism was between 23% and 38%; while the contralateral increase ratio between 22% and 40%. Above all, the variation in cerebral glucose metabolism was predominantly contralateral cerebral regions. The cerebrovascular ischemic

  17. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  18. Utility of FDG-PETCT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating between cerebral lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, Thomas D., E-mail: tdwestwood@googlemail.com [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hogan, Celia, E-mail: celiahogan@hotmail.com [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Julyan, Peter J., E-mail: Peter.Julyan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coutts, Glyn, E-mail: Glyn.Coutts@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bonington, Suzie, E-mail: suzi.bonington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, Bernadette, E-mail: Bernadette.Carrington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Ben, E-mail: Ben.taylor@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Khoo, Saye, E-mail: S.H.Khoo@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bonington, Alec, E-mail: Alec.Bonington@pat.nhs.uk [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: In HIV infected patients, MRI cannot reliably differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions, particularly cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX). This study prospectively investigates the utility of FDG PET-CT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in discriminating CNS lymphoma from non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV infected patients, and assesses the ability of FDG PET-CT to guide the use of early brain biopsy. Methods: 10 HIV patients with neurological symptoms and contrast enhancing lesions on MRI were commenced on anti-toxoplasmosis therapy before undergoing FDG PET-CT and MRS. Brain biopsies were sought in those with FDG PET-CT suggestive of CNS lymphoma, and in those with a negative FDG PET-CT scan who failed to respond to therapy. Final diagnosis was based on histology or treatment response. Results: Two patients were confirmed to have CNS lymphoma and FDG PET-CT was consistent with this diagnosis in both. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis in all of whom FDG PET-CT was consistent with non-malignant disease. One patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), FDG PET-CT was equivocal. One patient had a haemorrhagic brain metastasis and FDG PET-CT wrongly suggested non-malignant disease. MRS was performed successfully in eight subjects: three results were suggestive of CNS lymphoma (one true positive, two false positive), four suggested CTOX (two false negative, two true negative), one scan was equivocal. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT correctly identified all cases of CNS lymphoma and CTOX, supporting its use in this situation. MRS was unhelpful in our cohort.

  19. Cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities in optimally treated HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ase B; Law, Ian; Krabbe, Karen S;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurologically intact HIV patients with fully suppressed HIV viral loads. Concomitant...... activator receptor (suPAR) were performed to correlate these abnormalities with potential signs of neurodegenerative processes. METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-positive patients known to be infected for more than 5 years and on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for a minimum of three years...... in the relative metabolic rate of glucose. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients with abnormal FDG-PET scanning results had a shorter history of known HIV infection, fewer years on antiretroviral therapy and higher levels of circulating TNF alpha and IL-6 (p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: A large proportion...

  20. Brain FDG PET study of normal aging in Japanese: effect of atrophy correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of atrophy correction on the results of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in the context of normal aging. Before the human study was performed, a Hoffman 3D brain phantom experiment was carried out in order to validate a newly developed correction method for partial volume effects (PVEs). Brain FDG PET was then performed in 139 healthy Japanese volunteers (71 men, 68 women; age 24-81 years). PET images were corrected for PVEs using grey matter volume, which was segmented from co-registered magnetic resonance images and convoluted with the spatial resolution of the PET scanner. We investigated the correlation between advancing age and relative regional FDG activity, which was normalised to the global activity before and after PVE correction using Statistical Parametric Mapping 99. The PET image, when corrected for PVEs, provided more homogeneous tracer distribution in the whole phantom than in the original PET image. The human PET study of both sexes revealed significant negative correlations between age and relative FDG activity in the bilateral perisylvian and medial frontal areas before PVE correction. However, these negative correlations were largely resolved after PVE correction. Correction for PVEs was effective in our FDG PET study. The reduction in FDG uptake with advancing age that was detected by FDG PET without PVE correction could be accounted for largely by an age-related cerebral volume loss in the bilateral perisylvian and medial frontal areas. (orig.)

  1. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of 18FDG and 13NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) and 13N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal 18FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal 18FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal 18FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). 13NH3 distributions paralleled 18FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but 13NH3 differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of 13NH3 uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' 13NH3 scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states

  2. Pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism on F-18 FDG brain PET during vomiting and symptom free periods in cyclic vomiting syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is characterized by recurrent, periodic, self-limiting vomiting. However, its pathogenesis is not yet established. We investigated the changes of the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 FDG during the vomiting attack and symptom free period in two children with CVS. FDG PET study showed the markedly increased metabolism in both temporal lobes and also in the medulla and cerebellum during the vomiting period. Also, FDG PET showed the decreased metabolism in the parieto-occipital and occipital areas during the in vomiting period. The area with decreased metabolism seemed to be related with the region showing abnormalities in EEG and perfusion SPECT studies. We expect that what we observed would be a helpful finding in clarifying the pathogenesis of the CVS.

  3. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using [18-F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one

  4. FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia

  5. Is cerebral glucose metabolism related to blood-brain barrier dysfunction and intrathecal IgG synthesis in Alzheimer disease?: A 18F-FDG PET/CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Francesco, Ursini; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Belli, Lorena; Torniolo, Sofia; Di Pietro, Barbara; Motta, Caterina; Schillaci, Orazio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, intrathecal IgG synthesis, and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albumin index (Qalb) and IgG index [(CSF IgG/serum IgG) × Serum albumin/CSF albumin)] and 2-deoxy-2-(F) fluoro-D-glucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population affected by Alzheimer disease (AD). The study included 134 newly diagnosed AD patients according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 70 (±6) years; 60 were male and 64 were female. Mini mental State Examination was equal to 18.9 (±7.2). All patients underwent a CSF assay and magnetic resonance before F-FDG PET scanning. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8). We found a significant negative correlation between the increase of Qalb and F-FDG uptake in the Brodmann Area 42 and 22 that corresponds to the left superior temporal gyrus, with higher Qalb values being related to a reduced glucose consumption in these areas. No significant relationships have been found between brain glucose consumption and IgG index. The results of our study suggest that BBB dysfunction is related to reduction of cortical activity in the left temporal cortex in AD subjects. PMID:27631200

  6. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of /sup 18/FDG and /sup 13/NH/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Engel, J. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Selin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal /sup 18/FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ distributions paralleled /sup 18/FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states.

  7. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  8. Self-reported fatigue common among optimally treated HIV patients: no correlation with cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ase B; Law, Ian; Ostrowski, Sisse R;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this study to determine the prevalence and severity of fatigue among optimally treated HIV patients and to investigate the potential association with systemic inflammation and abnormalities of the distribution of cerebral glucose metabolism. METHODS: A cohort of HIV...... patients (n = 95), known to be HIV positive for 5 years, on anti-retroviral therapy for a minimum of 3 years and with CD4 counts above 0.2 x 10(9) cells/l, completed a validated fatigue inventory, and plasma was analysed for pro-inflammatory markers including tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6...... but tended to correlate with a short HIV history (p = 0.058), a low CD4 nadir (p = 0.082) and elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels (p = 0.074). CONCLUSION: Fatigue is common among optimally treated HIV patients. FDG-PET-described signs of imminent neurodegeneration among HIV patients who had a low CD...

  9. Cerebral metabolism and perfusion in MR-negative individuals with refractory focal epilepsy assessed by simultaneous acquisition of (18)F-FDG PET and arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; De Vita, Enrico; Barnes, Anna; Duncan, John S; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Golay, Xavier; Bomanji, Jamshed B; Koepp, Matthias; Groves, Ashley M; Fraioli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in pre-surgical epileptic patient evaluation is the correct identification of the seizure onset area, especially in MR-negative patients. In this study, we aimed to: (1) assess the concordance between perfusion, from ASL, and metabolism, from (18)F-FDG, acquired simultaneously on PET/MR; (2) verify the utility of a statistical approach as supportive diagnostic tool for clinical readers. Secondarily, we compared (18)F-FDG PET data from the hybrid PET/MR system with those acquired with PET/CT, with the purpose of validate the reliability of (18)F-FDG PET/MR data. Twenty patients with refractory focal epilepsy, negative MR and a defined electro-clinical diagnosis underwent PET/MR, immediately followed by PET/CT. Standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were calculated for PET/CT-PET/MR and ASL, respectively. For all techniques, z-score of the asymmetry index (zAI) was applied for depicting significant Right/Left differences. SUVr and CBF images were firstly visually assessed by two neuroimaging readers, who then re-assessed them considering zAI for reaching a final diagnosis. High agreement between (18)F-FDG PET/MR and ASL was found, showing hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the same hemisphere in 18/20 patients, while the remaining were normal. They were completely concordant in 14/18, concordant in at least one lobe in the remaining. zAI maps improved readers' confidence in 12/20 and 15/20 patients for (18)F-FDG PET/MR and ASL, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET/CT-PET/MR showed high agreement, especially when zAI was considered. The simultaneous metabolism-perfusion acquisition provides excellent concordance on focus lateralisation and good concordance on localisation, determining useful complementary information. PMID:27222796

  10. Grading of Cerebral Glioma with Multiparametric MR Imaging and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET: Concordance and Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Choi, Seung Hong; Yun, Tae Jin; Song, Yong Sub [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Won Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Yong [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Kee-Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate concordance rates and predictive values in concordant cases among multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET to grade cerebral gliomas. Multiparametric MR imaging and FDG-PET were performed in 60 consecutive patients with cerebral gliomas (12 low-grade and 48 high-grade gliomas). As the dichotomic variables, conventional MRI, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient in diffusion-weighted imaging, maximum relative cerebral blood volume ratio in perfusion-weighted imaging, choline/creatine ratio and (lipid and lactate)/creatine ratio in MR spectroscopy, and maximum standardised uptake value ratio in FDG-PET in low- and high-grade gliomas were compared. Their concordance rates and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) in concordant cases were obtained for the various combinations of multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET. There were significant differences between low- and high-grade gliomas in all techniques. Combinations of two, three, four, and five out of the five techniques showed concordance rates of 77.0 ± 4.8 %, 65.5 ± 4.0 %, 58.3 ± 2.6 % and 53.3 %, PPV in high-grade concordant cases of 97.3 ± 1.7 %, 99.1 ± 1.4 %, 100.0 ± 0 % and 100.0 % and NPV in low-grade concordant cases of 70.2 ± 7.5 %, 78.0 ± 6.0 %, 80.3 ± 3.4 % and 80.0 %, respectively. Multiparametric MR techniques and FDG-PET have a concordant tendency in a two-tiered classification for the grading of cerebral glioma. If at least two examinations concordantly indicated high-grade gliomas, the PPV was about 95 %. (orig.)

  11. Effect of MRI Acoustic Noise on Cerebral FDG Uptake in Simultaneous MR-PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chonde, Daniel B.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Arabasz, Grae; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated scanners capable of simultaneous PET and MRI data acquisition are now available for human use. Although the scanners’ manufacturers have made substantial efforts to understand and minimize the mutual electromagnetic interference between the two modalities, the potential physiological inference has not been evaluated. In this work, we have studied the influence of the acoustic noise produced by the MR gradients on brain FDG uptake in the Siemens MR-BrainPET prototype. While particul...

  12. FDG PET in non-pharmacological therapy in Alzheimer's disease; cerebral metabolic increase correlates with clinical improvement after cognitive therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Park, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In management of AD, pharmacological treatment alone using acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is general consensus, and provides beneficial effect to prolong their progression. Combined non-pharmacological therapy, especially cognitive therapy is recently having attention with expectation of improvement in cognitive ability. This study examined the effect of combined cognitive therapy in AD patients who were maintaining AChEI using FDG PET. Four patients (689 yrs) who diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria participated in this study. 12-week cognitive therapy comprised seven fields to enhance orientation, memory, recall, visuo-motor organization, categorization and behavior modification/sequencing. They received 45-minute sessions twice per week with maintaining their previous medication. Clinical improvement was assessed by comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Two FDG PET studies were performed before cognitive therapy and in the middle of the therapy, and compared to evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy to cerebral metabolism. Two of 4 patients whose initial cognitive impairment was milder had clinical improvement after 12 weeks, the rest who were more severely impaired failed to have clinical improvement. Regional cerebral hypometabolism on initial PET was correlated with their functional status. Follow up PET of two responders demonstrated the increases in regional metabolism in the temporal and/or frontal cortex, which was associated their functional improvement. Cerebral metabolism in poor responders were minimally increased or no changed. This preliminary data suggests that cognitive therapy is potentially useful to stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance in AD patients with relatively mild cognitive dysfunction. And FDG PET could demonstrate possible candidates for cognitive therapy and the effect of the therapy.

  13. The preliminary study of 18F-FDG PET in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the imaging characteristic and diagnostic criteria of 18F-FDG brain PET in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included in 12 normal subject, 12 patients with AD, 6 patients with vascular dementia, 3 patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) and 2 patients with mixed dementia. The dementia severity was measured by ESD and MMSE. 12 cases had mild, 7 moderate and 4 severe dementia. 23 patients and 6 normal subjects underwent MR imaging of the brain. All participants fasted for at least 6 hours. 40 minutes after intravenous administration of 185-370 MBq 18F-FDG, 2D brain scan in 25 cases and 3D scan in 10 cases were performed using SIEMENS ECAT 47 scanner. The transaxial, coronal and sagittal images were then reconstructed by computer. At the same time, semiquantitative analysis was also applied to help evaluation using the ratio of mean radioactivity between cerebral lobe to cerebellum (Rcl/cb). In normal subjects PET scan showed clear images of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum with symmetrical distribution of radioactivity. 22 of 23 patients were found to have decreased uptake of FDG in the brain. 20 patients had cerebral atrophy and it also appeared in 6 normal elder people. PET images for Alzheimer's disease were classified in 6 normal elder people. PET image for Alzheimer's 3 patterns: bilateral parietal hypo metabolism in 5 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal hypo metabolism in 4 cases and unilateral temporo-parietal hypo metabolism in 3 cases. The Rcl/cb of AD patents in parietal and temporal was significantly decreased than normal subjects (p<0.05). PET images for non-AD dementia were also classified 3 patterns: multiple and asymmetrical patch foci with decreased radioactivity in 8 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal with diffuse cortical hypo metabolism in 2 cases, and normal imaging in 1 case. The hypo metabolic involvement was accorded with severity of dementia. The more dementia had, the bigger hypometabloic region

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  15. Methodological considerations in quantification of oncological FDG PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriens, Dennis; Visser, Eric P.; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    This review aims to provide insight into the factors that influence quantification of glucose metabolism by FDG PET images in oncology as well as their influence on repeated measures studies (i.e. treatment response assessment), offering improved understanding both for clinical practice and research. Structural PubMed searches have been performed for the many factors affecting quantification of glucose metabolism by FDG PET. Review articles and references lists have been used to supplement the search findings. Biological factors such as fasting blood glucose level, FDG uptake period, FDG distribution and clearance, patient motion (breathing) and patient discomfort (stress) all influence quantification. Acquisition parameters should be adjusted to maximize the signal to noise ratio without exposing the patient to a higher than strictly necessary radiation dose. This is especially challenging in pharmacokinetic analysis, where the temporal resolution is of significant importance. The literature is reviewed on the influence of attenuation correction on parameters for glucose metabolism, the effect of motion, metal artefacts and contrast agents on quantification of CT attenuation-corrected images. Reconstruction settings (analytical versus iterative reconstruction, post-reconstruction filtering and image matrix size) all potentially influence quantification due to artefacts, noise levels and lesion size dependency. Many region of interest definitions are available, but increased complexity does not necessarily result in improved performance. Different methods for the quantification of the tissue of interest can introduce systematic and random inaccuracy. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the many factors that influence quantification of glucose metabolism by FDG PET. (orig.) 3.

  16. 18F-FDG PET脑显像在癫痫图型、病灶定位及预后预测中的价值%Clinical evaluation of 18 F-FDG PET cerebral imaging in patternization,focus localization and prognosis prediction of epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔瑞雪; 周前; 栾国明

    2001-01-01

    Objective 1.To find out the relationship between FDG PET image pattern and epileptogenic focus localization.2.To help surgeons in patient selection, operative planning and therapy prediction. Methods73 patients(51 M,22 F,av.23.3 y) with epilepsy were studied with FDG PET cerebral imaging.40 patients who underwent surgery were followed up (av.6 months,2~12 months) for assessment of seizure control.The efficacy of FDG PET for the localization of epileptogenic foci was compared with that of VEEG,MRI and invasive EEG.Relationship between the cerebral FDG metabolic pattern and surgical outcome were also evaluated. Results 1.72 patients showed interictal focal hypometabolism.1 patient with continuous seizure showed ictal hypermetabolism.2.FDG PET could localize the seizure foci in patients whose EEG showed bilateral or no definite epileptoform discharge.FDG PET image demonstrated more metabolic changes than structural changes shown by MRI.3.According to Engel's classification of operative effect,75%(30/40) was classified as grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ,7.5%(3/40) as grade Ⅲ and 17.5%(7/40) as grade Ⅳ.The lesions removed in grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients were confirmed to be epileptogenic foci.The localization accuracy of FDG PET,VEEG and MRI for seizure foci were 93.3%(28/30),73.3%(22/30) and 53.3%(16/30) respectively.4.(1)The effect of surgical removal of the hypometabolic focus in one temporal lobe was better than that in bilateral lobes,but some of the patients suffered from bilateral temporal changes might also be benefited by removing the more severe lobe.(2)In case of patients with other hypometabolic lesions except major lesion,removal of the major lesion was not as effective as the patients with single lesion.(3)Patients with multiple lesions in one side of cerebrum,the result of half brain removal was good.(4)The prognosis of patients with bilateral multiple diffuse lesions was poor. Conclusions The sensitivity and accuracy of the FDG PET imaging in localizing the

  17. Effect of ginseng pretreatment on cerebral glucose metabolism in ischaemic rats using animal positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of ginseng on damaged brain activity, we evaluated the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) as a functional index in post-ischaemic rats and compared the results with those obtained after the administration of a ginseng extract. CMRglc was measured using high resolution animal positron emission tomography with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG). The rats subjected to a 30-min occlusion showed a significant reduction of k3, the rate constant for phosphorylation of 18F-FDG by hexokinase, compared with the normal value. The ginseng pretreatment prevented the reduction in k3 and CMRglc caused by ischaemia. Although further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanism of action, ginseng may be useful for prevention and treatment of ischaemia. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, K.P. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  19. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  20. The preliminary study of 18F-FDG brain PET in diagnosis of alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics and diagnostic criteria of 18F-FDG brain PET in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The sutdy included 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with AD and 11 patients with non-AD dementia. 40 min after intravenous administration of 18F-FDG, brain scan was performed using Siemens ECAT47 scanner. The transaxial, coronal and sagittal images were then reconstructed by computer. At the same time, semiquantitative analysis was also applied to help evaluation using the ratio of mean radioactivity of cerebral lobe to cerebellum (Rcl/cb). Results: In normal subjects PET scan showed clear images of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum with symmetrical distribution of radioactivity. PET images from Alzheimer's disease patients were classified into 3 patterns: bilateral parietal hypometabolism in 5 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal hypometabolism in 4 cases and unilateral temporo-parietal hypometabolism in 3 cases. The Rcl/cb of AD patients in parietal and temporal lobe was significantly decreased than normal subjects (Pcl/cb was also reflecting thedementia degree. Compared with MRI imaging , 12 patients with AD had cerebral hypometabolism but only 10 had hippocampus atrophy. 10 patients with non-AD dementia had local structural foci seen in MRI, including old hemorrhage, infarction and encephalomalacia, but these lesions were not found in AD. Conclusions: Based on excluding cerebral structural lesions which are better detected by MRI, bilateral or unilateral parietal or temporo-parietal hypometabolism found in FDG PET can be considered indicative of Alzheimer's disease. Semiquantitative analysis of the images yielded can help to evaluate the dementia degree

  1. A clinical positron emission tomography facility. 2-18FDG studies: Development and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different types of accelerators have been used for production of (18F)fluoride, and the isotope produced has been used for radiolabelling of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-18FDG). A rotating PET scanner, based on two scintillation camera heads, has been developed and used for human 2-18FDG studies. The suitability of an energy window in the Compton region for imaging 511 keV photons in scintillation camera systems has been evaluated. A new simplified method for normalizing clinical 2-18FDG results has been developed and validated, using erythrocytes as a reference tissue, requiring only one blood sample in the middle of the PET scan to calculate the integrated 2-18FDG input function with an accuracy better than 8 percent. An investigation using 2-18FDG PET to monitor the effect of therapy in advanced head and neck cancer patients has been performed. We found that low initial metabolic rate of glucose (MRG) predicted a complete local response. The second PET examination gave no further information for this group. In the group of primary tumours and lymph node metastases representing a combination of high initial MRG and small decrease in MRG at he second PET examination, the outcome was unfavourable. An accurate normalization of 2-18FDG uptake was essential to evaluate the results of this study. 239 refs, 10 tabs

  2. A clinical positron emission tomography facility. 2-{sup 18}FDG studies: Development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, Tomas

    1996-10-01

    Two different types of accelerators have been used for production of ({sup 18}F)fluoride, and the isotope produced has been used for radiolabelling of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-{sup 18}FDG). A rotating PET scanner, based on two scintillation camera heads, has been developed and used for human 2-{sup 18}FDG studies. The suitability of an energy window in the Compton region for imaging 511 keV photons in scintillation camera systems has been evaluated. A new simplified method for normalizing clinical 2-{sup 18}FDG results has been developed and validated, using erythrocytes as a reference tissue, requiring only one blood sample in the middle of the PET scan to calculate the integrated 2-{sup 18}FDG input function with an accuracy better than 8 percent. An investigation using 2-{sup 18}FDG PET to monitor the effect of therapy in advanced head and neck cancer patients has been performed. We found that low initial metabolic rate of glucose (MRG) predicted a complete local response. The second PET examination gave no further information for this group. In the group of primary tumours and lymph node metastases representing a combination of high initial MRG and small decrease in MRG at he second PET examination, the outcome was unfavourable. An accurate normalization of 2-{sup 18}FDG uptake was essential to evaluate the results of this study. 239 refs, 10 tabs.

  3. The study of 18F-FDG DHC imaging used for diagnosing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dual-head coincidence (DHC) imaging for detecting breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastases. Methods: Thirty-one female patients were studied by 18F-FDG DHC imaging, and 21 of them received fine needle aspiration biopsy after 18F-FDG DHC imaging. The results of 18F-FDG DHC imaging and fine needle aspiration biopsy were compared with those of histopathology. Results: 1) Among the 26 cases of breast carcinoma by 18F-FDG DHC imaging, the FDG uptake of 21 cases showed positive. The lesion diameters ranged from 1.7-8 (mean 3.2 ±1.6) cm, the lesion/background (L/B) ratio range was 1.4-7.3 (mean 2.4 ±1.3). The other 5 malignancies were negative, their diameter range was 0.8-3.3 (mean 1.9) cm. 2) Ten cases of the malignancies were confirmed with axillary lymph node metastases. Three cases by 18F-FDG DHC imaging were positive. Those lymph node diameters were 1.4, 1.8 and 5.2 cm, respectively. The L/B ratios were 1.3, 1.5 and 6.2, respectively. The other 7 cases were negative. The lymph node diameter range was 0.2-1.8 cm. 3) Twenty-one cases received fine needle aspiration biopsy. Tumor cells were found in 13 cases. 4) The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG DHC imaging for diagnosing primary breast carcinoma were 80.8%, 5/5 and 83.9%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG DHC imaging for diagnosing lymph node metastases were 30.0%, 100% and 77.4%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosing primary breast carcinoma were 72.2%, 3/3 and 76.2%, respectively. 5) There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of 18F-FDG DHC imaging and fine needle aspiration biopsy (P>0.05). Conclusion: 18F-FDG DHC imaging possesses higher sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It can be used as a noninvasive modality for evaluating breast cancer

  4. Annihilation photon acollinearity in PET: volunteer and phantom FDG studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Kengo [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshikazu [Department of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Tomoaki [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Inadama, Naoko [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Annihilation photon acollinearity is a fundamental but little investigated problem in positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the cause of the angular deviation from 180.00{sup 0} is described as well as how to evaluate it under conditions of a spatially distributed radiation source and a limited acquisition time for the human body. A relationship between the shape of the photopeak spectrum and the angular distribution is formulated using conservation laws of momentum and energy over the pair annihilation. Then the formula is used to evaluate the acollinearity for a pool phantom and the human body with FDG injected. The angular distribution for the pool phantom agrees well with that for pure water which had been directly measured by Colombino et al in 1965 (Nuovo Cimento 38 707-23), and also with that for the human body determined in this study. Pure water can be considered as a good approximation of the human body regarding the angular deviation. The blurring coefficient to be multiplied by the ring diameter in calculations of the PET spatial resolution is experimentally determined for the first time as 0.00243 {+-} 0.00014; this is 10% larger than the value widely used by investigators.

  5. Cerebral metabolism and perfusion in MR-negative individuals with refractory focal epilepsy assessed by simultaneous acquisition of 18F-FDG PET and arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Galazzo, I. B.; Mattoli, M. V.; Pizzini, F. B.; Vita, E.; Barnes, A.; Duncan, J.S.; Jager, R.; Golay, X.; Bomanji, J. B.; Koepp, M.; Groves, A M; Fraioli, F.

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in pre-surgical epileptic patient evaluation is the correct identification of the seizure onset area, especially in MR-negative patients. In this study, we aimed to: (1) assess the concordance between perfusion, from ASL, and metabolism, from 18F-FDG, acquired simultaneously on PET/MR; (2) verify the utility of a statistical approach as supportive diagnostic tool for clinical readers. Secondarily, we compared 18F-FDG PET data from the hybrid PET/MR system with those acquir...

  6. The preliminary study of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.; Zhang, X.; Le, D. [Capital Univ. of Medical Sciences, Beijing (Switzerland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    To investigate the imaging characteristic and diagnostic criteria of 18F-FDG brain PET in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included in 12 normal subject, 12 patients with AD, 6 patients with vascular dementia, 3 patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) and 2 patients with mixed dementia. The dementia severity was measured by ESD and MMSE. 12 cases had mild, 7 moderate and 4 severe dementia. 23 patients and 6 normal subjects underwent MR imaging of the brain. All participants fasted for at least 6 hours. 40 minutes after intravenous administration of 185-370 MBq 18F-FDG, 2D brain scan in 25 cases and 3D scan in 10 cases were performed using SIEMENS ECAT 47 scanner. The transaxial, coronal and sagittal images were then reconstructed by computer. At the same time, semiquantitative analysis was also applied to help evaluation using the ratio of mean radioactivity between cerebral lobe to cerebellum (Rcl/cb). In normal subjects PET scan showed clear images of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum with symmetrical distribution of radioactivity. 22 of 23 patients were found to have decreased uptake of FDG in the brain. 20 patients had cerebral atrophy and it also appeared in 6 normal elder people. PET images for Alzheimer's disease were classified in 6 normal elder people. PET image for Alzheimer's 3 patterns: bilateral parietal hypo metabolism in 5 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal hypo metabolism in 4 cases and unilateral temporo-parietal hypo metabolism in 3 cases. The Rcl/cb of AD patents in parietal and temporal was significantly decreased than normal subjects (p<0.05). PET images for non-AD dementia were also classified 3 patterns: multiple and asymmetrical patch foci with decreased radioactivity in 8 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal with diffuse cortical hypo metabolism in 2 cases, and normal imaging in 1 case. The hypo metabolic involvement was accorded with severity of dementia. The more dementia had, the bigger

  7. Clinical studies on cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemorrhagic infarction (HI) is termed as the infarction in which a large part of the necrotic tissue is stippled with small hemorrhage. The pathogenetic mechanism of this disease still remains controversial. Cerebral infarction has long been divided into two subtypes-thrombosis and embolism-according to the pathogenetic mechanisms. Clinical studies were carried out in 31 cases of HI with cerebral thrombosis. CT findings of these cases were classified into five groups according to both size of low density area which indicates regions of infarction and distribution of arterial supply. The low density area of Type I-Type III were observed in the area of the middle cerebral artery. That of Type IV was observed in the area of the internal capsule and basal ganglia. That of Type V was observed in the area of the posterior cerebral artery. CT reveals two patterns of HI -pattern A and pattern B-. The CT finding of pattern A is appearance of high density area in the low density area. The CT finding of pattern B is appearance of iso density area in the low density area. rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation technique in 21 patients with CT type I, II and III. Thereafter, with regard to the various findings in CT, the clinical findings and CBF findings, a comparative study was carried out on these ten groups. From the results of present studies, it is concluded that sequential changes of CBF in cases with pattern A are different from those with pattern B, and that CBF measurement does not permit an estimation of a patient's chance for functionary recovery after a stroke in acute and subacute stage but permits estimation of functional outcome in chronic stage. (J.P.N.)

  8. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  9. Cerebral perfution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For detecting in precocious form a coronary disease is necessary to aply a diagnostic techniques. The main considerations to be indicated in the present work are: physiological considerations, myocardial perfusion studies with radiotracers such as Talio 201, 99mTc, MIBI, 99mTc-Teboroxima, 99mTc-Fosfinas, instrumentation for obtain good images, proceedings protocols, studies interpretation, standards, SPECT, anomalies standards, coronary diseases

  10. Arterial and fat tissue inflammation are highly correlated: a prospective 18F-FDG PET/CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is evidence that the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease might relate to inflammation in both fat tissue and the arterial wall. 18F-FDG uptake on PET is a surrogate marker of vessel wall inflammation. The aim of the study was to measure FDG uptake in both regions using PET and identify links between adipose and arterial inflammation. Included in the study were 173 cardiovascular patients who were prospectively imaged with FDG PET/CT. Arterial FDG uptake was measured in the carotid arteries and ascending aorta. The same was done in fat tissue in the neck, the presternal region (both subcutaneous) and the pericardium. FDG uptake was quantified as average maximal target-to-background ratio (meanTBRmax). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify significant associations between arterial and adipose tissue FDG uptake and clinical variables as given by the standardized correlation coefficient (β). FDG uptake values in all fat tissue regions were highly predictive of vascular FDG uptake in both the carotids (β 0.262, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region) and aorta (β 0.22, p = 0.008, in the chest pericardial region; β 0.193, p = 0.019, in the chest subcutaneous region). Obesity was significantly associated with elevated FDG uptake in adipose tissue (β 0.470, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region; β 0.619, p = 0.028, in the chest subcutaneous region; β 0.978, p = 0.035, in the chest pericardial region). FDG uptake in diverse fat tissue regions was significantly associated with arterial FDG uptake, a reasonable surrogate of inflammation. Increasing body weight significantly predicted the level of fatty inflammation. FDG PET therefore provides imaging evidence of an inflammatory link between fat tissue and the vasculature in patients with cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  11. Arterial and fat tissue inflammation are highly correlated: a prospective {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Stephanie; Moncrieff, Colin; Izquierdo-Garcia, David [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease might relate to inflammation in both fat tissue and the arterial wall. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET is a surrogate marker of vessel wall inflammation. The aim of the study was to measure FDG uptake in both regions using PET and identify links between adipose and arterial inflammation. Included in the study were 173 cardiovascular patients who were prospectively imaged with FDG PET/CT. Arterial FDG uptake was measured in the carotid arteries and ascending aorta. The same was done in fat tissue in the neck, the presternal region (both subcutaneous) and the pericardium. FDG uptake was quantified as average maximal target-to-background ratio ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify significant associations between arterial and adipose tissue FDG uptake and clinical variables as given by the standardized correlation coefficient (β). FDG uptake values in all fat tissue regions were highly predictive of vascular FDG uptake in both the carotids (β 0.262, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region) and aorta (β 0.22, p = 0.008, in the chest pericardial region; β 0.193, p = 0.019, in the chest subcutaneous region). Obesity was significantly associated with elevated FDG uptake in adipose tissue (β 0.470, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region; β 0.619, p = 0.028, in the chest subcutaneous region; β 0.978, p = 0.035, in the chest pericardial region). FDG uptake in diverse fat tissue regions was significantly associated with arterial FDG uptake, a reasonable surrogate of inflammation. Increasing body weight significantly predicted the level of fatty inflammation. FDG PET therefore provides imaging evidence of an inflammatory link between fat tissue and the vasculature in patients with cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  12. A comparison study of esophageal findings on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Kwan Hyeong; Kim, So Young; Cha, Jong Tae; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Lee, Narae; Yun, Mi Jin; Kang, Won Jun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the esophageal findings of 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We retrospectively reviewed {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EGD findings of 369 subjects who underwent medical examination between January 2014 and December 2014. The range and intensity of esophageal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were visually analyzed. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the esophagus and around the esophagogastric (EG) junction was measured. EGD results were provided by the gastroenterologist. We compared the esophageal findings obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EGD. There were typical linear FDG uptakes in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT patients who underwent EGD the same day. In visual analysis of the range and intensity of the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, the patients who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EGD on the same day showed relatively diffuse and discernible {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the esophagus. Reflux esophagitis was diagnosed in 59 subjects, and 27 of these were classified as higher than Los Angeles classification A. With an increasing degree of reflux esophagitis observed on EGD, the SUV{sub max} in the esophagus and around the EG junction was also increased. Our study showed that FDG uptake at the esophagus or the EG junction might be clinically significantly related to esophagitis. However, EGD performed before {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT on the same day may affect the esophageal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake.

  13. 18F-FDG PET imaging of postoperative and post radiotherapeutic intracranial glioma compared with CT, MRI in 16 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET imaging in postoperative and post radiotherapeutic intracranial glioma during follow up study. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging in 16 cases of postoperative and post radiotherapeutic intracranial glioma was compared with CT and/or MRI. Results: Contrast CT or MRI showed prominent irregular circular or nodular enhancement in 14 of 16 cases (64%), can not distinguished from postoperative changes, radioactive injury, tumor residue or recurrence. Among them, 9 cases showed tumor residue or recurrence based on significantly increased FDG uptake, 5 were confirmed by pathologic study. The other 5 cases of cerebral necrosis and 2 cases with postoperative cerebral malacia demonstrated FDG uptake defects. Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET imaging has significant dominance in characterizing lesions for differentiating residue or recurrent disease from radioactive injury in intracranial glioma. Combined with CT and MRI can provide both anatomical and functional information

  14. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Yasuda, Seiei; Ide, Michiru; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  15. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  16. Small Animal [{sup 18}F]FDG PET Imaging for Tumor Model Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    PET allows non-invasive, quantitative and repetitive imaging of biological function in living animals. Small animal PET imaging with [{sup 18}F]FDG has been successfully applied to investigation of metabolism, receptor, ligand interactions, gene expression, adoptive cell therapy and somatic gene therapy. Experimental condition of animal handling impacts on the biodistribution of [{sup 18}F]FDG in small animal study. The small animal PET and CT images were registered using the hardware fiducial markers and small animal contour point. Tumor imaging in small animal with small animal [{sup 18}F]FDG PET should be considered fasting, warming, and isoflurane anesthesia level. Registered imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of tumor. Small animal experimental condition of animal handling and registration method will be of most importance for small lesion detection of metastases tumor model.

  17. Study on radiation dose caused by 18F-FDG in PET/CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose caused by 18F-flu- orodeoxyglucose (FDG) in PET/CT examination and to optimize the concerned radiation protection. Methods: Thirty patients from our conventional PET/CT examination were simple randomly selected, and they all underwent whole body PET/CT imaging. The radioactive dose of injected 18F-FDG was recorded. The internal radiation dose was calculated and the external radiation dose from patients was measured with the 451P-DE-SI ion chamber survey meter. The staff's dose was recorded with thermoluminescent detector (TLD). All dosimetry data were processed and analyzed statistically with Excel 2003. Results: The injected radioactive dose of 18F-FDG was (432.9 ± 51.8) MBq, and effective dose equivalent received per patient was (8.23 ± 0.99) mSv. The correlation coefficient (r) of the dose equivalent rate and distance was -0.994 by power function curve fitting, and that of dose equivalent rate and time was -0.988 by exponential curve fitting. The staff's dose was lower than the annual dose limit. Conclusions: The patient's internal radiation dose caused by 18F-FDG in PET/CT examination is low, nonetheless, the clinician should always consider optimizing and minimizing the necessary radiation received by the patients. The patients having been injected with 18F-FDG should stay in one place to decrease their radiation to the public. From the medical point of view in optimizing radiation exposure, there may still be a potential to lower the injected 18F-FDG activity. (authors)

  18. Impact of FDG PET on the management of TBC treatment. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of double-phase FDG PET versus routine staging in HIV-negative patients suffering from tuberculosis. Patients, methods: 16 consecutive patients suffering from tuberculosis underwent contrast-enhanced CT and double-phase FDG PET imaging (45 min, 120 min). Early (E) and delayed (D) SUVmax values were determined for all identified lesions and % change in SUV calculated (ΔSUV). Results: Seven patients presented with lung lesions on PET as well as CT (mean SUVmaxE 8.2), mean SUVmaxD 11.1, (p = 0.002), ΔSUV 35%. In two patients, lesions were judged as non-active on CT. In nine patients, 18 sites of LN involvement were identified on both early and delayed FDG PET images (mean SUVmaxE 6.3, mean SUVmaxD 7.9, (p = 0.0001), ΔSUV: 25%). 9 out of 18 sites of LN involvement, occurring in five patients, were missed on CT. In four of these five patients, sites of LN involvement were the only sites of extra-pulmonary involvement identified. In 6 out of 16 patients, pleural involvement was identified, respectively in 5 on FDG PET and in 6 on CT imaging (mean SUVmaxE 1.3, mean SUVmaxD 1.7, (p = 0.06), ΔSUV 21%). In 4 patients, osseous involvement was identified by both FDG PET and CT (mean SUVmaxE 7.2, mean SUVmaxD 10.7, (p = 0,06), ΔSUV 45%). Finally, in 3 patients, joint involvement was identified on both FDG PET as well as on CT imaging (mean SUVmaxE 4.7, mean SUVmaxD 5.2, ΔSUV 23%). FDG PET did not identify CT-additional sites of involvement that would have resulted in a prolonged treatment. Conclusion: In HIV-negative patients suffering from tuberculosis, FDG PET images suggested a more extensive involvement by Mycobacterium tuberculosis when compared to contrast enhanced CT. (orig.)

  19. Interest of the supplementary analysis of inter hemisphere asymmetry in the study with S.P.M. of cerebral PET-F.D.G. of patients suffering of temporal epilepsy; Interet de l'analyse supplementaire d'asymetrie interhemispherique dans l'etude avec SPM des TEP-FDG cerebrales de patients avec epilepsie temporale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, C.; Wolf, D. [CRAN-INPL, universite de Nancy, 54 (France); Gillet, N.; Marie, P.Y.; Laurens, M.H.; Djaballah, W.; Karcher, G. [CHU de Nancy, service de medecine nucleaire, 54 (France); Maillard, L.; Vespignani, H. [CHU de Nancy, service de neurologie, 54 (France); Guedj, E. [Hopital de la Timone, service de medecine nucleaire, AP-HM13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementary information provided by the asymmetry analysis in the study by S.P.M. (statistical parametric mapping) of cerebral PET-F.D.G. images got for patients suffering of a drug resistant temporal epilepsy. It appears that the supplementary analysis of inter hemisphere asymmetry allow to improve the detection rate of the involved temporal lobe and bring complementary information concerning the delimitation of the hypo metabolic temporal area. (N.C.)

  20. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression in...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p<0.001) and the most pronounced reductions of CMRglc were detected in frontal and...

  1. Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Xiujuan, E-mail: zhengxj@eie.polyu.edu.h [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yu, Chin-Lung; Sha Wei; Radu, Caius; Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California Los Angeles, CA (United States); Feng Dagan [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); School of Information Technologies, the University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems. Methods: Thirty-one tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at {approx}60 min post FDG injection and then scanned in micro-computed tomographic (CT). Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs. Results: Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of -0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, coefficient of variation of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased. Conclusions: Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies.

  2. Evaluation of two population-based input functions for quantitative neurological FDG PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional measurement of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlc) with fluorodexoyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) requires arterial or arterialised-venous (a-v) blood sampling at frequent intervals to obtain the plasma input function (IF). We evaluated the accuracy of rCMRGlc measurements using population-based IFs that were calibrated with two a-v blood samples. Population-based IFs were derived from: (1) the average of a-v IFs from 26 patients (Standard IF) and (2) a published model of FDG plasma concentration (Feng IF). Values for rCMRGlc calculated from the population-based IFs were compared with values obtained with IFs derived from frequent a-v blood sampling in 20 non-diabetic and six diabetic patients. Values for rCMRGlc calculated with the different IFs were highly correlated for both patient groups (r≥0.992) and root mean square residuals about the regression line were less than 0.24 mg/min/100 g. The Feng IF tended to underestimate high rCMRGlc. Both population-based IFs simplify the measurement of rCMRGlc with minimal loss in accuracy and require only two a-v blood samples for calibration. The reduced blood sampling requirements markedly reduce radiation exposure to the blood sampler. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  4. Human cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the literature on human cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), with respect to normal values and of regulation of cerebral circulation. A multicenter study in Japan showed that between-center variations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) values were not considerably larger than the corresponding within-center variations. Overall mean±SD values in cerebral cortical regions of normal human subjects were as follows: CBF=44.4±6.5 ml/100 ml/min; CBV=3.8±0.7 ml/100 ml; OEF=0.44±0.06; CMRO2=3.3±0.5 ml/100 ml/min (11 PET centers, 70 subjects). Intrinsic regulation of cerebral circulation involves several factors. Autoregulation maintains CBF in response to changes in cerebral perfusion pressure; chemical factors such as PaCO2 affect cerebral vascular tone and alter CBF; changes in neural activity cause changes in cerebral energy metabolism and CBF; neurogenic control of CBF occurs by sympathetic innervation. Regional differences in vascular response to changes in PaCO2 have been reported, indicating regional differences in cerebral vascular tone. Relations between CBF and CBV during changes in PaCO2 and during changes in neural activity were in good agreement with Poiseuille's law. The mechanisms of vascular response to neural activation and deactivation were independent on those of responses to PaCO2 changes. CBV in a brain region is the sum of three components: arterial, capillary and venous blood volumes. It has been reported that the arterial blood volume fraction is approximately 30% in humans and that changes in human CBV during changes in PaCO2 are caused by changes in arterial blood volume without changes in venous blood volume. These findings should be considered in future studies of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (author) 136 refs

  5. Dose painting based on tumor uptake of Cu-ATSM and FDG: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia and increased glycolytic activity of tumors are associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in radiotherapy (RT) dose painting based on the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the proposed hypoxia tracer, copper(II)diacetyl-bis(N4)-methylsemithiocarbazone (Cu-ATSM) using spontaneous clinical canine tumor models. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of five spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas were obtained; FDG on day 1 and 64Cu-ATSM on day 2 and 3 (approx. 3 and 24 hours pi.). Sub-volumes for dose escalation were defined by a threshold-based method for both tracers and five dose escalation levels were formed in each sub-volume. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were optimized based on the dose escalation regions for each scan for a total of three dose plans for each dog. The prescription dose for the GTV was 45 Gy (100%) and it was linearly escalated to a maximum of 150%. The correlations between dose painting plans were analyzed with construction of dose distribution density maps and quality volume histograms (QVH). Correlation between high-dose regions was investigated with Dice correlation coefficients. Comparison of dose plans revealed varying degree of correlation between cases. Some cases displayed a separation of high-dose regions in the comparison of FDG vs. 64Cu-ATSM dose plans at both time points. Among the Dice correlation coefficients, the high dose regions showed the lowest degree of agreement, indicating potential benefit of using multiple tracers for dose painting. QVH analysis revealed that FDG-based dose painting plans adequately covered approximately 50% of the hypoxic regions. Radiotherapy plans optimized with the current approach for cut-off values and dose region definitions based on FDG, 64Cu-ATSM 3 h and 24 h uptake in canine tumors had different localization of the regional dose escalation levels. This indicates that 64Cu-ATSM at two

  6. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, S. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mochizuki, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Kuru, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Miwa, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Kondo, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mori, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizuno, Y. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Transient total sleep loss in cerebral Whipple's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Riemann, Dieter; Gann, Horst; Hornyak, Magdolna; Juengling, Freimut; Schumacher, Martin; Reincke, Martin; Von Herbay, Axel; Nishino, Seiji; Mignot, Emmanuel; Berger, Mathias; Lieb, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    A case with transient, almost complete sleep loss caused by cerebral manifestation of Whipple's disease (WD) is presented. Cerebral WD is rare and in most cases occurs after gastrointestinal infection. In our case, a progressive and finally almost complete sleep loss was the initial and predominant symptom. Polysomnographic studies in several consecutive nights and over 24 h showed a total abolition of the sleep-wake cycle with nocturnal sleep duration of less than 15 min. Endocrine tests revealed hypothalamic dysfunction with flattening of circadian rhythmicity of cortisol, TSH, growth hormone and melatonin. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin was reduced. [18F]Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed hypermetabolic areas in cortical and subcortical areas including the brainstem, which might explain sleep pathology and vertical gaze palsy. In the course of treatment with antibiotics and additional carbamazepine for 1 year, insomnia slowly and gradually improved. Endocrine investigations at 1-year follow-up showed persistent flattening of circadian rhythmicity. The FDG-PET indicated normalized metabolism in distinct regions of the brain stem which paralleled restoration of sleep length. The extent of sleep disruption in this case of organic insomnia was similar to cases of familial fatal insomnia, but was at least partially reversible with treatment. PMID:12464100

  9. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV{sup earlya}nd SUV{sup delayed,} respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV{sup delayed-} SUV{sup early)} x 100/ SUV{sup early.} The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and {beta} catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8{+-}15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P<0.05). Among the immunohistochemical analytic markers, GLUT 1 had the highest positive staining rate (93.6%) compared to other markers. Based on unvariable analysis, it was shown that the RI of high level GLUT 1 expression was significantly higher than low level GLUT 1 expression (p=0.01), and the RI of high level p53 expression (p=0.08). Multivariate analysis to investigate a link between RI and clinico pathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma showed that GLUT 1, p53, and T staging were independently connected with increased RIs (p<0.05, total) using backward selection methods. There was no significant statistical relationship between SUV

  10. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Boots Rob; Barnett Adrian G; Timms Daniel; Dunster Kimble; Geng Shureng; Bellapart Judith; Fraser John F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and in...

  11. Basic study on relationship between estimated rate constants and noise in FDG kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Yuichi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical and Dental Engineering; Toyama, Hinako; Senda, Michio

    1996-02-01

    For accurate estimation of the rate constants in {sup 18}F-FDG dynamic study, the shape of the estimation function ({Phi}) is crucial. In this investigation, the relationship between the noise level in tissue time activity curve and the shape of the least squared estimation function which is the sum of squared error between a function of model parameters and a measured data is calculated in 3 parameter model of {sup 18}F-FDG. In the first simulation, by using actual plasma time activity curve, the true tissue curve was generated from known sets of rate constants ranging 0.05{<=}k{sub 1}{<=}0.15, 0.1{<=}k{sub 2}{<=}0.2 and 0.01{<=}k{sub 3}{<=}0.1 in 0.01 step. This procedure was repeated under various noise levels in the tissue time activity curve from 1 to 8% of the maximum value in the tissue activity. In the second simulation, plasma and tissue time activity curves from clinical {sup 18}F-FDG dynamic study were used to calculate the {Phi}. In the noise-free case, because the global minima is separated from neighboring local minimums, it was easy to find out the optimum point. However, with increasing noise level, the optimum point was buried in many neighboring local minima. Making it difficult to find out the optimum point. The optimum point was found within 20% of the convergence point by standard non-linear optimization method. The shape of {Phi} for the clinical data was similar to that with the noise level of 3 or 5% in the first simulation. Therefore direct search within the area extending 20% from the result of usual non-linear curve fitting procedure is recommended for accurate estimation of the constants. (author).

  12. Characterizing IgG4-related disease with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: a prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Ma, Yanru; Niu, Na; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Zhu, Zhaohui [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Chen, Hua; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Fengchun; Zhang, Wen [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zhiyong [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-08-15

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized clinicopathological disorder with immune-mediated inflammatory lesions mimicking malignancies. A cohort study was prospectively designed to investigate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in characterizing IgG4-RD. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD according to the consensus criteria were enrolled with informed consent. All patients underwent baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT evaluation. Among them, 29 patients underwent a second {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan after 2 to 4 weeks of steroid-based therapy. All 35 patients were found with {sup 18}F-FDG-avid hypermetabolic lesion(s); 97.1 % (34/35) of these patients showed multi-organ involvement. Among the 35 patients, 71.4 % (25/35) patients were found with more organ involvement on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT than conventional evaluations including physical examination, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated specific image characteristics and pattern of IgG4-RD, including diffusely elevated {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the pancreas and salivary glands, patchy lesions in the retroperitoneal region and vascular wall, and multi-organ involvement that cannot be interpreted as metastasis. Comprehensive understanding of all involvement aided the biopsy-site selection in seven patients and the recanalization of ureteral obstruction in five patients. After 2 to 4 weeks of steroid-based therapy at 40 mg to 50 mg prednisone per day, 72.4 % (21/29) of the patients showed complete remission, whereas the others exhibited > 81.8 % decrease in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool for assessing organ involvement, monitoring therapeutic response, and guiding interventional treatment of IgG4-RD. The image pattern is suggested to be updated into the consensus diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. (orig.)

  13. The deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamic nucleus modifies the cerebral metabolism in {sup 18}FDG-Tep of obsessive compulsive patients; La stimulation cerebrale profonde du noyau sous thalamique modifie le metabolisme cerebral en 18FDG-TEP des patients obsessionnels compulsifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jeune, F.; Garin, E. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Eugene-Marquis, Rennes, (France); Verin, M.; Peron, J. [service de neurologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rennes, (France); Mallet, L.; Yelnik, J. [Inserm, Avenir Team, Behavior, Emotion and Basal Ganglia, IFR 70, Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, (France); Kreps, M.O. [Inserm U796, service de psychiatrie, hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris, (France); Drapier, D.; Millet, B. [service de psychiatrie adulte, centre hospitalier Guillaume-Regnier, Rennes, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this work was to find again this orbito-frontal hyper metabolism among the resistant obsessive compulsive disorder patients that are going to benefit of a deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus and to demonstrate that this new therapy approach leads a reduction of the metabolism in this area in correlation with the clinical improvement. It is about the first study realized in isotopic functional imaging on ten resistant compulsive disorder patients treated by bilateral deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus. It shows that the treatment efficiency is in relation with a reduction of the glucide metabolism in the right orbito-frontal cortex. It suggests equally that the under thalamus nucleus would be functionally linked to the orbito-frontal cortex. (N.C.)

  14. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether cerebral metabolism in various regions of the brain differs with advancing age by using 18F-FDG PET instrument and SPM software. Materials and Methods We reviewed clinical information of 295 healthy normal samples who were examined by a whole body GE Discovery LS PET-CT instrument in our center from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2005.They (with the age ranging from 21 to 88; mean age+/-SD: 49.77+/-13.51) were selected with: (i)absence of clear focal brain lesions (epilepsy.cerebrovascular diseases etc);(ii) absence of metabolic diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and diabetes;(iii) absence of psychiatric disorders and abuse of drugs and alcohol. They were sub grouped into six groups with the interval of 10 years old starting from 21, and the gender, educational background and serum glucose were matched. All subgroups were compared to the control group of 31-40 years old (84 samples; mean age+/-SD: 37.15+/-2.63). All samples were injected with 18F-FDG (5.55MBq/kg), 45-60 minutes later, their brains were scanned for 10min. Pixel-by-pixel t-statistic analysis was applied to all brain images using the Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) .The hypometabolic areas (p < 0. 01 or p<0.001, uncorrected) were identified in the Stereotaxic coordinate human brain atlas and three-dimensional localized by MNI Space utility (MSU) software. Results:Relative hypometabolic brain areas detected are mainly in the cortical structures such as bilateral prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus(BA22), parietal cortex (inferior parietal lobule and precuneus(BA40, insula(BA13)), parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala (p<0.01).It is especially apparent in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7) (p<0.001), while basal ganglia and cerebellum remained metabolically unchanged with advancing age. Conclusions Regional cerebral metabolism of glucose shows a descent tendency with aging, especially in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and

  15. Experimental study of the molecular mechanisms of myocardial ischemic memory with 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed to explore whether the changes of mRNA and the existence and duration of ischemic 18F-FDG uptake correlate with the extent of myocardial ischemia in ischemia-reperfusion canine model. The 20-minute (n= 4) and 40-minute (n=4) coronary artery occlusion followed by 24 h of open-artery reperfusion in canine model were per- formed. All dogs underwent fasting (>12 h) dynamic 18F-FDG PET/CT and 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT imaging at baseline, 1 h and 24 h after reperfusion. When all imaging were completed, myocardial samples from the ischemic and nonischemic region were obtained, and the mRNA expression of glucose transporter-l (GLUT-1), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), and heart-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were estimated by Real Time PCR. There was no difference in the ratio of hypoperfused region/nomoperfused region of 18F-FDG up- take between the 20-minute group and 40-minute group at baseline. When examined at 1 h, increased 18F-FDG uptake was observed in the 40-minute group. When estimated at 24 h, only the 40-minute group showed slightly higher 18F-FDG uptake than baseline, whereas no such difference was demonstrated in the 20-minute group. Similar mRNA expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and H-FABP were demonstrated in the nonischemic regions between the 2 groups, whereas increased expressions of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, and decreased H-FABP mRNA were demonstrated in the ischemic regions. The changes of mRNA expression were more obvious in the 40 minute group than in the 20-minute group. The results showed that the existence and persistent period of ischemic 18F-FDG uptake (ischemic memory) was correlated with the extent of myocardial ischemia. (authors)

  16. Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kang, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Hyoung; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Won, Kyung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance. The files of 40,967 patients who underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT were retrospectively reviewed. Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions. Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%. The mean SUV{sub max} of 30 patients was 8.9 {+-} 6.6 (range: 3.2-32.6). Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma. Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone. MRI was performed on 19 patients. Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%). The mean SUV{sub max} calculated without correction for partial volume effect for macroadenomas was significantly higher than the SUV{sub max} for microadenomas (11.5 {+-} 8.4 vs 4.8 {+-} 1.3; p < 0.05). There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up. Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding. Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas. Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT. (orig.)

  17. Statistical analysis of maximum likelihood estimator images of human brain FDG PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this paper evaluates the statistical characteristics of regional bias and expected error in reconstructions of real PET data of human brain fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) studies carried out by the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) method with a robust stopping rule, and compares them with the results of filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructions and with the method of sieves. The task that the authors have investigated is that of quantifying radioisotope uptake in regions-of-interest (ROI's). They first describe a robust methodology for the use of the MLE method with clinical data which contains only one adjustable parameter: the kernel size for a Gaussian filtering operation that determines final resolution and expected regional error. Simulation results are used to establish the fundamental characteristics of the reconstructions obtained by out methodology, corresponding to the case in which the transition matrix is perfectly known. Then, data from 72 independent human brain FDG scans from four patients are used to show that the results obtained from real data are consistent with the simulation, although the quality of the data and of the transition matrix have an effect on the final outcome

  18. Usefulness of noise adaptive non-linear Gaussian filter in FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In positron emission tomography (PET) studies, shortening transmission (TR) scan time can improve patient comfort and increase scanner throughput. However, PET images from short TR scans may be degraded due to the statistical noise included in the TR image. The purpose of this study was to apply non-linear Gaussian (NLG) and noise adaptive NLG (ANLG) filters to TR images, and to evaluate the extent of noise reduction by the ANLG filter in comparison with that by the NLG filter using phantom and clinical studies. In phantom studies, pool phantoms of various diameters and injected doses of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) were used and the coefficients of variation (CVs) of the counts in the TR images processed with the NLG and ANLG filters were compared. In clinical studies, two normal volunteers and 13 patients with tumors were studied. In volunteer studies, the CV values in the liver were compared. In patient studies, the standardized uptake values (SUVs) of tumors in the emission images were obtained after processing the TR images using the NLG and ANLG filters. In phantom studies, the CV values in the TR images processed with the ANLG filter were smaller than those in the images processed with the NLG filter. When using the ANLG filter, their dependency on the phantom size, injected dose of FDG and TR scan time was smaller than when using the NLG filter. In volunteer studies, the CV values in the images processed with the ANLG filter were smaller than those in the images processed with the NLG filter, and were almost constant regardless of the TR scan time. In patient studies, there was an excellent correlation between the SUVs obtained from the images with a TR scan time of 7 min processed with the NLG filter (x) and those obtained from the images with a TR scan time of 4 min processed with the ANLG filter (y) (r=0.995, y=1.034x-0.075). Our results suggest that the ANLG filter is effective and useful for noise reduction in TR images and shortening TR scan

  19. A study of the changes of breast uptake in menstrual cycle on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Tak, Yeo Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Soo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has been known a useful modality to diagnose high-glucose-using cells such as cancer cells by glucose metabolism of FDG. Mainly, FDG takes on cancer and inflammatory cells; however, there have been FDG uptakes on normal tissues by individual physiological characteristics, occasionally. Especially, in fertile females, unusual FDG uptake of breast changes as the menstrual cycle, and disturb diagnosis. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the change of breast FDG uptake in menstrual cycle on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. 160 females (34±3.5 years old) who do not undergo a gynecologic anamnesis and have regular menstrual cycle over the previous 6 months were examined. They were divided 4 groups (each 40 patients) as flow phase, proliferative phase, ovulatory phase and secretory phase using Pregnancy Calculator 0.14. and history taking. Discovery Ste (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Mi, USA) was used a s PET/CT. We analyzed SUVs on a ccumulated r egion on b reast, and 3 nuclear medicine specialists did the Blind test. SUVs on the Breast were flow phase (1.64±0.25), proliferative phase (0.93±0.28), ovulatory phase (1.66±0.26) and secretory phase (1.77±0.28). It showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In gross analysis, the accumulation of breast was divided into 3 grades as comparing with lung and liver. The breast’s uptake was equal to lung (Grade Ⅰ); between lung and liver (Grade II); equal to or greater than liver (Grade III). The results showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In fertile females, FDG uptake of breast changed as menstrual cycle, and it available to diagnose breast disease. Therefore, we consider reducing false-negative finding of breast disease, by doing examination on appropriate period through history taking about individual menstrual cycle.

  20. A study of the changes of breast uptake in menstrual cycle on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET/CT has been known a useful modality to diagnose high-glucose-using cells such as cancer cells by glucose metabolism of FDG. Mainly, FDG takes on cancer and inflammatory cells; however, there have been FDG uptakes on normal tissues by individual physiological characteristics, occasionally. Especially, in fertile females, unusual FDG uptake of breast changes as the menstrual cycle, and disturb diagnosis. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the change of breast FDG uptake in menstrual cycle on 18F-FDG PET/CT. 160 females (34±3.5 years old) who do not undergo a gynecologic anamnesis and have regular menstrual cycle over the previous 6 months were examined. They were divided 4 groups (each 40 patients) as flow phase, proliferative phase, ovulatory phase and secretory phase using Pregnancy Calculator 0.14. and history taking. Discovery Ste (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Mi, USA) was used a s PET/CT. We analyzed SUVs on a ccumulated r egion on b reast, and 3 nuclear medicine specialists did the Blind test. SUVs on the Breast were flow phase (1.64±0.25), proliferative phase (0.93±0.28), ovulatory phase (1.66±0.26) and secretory phase (1.77±0.28). It showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In gross analysis, the accumulation of breast was divided into 3 grades as comparing with lung and liver. The breast’s uptake was equal to lung (Grade Ⅰ); between lung and liver (Grade II); equal to or greater than liver (Grade III). The results showed high uptake value in secretory, flow phase and ovulatory phase (p<0.05). In fertile females, FDG uptake of breast changed as menstrual cycle, and it available to diagnose breast disease. Therefore, we consider reducing false-negative finding of breast disease, by doing examination on appropriate period through history taking about individual menstrual cycle

  1. The analysis of several factors relevant to brain 18F-FDG metabolism by using the statistical parameter mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship of the regional brain 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism and aging process, the dosage of the imaging agent, the level of blood sugar to cerebral PET (cPET) image data by using statistical parameter mapping (SPM) software. Methods: 18F-FDG cPET imaging data acquired from 30 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed with SPM by the multiple linear regression model designed with dosage of tracer, and blood sugar level as explaining variables and the 18F-FDG accumulation as responding variables. Results: It's showed that the age, dosage and sugar level were all related with the 18F-FDG accumulation in the brain. The accumulation of the radiotracer in the brain areas like cingulate gyri, inferior temporal gyri of both sides and the cerebellum increased with the tracer dosage, and the blood sugar escalating and the 18F-FDG uptake in the brain areas like frontal lobes, parietal lobes, precentral gyri of both sides and cerebellum decreased at the same time, and the aging process led to a pancephalic 18F-FDG decrease. Conclusions: The injection dosage, sugar level and the age are all related with accumulation of the 18F-FDG, and the SPM software can be used to analyze the multiple factors relevant to cPET imaging data based on voxel level and so can explain the experimental results more correctly

  2. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  3. FDG-PET/CT findings in systemic mastocytosis: a French multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastocytosis is a clonal haematological disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and the activation of mast cells. The value of FDG-PET/CT (FDG-PET) in mastocytosis has yet to be determined. We retrospectively identified patients with an established diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM), according to the WHO criteria, who underwent PET using the French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. Semi-quantitative and visual analysis of FDG-PET was performed and compared to the clinico-biological data. Our cohort included 19 adult patients, median age 65 years [range 58-74], including three with smouldering SM (SSM), three with aggressive SM (ASM), 10 with an associated clonal haematological non-mast-cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), and three with mast cell sarcoma (MCS). FDG-PET was performed at the time of the SM diagnosis (15/19), to evaluate lymph node (LN) activity (3/19) or the efficacy of therapy (1/19). FDG uptake was observed in the bone marrow (BM) (9/19, 47 %), LN (6/19, 32 %), spleen (12/19, 63 %), or liver (1/19, 5 %). No significant FDG uptake was observed in the SSM and ASM patients. A pathological FDG uptake was observed in the BM of 6/10 patients with SM-AHNMD, appearing as diffuse and homogeneous, and in the LN of 5/10 patients. All 3 MCS patients showed intense and multifocal BM pathological uptake, mimicking metastasis. No correlation was found between the FDG-PET findings and serum tryptase levels, BM mast cell infiltration percentage, and CD30 and CD2 expression by mast cells. FDG uptake does not appear to be a sensitive marker of mast cell activation or proliferation because no significant FDG uptake was observed in most common forms of mastocytosis (notably purely aggressive SM). However, pathological FDG uptake was observed in the SM-AHNMD and in MCS cases, suggesting a role of FDG-PET in their early identification and as a tool of therapeutic assessment in this subgroup of patients. (orig.)

  4. FDG-PET/CT findings in systemic mastocytosis: a French multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djelbani-Ahmed, S. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (France); Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Bobigny (France); Chandesris, M.O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Haematology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Mekinian, A.; Fain, O. [Saint Antoine Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), AP-HP, Paris (France); Canioni, D. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Brouzes, C. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (France); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Laboratory of Haematology, Paris (France); Hanssens, K. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (France); Aix-Marseille University, INSERM U1068, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (Signaling, Hematopoiesis and Mechanism of Oncogenesis), Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille (France); Pop, G.; Eder, V. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (France); Durieu, I.; Durupt, S. [Universite de Lyon, Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupe Hopitalier Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Grosbois, B.; Besnard, S. [Rennes University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Rennes (France); Tournilhac, O. [Clermont-Ferrand University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Beyne-Rauzy, O. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Toulouse (France); Agape, P. [Saint-Denis University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Haematology, Saint-Denis de la Reunion (France); Delmer, A. [Reims University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Reims (France); Ranta, D. [Brabois University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Jeandel, P.Y. [Nice University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Nice (France); Georgin-Lavialle, S. [Tenon Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Paris (France); Frenzel, L.; Hermine, O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Department of Haematology, Paris (FR); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (FR); Damaj, G. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Caen University Hospital, Department of Haematology, Caen (FR); Lortholary, O. [Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, French Reference center for Mastocytosis (Centre de Reference des Mastocytoses, CEREMAST), Paris (FR); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Imagine Institute, Paris (FR); Pasteur Institute, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Necker Children' s Hospital, APHP, Paris (FR); Soussan, M. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (FR); Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Bobigny (FR)

    2015-12-15

    Mastocytosis is a clonal haematological disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and the activation of mast cells. The value of FDG-PET/CT (FDG-PET) in mastocytosis has yet to be determined. We retrospectively identified patients with an established diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM), according to the WHO criteria, who underwent PET using the French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. Semi-quantitative and visual analysis of FDG-PET was performed and compared to the clinico-biological data. Our cohort included 19 adult patients, median age 65 years [range 58-74], including three with smouldering SM (SSM), three with aggressive SM (ASM), 10 with an associated clonal haematological non-mast-cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), and three with mast cell sarcoma (MCS). FDG-PET was performed at the time of the SM diagnosis (15/19), to evaluate lymph node (LN) activity (3/19) or the efficacy of therapy (1/19). FDG uptake was observed in the bone marrow (BM) (9/19, 47 %), LN (6/19, 32 %), spleen (12/19, 63 %), or liver (1/19, 5 %). No significant FDG uptake was observed in the SSM and ASM patients. A pathological FDG uptake was observed in the BM of 6/10 patients with SM-AHNMD, appearing as diffuse and homogeneous, and in the LN of 5/10 patients. All 3 MCS patients showed intense and multifocal BM pathological uptake, mimicking metastasis. No correlation was found between the FDG-PET findings and serum tryptase levels, BM mast cell infiltration percentage, and CD30 and CD2 expression by mast cells. FDG uptake does not appear to be a sensitive marker of mast cell activation or proliferation because no significant FDG uptake was observed in most common forms of mastocytosis (notably purely aggressive SM). However, pathological FDG uptake was observed in the SM-AHNMD and in MCS cases, suggesting a role of FDG-PET in their early identification and as a tool of therapeutic assessment in this subgroup of patients. (orig.)

  5. Study of clinical application of 18F-FDG spect with coincidence in the recurrent or metastatic tumor of digestive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence in the diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic tumor of digestive system. Methods: 35 cases of postoperative patients with tumor of digestive system were enrolled in this study with 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence. The results were analyzed by calculating its accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and 95% confidence interval and compared with UB, CT and MRI. Results: In 35 cases of postoperative patients with tumor of digestive system, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 91.4%, 88.9%, 100%, 100%, 72.7%, respectively, and their 95% confidence interval were 77% - 98%, 71% - 98%, 63% - 100%, 86% - 100%, 39% - 94%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence were significantly higher than that of UB, while there were no significant difference between the result of other 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence and CT and MRI. The analysis of 95% confidence interval showed a higher tendency in 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence than in UB, CT and MRI. There is complementation among 18F-FDG SPECT with coincidence combined with UB, CT and MRI in some cases. Conclusions: 18F-FDG SPECT/PET has high clinical value in the diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic tumor of digestive system. (authors)

  6. Effect of the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab in patients with recalcitrant sarcoidosis: a prospective observational study using FDG-PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Graudal, Niels; Loft, Annika;

    2012-01-01

    included with a median age of 47 years (range 35-73). An FDG-PET showing uptake indicating sarcoid activity was required at inclusion and repeated at the end of the study. FDG-PET uptake was assessed by calculated standardised uptake value (SUV). Blood samples and lung function tests were performed...... regularly. Quality of life was assessed by the short-form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Results: Following treatment with adalimumab, FDG-PET uptake decreased in nine patients (P = 0.011) and increased in one patient. Maximum SUV fell from median 14.1 to 7.0 (P...

  7. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  8. Brain (18)F-FDG, (18)F-Florbetaben PET/CT, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT and Cardiac (123)I-MIBG Imaging for Diagnosis of a "Cerebral Type" of Lewy Body Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bélissant, Ophélie; Rabu, Corentin; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Fénelon, Gilles; Itti, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac (123)I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation. Alzheimer's disease was excluded by a normal (18)F-florbetaben PET/CT. This report suggests a rare case of α-synucleinopathy without brainstem involvement, referred to as "cerebral type" of Lewy body disease. PMID:27540431

  9. Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Hering-Hanit, R; Achiron, R.; Lipitz, S; Achiron, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Slight morphological asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres has been observed in fetal and newborn brains. In adults, sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry have also been reported.
OBJECTIVE—To establish whether cerebral hemisphere asymmetry correlates with sex in fetuses.
METHODS—Left-right cerebral hemisphere asymmetry, and the correlation with sex, were studied in 51 male and 51 female fetuses of 20-22 weeks gestation, using diagnostic ultrasound scanning....

  10. Correlation of BRAFV600E Mutation and Glucose Metabolism in Thyroid Cancer Patients: An 18F-FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, James; Ho, Alan L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Grewal, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    There is significant interest in a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of the increased glucose metabolic rates of cancer cells. Thyroid cancer demonstrates a broad variability of 18F-FDG uptake as well as several well-characterized oncogenic mutations. In this study, we evaluated the differences in glucose metabolism of the BRAFV600E mutation versus BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC). Methods Forty-eight DTC and 34 PDTC patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for tumor staging were identified from a database search. All patients were tested for the BRAFV600E mutation and assigned to 1 of 2 groups: BRAFV600E mutated and BRAF-WT. 18F-FDG uptake of tumor tissue was quantified by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the hottest malignant lesion in 6 prespecified body regions (thyroid bed, lymph nodes, lung, bone, soft tissue, and other). When there were multiple lesions in 1 of the prespecified body regions, only the 1 with the highest 18F-FDG uptake was analyzed. Results In the DTC cohort, 24 tumors harbored a BRAFV600E mutation, whereas 24 tumors were BRAF-WT. 18F-FDG uptake of BRAFV600E-positive lesions (median SUVmax, 6.3; n = 53) was significantly higher than that of BRAF-WT lesions (n = 39; median SUVmax, 4.7; P = 0.019). In the PDTC group, only 5 tumors were BRAFV600E-positive, and their 18F-FDG uptake was not significantly different from the BRAF-WT tumors. There was also no significant difference between the SUVmax of all DTCs and PDTCs, regardless of BRAF mutational status (P = 0.90). Conclusion These data suggest that BRAFV600E-mutated DTCs are significantly more 18F-FDG–avid than BRAF-WT tumors. The effect of BRAFV600E on tumor glucose metabolism in PDTC needs further study in larger groups of patients. PMID:25814520

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT makes a significant contribution to diagnosis of malignancy in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy: a study using optimal scale regression tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Lin; SHI Zhao-yin; LIN Zhi-gang

    2013-01-01

    Background The specificity and precision of lymphadenopathy assessment using US,CT and MRI are generally unsatisfactory,while fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) can support this process by providing additional information about the lymph node features.However,which image features of 18F-FDG PET/CT play the key role in the diagnosis and cutoffs of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy still needs to be determined by further studies.Our study aimed to identify 18F-FDG PET/CT abnormalities that would assist in making a reliable diagnosis of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy in enlarged cervical lymph nodes of patients with unknown primary diseases.Methods One hundred and ninety-one consecutive patients of cervical lymphadenopathy with unknown primary causes were examined by 18F-FDG PET/CT from May 2007 to October 2011 and a definite diagnosis was established by pathologic biopsy.18F-FDG PET/CT images were evaluated to identify the relevant abnormalities.All image features were analyzed by optimal scale regression tests to determine the important factors that were predictive for the diagnosis of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy and the cutoffs.Results The factors studied in 18F-FDG PET/CT images for predicting malignant cervical lymphadenopathy were sex,age,node location,size,shape,margins,maximum standard uptake value (SUV),mean SUV,FDG uptake pattern and number of nodes.It was found that mean SUV,maximum SUV,FDG uptake pattern,location,size and margins were the important risk factors of cervical lymph nodes that could predict malignant cervical lymphadenopathy.Signs of mean SUV≥2.5 (or maximum SUV≥3.5),nodular FDG uptake pattern,location of ⅡA,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,ⅤB,Ⅵ and Ⅶ regions,size≥1.5 cm and vague margins had their optimal diagnostic accuracy (Ac) and Youden index (YI),further,combination of any three factors of these six important risk factors would led to the best diagnosticAc of 96% and YI of 0

  12. A Pilot Study for the Feasibility of F-18 FLT-PET in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Comparison with F-18 FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Kim, Euy Nyong; Hong, Il Ki [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine positron emission tomography(FLT-PET) for the detection of locally advanced breast cancer and to compare the degree of FLT and 2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose(FDG) uptake in primary tumor, lymph nodes and other normal organs. The study subjects consisted of 22 female patients (mean age; 42{+-}6 years) with biopsy-confirmed infiltrating ductal carcinoma between Aug 2005 and Nov 2006. We performed conventional imaging workup, FDG-PET and FLT PET/CT. Average tumor size measured by MRI was 7.2{+-}3.4 cm. With visual analysis, Tumor and Lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG were determined by calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to background (TB) ratio. We compared FLT tumor uptake with FDG tumor uptake. We also investigated the correlation between FLT tumor uptake and FDG tumor uptake and the concordant rate with lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG. FLT and FDG uptakes of bone marrow and liver were measured to compare the biodistribution of each other. All tumor lesions were visually detected in both FLT-PET and FDG-PET. There was no significant correlation between maximal tumor size by MRI and SUVmax of FLT-PET or FDG-PET (p>0.05). SUVmax and SUV75 (average SUV within volume of interest using 75% isocontour) of FLT-PET were significantly lower than those of FDG-PET in primary tumor (SUVmax; 6.3{+-}5.2 vs 8.3{+-}4.9, p=0.02 / SUV75; 5.3{+-}4.3 vs 6.9 4.2, p=0.02). There is significant moderate correlation between uptake of FLT and FDG in primary tumor (SUVmax; rho=0.450, p=0.04 / SUV75; rho=0.472, p=0.03). But, TB ratio of FLT-PET was higher than that of FDG-PET(11.7{+-}7.7 vs 6.3{+-}3.8, p=0.001). The concordant rate between FLT and FDG uptake of lymph node was reasonably good (33/34). The FLT SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 4.2{+-}1.2 and 8.3{+-}4.9. The FDG SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 1.8{+-}0.4 and 1.6{+-}0.4. The uptakes of

  13. Value of delayed [{sup 18}F]-FDG-PET for brain tumors detection; Interet de la TEP au [{sup 18}F]-FDG double phase avec acquisition tardive dans la detection des tumeurs cerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeere, V.; Burg, S. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 35 - Rennes (France); Wager, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Biophysique, 86 - Poitiers (France); Perdrisot, R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Service de Neurochirurgie, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2007-05-15

    The value of FDG-PET remains controversial in the study of brain tumors because of the high FDG uptake in gray matter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 18}FDG-PET delayed acquisitions in the distinction of brain tumors from the cortex. Thirty patients with cerebral tumors were included, 25 high-grade tumors and five low grade. Two FDG-PET acquisitions, early (1 h), and delayed (5 h). were performed. On the delayed images. two types of three-dimensional regions of interest (ROI) were drawn using a Bayesian segmentation based on a Poisson law, the lesion ROI, specific (LS) and total (LT), and the ROI of references, on the healthy hemi-cortex (SG) and on the healthy white matter (SB). These ROI were reported on the early images. The evolution of the visualization of the lesions was appreciated using a qualitative visual analysis and a ROI ratios analysis. On the delayed images, the visual and the ROI ratios analysis showed an improvement of the visualization of the hyper-metabolic specific lesions compared to the SG and the SB. There was also a contrast improvement between the hypo-metabolic specific lesions and the SG with the ROI ratios analysis. Conclusion: delayed acquisitions in FDG-PET improve the visualization of brain tumors from the cortex. Dual phase FDG-PET with delayed acquisition could constitute an additional tool in the management of brain tumors. (authors)

  14. Quantitative assessment of global lung inflammation following radiation therapy using FDG PET/CT: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla, Sarah; Salavati, Ali; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A. [University of Pennsylvania, and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Basu, Sandip [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center, Bombay (India); Alavi, Abass [University of Pennsylvania, and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Radiation pneumonitis is the most severe dose-limiting complication in patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify global lung inflammation following radiation therapy using FDG PET/CT. We studied 20 subjects with stage III non-small-cell lung carcinoma who had undergone FDG PET/CT imaging before and after radiation therapy. On all PET/CT studies, the sectional lung volume (sLV) of each lung was calculated from each slice by multiplying the lung area by slice thickness. The sectional lung glycolysis (sLG) was calculated by multiplying the sLV and the lung sectional mean standardized uptake value (sSUVmean) on each slice passing through the lung. The lung volume (LV) was calculated by adding all sLVs from the lung, and the global lung glycolysis (GLG) was calculated by adding all sLGs from the lung. Finally, the lung SUVmean was calculated by dividing the GLG by the LV. The amount of inflammation in the lung parenchyma directly receiving radiation therapy was calculated by subtracting tumor measurements from GLG. In the lung directly receiving radiation therapy, the lung parenchyma SUVmean and global lung parenchymal glycolysis were significantly increased following therapy. In the contralateral lung (internal control), no significant changes were observed in lung SUVmean or GLG following radiation therapy. Global lung parenchymal glycolysis and lung parenchymal SUVmean may serve as potentially useful biomarkers to quantify lung inflammation on FDG PET/CT following thoracic radiation therapy. (orig.)

  15. PET/CT studies of multiple myeloma using 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF: comparison of distribution patterns and tracers' pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the combined use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET/CT in the skeletal assessment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare the efficacy of these two PET tracers regarding detection of myeloma-indicative osseous lesions. The study includes 60 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) diagnosed according to standard criteria. All patients underwent dynamic (dPET/CT) scanning of the pelvis as well as whole body PET/CT studies with both tracers. The interval between the two exams was one day. Sites of focal increased 18F-FDG uptake were considered as highly suspicious of myelomatous involvement. The lesions detected on the 18F-NaF PET/CT scans were then correlated with those detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT, which served as a reference. Moreover, the 18F-FDG PET/CT results were also correlated with the low-dose CT findings. The evaluation of dPET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, SUV calculation, and quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model and a non-compartmental approach. Whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed approximately 343 focal lesions while 18F-NaF PET/CT revealed 135 MM-indicative lesions (39 % correlation). CT demonstrated 150 lesions that correlated with those in 18F-FDG PET/CT (44 % correlation). Six patients demonstrated a diffuse pattern of disease with 18F-FDG, while 15 of them had a mixed (diffuse and focal) pattern of skeletal 18F-FDG uptake. A high number of degenerative, traumatic and arthritic disease lesions were detected with 18F-NaF PET/CT. In three patients with multiple focal 18F-FDG-uptake, 18F-NaF PET/CT failed to demonstrate any bone lesion. The dPET/CT scanning of the pelvic area with 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF revealed 77 and 24 MM-indicative lesions, respectively. Kinetic analysis of 18F-FDG revealed the following mean values: SUVaver = 5.1, k1 = 0.37 (1/min), k3 = 0.10 (1/min), VB = 0.06, influx = 0.04 (1/min

  16. Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV infection results in profound alterations of immunologic function that render the patient severely immunocompromised, and susceptible to malignancies and opportunistic infections. Three AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer. In AIDS patients, KS is often aggressive and multifocal, with visceral involvement and widespread cutaneous and nodal spread; NHL is always high grade and often widely disseminated at the time of diagnosis with frequent involvement of extranodal sites; cervical cancer is invasive and has greater likelihood of progression and metastasis. Although there are very sparse systemic data available in the literature, limited studies has shown that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a valuable imaging technique in the diagnosis, staging, restaging and monitoring therapeutic response in these malignancies. In addition, a unique application of FDG PET/CT is the differentiation of cerebral lesions between lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which cannot be reliably achieved with either CT or MRI. HIV-associated opportunistic infections may involve different pathogens and multiple tissues, organs or systems. Some preliminary observations have revealed a promising role of FDG PET-CT in the diagnosis and identification of these infections such as tuberculosis, fever of unknown origin, pneumocystis pneumonia and candidiasis. However, it should be stressed that FDG PET-CT alone has no role in identifying the pathology of abnormalities. FDG PET-CT, at best, can localize the sites of abnormalities and impact on patient's management in clinical decision making. (author)

  17. The comparison study between FDG fusion PET and CT in patients with confirmed salivary gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Gang, Won Jun; Oh, So Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that FDG Fusion PET (PET) has a good diagnostic nature in patient with head and neck cancer. But, there is a few PET study about salivary gland cancer which had a different histopathology. We analyzed the usefulness of PET in patients with biopsy confirmed salivary gland cancer. Eleven patients (M: F=8: 3, age = 61.29.3 yr) with PET and CT exam were enrolled (The interval=4263 day). All of them didn't have previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PET and CT were compared with pathologic TNM stage. All of eleven patients had salivary gland biopsy and confirmed as malignancy (parotid gland: submandibular gland =8: 3). Pathologic type was adenocarcinoma (1), poor differentiated carcinoma (1), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=2), adenoid cystic carcinoma (2), salivary duct carcinoma (2), carcinoma ex pleomorhic adenoma (3). One patient didn't operation due to metastatic lesions which was detected on PET. From 10 patients, PET had a 100 % of tumor detection rate (maxSUV =4.72.1) and 60 %(6/10) of coincident result with pathologic N stage. CT had 100 % of tumor detection rate and 40% (4/10) and 60 % (6/10) of coincidence results with TN stage. Even though PET didn't have a better coincidence with pathologic N stage than that of CT, it is useful method to discriminate metastatic lesion.

  18. Preliminary PET/CT Study of 18F-FDG Uptake in Cervical and Supraclavicular Brown Adipose Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Fang; Wei Ding; Yanli Wang; Xinjian Cui; Lei Zeng; Lili Ma; Xiumei Zhao; Wei Zhao; Qing Wang; Shan Gao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical use of PET/CT in oncology has led to the realization that 18F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT)can be a common cause of potentially misleading false-positive PET scans.The goal of this study was to study 18F-FDG uptake in cervical and supraclavicular regions and its characteristics with PET/CT.METHODS All the PET/CT scans obtained at our institution from July 2007 to January 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for increased 18F-FDG uptake in BAT.The cases in which increased 18F-FDG in cervical and supraclavicular regions was not localized to a soft-tissue mass or lymph node or muscle on the CT images,were included in this study.The following features were recorded:body weight,body mass index (BMI) and maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax).In these selected patients,the BAT uptake in other area of the body was also recorded.RESULTS PET/CT scans were obtained in 457 patients (259 males and 198 females).In all of the scans,cervical and supraclavicular BAT uptake was observed in 12 patients (2 males and 10 females) and was typically bilateral,symmetric and intense.The range of the SUVmax was 3.6~12.82 (mean 6.9 ± 2.6).BAT uptake was more common in females than in males,showing a significant difference (P = 0.004).Although 18F-FDG uptake in BAT occurred more often in underweight patients with low BMI,there was no difference in the body weight (P = 0.607) or BMI (P =0.491) of these patients with hypermetabolic BAT compared with controls.CONCLUSION Hypermetabolic BAT uptake can be localized in cervical and supraclavicular regions with it occurring more commonly in females compared to males.Knowledge of this potential pitfall with PET/CT is important in improving diagnostic interpretation and accurate staging.

  19. Predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in restaging patients affected by ovarian carcinoma: a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common malignancy among women and has a high mortality rate. Prognostic factors able to drive an effective therapy are essential. 18F-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been investigated in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and showed promise in diagnosing, staging, detecting recurrent lesions and monitoring treatment response. Conversely, its prognostic role remains unclear. We aimed at assessing the prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT performed in the restaging process in a multicentre study. We evaluated 168 patients affected by ovarian carcinoma, who underwent a restaging 18F-FDG PET/CT. The presence of local recurrences, lymph node involvement and distant metastasis was recorded as well as lesion dimensions, maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 and 4 years were computed by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased odds ratio was assessed using Cox regression analysis testing all lesion parameters measured by PET/CT. PFS was significantly longer in patients with a negative than a positive restaging PET/CT study (3- and 4-year PFS 64 and 53 % vs 23 and 12 %, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, a negative study was associated with a significantly higher OS rate after 4 years of follow-up (67 vs 25 % in negative and positive groups, respectively; p < 0.001). Lymph node or distant involvement were also independently associated with an increased risk of disease progression [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6 and 2.2, respectively; p = 0.003]. Moreover, PET/CT showed an incremental prognostic value compared to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. In the analysis of patient subsets, individuals with the same FIGO stage I-II but with negative PET had a significantly better 4-year OS than patients with low FIGO stage but positive PET. This

  20. Study of the demand for radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and worldwide has developed distinction with diagnosis techniques that allow metabolic research of the disease, changing in a significant fashion the patient's outcome. This innovative technology leads expectations from specific fields up to society itself. This research studied the use of 18F-FDG radiopharmaceutical in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas, as well as the recent trade structure and the difficulties that should be overcome with the increase of the 18F-FDG demand. This research counted on the analysis of the international radiopharmaceutical trade and the main changes that have been happening in this area in Brazil during the past few years. Interviews were performed with professionals within the area of nuclear medicine and data has been collected through questionnaire sent to the consuming centers of the radiopharmaceutical in the region covered in this research. The interviews expressed the opinions of the interviewees concerning transformations in this field and future tendencies and the information obtained from the survey was the basis of complementation of the use of radiopharmaceutical on equipment such as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Emission Tomography I Computer Tomography (PET/CT). The major use of 18F-FDG has been used for oncology diagnosis with equipment such as PET and PEC/CT. This use shall grow in the next years, maybe expanding to other specialties such as neurology and cardiology. Although nowadays restricted to the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, there is a possibility of expansion to other diagnosis modalities in other states of the country that are starting to structure the production of the radioisotope. The recent change in the constitution permitting the production and commerce of short half-life radioisotopes also contributes to the increase the interest of private funding of this sector in which

  1. Early evaluation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and clinical assessment in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients before and after ventricular shunt placement: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Lavalle, Mariadea; Leccisotti, Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mangiola, Annunziato; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Physics, Rome (Italy); Marra, Camillo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurology, Rome (Italy); Pelliccioni, Armando [Istituto Nazionale per l' Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL), Rome (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    We evaluated the relationships between the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) measured by dynamic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and the clinical and neuropsychological assessment before and after the surgical procedure in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Eleven selected INPH patients underwent clinical assessment (modified Rankin scale, Krauss scale, Larsson categorization system and Stein-Langfitt scale), cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE) and dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan 3 days before and 1 week after ventricular shunt placement. After shunting, the global CMRglu significantly increased (2.95 {+-} 0.44 vs 4.38 {+-} 0.68, p = 10{sup -7}) in all INPH patients with a mean percentage value of 48.7%. After shunting, no significant change was found in the Evans ratio whereas a significant decrease in all clinical scale scores was observed. Only a slight reduction in the MMSE was found. After shunting, a significant correlation between the global CMRglu value and clinical assessment was found (R {sup 2} = 0.75, p = 0.024); indeed all clinical scale scores varied (decreasing) and the CMRglu value also varied (increasing) in all INPH patients. Our preliminary data show that changes in the CMRglu are promptly reversible after surgery and that there is a relationship between the early metabolic changes and clinical symptoms, independently from the simultaneous changes in the ventricular size. The remarkable and prompt improvement in the global CMRglu and in symptoms may also have important implications for the current concept of ''neuronal plasticity'' and for the cells' reactivity in order to recover their metabolic function. (orig.)

  2. (18)F-FDG PET imaging of murine atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2012-01-01

    To study whether (18)F-FDG can be used for in vivo imaging of atherogenesis by examining the correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and gene expression of key molecular markers of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice.......To study whether (18)F-FDG can be used for in vivo imaging of atherogenesis by examining the correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and gene expression of key molecular markers of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice....

  3. A study of the treatment method of cerebral artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the best treatment method of cerebral artery dissection. Methods: This study included eight patients who were definitely diagnosed as cerebral artery dissection by the cerebral angiography in our department of neurology during Oct. 2009 and Nov. 2011. They were all treated by the anticoagulation or anti-platelet methods. Some patients received the stent therapy. All patients' were followed for at least three months. The treatment effect was assessed by NIHSS, mRS and by the cerebral angiography. Results: Six patients had carotid artery dissection, 2 had vertebral artery dissection. Four patients were given anticoagulant therapy and the other 4 were given anti-platelet therapy. The reexamination by angiography 10-14 days after admission showed that in 3 patients, the stenosis was aggravated or the infarction occurred. They were diagnosed as having repeated transient ischemic attack (TIA) during pharmacotherapy and received stents for treatment. There was no TIA and cerebral infarction in the follow-up period after individualized therapy. Mean NIHSS scores of 8 patients between pre and post treatment were 5.9, 1.6 respectively. Mean mRS scores pre and post treatment were 2.5, 0.9 respectively. Conclusion: The treatment for patients with cerebral artery dissection should be individuated. The patients in acute stage should get anticoagulation, anti-platelet therapy and angiography re-examination. According to the clinical manifestation and cerebral angiography, the next step for the treatment should be done. (authors)

  4. Stability study of 2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose ({sup 18}FDG) stored at room temperature by physicochemical and microbiological assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Waquil, Samira S.; Correia, Ricardo F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos], e-mail: radiofarmacoscdtn@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The most widely used radiopharmaceutical in the expanding medical imaging technology of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG). The increasing demand for {sup 18}FDG requires reliable production in large amounts. The synthesis of {sup 18}FDG is based on a nucleophilic substitution of the triflate-leaving group from the precursor, mannose triflate, in the presence of Crypt and 2.2.2, as a phase-transfer agent. After labeling, the removal of the acetyl protecting groups from resulting 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1,3,4,6-tetra-Oacetyl- D-glucose is performed by alkaline hydrolysis, followed by purification and final filtration (0.22 {mu}m). It was reported that {sup 18}FDG decomposes in vitro, resulting in the degradation of the radiochemical purity with time. The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological stability of {sup 18}FDG, stored at room temperature (15-30 deg C), at different time intervals. It was investigated how the quality of this radiopharmaceutical varies with time under the influence of environmental factors. {sup 18}FDG pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, radiochemical identity and purity, chemical purity, residual solvents, bacterial endotoxins and sterility were evaluated according to the United States Pharmacopeia 31{sup th} edition analytical methods and acceptance criteria. The results suggest that {sup 18}FDG has physicochemical and microbiological stability up to 10 hours after the end of synthesis, under experimental conditions. (author)

  5. The implications of 18F-FDG PET for the diagnosis of endoprosthetic loosening and infection in hip and knee arthroplasty: Results from a prospective, blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlein M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequent complications of joint arthroplasty are septic or aseptic loosening of endoprostheses. Preoperative differentiation is essential, since very different treatment methods result from the diagnoses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical value of 18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET as a diagnostic modality for inflammation and loosening in hip and knee joint prostheses. Methods 18F-FDG-PET examinations and multiphase bone scan were performed on hip and knee endoprostheses in 27 patients prior to revision surgical procedures planned for prosthetic loosening. Intact prostheses were found at the opposite site in some patients so that additional 9 joints could be examined with the field of view of 18F-FDG PET. Verification and valuation of the PET and scintigraphic image findings were conducted by comparing them with information combined from intraoperative findings, histopathology, and microbiological investigations. Results Evidence of loosening was correctly determined in 76.4% of cases using 18F-FDG-PET, and in 75% of cases using bone scan. The detection of periprosthetic inflammation using 18F-FDG-PET had a sensitivity of 100% for septic cases and of 45.5% in cases of increased abrasion and aseptic foreign-body reactions. However, reliable differentiation between abrasion-induced and bacterial-caused inflammation was not possible using 18F-FDG-PET. Conclusion 18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET allows reliable prediction of peri-prosthetic septical inflammatory tissue reactions. Because of the high sensitivity of this method, a negative PET result in the setting of a diagnostically unclear situation eliminates the need for revision surgery. In contrast, a positive PET result gives no clear differentiation regarding the cause of inflammation.

  6. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71{+-}5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects.

  7. Computerized tomographic studies in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 200 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were analysed from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations, disease complications and etiological factors. CT scans of 135 cases (67.5%) were found to be abnormal and there were 14 (7%) borderline cases. The major abnormality found on CT scans was cerebral atrophy. Other important changes included focal or diffuse low density area in the brain tissue, congenital malformation, and cerebellar atrophy. From the clinical point of view, a large number of patients with spastic tetraplegia and spastic diplegia showed highly abnormal CT scans. On the other hand, in patients with spastic monoplegia, spastic paraplegia, and athetotic type, CT findings were normal or revealed only minor cerebral atrophy. Most children showing asymmetric clinical symptoms had corresponding asymmetric CT abnormalities which included ventricular enlargement, low density area in the brain tissue, and hemispherical volume. There was a significant correlation between the severity of physical impairment and the extent of CT abnormalities. Severely affected children had grossly abnormal CT scans such as hydranencephaly, polycystic change, and extensive cerebral atrophy. In the patients complicated with epilepsy, the incidence and severity of abnormal CT were higher than those of non-epileptic patients. Mentally retarded patients had variable enlargement of the subarachnoidal space depending on the severity of their mental retardation. Patients with suspected postnatal etiology also had high incidence of severe CT abnormality. CT scan is a valuable tool for evaluating patients with CP and in some cases, possible etiology of the disease may be discovered. (author)

  8. Stereotactic Comparison Study of 18F-Alfatide and 18F-FDG PET Imaging in an LLC Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chun; Gao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jianbo; Fu, Zheng; Zheng, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xudong; Hou, Wenhong; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to stereotactically compare the PET imaging performance of 18F-Alfatide (18F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as 18F-Alfatide) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mouse model. 18F-FDG standard uptake values (SUVs) were higher than 18F-Alfatide SUVs in tumors, most of the normal tissues and organs except for the bladder. Tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-lung, and tumor-to-heart ratios of 18F-Alfatide PET were significantly higher than those of 18F-FDG PET (P SUV and GLUT-1 (R = 0.895, P SUV and αvβ3 (R = 0.595, P = 0.019), 18F-FDG SUV and 18F-Alfatide SUV (R = 0.917, P < 0.001), and GLUT-1 and αvβ3 (R = 0.637, P = 0.011). Therefore, 18F-Alfatide PET may be an effective tracer for tumor detection, spatial heterogeneity imaging and an alternative supplement to 18F-FDG PET, particularly for patients with enhanced characteristics in the brain, chest tumors or diabetes, meriting further study. PMID:27350554

  9. Stereotactic Comparison Study of (18)F-Alfatide and (18)F-FDG PET Imaging in an LLC Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chun; Gao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jianbo; Fu, Zheng; Zheng, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xudong; Hou, Wenhong; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to stereotactically compare the PET imaging performance of (18)F-Alfatide ((18)F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as (18)F-Alfatide) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mouse model. (18)F-FDG standard uptake values (SUVs) were higher than (18)F-Alfatide SUVs in tumors, most of the normal tissues and organs except for the bladder. Tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-lung, and tumor-to-heart ratios of (18)F-Alfatide PET were significantly higher than those of (18)F-FDG PET (P SUV and GLUT-1 (R = 0.895, P SUV and αvβ3 (R = 0.595, P = 0.019), (18)F-FDG SUV and (18)F-Alfatide SUV (R = 0.917, P < 0.001), and GLUT-1 and αvβ3 (R = 0.637, P = 0.011). Therefore, (18)F-Alfatide PET may be an effective tracer for tumor detection, spatial heterogeneity imaging and an alternative supplement to (18)F-FDG PET, particularly for patients with enhanced characteristics in the brain, chest tumors or diabetes, meriting further study. PMID:27350554

  10. Clinical value of FDG-PET for therapy monitoring of malignant lymphoma - results of a retrospective study in 72 patients; Klinische Wertigkeit der FDG-PET zur Therapiekontrolle bei malignen Lymphomen - Ergebnisse einer retrospektiven Studie an 72 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U.; Kroell, U.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Fabry, U.; Osieka, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 4; Neuerburg, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1999-06-01

    Aim of the present retrospective study was to validate the clinical value of FDG-PET for therapy control of malignant lymphoma. Method: 72 patients (41 non-Hodgkin lumphomas, 29 Hodgkin`s disease, 2 unclassified) received static FDG-PET scans of initially involved regions (n=53) or of the entire neck and trunk (n=19) after therapy. CT imaging (n=70) and serum LDH measurement (n=64) were also performed. Results were validated either by biopsy (n=7) or by clinical follow-up (n=65). The predictive value of PET was analysed in relation to different prognostic factors (stage, recurrence status, number of prior therapy regimen). Results: PET obtained a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 83% and an overall accuracy of 85% for detection of residual disease. The values for CT were 84%, 31% resp. 54%, and for serum LDH 50%, 92% and 73%. The predictive value of PET was related to the prevalence of residual disease. PET predicted complete remission in more than 90% of patients with moderate risk (stage I-III, no relapse, no more than two different therapy regimens). In high risk patients, however, the negative predictive value of PET was 50-67%. Conclusion: FDG-PET is more accurate than CT imaging and LDH measurement for therapy monitoring of malignant lymphoma. Therapy success can be reliably predicted in patients with moderate risk. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Retrospektive Validierung der klinischen Wertigkeit von FDG-PET zur Therapiekontrolle bei Patienten mit malignen Lymphomen. Methode: 72 Patienten erhielten nach Therapie eines malignen Lymphoms (41 Non-Hodgkin-Lymphome, 29 Morbus Hodgkin, 2 unklassifiziert) eine statische FDG-PET im Bereich initial befallener Regionen (n=53) oder von Hals und Koerperstamm (n=19), sowie CT (n=70) und LDH-Bestimmung im Serum (n=64). Die Resultate wurden durch Biopsien (n=7) oder durch den klinischen Verlauf (n=65) validiert. Die praediktive Wertigkeit der PET wurde in Abhaengigkeit von verschiedenen Risikofaktoren (Stadium, Rezidivstatus

  11. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  12. Measurement of regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the human subject with (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose and emission computed tomography: validation of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer techniques and models of in vitro quantitative autoradiography and tissue counting for the measure of regional metabolic rates (rMR) are combined with emission computed tomography (ECT). This approach, Physiologic Tomography (PT), provides atraumatic and analytical measurements of rMR. PT is exemplified with the regional measurement of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu) in man with (18F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron ECT. Our model incorporates a k4* mediated hydrolysis of FDG-6-PO4 to FDG which then competes with phosphorylation (k3*) of FDG back to FDG-6-PO4 and reverse transport (k2*) back to blood. Although small, k4* is found to be significant. The ECAT positron tomograph was used to measure the rate constants (k1*→k4*), lumped constant (LC), stability, and reproducibility of the model in man. Since these parameters have not been measured for FDG in any species, comparisons are made to values for DG in rat and monkey. Compartmental concentrations of FDG and FDG-6-PO4 were determined and show that cerebral FDG-6-PO4 steadily accumulates for about 100 mins, plateaus and then slowly decreases due to hydrolysis. Cerebral blood FDG concentration was determined to be a minor contribution to tissue activity after 10 min. Regional CMRGlu measurements are reproducible to +- 5.5% over 5 hrs. PT allows the in vivo study ofregional biochemistry and physiology in normal and pathophysiologic states in man with a unique and fundamental capability

  13. Assessment of response to endocrine therapy using FDG PET/CT in metastatic breast cancer: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi-Jehanno, Nina; Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Champion, Laurence; Edeline, Veronique; Madar, Olivier; Pecking, Alain Paul [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); Stanc, Elise Le [Hopital Foch, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Suresnes (France); Bellet, Dominique [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique and Imagerie, Inserm U1022 CNRS UMR 8151, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Paris (France); Alberini, Jean-Louis [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Versailles Saint-Quentin, Faculte de Medecine, Versailles (France)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether outcome in metastatic or recurrent breast cancer patients is related to metabolic response to endocrine therapy determined by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The study group comprised 22 patients with breast cancer (age 58 {+-} 11 years, mean {+-} SD) who were scheduled to receive endocrine therapy. They were systematically assessed by PET/CT at baseline and after a mean of 10 {+-} 4 weeks for evaluation of response after induction. All patients demonstrated FDG-avid lesions on the baseline PET/CT scan. The metabolic response was assessed according to EORTC criteria and based on the mean difference in SUV{sub max} between the two PET/CT scans, and the patients were classified into four groups: complete or partial metabolic response, or stable or progressive metabolic disease (CMR, PMR, SMD and PMD, respectively). All patients were followed in our institution. Metastatic sites were localized in bone (n = 15), lymph nodes (n = 11), chest wall (n = 3), breast (n = 5), lung (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 1) and liver (n = 1). PMR was observed in 11 patients (50%), SMD in 5 (23%) and PMD in 6 (27%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 20, 27 and 6 months in the PMR, SMD and PMD groups, respectively. PFS in the SMD group differed from that in the PMR and SMD groups (p < 0.0001). Metabolic response assessed by FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy is predictive of the patients' PFS. (orig.)

  14. ¹⁸F-FDG PET metabolic parameters and MRI perfusion and diffusion parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Glucose metabolism, perfusion, and water diffusion may have a relationship or affect each other in the same tumor. The understanding of their relationship could expand the knowledge of tumor characteristics and contribute to the field of oncologic imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between metabolism, vasculature and cellularity of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, using multimodality imaging such as ¹⁸F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI, and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with advanced HCC underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET, DCE-MRI, and DWI before treatment. Maximum standard uptake values (SUV(max from ¹⁸F-FDG-PET, variables of the volume transfer constant (K(trans from DCE-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC from DWI were obtained for the tumor and their relationships were examined by Spearman's correlation analysis. The influence of portal vein thrombosis on SUV(max and variables of K(trans and ADC was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: SUV(max showed significant negative correlation with K(trans(max (ρ = -0.622, p = 0.002. However, variables of ADC showed no relationship with variables of K(trans or SUV(max (p>0.05. Whether portal vein thrombosis was present or not did not influence the SUV max and variables of ADC and K(trans (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: In this study, SUV was shown to be correlated with K(trans in advanced HCCs; the higher the glucose metabolism a tumor had, the lower the perfusion it had, which might help in guiding target therapy.

  15. Brain hypermetabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a FDG PET study in ALS of spinal and bulbar onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cistaro, Angelina; Fania, Piercarlo [Positron Emission Tomography Center IRMET S.p.A, Turin (Italy); Consuelo Valentini, Maria; Carrara, Giovanna [CTO Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Turin (Italy); Chio, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Montuschi, Anna [University of Turin, Department of Neuroscience, ALS Center, Turin (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Department of Neurosciences, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Department of Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Padua (Italy); Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    To identify the neurobiological traits of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to elucidate functional differences between ALS of spinal and bulbar onset. We hypothesized that glucose metabolism distribution might vary between groups. The study groups comprised 32 patients with ALS of either bulbar (n = 13) or spinal (n=19) onset and 22 subjects as controls. They were investigated by [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (FDG PET), comparing the patient groups with each other and with the controls by statistical parametric mapping. Highly significant relative increases in glucose metabolism distribution were found in the group comprising all 32 ALS patients as compared with the controls in the bilateral amygdalae, midbrain, pons and cerebellum. Relative hypermetabolism was also found in patients with spinal onset as compared with the controls in the right midbrain. In patients with bulbar onset compared with the controls and with patients with spinal onset, large relatively hypometabolic areas were found in the bilateral frontal cortex, right insula, anterior cingulate, precuneus and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with spinal onset had significantly higher scores in a neuropsychological test assessing verbal fluency compared with patients with bulbar onset. This large FDG PET investigation provided unprecedented evidence of relatively increased metabolism in the amygdalae, midbrain and pons in ALS patients as compared with control subjects, possibly due to local activation of astrocytes and microglia. Highly significant relative decreases in metabolism were found in large frontal and parietal regions in the bulbar onset patients as compared with the spinal onset patients and the controls, suggesting a differential metabolic and neuropsychological state between the two conditions. (orig.)

  16. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in inflammation of unknown origin: a cost-effectiveness pilot-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balink, H. [Medical Center Leeuwarden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Tan, S.S. [Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Veeger, N.J.G.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holleman, F. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van; Bennink, R.J.; Verberne, H.J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Patients with increased inflammatory parameters, nonspecific signs and symptoms without fever and without a diagnosis after a variety of diagnostic procedures are a diagnostic dilemma and are referred to as having inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). The objective of this pilot study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of a diagnostic work-up/strategy with and without {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with IUO using a published dataset as a reference. IUO patients without {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (group A, 46 patients) and IUO patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (group B, 46 patients) were selected. IUO was defined as the combination of nonspecific signs and symptoms and a prolonged erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), defined as ≥age/2 in men and ≥(age + 10)/2 in women (ESR in millimetres per hour and age in years), and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥15 mg/l. The costs of all tests and procedures and the number of hospitalization days in each patient to reach a diagnosis were calculated using current Dutch tariffs. In group A a diagnosis was reached in 14 of the 46 patients. The mean cost per patient of all the diagnostic procedures was EUR2,051, and including the cost of hospitalization was EUR12,614. In group B a diagnosis was reached in 32 of the 46 patients. The mean cost per patient of all the diagnostic procedures was EUR1,821, significantly lower than in group A (p < 0.0002), and including the cost of hospitalization was EUR5,298. In IUO {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has the potential to become a cost-effective routine imaging technique indicating the direction for further diagnostic decisions thereby allowing unnecessary, invasive and expensive diagnostic investigations to be avoided and possibly the duration of hospitalization to be reduced. However, a prospective multicentre ''bottom-up microcosting'' cost-effectiveness study is warranted before these preliminary data can be extrapolated to clinical practice. (orig.)

  17. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  18. Comparison of Parameter Estimations Using Dual-Input and Arterial-Input in Liver Kinetic Studies of FDG Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Bai, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Liver kinetic study of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) metabolism in human body is an important tool for functional modeling and glucose metabolic rate estimation. In general, the arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) and the tissue TAC are required as the input and output functions for the kinetic model. For liver study, however, the arterial-input may be not consistent with the actual model input because the liver has a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery (HA) and the portal vein (PV) to the liver. In this study, the result of model parameter estimation using dual-input function is compared with that using arterial-input function. First, a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experiment is performed after injection of FDG into the human body. The TACs of aortic blood, PV blood, and five regions of interest (ROIs) in liver are obtained from the PET image. Then, the dual-input curve is generated by calculating weighted sum of both the arterial and PV input curves. Finally, the five liver ROIs' kinetic parameters are estimated with arterial-input and dual-input functions respectively. The results indicate that the two methods provide different parameter estimations and the dual-input function may lead to more accurate parameter estimation.

  19. Utility of quantitative FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma: a histopathological correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of visual and quantitative 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma, using direct histopathological examination at the right posterior iliac crest as reference standard. This retrospective study included 22 patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma who had undergone FDG-PET/CT before BMB of the right posterior iliac crest. FDG-PET/CT images were visually evaluated for bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest. Volumes of interest were placed in the right posterior iliac crest to calculate the 3D partial volume corrected mean standardized uptake value (cSUVmean), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak). Sensitivity and specificity of visual FDG-PET/CT analysis for the detection of bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest were 0.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0-32.4 %) and 100 % (95 % CI: 78.5-100 %), respectively. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of cSUVmean, SUVmax and SUVpeak for the detection of bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest were 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.63-0.96), 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.98) and 0.87 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. Optimal cutoff values for cSUVmean, SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.3, 2.1 and 1.7, and yielded sensitivity and specificity combinations of 75.0 % and 85.7 %, 87.5 % and 85.7 % and 87.5 % and 85.7 %, respectively. This histopathological correlation study shows that, unlike visual interpretation of FDG-PET/CT images, quantitative FDG-PET/CT analysis may be beneficial in diagnosing bone marrow involvement by follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  20. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage;

    2011-01-01

    and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.......0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...

  1. Cortical activity during olfactory stimulation in multiple chemical sensitivity: a {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Pietro, Barbara [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine Karolinska Hospital Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden); Micarelli, Alessandro; Alessandrini, Marco [University Tor Vergata, Department of Medical Science and Translational Medicine, Rome (Italy); Genovesi, Giuseppe [University La Sapienza, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); University La Sapienza, Regional Center for Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of MCS, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the differences in brain glucose consumption during olfactory stimulation between subjects affected by multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and a group of healthy individuals. Two {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 26 subjects (6 men and 20 women; mean age 46.7 ± 11 years) with a clinical diagnosis of MCS and in 11 healthy controls (6 women and 5 men; mean age 45.7 ± 11 years), the first scan after a neutral olfactory stimulation (NS) and the second after a pure olfactory stimulation (OS). Differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were analysed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). In controls OS led to an increase in glucose consumption in BA 18 and 19 and a reduction in glucose metabolism in BA 10, 11, 32 and 47. In MCS subjects, OS led to an increase in glucose consumption in BA 20, 23, 18 and 37 and a reduction in glucose metabolism in BA 8, 9 and 10. The results of our study suggest that cortical activity in subjects with MCS differs from that in healthy individuals during olfactory stimulation. (orig.)

  2. Metabolic impact of partial volume correction of [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies on the assessment of tumor response to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the metabolic impact of Partial Volume Correction (PVC) on the measurement of the Standard Uptake Value (SUV) from [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies for treatment monitoring purpose. Twenty-nine breast cancer patients with bone lesions (42 lesions in total) underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT studies after surgical resection of breast cancer primitives, and before (PET-I) and after (PET-II) chemotherapy and hormone treatment. PVC of bone lesion uptake was performed on the two [18F]FDG PET-CT studies, using a method based on Recovery Coefficients (RC) and on an automatic measurement of lesion metabolic volume. Body-weight average SUV was calculated for each lesion, with and without PVC. The accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility and the metabolic impact on treatment response of the considered PVC method was evaluated. The PVC method was found clinically feasible in bone lesions, with an accuracy of 93% for lesion sphere-equivalent diameter >1 cm. Applying PVC, average SUV values increased, from 7% up to 154% considering both PET-I and PET-II studies, proving the need of the correction. As main finding, PVC modified the therapy response classification in 6 cases according to EORTC 1999 classification and in 5 cases according to PERCIST 1.0 classification. In conclusion, PVC has an important metabolic impact on the assessment of tumor response to treatment by [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies

  3. Study on cerebral microcirculation by Optical Doppler Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jie; DING ZhiHua; YANG Yong; GUO ZhouYi

    2008-01-01

    Optical Doppler Tomography (ODT) provides a novel method to measure the blood flow velocity in vessels with the diameter at micrometer scale.Rats with cranial window are used as a model,and the changes in the blood flow velocity of cerebral arterioles in sensory cortex are measured in real time with an established ODT system,under electrical stimulation and drug administration.The results show significant differences in the blood flow velocity between experimental groups and control groups,demonstrating the feasibility of ODT in the cerebral microcircula-tion study.Compared with the conventional Doppler ultrasound,ODT provides much higher spatial resolution,and thus holds a promising future in the application of the cerebral microcirculation study,especially in the observation of the blood flow velocity in micrometer scale vessels.

  4. Study on cerebral microcirculation by Optical Doppler Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical Doppler Tomography (ODT) provides a novel method to measure the blood flow velocity in vessels with the diameter at micrometer scale. Rats with cranial window are used as a model, and the changes in the blood flow velocity of cerebral arterioles in sensory cortex are measured in real time with an established ODT system, under electrical stimulation and drug administration. The results show significant differences in the blood flow velocity between experimental groups and control groups, demonstrating the feasibility of ODT in the cerebral microcircula- tion study. Compared with the conventional Doppler ultrasound, ODT provides much higher spatial resolution, and thus holds a promising future in the application of the cerebral microcirculation study, especially in the observation of the blood flow velocity in micrometer scale vessels.

  5. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  6. Brown Adipose Tissue Can Be Activated or Inhibited within an Hour before 18F-FDG Injection: A Preliminary Study with MicroPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is emerging as a potential target for treating human obesity. It has been indicated that BAT is rich in innervations of sympathetic nerve control. Using 18F-FDG microPET imaging, this study aims at evaluating how factors related to sympathetic activation/inhibition changed BAT metabolism of mice. BAT 18F-FDG uptake were semiquantitatively evaluated in different groups of mice under temperature (cold or warm stimulus or pharmacological interventions (norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoprenaline, or propranolol and were compared with the corresponding controls. It was found that BAT activation can be stimulated by cold exposure (P=1.96×10−4, norepinephrine (P=.002, or both (P=2.19×10−6 within an hour before 18F-FDG injection and can also be alleviated by warming up (P=.001 or propranolol lavage (P=.027. This preliminary study indicated that BAT function could be evaluated by 18F-FDG PET imaging through short-term interventions, which paved the way for further investigation of the relationship between human obesity and BAT dysfunction.

  7. Pretreatment 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity can predict survival in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma——a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intratumoural heterogeneity has been demonstrated to be a strong indicator of malignant transformation. Our study was to investigate pretreatment 18 F-FDG parameters, including 18 F-FDG based heterogeneity for predicting survival in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC patients who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively included. The following PET parameters were assessed: maximum and mean standardised uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and intratumoral heterogeneity index (HI). The previous parameters were recorded both for the primary tumor (-T) and neck lymph nodes (-N). The following endpoints were evaluated: local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test. Patients with a lower HI-T, SUVmax-T, SUVmean-T and TLG-T had significantly better 2-year LC. In predicting PFS, we found that both lower HI-T and HI-N had significantly better prognosis. However, the OS was only statistically associated with HI-T. 18 F-FDG based heterogeneity appears to be an potential predicator of patient survival after treatment

  8. A study on the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria and cerebral babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Aikawa

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral complications are important, but poorly understood pathological features of infections caused by some species of Plasmodium and Babesia. Patients dying from P. falciparum were classified as cerebral or non-cerebral cases according to the cerebral malaria coma scale. Light microscopy revealed that cerebral microvessels of cerebral malaria patients were field with a mixture of parazited and unparazited erythrocytes, with 94% of the vessels showing parasitized red blood cell (PRBC sequestration. Some degree of PRBC sequestration was also found in non-cerebral malaria patients, but the percentage of microvessls with sequestered PRBC was only 13% Electron microscopy demonstrated knobs on the membrane of PRBC that formed focal junctions with the capillary endothelium. A number of host cell molecules such as CD36, thrombospondim (TSP and intracellular adhesion molecule I (ICAM-1 may function as endothelial cell surfacereports for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Affinity labeling of CD36 and TSP to the PRBC surface showed these molecules specifically bind to the knobs. Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes procedure projections of the erythrocyte membrane that are similar to knobs. When brain tissue from B. bovis-infected cattle was examined, cerebral capillaries were packed with PRBC. Infected erythrocytes formed focal attachments with cerebral endothelial cells at the site of these knob-like projections. These findings indicate that cerebral pathology caused by B. bovis is similar to human cerebral malaria. A search for cytoadherence proteins in the endothelial cells may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenisis of cerebral babesiosis.

  9. Brain glucose metabolism in the early and specific diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. FDG-PET studies in MCI and AD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, Lisa [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Nuclear Medicine Unit (Italy); University School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, MHL400, Department of Psychiatry New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The demographics of aging suggest a great need for the early diagnosis of dementia and the development of preventive strategies. Neuropathology and structural MRI studies have pointed to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) as the brain region earliest affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). MRI findings provide strong evidence that in mild cognitive impairments (MCI), AD-related volume losses can be reproducibly detected in the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex (EC) and, to a lesser extent, the parahippocampal gyrus; they also indicate that lateral temporal lobe changes are becoming increasingly useful in predicting the transition to dementia. Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has revealed glucose metabolic reductions in the parieto-temporal, frontal and posterior cingulate cortices to be the hallmark of AD. Overall, the pattern of cortical metabolic changes has been useful for the prediction of future AD as well as in distinguishing AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. FDG-PET on average achieves 90% sensitivity in identifying AD, although specificity in differentiating AD from other dementias is lower. Moreover, recent MRI-guided FDG-PET studies have shown that MTL hypometabolism is the most specific and sensitive measure for the identification of MCI, while the utility of cortical deficits is controversial. This review highlights cross-sectional, prediction and longitudinal FDG-PET studies and attempts to put into perspective the value of FDG-PET in diagnosing AD-like changes, particularly at an early stage, and in providing diagnostic specificity. The examination of MTL structures, which has so far been exclusive to MRI protocols, is then examined as a possible strategy to improve diagnostic specificity. All told, there is considerable promise that early and specific diagnosis is feasible through a combination of imaging modalities. (orig.)

  10. Brain reserve capacity in frontotemporal dementia: a voxel-based 18F-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilisation (rCMRglc) and years of schooling has been extensively studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results suggest that brain reserve capacity (BRC) allows patients with more years of schooling to cope better with AD pathology. The objective of this study was to provide initial evidence for BRC in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Twenty-nine patients with FTD and 16 healthy age- and education-matched controls underwent PET imaging of the brain with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose. A group comparison of rCMRglc was conducted between patients and controls and the output was saved as region of interest (ROI). A linear regression analysis with education as the independent and rCMRglc as the dependent variable, adjusted for age, gender and total score on the CERAD neuropsychological battery, was conducted in SPM2 over the pre-assigned ROI. Patients showed a reduced rCMRglc in almost the entire prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex as compared with controls (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). The regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between years of schooling and rCMRglc in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (p < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), which was independent of demographic variables and cognitive performance level. There was a strong negative correlation of rCMRglc and education (r = -0.45). The study provides initial evidence for BRC in FTD. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in educational level affect BRC by partially mediating the relationship between neurodegeneration and the clinical manifestation of FTD. (orig.)

  11. FDG and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the imaging of prosthetic joint infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Sabire Yilmaz; Asa, Sertac; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, M.S.; Halac, Metin; Kabasakal, Levent; Soenmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii [University of Istanbul, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Aksaray, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [University of Istanbul, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul (Turkey); Erkan, Melih Engin [Duzce University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Duzce (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    The demand for arthroplasty is rapidly growing as a result of the ageing of the population. Although complications such as heterotrophic ossification, fracture and dislocation are relatively rare, differentiating aseptic loosening, the most common complication of arthroplasty from infection, is a major challenge for clinicians. Radionuclide imaging is currently the imaging modality of choice since it is not affected by orthopaedic hardware. Whereas FDG PET/CT imaging has been widely used in periprosthetic infection, it cannot discriminate aseptic from septic inflammation. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of FDG PET/CT and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. Of 54 patients with painful joint arthroplasty who were imaged by FDG PET/CT for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection examined, 46 (36 women, 10 men; mean age 61.04 ± 12.2 years, range 32 - 89 years) with 54 painful joint prostheses (19 hip, 35 knee) with grade 2 (above liver uptake) FDG accumulation on FDG PET/CT were included in the study and these 46 patients also underwent FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT. Final diagnoses were made by histopathological-microbiological culture or clinical follow-up. The final diagnosis showed infection in 15 (28 %) and aseptic loosening in 39 (72 %) of the 54 prostheses. FDG PET/CT was found to have a positive predictive value of 28 % (15/54). Since patients with no FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT were excluded from the study, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy could not be calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT were 93.3 % (14/15), 97.4 % (38/39), 93.3 % and 97.4 %, respectively. Since FDG is not specific to infection, the specificity of FDG PET/CT was very low. FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT with its high specificity may be a useful method and better than labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in periprosthetic infection

  12. Virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy for assessment of the upper airways of head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian; Heusner, Till A. [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Treffert, Jon [Siemens Health Care, Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lehnerdt, Goetz; Mattheis, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Essen (Germany); Geiger, Bernhard [Siemens Corporate Research Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Bockisch, Andreas [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT panendoscopy is feasible and can be used for noninvasive imaging of the upper airways and pharyngeal/laryngeal tumours. From {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT data sets of 40 patients (29 men, 11 women; age 61 {+-} 9 years) with pharyngeal or laryngeal malignancies virtual 3-D {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies were reconstructed and the image processing time was measured. The feasibility of assessing the oral cavity, nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, piriform sinus, postcricoid space, glottis, subglottis, trachea, bronchi and oesophagus and of detecting primary tumours was tested. Results of fibre-optic bronchoscopy and histology served as the reference standard. The nasopharynx, tongue base, soft palate, pharyngeal tonsils, epiglottis, subglottis and the tracheobronchial tree were accessible in all 40, and the aryepiglottic folds, posterior hypopharyngeal wall, postcricoid space, piriform sinus, glottis, oral cavity and oesophagus in 37, 37, 37, 37, 33, 16 and 0 patients, respectively. In all 12 patients with restricted fibre-optic evaluation due to being primarily intubated, the subglottis was accessible via virtual panendoscopy. The primary tumour was depicted in 36 of 40 patients (90 %). The mean processing time for virtual {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopies was 145 {+-} 98 s. Virtual {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT panendoscopy of the upper airways is technically feasible and can detect pharyngeal and laryngeal malignancies. This new tool can aid in the complete evaluation of the subglottic space in intubated patients and may be used for planning optical panendoscopies, biopsies and surgery in the future. (orig.)

  13. Direct relationship between cell density and FDG uptake in asymptomatic aortic aneurysm close to surgical threshold: an in vivo and in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia [CNR Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan, Genoa Section, Genoa (Italy); Oftalmologia e Genetica dell' Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Armonino, Riccardo; Riondato, Mattia; Massollo, Michela; Augeri, Carla; Fiz, Francesco; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, Department Internal Medicine, Chair of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Spinella, Giovanni; Pane, Bianca; Palmieri, Daniela; Palombo, Domenico [San Martino University Hospital, University of Genoa, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Genoa (Italy); Sarocchi, Francesca; Abete, Luca; Fulcheri, Ezio [University of Genoa, Department of Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences, Pathology, Genoa (Italy); Ghigliotti, Giorgio [University of Genoa, Department of Internal Medicine, Chair of Cardiology, Genoa (Italy); Cittadini, Giuseppe [Hospital San Martino, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Conflicting results have been reported about the clinical value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging in predicting the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The present study tests the hypothesis that FDG uptake is low in asymptomatic noninflammatory AAA due to the low cell density in aneurysmal walls. Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging was performed in 12 consecutive candidates for AAA surgical repair and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls. At intervention, aneurysmal walls were cut into three sequential blocks. Block A was frozen to cut three 5-{mu}m slices for incubation with 2-3 MBq of FDG for 5 min. Block C was first incubated with the same tracer solution for the same time and subsequently frozen to cut three 5-{mu}m slices. Autoradiographic images were coregistered with immunohistochemical pictures of cell density, type and DNA synthesis as assessed on block B. No visible uptake in abdominal aorta occurred in any patient or control subject. Immunohistochemistry documented a severe loss of wall structure, with low numbers of cells. Tracer retention directly correlated with overall cell density and with prevalence of cells synthesizing DNA. The metabolic nature of FDG uptake was confirmed by the selective effect of preliminary freezing that decreased tracer content by 90% in regions with high cell density and only by 34% in cold acellular areas. The loss of tissue structure and the marked decrease in cell density account for the low prevalence of positive findings at FDG PET imaging, at least in asymptomatic patients bearing AAAs whose diameter is close to surgical indication. (orig.)

  14. Secondary parkinsonism due to focal substantia nigra lesions. A PET study with [18F]FDG and [18F]fluorodopa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a 71 year old woman with predominantly right sided parkinsonim of sudden onset, but without tremor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted lesions affecting the substantia nigra (SN) bilaterally, but more pronounced on the left side. There were no other discernible structural lesions. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRG) using the tracer [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and striatal dopa decarboxylase capacity using the tracer [18F]-L-6-fluorodopa (FDOPA). The degree and pattern of distribution of FDOPA uptake reductions (putamen > caudate nuclei) were similar to those in idopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). FDG uptake also revealed similar changes (reductions in frontal cortex and cerebellum, but increases in thalamus), except for putamen which showed reduced rCMRG. In conclusion, the absence of tremor at rest accords with experimental SN lesions. The PET findings in this atypical condition are explained in terms of deafferentation of various brain regions involved in motor control. Furthermore, they illustrate the metabolic effects related to acute focal lesions of the SN as opposed to the progressive degeneration in idiopathic PD and may serve to help unravel the complicated pathophysiology underlying these conditions. (au) 39 refs

  15. Effects of acupuncture at HT7 on glucose metabolism in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease: an 18F-FDG-PET study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xinsheng; Ren, Jie; Lu, Yangjia; Cui, Shaoyang; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi; Shan, Baoci; Nie, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on different cerebral regions in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the application of 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods Sixty Wistar rats were included after undergoing a Y-maze electric sensitivity test. Ten rats were used as a healthy control group. The remaining 50 rats were injected stereotaxically with ibotenic acid into the right nucleus basalis magnocellularis and injected intraperitoneally with D-galactose. AD was successfully modelled in 36 rats, which were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 each): the AD group, which remained untreated; the AD+HT7 group, which received 20 sessions of acupuncture at HT7 over 1 month; and the AD+Sham group, which received acupuncture at a distant non-acupuncture point. Total reaction time (TRT) was measured by Y-maze and 18F-FDG-PET scans were conducted on day 1 and 30. PET images were processed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8.0. Results Pre-treatment, TRT was greater in all AD groups versus controls (mean±SD 24.10±2.48 vs 41.34±5.00 s). Post-treatment, TRT was shortened in AD+HT7 versus AD+Sham and AD groups (p<0.0001, two-way analysis of variance). Glucose metabolic activity in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe was decreased in AD rats compared with healthy controls and relatively elevated after HT7 acupuncture. Compared with sham acupuncture, HT7 needling had a greater positive influence on brain glucose metabolism. Conclusions Needling at HT7 can improve memory ability and cerebral glucose metabolic activity of the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and frontal/temporal lobes in an AD rat model. PMID:26654890

  16. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  17. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis; With special reference to the neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.).

  18. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  19. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  20. Different metabolic patterns analysis of Parkinsonism on the 18F-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are the most common movement disorders associated with neurodegenerative disease. A clinical differential diagnosis of IPD and atypical Parkinsonian disorders, such as MSA and PSP, is often complicated by the presence of symptoms common to both groups. Since Parkinsonism has a different pathophysiology in the cortical and subcortical brain structures, assessing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism may assist in making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. The 18F-FDG PET images of IPD, MSA and PSP were assessed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in order to determine the useful metabolic patterns. Twenty-four patients with Parkinsonism: eight patients (mean age 67.9±10.7 years; M/F: 3/5) with IPD, nine patients (57.9±9.2 years; M/F: 4/5) with MSA and seven patients (67.6±4.8 years; M/F: 3/4) with PSP were enrolled in this study. All patients with Parkinsonism and 22 age-matched normal controls underwent 18F-FDG PET, (after 370 MBq 18F-FDG). The three groups and the individual IPD, MSA and PSP patients were compared with a normal control group using a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected P100 voxel). The IPD, MSA and PSP groups showed significant hypometabolism in the cerebral neocortex compared to the normal control group. The MSA group showed significant hypometabolism in the putamen, pons and cerebellum compared to the normal controls and IPD groups. In addition, PSP showed significant hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, midbrain and the cingulate gyrus compared to the normal controls, the IPD and the MSA groups. In conclusion, an assessment of the 18F-FDG PET images using SPM may be a useful adjunct to a clinical examination when making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism

  1. Different metabolic patterns analysis of Parkinsonism on the {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Rahyeong; Kim, Jaesung; Moon, Daehyuk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Tasuk E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr

    2004-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are the most common movement disorders associated with neurodegenerative disease. A clinical differential diagnosis of IPD and atypical Parkinsonian disorders, such as MSA and PSP, is often complicated by the presence of symptoms common to both groups. Since Parkinsonism has a different pathophysiology in the cortical and subcortical brain structures, assessing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism may assist in making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET images of IPD, MSA and PSP were assessed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in order to determine the useful metabolic patterns. Twenty-four patients with Parkinsonism: eight patients (mean age 67.9{+-}10.7 years; M/F: 3/5) with IPD, nine patients (57.9{+-}9.2 years; M/F: 4/5) with MSA and seven patients (67.6{+-}4.8 years; M/F: 3/4) with PSP were enrolled in this study. All patients with Parkinsonism and 22 age-matched normal controls underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, (after 370 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG). The three groups and the individual IPD, MSA and PSP patients were compared with a normal control group using a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected P<0.01, extent threshold >100 voxel). The IPD, MSA and PSP groups showed significant hypometabolism in the cerebral neocortex compared to the normal control group. The MSA group showed significant hypometabolism in the putamen, pons and cerebellum compared to the normal controls and IPD groups. In addition, PSP showed significant hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, midbrain and the cingulate gyrus compared to the normal controls, the IPD and the MSA groups. In conclusion, an assessment of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET images using SPM may be a useful adjunct to a clinical examination when making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism.

  2. Gait maturation in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Marques; P. Roquetti Fernandes; J. Fernandes Filho; F. B. Policarpo

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at observing children with cerebral palsy's (CP) gait maturation and to correlate gait maturation's motor skill parameters. Podogram and video shooting of eight children's gait were used. Children up to seven years of age participated in the study. Cluster analysis was applied, dividing the sample into two groups, using the relation between pelvis’ width and the spreading of the ankles (REL) as parameters. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of Deltas, and Pearson’s cor...

  3. Impact of blood glucose, diabetes, insulin, and obesity on standardized uptake values in tumors and healthy organs on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Chronically altered glucose metabolism interferes with 18F-FDG uptake in malignant tissue and healthy organs and may therefore lower tumor detection in 18F-FDG PET/CT. The present study assesses the impact of elevated blood glucose levels (BGL), diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity on 18F-FDG uptake in tumors and biodistribution in normal organ tissues. Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT was analyzed in 90 patients with BGL ranging from 50 to 372 mg/dl. Of those, 29 patients were diabetic and 21 patients had received insulin prior to PET/CT; 28 patients were obese with a body mass index > 25. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of normal organs and the main tumor site was measured. Differences in SUVmax in patients with and without elevated BGLs, diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity were compared and analyzed for statistical significance. Results: Increased BGLs were associated with decreased cerebral FDG uptake and increased uptake in skeletal muscle. Diabetes and insulin diminished this effect, whereas obesity slightly enhanced the outcome. Diabetes and insulin also increased the average SUVmax in muscle cells and fat, whereas the mean cerebral SUVmax was reduced. Obesity decreased tracer uptake in several healthy organs by up to 30%. Tumoral uptake was not significantly influenced by BGL, diabetes, insulin, or obesity. Conclusions: Changes in BGLs, diabetes, insulin, and obesity affect the FDG biodistribution in muscular tissue and the brain. Although tumoral uptake is not significantly impaired, these findings may influence the tumor detection rate and are therefore essential for diagnosis and follow-up of malignant diseases

  4. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of 18F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values (meanSUVmax), target-to-background ratios (meanTBRmax) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aorticmeanSUVmax values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax and carotidmeanSUVmax values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol/l should be preferred in this setting. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  6. Mapping tissue chromophore changes in cerebral ischemia: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Mathews, Marlon S.; Lay, Christopher; Cuccia, David J.; Frostig, Ron D.; Linskey, Mark E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-02-01

    We describe the projection of spatially modulated light for quantitatively mapping changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxygen saturation in two pilot studies in the rat barrel cortex during both permanent and temporary cerebral ischemia. The approach is based on the projection of spatial modulation of white light onto the brain. The reflected light is captured on a CCD camera, which is then processed to obtain the concentration and distribution of chromophores over a wide field. Preliminary results confirm a measurable and quantifiable increase in tissue molecular concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin and decrease in hemoglobin oxygen concentration in both experimental settings. Our preliminary data from our pilot studies demonstrate that spatial modulation of light can provide quantitative chromophore mapping of the brain and has a potential role in monitoring the course and severity of cerebral ischemia in cerebrovascular disease patients.

  7. Utility of quantitative FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma: a histopathological correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Blase, Peter E.; Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To determine the value of visual and quantitative {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma, using direct histopathological examination at the right posterior iliac crest as reference standard. This retrospective study included 22 patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma who had undergone FDG-PET/CT before BMB of the right posterior iliac crest. FDG-PET/CT images were visually evaluated for bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest. Volumes of interest were placed in the right posterior iliac crest to calculate the 3D partial volume corrected mean standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub mean}), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and peak standardized uptake value (SUV{sub peak}). Sensitivity and specificity of visual FDG-PET/CT analysis for the detection of bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest were 0.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0-32.4 %) and 100 % (95 % CI: 78.5-100 %), respectively. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of cSUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} for the detection of bone marrow involvement in the right posterior iliac crest were 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.63-0.96), 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.98) and 0.87 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. Optimal cutoff values for cSUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} were 1.3, 2.1 and 1.7, and yielded sensitivity and specificity combinations of 75.0 % and 85.7 %, 87.5 % and 85.7 % and 87.5 % and 85.7 %, respectively. This histopathological correlation study shows that, unlike visual interpretation of FDG-PET/CT images, quantitative FDG-PET/CT analysis may be beneficial in diagnosing bone marrow involvement by follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  8. Pilot Study: Swimming for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Declerck, Marlies; Daly, Daniel; Feys, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a swimming program on body function, activity and Quality of Life (QOL), in children diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy. Seven children (female/male: 4/3; Median 10.2 years old; Gross Motor Function Classification Scale I to III) participated in a 6-week swimming intervention using a case series design. Outcome measures were, for body function level: handgrip strength; for activity level: unimanual speed performance, walking capacity, gross m...

  9. Double-blind stereo-EEG and FDG PET study in severe partial epilepsies: are the electric and metabolic findings related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in 16 patients findings with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in the interictal state and the different stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) patterns that characterize: (a) the epileptogenic zone, (b) the irritative zone and (c) the lesional zone. SEEG was performed following an individually defined electrode implantation strategy. Whereas at least one area of hypometabolism was detected by visual interpretation of PET/[18F]FDG images in all the subjects in the study, there was poor agreement between PET/[18F]FDG quantitative measures of regional metabolism and SEEG findings. Normal metabolic rates were found in up to 62% of the areas with abnormal SEEG activity, independent of the type of electrical activity, i.e. epileptogenic, irritative, or lesional, while abnormal metabolic rates were found in up to 23% of the areas with normal SEEG activity. In conclusion, whereas the visual interpretation of interictal studies of glucose utilization in our series of drug-resistant epileptic patients consistently allowed the localization of an area of temporal hypometabolism, the quantitative and regional metabolic analysis demonstrated that such a finding is not specifically related to any of the three very different SEEG patterns (epileptogenic, irritative, lesional) or combinations thereof. These results complement those of previous interictal and ictal single-photon emission tomographic studies and of receptor studies in epileptics, and contribute to the debate on the use and interpretation of interictal PET/[18F]FDG studies in patients with medically refractory partial seizures. (orig.). With 7 tabs

  10. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  11. Clinical and neuroradiological studies of eclampsia. Cerebral vasospasm and relation to the brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Hisayoshi; Ando, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Takeshi; Yanagi, Tsutomu [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Clinical and neuroradiological studies involving cerebral angiography were conducted in four patients with eclampsia. In three cases (case 1, 2 and 4), neurological focal signs, abnormal low density areas on cranial CT and T{sub 2} high intensity areas on cranial MRI disappeared within a month. But in one case (case 3), cerebral infarction occurred and right hemiparesis and aphasia persisted. Cerebral angiography in the acute phase demonstrated vasospasm in all cases and arterial occlusion in the middle cerebral artery due to vasospasm in case 3. Angiography demonstrated several types of spasms, including diffuse, peripheral and multi local. Furthermore, in some cases, diffuse vasospasms were recognized at the siphon and extracranial portions of the internal carotid artery. In one case (Case 4), segmental vasospasms were detected in the bilateral vertebral arteries. Three to four weeks later, follow-up cerebral angiography was performed in three cases. Cerebral vasospasms had partially or completely recovered. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was excluded by lumbar puncture and neuroradiological findings in all cases. We concluded that eclampsia itself causes cerebral vasospasm and that the mechanism of vasospasm is different from that of SAH, since cerebral vasospasm occurred in the extracranial cerebral arteries. We suspected that cerebral vasospasm in eclampsia causes cerebral ischemia, which leads to cytotoxic edema and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral autoregulation. With this background, brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, may easily occur and clinical symptoms of eclampsia may appear when the blood pressure rapidly increases. (author).

  12. Open-label study of the short-term effects of memantine on FDG-PET in frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow TW

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany W Chow1–6, Ariel Graff-Guerrero4,6, Nicolaas PLG Verhoeff2–4,7, Malcolm A Binns3,8, David F Tang-Wai5,9, Morris Freedman1,3,5, Mario Masellis5,10, Sandra E Black3,5,10, Alan A Wilson4,6, Sylvain Houle4,6, Bruce G Pollock4,61Division of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest; 4Departments of Psychiatry, 5Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto; 6Centre for Addiction and Mental Health PET Centre; 7Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest; 8Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto; 9University Health Network Memory Clinic; 10LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Department of Medicine (Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Memantine has shown effects on cortical metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and the mechanism of action may not be specific to AD alone. We hypothesized that participants with frontotemporal dementia taking memantine would show an increased cortical metabolic activity in frontal regions, temporal regions, or in salience network hubs.Methods: Sixteen participants with behavioral or language variant frontotemporal dementia syndromes (FTD were recruited from tertiary FTD clinics and treated with memantine hydrochloride 10 mg twice daily in this fixed-dose, open-label pilot study. The primary endpoint was enhancement of cortical metabolic activity after 7–8 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints were measures of mood and behavior disturbance, frontal executive function, and motor disturbance.Results: Voxel-wise parametric image analysis of positron emission tomography (PET data from seven behavioral variant FTD patients, eight semantic dementia patients, and one progressive nonfluent aphasia patient, of mean age 64.3 years, mean duration of illness 4.25 years, and baseline mean sum of boxes Clinical Dementia Rating score 6.59, revealed an increase in [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG normalized

  13. A pilot study of FDG PET/CT detects a link between brown adipose tissue and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the second most lethal cancer in women. Understanding biological mechanisms that cause progression of this disease could yield new targets for prevention and treatment. Recent experimental studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) may play a key role in breast cancer progression. The primary objective for this pilot study was to determine if the prevalence of active BAT in patients with breast cancer is increased compared to cancer patients with other malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed data from 96 breast cancer patients who had FDG PET/CT scan for routine staging at the University of Maryland and 96 age- and weight-matched control female patients with other malignancies (predominantly colon cancer) who had undergone FDG PET/CT imaging on the same day. Data on the distribution (bilateral upper neck, supraclavicular and paraspinal regions) and intensity (SUVmax) of active BAT were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians, blinded to the clinical history. We found sufficient evidence to conclude that based on our sample data the prevalence of active BAT in breast cancer patients’ group is significantly different from that in the control group. The estimated frequency of BAT activity was 3 fold higher in breast cancer patients as compared to controls with other cancers, (16.7% vs. 5.2%, respectively, p = 0.019). When patients were stratified by age in order to determine the possible impact of age related hormonal changes on active BAT among the younger women (≤ 55 years of age), 25.6% breast cancer patients exhibited BAT activity compared to only 2.8% in control women (p = 0.007). In contrast, among the older women (> 55 years of age), the prevalence of active BAT was similar among breast cancer and control women (10.7% vs 6.7%). In breast cancer patients prevalence of BAT activity on FDGPET/CT is 3-fold greater than in age- and body weight-matched patients with other solid tumor malignancies; this difference is particularly

  14. Attentional set-shifting deficit in Parkinson's disease is associated with prefrontal dysfunction: an FDG-PET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Sawada

    Full Text Available The attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD has long been considered neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of meso-prefrontal and prefrontal-striatal circuits in cognitive flexibility. However, recent studies have suggested that non-dopaminergic, posterior cortical pathologies may also contribute to this deficit. Although several neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue, the results of these studies were confounded by the use of tasks that required other cognitive processes in addition to set-shifting, such as rule learning and working memory. In this study, we attempted to identify the neural correlates of the attentional set-shifting deficit in PD using a compound letter task and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography during rest. Shift cost, which is a measure of attentional set-shifting ability, was significantly correlated with hypometabolism in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including the putative human frontal eye field. Our results provide direct evidence that dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex makes a primary contribution to the attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in PD patients.

  15. In vivo cerebral blood flow autoregulation studies using rheoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Pearce, F.; Garcia, A.; Van Albert, S.; Settle, T.; Szebeni, J.; Baranyi, L.; Hartings, J.; Armonda, R.

    2010-04-01

    Acute management of patients with traumatic brain/blast injury is a challenge. To minimize secondary injury and improve outcome, it is critical to detect neurological deterioration early, when it is potentially reversible. One potential monitoring method is cerebral electrical impedance (rheoencephalography-REG) because of its non-invasiveness and good time resolution. Reported here are the results of cerebral blood flow (CBF) manipulations comparing electroencephalogram (EEG) with REG (both intra-cerebral) and measuring with surface and skull REG electrodes. Our hypothesis was that REG would reflect spreading depression and CBF autoregulation. Animal experiments were performed using one rat (four trials with intracerebral electrodes), monkeys (n=8, with surface electrodes) and pigs (n = 24 pigs with skull electrodes; 57 trials, 19 types of liposomes). Challenges included intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation, liposome infusion, and hemorrhage. Data were stored on a PC and evaluated off line. CBF autoregulation was evaluated both by visual inspection and by a Matlab script. These studies confirmed that REG reflects CBF autoregulation and that REG is useful for detecting spreading depression (SD), vasospasm and the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. These findings have clinical relevance for use in noninvasive neuro-monitoring in the neurosurgery intensive care and during transportation of patients with brain injury.

  16. Comparative PET/CT study with 11C-MET and 18F-FDG for diagnosing Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the diagnostic value of 11C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for brain gliomas, and compare the results to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Forty-four patients with suspected gliomas were examined with 11C-MET and 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG and 11C-MET PET/CT images were compared and evaluated by visual and semiquantitative analysis. The accuracy of 11C-MET and 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting gliomas were 88.6% and 65.9%, respectively. Semiquantitative analysis showed that the 26 gliomas had higher mean ± SD T/NGmax ratio on 11C-MET PET/CT than on 18F-FDG PET/CT(1.95±0.52 vs. 0.90±0.27, t=9.101, P11C-MET had a higher sensitivity than 18F-FDG (83.3% vs.33.3%, χ2 =4.16, P18F-FDG in the sensitivity for high-grade gliomas(100% vs. 64.3%, χ2=3.20, P>0.05). The difference was no significant, too, between high-and low-grade gliomas, compared by 11C-MET T/NGmax ratio (2.07±0.51 vs. 1.81±0.52, t=1.302, P=0.205). 18F-FDG T/NGmax ratio in high-grade gliomas was significantly higher than that in low-grade gliomas (1.03±0.30 vs. 0.75±0.11, t=3.198, P=0.004). It is concluded that 11C-MET PET/CT is more accurate than 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting and delineating gliomas, especially for low-grade gliomas, and it can play a complement role to 18F-FDG in tumor grading. (authors)

  17. Towards an optimal semiquantitative approach in giant cell arteritis: an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Florent L.; Bouvard, Gerard [CHU Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Boysson, Hubert de; Bienvenu, Boris [CHU Caen, Department of Internal Medicine, Caen (France); Parienti, Jean-Jacques [CHU Caen, Department of Biostatistics, Caen (France); Agostini, Denis [CHU Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); University of Caen Lower-Normandy, EA 4650, Caen (France)

    2014-01-15

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in western countries. {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been shown to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of extracranial GCA, but results of studies are inconsistent due to a lack of standardized {sup 18}F-FDG PET criteria. In this study, we compared different semiquantitative approaches using a controlled design to define the most efficient method. All patients with biopsy-proven GCA who had undergone an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan in our PET unit were reviewed and matched with a control group based on age and sex. Different semiquantitative arterial (ascending and descending thoracic aorta and aortic arch) to background (liver, lung and venous blood pool) SUV ratios were blindly compared between GCA patients and matched controls. We included 11 patients with biopsy-proven GCA cases and 11 matched controls. There were no differences between the groups with regard to body weight, injected radioactivity, blood glucose level or CRP. The arterial to venous blood pool ratios discriminated the two groups better than other methods when applied to the aortic arch and the descending thoracic aorta (p < 0.015). In particular, the highest aortic to highest blood pool SUV{sub max} ratio, when applied to the aortic arch, provided optimal diagnostic performance (sensitivity 81.8 %, specificity 91 %, AUC 0.87; p < 0.0001) using a cut-off value of 1.53. Among all tested {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT methods, the aortic to blood pool SUV{sub max} ratio outperformed the liver and lung ratios. We suggest the use of this ratio for the assessment of aortic inflammation in GCA patients. (orig.)

  18. Uptake of positron emission tomography tracers in experimental bacterial infections: a comparative biodistribution study of radiolabeled FDG, thymidine, l-methionine, {sup 67}Ga-citrate, and {sup 125}I-HSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Y.; Gutowski, T.D.; Fisher, S.J.; Brown, R.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Medical Center; Wahl, R.L. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Medical Center]|[Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (United States)

    1999-04-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the localization of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers [2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG), thymidine, and l-methionine] in sites of bacterial infection, and to contrast this with that of other tracers. The left calf muscles of rats were infected with a suspension of Escherichia coli and the biodistribution of {sup 18}F- or {sup 3}H-FDG, {sup 3}H-thymidine, l-{sup 11}C- or {sup 3}H-methionine, gallium-67 citrate ({sup 67}Ga-citrate) and iodine-125 human serum albumin ({sup 125}I-HSA) was determined in these animals. {sup 3}H-FDG uptake in the infectious foci was evaluated by autoradiography of histological sections. Although {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 67}Ga-citrate, and {sup 125}I-HSA showed comparatively high uptake in the infected muscle [the percentage activity of injected dose (ID) per gram of tissue normalized for rat weight in kilogram (%ID/g) x kg at 2 h postinjection was as follows: {sup 18}F-FDG, 0.184{+-}0.026 to 0.218{+-}0.046; {sup 67}Ga-citrate, 0.221{+-}0.016; {sup 125}I-HSA, 0.198{+-}0.019], the infected muscle to blood ratio was much higher for {sup 18}F-FDG than for {sup 67}Ga-citrate or {sup 125}I-HSA ({sup 18}F-FDG, 10.31{+-}0.76 to 14.89{+-}2.26; {sup 67}Ga-citrate, 1.24{+-}0.67; {sup 125}I-HSA, 0.20{+-}0.02). The draining reactive lymph nodes also showed higher accumulation of {sup 18}F-FDG than of {sup 67}Ga-citrate or {sup 125}I-HSA. The uptake of {sup 3}H-thymidine and l-{sup 11}C- or {sup 3}H-methionine in the infected muscle was lower than that of {sup 18}F- or {sup 3}H-FDG at 2 h postinjection, {sup 3}H-thymidine = 0.039{+-}0.005 and L-{sup 3}H-methionine = 0.063{+-}0.007 (%ID/g) x kg. Autoradiographs showed that the highest {sup 3}H-FDG uptake was seen in the area of inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the necrotic region. In conclusion, {sup 18}F-FDG, which rapidly accumulates in sites of bacterial infection and in reactive lymph nodes with a high target to background ratio, appears to be

  19. A pilot study of changes in (18)F-FDG uptake, calcification and global metabolic activity of the aorta with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca G; Torigian, Drew A; Botvinick, Elias; Houseni, Mohamed; Basu, Sandip; Chen, Wengen; Alavi, Abass

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify changes in the inflammatory and calcific components of atherosclerosis in the aortic wall using fluoro-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18)F-FDGPET and contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) with increasing age. Twelve subjects, 8 men and 4 women aged from 21-80 years who had both (18)F-FDG-PET and CECT of the chest and abdomen were included in this study. Subjects were grouped into three according to age. (18)F-FDG uptake in four segments of the aorta was measured. Using CECT images, aortic segmental wall volumes were measured. Wall calcification volume in each aortic segment was also measured via adaptation of a coronary artery calcium-scoring program to the aorta. Calcification volumes were then subtracted from aortic wall volumes. Each net segmental aortic wall volume was then multiplied by the accompanying mean SUV of the segment to calculate global metabolic activity (GMA) for each aortic segment. Our results showed that in each aortic wall segment, mean SUV, wall volumes, wall calcification volumes, and GMA statistically significantly increased with age. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG uptake, wall volume, wall calcification volume, and GMA in the aorta increase with aging. The (18)F-FDG uptake represents the early inflammatory component of the atherosclerotic process, whereas calcification generally represents a later and irreversible stage of the disease. Measurement and combination of PET and CECT parameters to calculate GMA may allow for optimal morphologic and functional noninvasive quantitative assessment of global aortic atherosclerotic disease. PMID:19675864

  20. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with breast cancer and rising Ca 15-3 with negative conventional imaging: A multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women in Europe and North America. The mortality of this disease can be reduced with effective therapy and regular follow up to detect early recurrence. Tumor markers are sensitive in detecting recurrent or residual disease but imaging is required to customize the therapeutic option. Rising tumor markers and negative conventional imaging (US, X-mammography, CT and MR) poses a management problem. Our aim is to assess the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the management of post-therapy patients with rising markers but negative conventional imaging. Materials and methods: In the period from January 2008 to September 2009, 89 female patients with breast cancer who developed post-therapy rising markers (serum Ca 15-3 levels = 64.8 ± 16.3 U/mL) but negative clinical examination and conventional imaging were investigated with 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 40/89 patients in chest wall, internal mammary nodes, lungs, liver and skeleton. The mean SUVmax value calculated in these lesions was 6.6 ± 1.7 (range 3.1–12.8). In 23/40 patients solitary small lesion were amenable to radical therapy. In 7 out of these 23 patients a complete disease remission lasting more than 1 year was observed. Conclusions: 18F-FDG-PET/CT may have a potential role in asymptomatic patients with rising markers and negative conventional imaging. Our findings agree with other studies in promoting regular investigations such as tumor markers and 18F-FDG-PET/CT rather than awaiting the developments of physical symptoms as suggested by current guidelines since the timely detection of early recurrence may have a major impact on therapy and survival.

  1. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  2. Brown Adipose Reporting Criteria in Imaging STudies (BARCIST 1.0): Recommendations for Standardized FDG-PET/CT Experiments in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kong Y; Cypess, Aaron M; Laughlin, Maren R; Haft, Carol R; Hu, Houchun Harry; Bredella, Miriam A; Enerbäck, Sven; Kinahan, Paul E; Lichtenbelt, Wouter van Marken; Lin, Frank I; Sunderland, John J; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Wahl, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) presence, metabolic activity, and estimated mass are typically measured by imaging [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in response to cold exposure in regions of the body expected to contain BAT, using positron emission tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Efforts to describe the epidemiology and biology of human BAT are hampered by diverse experimental practices, making it difficult to directly compare results among laboratories. An expert panel was assembled by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases on November 4, 2014 to discuss minimal requirements for conducting FDG-PET/CT experiments of human BAT, data analysis, and publication of results. This resulted in Brown Adipose Reporting Criteria in Imaging STudies (BARCIST 1.0). Since there are no fully validated best practices at this time, panel recommendations are meant to enhance comparability across experiments, but not to constrain experimental design or the questions that can be asked. PMID:27508870

  3. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

  4. Predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in restaging patients affected by ovarian carcinoma: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hanover (Germany); Alongi, Pierpaolo [University of Milano-Bicocca, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy); IRCSS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Evangelista, Laura; Saladini, Giorgio [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Padua (Italy); Picchio, Maria [IRCSS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Rensi, Marco; Geatti, Onelio [Hospital of Udine, Nuclear Medicine Department, Udine (Italy); Castello, Angelo; Laghai, Iashar [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Department, Florence (Italy); Popescu, Cristina E. [Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Dolci, Carlotta; Crivellaro, Cinzia [University of Milan-Bicocca, Nuclear Medicine Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Tecnomed Foundation, Milan (Italy); Seghezzi, Silvia [Hospital of Treviglio, Nuclear Medicine Department, Treviglio, Bergamo (Italy); Kirienko, Margarita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy); De Biasi, Vincenzo [Nuclear Medicine Department, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Cocciolillo, Fabrizio [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rome (Italy); Quartuccio, Natale [University of Messina, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphological and Functional Images, Messina (Italy); Collaboration: Young AIMN Working Group

    2016-03-15

    Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common malignancy among women and has a high mortality rate. Prognostic factors able to drive an effective therapy are essential. {sup 18}F-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) has been investigated in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and showed promise in diagnosing, staging, detecting recurrent lesions and monitoring treatment response. Conversely, its prognostic role remains unclear. We aimed at assessing the prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT performed in the restaging process in a multicentre study. We evaluated 168 patients affected by ovarian carcinoma, who underwent a restaging {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The presence of local recurrences, lymph node involvement and distant metastasis was recorded as well as lesion dimensions, maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}, respectively). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 and 4 years were computed by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased odds ratio was assessed using Cox regression analysis testing all lesion parameters measured by PET/CT. PFS was significantly longer in patients with a negative than a positive restaging PET/CT study (3- and 4-year PFS 64 and 53 % vs 23 and 12 %, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, a negative study was associated with a significantly higher OS rate after 4 years of follow-up (67 vs 25 % in negative and positive groups, respectively; p < 0.001). Lymph node or distant involvement were also independently associated with an increased risk of disease progression [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6 and 2.2, respectively; p = 0.003]. Moreover, PET/CT showed an incremental prognostic value compared to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. In the analysis of patient subsets, individuals with the same FIGO stage I-II but with negative PET had a significantly better 4-year OS than patients with low

  5. Brown adipose tissue {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in pediatric PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Terence S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Shammas, Amer; Charron, Martin [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Zukotynski, Katherine A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Lim, Ruth [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) fused with CT ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) has been widely adopted in oncological imaging. However, it is known that benign lesions and other metabolically active tissues, such as brown adipose tissue (BAT), can accumulate {sup 18}F-FDG, potentially resulting in false-positive interpretation. Previous studies have reported that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in BAT is more common in children than in adults. We illustrate BAT FDG uptake in various anatomical locations in children and adolescents. We also review what is known about the effects of patient-related physical attributes and environmental temperatures on BAT FDG uptake, and discuss methods used to reduce BAT FDG uptake on {sup 18}F-FDG PET. (orig.)

  6. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  7. A study on the cerebral glucose metabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy%进行性核上性麻痹的脑葡萄糖代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱军; 郭晓军; 李大成; 张本恕; 潘旭东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the regional cerebral glucose utilization with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and to investigate the correlation between cerebral glucose metabolism and the clinical characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).Methods A total of 13 patients with PSP and 30 matched healthy controls were performed 18F-FDG PET imaging at rest state.Visual inspection and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) were used to investigate regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc).Results Based on the visual inspection,PET imaging in the PSP patients showed that the focal hypometabolic areas mainly included the bilateral frontal cortex,midbrain and subcortical structures.Compared to the controls,voxel-based analysis showed that the regional glucose metabolism decreased in bilateral superior,middle frontal gyrus,cingulate gyrus,midbrain and subcortical structures including basal ganglion and thalamus,which were consisted with the clinical characteristics,such as vertical gaze palsy,pseudobulbar palsy,postural instability,axial rigidity,dementia and so on.Conclusion 18 F-FDG PET imaging is helpful for the early diagnosis of PSP.%目的 探讨进行性核上性麻痹(PSP)患者18F-脱氧葡萄糖正电子发射体层(18F-FDG PET)脑显像特点及与临床特征的相关性.方法 对13例PSP患者和30例相匹配的健康对照者进行脑18F-FDG PET检查,应用视觉分析法与统计参数图(SPM)分析法比较2组脑葡萄糖代谢的差异.结果 与对照组相比,PSP患者脑18F-FDG PET显像视觉分析法显示双侧额叶皮质、中脑、皮质下核团如基底节、丘脑示踪剂摄取减少,SPM分析显示双侧双侧额上、中回、额叶内侧部皮质、扣带回、中脑及皮质下结构,基底节、丘脑葡萄糖代谢减低,与患者眼球垂直运动障碍、姿势障碍、肌张力增高及认知功能障碍等临床症状相一致.结论 结合临床症状,应用18F-FDG PET脑显像有助于PSP的早期诊断.

  8. Prospective study of 18FDG-PET in the detection and management of patients with lymph node metastases to the neck from an unknown primary tumor. Results from the DAHANCA-13 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Buus, Simon; Loft, Annika;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND.: The benefit of a complementary fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan to standard workup for carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and metastatic neck lesions was prospectively studied. METHODS.: Sixty-seven patients underwent standardized diagnostic workup...... according to national guidelines including panendoscopies, multiple mucosal biopsies, and diagnostic CT/MRI scans. Median follow-up was 40 months (range, 2-65 months). RESULTS.: In 60 eligible patients, FDG-PET indicated a primary tumor or metastatic disease in 30 patients (50%). Additional investigations...

  9. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  10. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in children with congenital oculomotor apraxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung June; Kim, Yu Kyoong; Oh, Yeong Mi; Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) is a rare impairment of saccadic eye movement in horizontal direction. The typical symptom is poor vision or compensatory head thrusting movement. In this study, we investigate the brain metabolic changes in children with COMA using FDG PET. Brain FDG PET studies were performed in 6 children (mean age: 5.82.1 years, M: F=5: 1) with typical COMA by clinical diagnosis. For comparison purpose, age-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 6.42.2 years, M: F = 4: 1) were selected among sibling. Measures of significant difference in cerebral metabolism between the patients and control group were determined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Four of six had the structural abnormalities limited in the cerebellar vermis, and the other two had no structural lesion. FDG PET of patients revealed the significant regional hypometabolism in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and the bilateral occipital cortices as well as cerebellar vermis (P < 0.005, k=100) in comparison with healthy control group. Meanwhile, hypermetabolism was observed in the right precentral gyrus (BA 6), bilateral frontal gyri (BA 8/BA 10). FDG PET could demonstrate the regional metabolic changes in patients with congenital motor apraxia, which may indicate the functional disturbance in the brain regions related with saccadic eye movement and the compensatory hyperfunction in their head motion.

  11. The cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia: a laser capture microdissection study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of brain and peripheral tissues in schizophrenia patients have indicated impaired energy supply to the brain. A number of studies have also demonstrated dysfunction of the microvasculature in schizophrenia patients. Together these findings are consistent with a hypothesis of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, we have investigated the cerebral vascular endothelium of schizophrenia patients at the level of transcriptomics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used laser capture microdissection to isolate both microvascular endothelial cells and neurons from post mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. RNA was isolated from these cell populations, amplified, and analysed using two independent microarray platforms, Affymetrix HG133plus2.0 GeneChips and CodeLink Whole Human Genome arrays. In the first instance, we used the dataset to compare the neuronal and endothelial data, in order to demonstrate that the predicted differences between cell types could be detected using this methodology. We then compared neuronal and endothelial data separately between schizophrenic subjects and controls. Analysis of the endothelial samples showed differences in gene expression between schizophrenics and controls which were reproducible in a second microarray platform. Functional profiling revealed that these changes were primarily found in genes relating to inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides preliminary evidence of molecular alterations of the cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia patients, suggestive of a hypo-inflammatory state in this tissue type. Further investigation of the blood-brain barrier in schizophrenia is warranted.

  12. Direct comparison of {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methionine PET in suspected recurrence of glioma: sensitivity, inter-observer variability and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laere, Koen Van; Ceyssens, Sarah; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Calenbergh, Frank Van [University Hospital Leuven, Department of Neurosurgery, Leuven (Belgium); Groot, Tjibbe de; Bormans, Guy [University Hospital Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Leuven (Belgium); Menten, Johan [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Radiotherapy, Leuven (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Bordet Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET imaging studies allow the investigation of metabolism and amino acid transport in brain tumours. Their (relative) usefulness and prognostic value in suspected recurrence or progression of primary brain tumours after previous therapy is an issue of debate. The aim of this study was to compare directly both radioligands in this setting. Cerebral uptake of FDG and MET was determined sequentially on the same day in 30 patients (21 males, nine females; age 40.4{+-}15.6 years), on average 4.0 years (range 0.1-18) after therapy for a primary brain tumour (23 grade II-IV astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligo-astrocytomas). Images were acquired on a Siemens HR+ dedicated PET camera. Two observers scored FDG and MET scans independently. Semi-quantitative indices defined by the tumour (maximum)-to-background ratio were calculated based on manual ROI delineation and by using MET ROIs for FDG after automated co-registration. Patient follow-up was conducted until the last contact with inconspicuous clinical findings (average 41 months, range 12-62 months after PET) [(n=10)] or until death (n=20). Overall median survival was 15.0 months. MET showed pathologically increased uptake in 28/30 scans, and FDG in 17/30. The inter-observer agreement was 100% for MET and 73% for FDG. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, significant differences were found for both FDG (cut-off 0.8, log-rank p=0.007) and MET (cut-off 2.2, log-rank p=0.014). The combination of FDG and MET information resulted in the highest prognostic accuracy (p=0.003), while MET alone was the best prognostic predictor in the subgroup of patients with primary astrocytoma (n=23). FDG and MET PET studies provide complementary prognostic information in patients with suspected brain tumour recurrence or progression after primary therapy. MET is considered the single agent of choice in the evaluation of these patients because of its

  13. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ― a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  14. (18)F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Pruim, Jan; Ubbels, Jan F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus ca

  15. Helical CT study of cerebral perfusion and related hemodynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenic, Aleksa; Lee, Ting-Yim; Craen, Rosemary A.; Gelb, Adrian W.

    1997-05-01

    A convenient method for assessing cerebral perfusion and related functional parameters has been developed using a third generation slip-ring CT scanner. Dynamic contrast- enhanced scanning at the same level was employed to image the cerebral circulation at the rate of 1 image per second. Using data acquired with this non-helical mode of scanning, we have developed a method for the simultaneous in-vivo determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT). These measurements are given in the same physiological units as positron emission tomography. In order to obtain accurate measurements of these parameters, methods were also developed to correct for recirculation and partial volume averaging in imaging small blood vessels. We have used 6 New Zealand white rabbits in our studies. For each rabbit, up to 3 CT measurements of CBF, CBV, and MTT were made at normocapnia under isoflurane anesthesia. Coronal sections through the brain were imaged while simultaneously imaging either a brain artery or the ear artery. Images were acquired for 1 minute as Isovue 300 was injected intravenously. In the acquired CT images, regions of interest in brain parenchyma and an artery were drawn. For each region of interest, the mean CT number in pre-contrast images was subtracted from the mean in post-contrast images to calculate the contrast concentration curves for the brain regions Q(t) and the arterial region Ca(t). Using a robust deconvolution method, the MTT was determined. CBV was then determined from the ratio of the areas of Q(t) and Ca(t). Finally, CBF was calculated from the Central Volume Principle. The mean regional CBF, CBV and MTT values were 73.3 +/- 5.1 ml/min/100g, 1.93 +/- 0.12 ml/100g and 1.80 +/- 0.18 s respectively. IN order to validate our CT CBF measurements, we also measured CBF using the well- established technique of microspheres with each CT study. The feasibility of our CT method to measure CBF accurately was

  16. Clinical study of 18F-FDG PET/CT whole-body imaging in disseminated carcinoma of unknown primary site%18F-FDG PET/CT全身显像在原发灶不明转移癌中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国慧; 梁培炎; 蔡燕君; 张伟光; 谢传淼; 吴沛宏

    2008-01-01

    Objective Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is not uncommon in usual clinical settings. They are, by definition, those cases with clinically suspected primary malignancy but not revealed by conventional investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of whole-body 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in detecting a primary neoplasm for these patients. Methods A totle of 150patients with retrievable records from 169 CUP patients were selected within a group of consecutive 2589 pa-tients from Jan. 2006 to Jun. 2007. All cases underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT scan. The final diagno-ses were confirmed by pathologic results, other imaging modalities or clinical follow-up. Results Among 150 patients, primary tumor sites were successfully detected by whole-body ,s F-FDG PET/CT scan in 70 ca-ses (46.7%), of which 52 were pathologically confirmed and 18 by clinical follow-up. And 38 cases (54.3%) were lung cancer, 8 (11.4%) were nasopharyugeal carcinoma, 13(18.6%) in digestive sys-tem, and 11 (15.7%) in other systems. Three clinically suspected CUP cases with negative 18F-FDG PET/CT were subsequently confirmed of benign processes by clinical follow-up. Six patients were wrongly diag-nosed by 18F-FDG PET/CT, and 15 patients did not have a confirmed diagnosis by the end of research. The primary cause of malignancy after 18F-FDG PET/CT remained obscure in 56 patients, only 3 of whom be-came known during the course of clinical follow-up (nasopharyngeal bladder and esophageal carcinoma).Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT whole-body imaging plays an important role in patients with metastatic CUP.%目的 探讨18F-脱氧葡萄糖(FDG)PET/CT全身显像在原发灶不明转移癌(CUP)诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月至2007年6月2589例18F-FDG PET/CT显像患者中169例CUP患者的显像结果,通过分析病历记录、病理检查结果及临床随访确定最终原发灶诊断结果.结果 169例CUP患者中19例失访,150

  17. Clinical Application of 18F-FDG PET in Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDG PET has been used as a diagnostic tool for localization of seizure focus for last 2-3 decades. In this article, the clinical usefulness of FDG PET in the management of patients with epilepsy has been reviewed, which provided the evidences to justify the medicare reimbursement for FDG PET in management of patients with epilepsy. Literature review demonstrated that FDG PET provides an important information in localization of seizure focus and determination whether a patients is a surgical candidate or not. FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance in localization of seizure focus in neocortical epilepsy as well as temporal lobe epilepsy regardless of the presence of structural lesion on MRI. Particularly, FDG PET can provide the additional information when the results from standard diagnositic modality such as interictal or video-monitored EEG, and MRI are inconclusive or discordant, and make to avoid invasive study. Furthermore, the presence of hypometabolism and extent of metabolic extent has been reported as an important predictor for seizure free outcome. However, studies suggested that more accurate localization and better surgical outcome could be expected with multimodal approach by combination of EEG, MRI, and functional studies using FDG PET or perfusion SPECT rather than using a single diagnostic modality in management of patients with epilepsy. Complementary use of FDG PET in management of epilepsy is worth for good surgical outcome in epilepsy patients

  18. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: retrospective study on the cost-effectiveness of early treatment response assessment by FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin-Romsee, G.; Spaepen, K.; Stroobants, S.; Mortelmans, L. [KU Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-06-15

    Although lymphomas are very chemosensitive, 50% of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are not cured with standard first-line treatment. This consists of six cycles of doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide (CHOP), recently complemented with rituximab. Preliminary studies show that PET mid-treatment is a good predictor of the remission status at the end of therapy. As patients with persistent FDG uptake after three cycles are unlikely to gain a complete remission, the remaining three cycles of chemotherapy are useless. We investigated the costs and benefits for the use of PET in this early treatment setting. We conceived a model using a conventional arm where patients receive the full regimen of six cycles of CHOP [-rituximab (R)] and an experimental algorithm where patients receive either six cycles (PET response) or only three cycles (PET non-response). Based on a patient sample (2004-2006), we calculated the costs for hospitalisation and treatment. We took into account all costs accrued (including overhead costs). We used a sensitivity analysis by varying the most important parameters. With a PET price of 700EUR and CHOP price (per cycle) of 1,829EUR, we can conclude to cost saving of 1,879EUR per patient. The PET price can increase up to 2,580EUR and the cost for one cycle of CHOP can decrease to 500EUR per cycle before cost savings are nil. The percentage of non-responders may be as low as 10%. The implementation of rituximab in first-line therapy only increases benefit (4,900EUR/pt). We conclude to substantial cost savings if management of NHL patients is based on mid-treatment PET scan. The economical data we used seem to be comparable to those published in other European studies. Implementation of Mabthera in first line only increases cost savings. (orig.)

  19. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: retrospective study on the cost-effectiveness of early treatment response assessment by FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although lymphomas are very chemosensitive, 50% of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are not cured with standard first-line treatment. This consists of six cycles of doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide (CHOP), recently complemented with rituximab. Preliminary studies show that PET mid-treatment is a good predictor of the remission status at the end of therapy. As patients with persistent FDG uptake after three cycles are unlikely to gain a complete remission, the remaining three cycles of chemotherapy are useless. We investigated the costs and benefits for the use of PET in this early treatment setting. We conceived a model using a conventional arm where patients receive the full regimen of six cycles of CHOP [-rituximab (R)] and an experimental algorithm where patients receive either six cycles (PET response) or only three cycles (PET non-response). Based on a patient sample (2004-2006), we calculated the costs for hospitalisation and treatment. We took into account all costs accrued (including overhead costs). We used a sensitivity analysis by varying the most important parameters. With a PET price of 700EUR and CHOP price (per cycle) of 1,829EUR, we can conclude to cost saving of 1,879EUR per patient. The PET price can increase up to 2,580EUR and the cost for one cycle of CHOP can decrease to 500EUR per cycle before cost savings are nil. The percentage of non-responders may be as low as 10%. The implementation of rituximab in first-line therapy only increases benefit (4,900EUR/pt). We conclude to substantial cost savings if management of NHL patients is based on mid-treatment PET scan. The economical data we used seem to be comparable to those published in other European studies. Implementation of Mabthera in first line only increases cost savings. (orig.)

  20. Double-blind stereo-EEG and FDG PET study in severe partial epilepsies: are the electric and metabolic findings related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, G. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Tassi, L. [Regional Centre for Epilepsy Surgery, Niguarda Hospital, Milan (Italy); Fazio, F. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Galli, L. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Grana, C. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Del Sole, A. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Hoffman, D. [Neuroscience Department and INSERM 318 Unit CHRU, Grenoble (France); Francione, S. [Departments of Neurophysiopathology and Neurosurgery, University of Genova (Italy); Minicucci, F. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Kahane, P. [Neuroscience Department and INSERM 318 Unit CHRU, Grenoble (France); Messa, C. [INB-CNR, University of Milan, Institute H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Munari, C. [Regional Centre for Epilepsy Surgery, Niguarda Hospital, Milan (Italy)]|[Neuroscience Department and INSERM 318 Unit CHRU, Grenoble (France)]|[Departments of Neurophysiopathology and Neurosurgery, University of Genova (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in 16 patients findings with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in the interictal state and the different stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) patterns that characterize: (a) the epileptogenic zone, (b) the irritative zone and (c) the lesional zone. SEEG was performed following an individually defined electrode implantation strategy. Whereas at least one area of hypometabolism was detected by visual interpretation of PET/[{sup 18}F]FDG images in all the subjects in the study, there was poor agreement between PET/[{sup 18}F]FDG quantitative measures of regional metabolism and SEEG findings. Normal metabolic rates were found in up to 62% of the areas with abnormal SEEG activity, independent of the type of electrical activity, i.e. epileptogenic, irritative, or lesional, while abnormal metabolic rates were found in up to 23% of the areas with normal SEEG activity. In conclusion, whereas the visual interpretation of interictal studies of glucose utilization in our series of drug-resistant epileptic patients consistently allowed the localization of an area of temporal hypometabolism, the quantitative and regional metabolic analysis demonstrated that such a finding is not specifically related to any of the three very different SEEG patterns (epileptogenic, irritative, lesional) or combinations thereof. These results complement those of previous interictal and ictal single-photon emission tomographic studies and of receptor studies in epileptics, and contribute to the debate on the use and interpretation of interictal PET/[{sup 18}F]FDG studies in patients with medically refractory partial seizures. (orig.). With 7 tabs.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  2. Regional analysis of FDG and PIB-PET images in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic value of regional sampling of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism (MRglc) using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and amyloid-beta pathology using Pittsburgh Compound-B ([11C]PIB)-PET in the evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to normal elderly (NL). AD patients, 7NL, 13MCI, and 17, received clinical, neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FDG, and PIB-PET exams. Parametric images of PIB uptake and MRglc were sampled using automated regions-of-interest (ROI). AD showed global MRglc reductions, and MCI showed reduced hippocampus (HIP) and inferior parietal lobe (IP) MRglc compared to NL. On PIB, AD patients showed significantly increased uptake in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and IP (ps<0.05). PIB uptake in MCI subjects was either AD or NL-like. HIP MRglc and MFG PIB uptake were the best discriminators of NL from MCI and NL from AD. These two best measures showed high diagnostic agreement for AD (94%) and poor agreement for MCI (54%). For the NL vs. MCI discrimination, combining the two best measures increased the accuracy for PIB (75%) and for FDG (85%) to 90%. For AD, the pattern of regional involvement for FDG and PIB differ, but both techniques show high diagnostic accuracy and 94% case by case agreement. In the classification of NL and MCI, FDG is superior to PIB, but there is only 54% agreement at a case level. Combining the two modalities improves the diagnostic accuracy for MCI. (orig.)

  3. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  4. Statistical parametric maps of 18F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during 18F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in 18F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although partial volume

  5. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-07-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29 % and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional community based study is recommended to enquire into this pattern. Data regarding early identification was encouraging as majority of the cases (56 %) were diagnosed before 4 years of age. There is a stark necessity of early screening and rehabilitation program with provision for follow-up for the affected children, which must also be accessible to the disadvantaged and marginalized groups in Nepal. PMID:26944590

  6. Strategies for improving the Voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies: assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Kang, Hye Jin; Im, Ki Chun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Sang Moo; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In imaging studies of the human brain, voxel-based statistical analysis method was widely used, since these methods were originally developed for the analysis of the human brain data, they are not optimal for the animal brain data. The aim of this study is to optimize the procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of cat FDG PET brain images. A microPET Focus 120 scanner was used. Eight cats underwent FDG PET scans twice before and after inducing the deafness. Only the brain and adjacent regions were extracted from each data set by manual masking. Individual PET image at normal and deaf state was realigned to each other to remove the confounding effects by the different spatial normalization parameters on the results of statistical analyses. Distance between the sampling points on the reference image and kernel size of Gaussian filter applied to the images before estimating the realignment parameters were adjusted to 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Both data was then spatial normalized onto study-specific cat brain template. Spatially normalized PET data were smoothed and voxel-based paired t-test was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism decreased significantly after the loss of hearing capability in parietal lobes, postcentral gyri, STG, MTG, lTG, and IC at both hemisphere and left SC (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). Cerebral glucose metabolism in deaf cats was found to be significantly higher than in controls in the right cingulate (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). The ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same areas as in the SPM analysis, except for some regions (P < 0.05). Method for the voxel-based analysis of cat brain PET data was optimized for analysis of cat brain PET. This result was also confirmed by ROI analysis. The results obtained demonstrated the high localization accuracy and specificity of the developed method, and were found to be useful for examining cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  7. Gait maturation in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at observing children with cerebral palsy's (CP gait maturation and to correlate gait maturation's motor skill parameters. Podogram and video shooting of eight children's gait were used. Children up to seven years of age participated in the study. Cluster analysis was applied, dividing the sample into two groups, using the relation between pelvis’ width and the spreading of the ankles (REL as parameters. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of Deltas, and Pearson’s correlation. Deviance from normality for all the parameters was demonstrated with greater failure in speed and cadence and a significant correlation among these parameters, and yet between them and the REL parameter. Although children with CP had acquired gait, they still do it immaturely.

  8. 细支气管肺泡癌的FDG-PET影像特点%FDG-PET in Bronchial Alveolar Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 孙玉鹗; 常平; 于长海; 姚树林; 田嘉禾; 尹大一

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the features of bronchial alveolar carcinomain fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by Positron emission tomography(PET). Methods: FromDecember 1998 to October 2004, 35 patients with bronchial alveolar carcinoma (BAC) were imaged withFDG-PET before surgery. The PET results were interpreted using visual and semiquantitative assessment.For semiquantitative analysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated. Results: All tumors of the patients could be detected by FDG-PET and identified by visual method. By semiquantitative analysis, FDG uptake of the tumor (SUVmax and SUVmean) was higher than that of normal lung (SUVlung) (P<0.001), SUVmax, SUVmean of the tumor and SUVlung were 3.14±1.65, 2.40±1.34 and 0.38±0.08respectively. Correlations were found between FDG uptake and tumor size (P<0.05). SUVmean in 21 tumors (21/35, 60.0%) and SUVmax in 15 tumors (15/35, 42.9%) were lower than 2.5. These 21 tumors were all considered as benign by visual method and semiquantitative analysis. Conclusion: (1) FDG uptake was higher in bronchial alveolar carcinoma than that in normal lung tissue. (2) FDG uptake and tumor size appear to be correlated with each other. (3) Bronchial alveolar carcinomas lead to many false negative cases in FDG-PET.

  9. The value of PET/CT with FES or FDG tracers in metastatic breast cancer: a computer simulation study in ER-positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva-Kolarova, R.G.; Greuter, M. J. W.; van Kruchten, M; Vermeulen, K.M.; Feenstra, T; Buskens, E; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; de Vries, E F J; de Vries, E G E; Hospers, G A P; de Bock, G H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the number of performed biopsies and costs associated with implementing positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (PET/CT) with 16α-[18F]fluoro-17β-oestradiol (FES) or 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) as an upfront imaging test for diagnosing metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in comparison with the standard work-up in oestrogen receptor-positive women with symptoms. Methods: A published computer simulation mode...

  10. Axillary lymph node characterization in breast cancer patients using magnetic resonance mammography: A prospective comparative study with FDG PET-CT and healthy women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, J., E-mail: Julia.Krammer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de; Wasser, K.; Schnitzer, A.; Henzler, T.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Kaiser, C.G.

    2013-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of dynamic contrast enhanced MR-mammography (MRM) for the interpretation of axillary lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with breast cancer. Material and methods: 25 patients with breast cancer preoperatively underwent both FDG positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRM. The maximum signal increase (SI{sub max}) and curve shape (types I–III) of contrast enhanced LNs ≥0.5 cm (short-axis) were analyzed in MRM and correlated to the maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of FDG PET-CT. 29 healthy women with MRM served as control group. Enhancement kinetics of all malignant LNs were compared to LN findings of the healthy control group. Results: Overall 33 contrast enhanced LNs on preoperative MRM had a corresponding FDG uptake on PET-CT. 30 of the PET positive LNs were classified as surely malignant (mean SUV{sub max} 7.3 (±5.4)). The mean SI{sub max} of these LNs was not significantly different to the control group (222% vs 197%), but malignant LNs had a significantly higher rate of type III curves with rapid washout (93% vs 66%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The maximum signal increase is not capable of differentiating malignant from benign axillary LNs. However, since malignant LNs showed a higher frequency of rapid washout curves (type III curves) on corresponding MRM future studies should concentrate on the analysis of this parameter. In clinical routine the curve shape still should be taken with care as there is a high overlap with benign LNs.

  11. Characterization of biological features of a rat F98 GBM model: A PET-MRI study with [18F]FAZA and [18F]FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The prognosis of malignant gliomas remains largely unsatisfactory for the intrinsic characteristics of the pathology and for the delayed diagnosis. Multimodal imaging based on PET and MRI may assess the dynamics of disease onset and progression allowing the validation of preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of this study was the characterization of a syngeneic rat model of GBM using combined in vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. Methods: Four groups of Fischer rats were implanted in a subcortical region with increasing concentration of rat glioma F98 cells and weekly monitored with Gd-MR, [18F]FDG- and [18F]FAZA-PET starting one week after surgery. Different targets were evaluated on post mortem brain specimens using immunohistochemistry: VEGF, GFAP, HIF-1α, Ki-67 and nestin. Results: Imaging results indicated that tumor onset but not progression was related to the number of F98 cells. Hypoxic regions identified with [18F]FAZA and high-glucose metabolism regions recognized with [18F]FDG were located respectively in the core and in external areas of the tumor, with partial overlap and remodeling during disease progression. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed PET/MRI results and revealed that our model resumes biological characteristics of human GBM. IHC and PET studies showed that necrotic regions, defined on the basis of [18F]FDG uptake reduction, may include hypoxic clusters of vital tumor tissue identified with [18F]FAZA. This last information is particularly relevant for the identification of the target volume during image-guided radiotherapy. Conclusions: In conclusion, the combined use of PET and MRI allows in vivo monitoring of the biological modification of F98 lesions during tumor progression

  12. The Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue Activity and Neoplastic Status: an 18F-FDG PET/CT Study in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT has thermogenic potential. For its activation, cold exposure is considered a critical factor though other determinants have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between neoplastic status and BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in people living in the tropics, where the influence of outdoor temperature was low. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were reviewed and the total metabolic activity (TMA of identified activated BAT quantified. The distribution and TMA of activated BAT were compared between patients with and without a cancer history. The neoplastic status of patients was scored according to their cancer history and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings. We evaluated the relationships between the TMA of BAT and neoplastic status along with other factors: age, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, gender, and outdoor temperature. Results Thirty of 1740 patients had activated BAT. Those with a cancer history had wider BAT distribution (p = 0.043 and a higher TMA (p = 0.028 than those without. A higher neoplastic status score was associated with a higher average TMA. Multivariate analyses showed that neoplastic status was the only factor significantly associated with the TMA of activated BAT (p = 0.016. Conclusions Neoplastic status is a critical determinant of BAT activity in patients living in the tropics. More active neoplastic status was associated with more vigorous TMA of BAT.

  13. Large-Vessel Vasculitis: Interobserver Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. F. Lensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 18F-FDG-PET visualises inflammation. Both atherosclerosis and giant cell arteritis cause vascular inflammation, but distinguishing the two may be difficult. The goal of this study was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET for the detection of large artery involvement in giant cell arteritis (GCA. Methods. 31 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans were selected from 2 databases. Four observers assessed vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake, initially without and subsequently with predefined observer criteria (i.e., vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake compared to liver or femoral artery 18F-FDG uptake. External validation was performed by two additional observers. Sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG-PET were determined by comparing scan results to a consensus diagnosis. Results. The highest interobserver agreement (kappa: 0.96 in initial study and 0.79 in external validation was observed when vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake higher than liver uptake was used as a diagnostic criterion, although agreement was also good without predefined criteria (kappa: 0.68 and 0.85. Sensitivity and specificity were comparable for these methods. The criterion of vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake equal to liver 18F-FDG uptake had low specificity. Conclusion. Standardization of image assessment for vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake promotes observer agreement, enables comparative studies, and does not appear to result in loss of diagnostic accuracy compared to nonstandardized assessment.

  14. FDG PET during radiochemotherapy is predictive of outcome at 1 year in non-small-cell lung cancer patients: a prospective multicentre study (RTEP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Pierre; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Modzelewski, Romain [Henri Becquerel Center and QuantIF - Litis EA-Equipe d' Accueil-4108 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, Rouen (France); Mezzani-Saillard, Sandrine; Thureau, Sebastien; Dubray, Bernard [Henri Becquerel Center and QuantIF - Litis ' ' EA (Equipe d' Accueil) 4108' ' and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, Rouen (France); Menard, Jean-Francois [Rouen University Hospital and University of Rouen, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Meyer, Marc-Etienne [Amiens University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amiens (France); Jalali, Khadija [Amiens University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amiens (France); Bardet, Stephane [Francois Baclesse Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Lerouge, Delphine [Francois Baclesse Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Caen (France); Houzard, Claire [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon (France); Mornex, Francoise [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France); Olivier, Pierre [Brabois University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Faure, Guillaume [Centre prive de Radiotherapie de Metz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Metz (France); Rousseau, Caroline [Renee Gauducheau Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); Mahe, Marc-Andre [Institut de Cancerologie-Rene Gauducheau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nantes (France); Gomez, Philippe [Centre Frederic Joliot, Radiation Oncology, Rouen (France); Clinique Saint-Hilaire, Rouen (France); Brenot-Rossi, Isabelle [Institut Paoli Calmette, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Salem, Naji [Institut Paoli Calmette, Department of Radiation Oncology, Marseille (France)

    2014-06-15

    To assess prospectively the prognostic value of FDG PET/CT during curative-intent radiotherapy (RT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with histological proof of invasive localized NSCLC and evaluable tumour, and who were candidates for curative-intent radiochemotherapy (RCT) or RT were preincluded after providing written informed consent. Definitive inclusion was conditional upon significant FDG uptake before RT (PET{sub 1}). All included patients had a FDG PET/CT scan during RT (PET{sub 2}, mean dose 43 Gy) and were evaluated by FDG PET/CT at 3 months and 1 year after RT. The main endpoint was death (from whatever cause) or tumour progression at 1 year. Of 77 patients preincluded, 52 were evaluable. Among the evaluable patients, 77 % received RT with induction chemotherapy and 73 % RT with concomitant chemotherapy. At 1 year, 40 patients (77 %) had died or had tumour progression. No statistically significant association was found between stage (IIIB vs. other), histology (squamous cell carcinoma vs. other), induction or concomitant chemotherapy, and death/tumour progression at 1 year. The SUV{sub max} in the PET{sub 2} scan was the single variable predictive of death or tumour progression at 1 year (odds ratio 1.97, 95 % CI 1.25 - 3.09, p = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95 % CI 0.73 - 0.94, p < 10{sup -4}). A SUV{sub max} value of 5.3 in the PET{sub 2} scan yielded a sensitivity of 70 % and a specificity of 92 % for predicting tumour progression or death at 1 year. This prospective multicentre study demonstrated the prognostic value in terms of disease-free survival of SUV{sub max} assessed during the 5th week of curative-intent RT or RCT in NSCLC patients (NCT01261598; RTEP2 study). (orig.)

  15. Chandelier neurons within the rabbits' cerebral cortex. A Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Paschinger, I B; Tömböl, T; Petsche, H

    1983-01-01

    This study has been carried out by light microscopy on 3 Golgi-Kopsch impregnated brains of young adult rabbits. It is shown that chandelier cells exist within the rabbits' cerebral cortex. In the rabbit, the chandelier cell is a medium ranged bipolar interneuron in layer II/III with a characteristic axon which forms a plexus with a diameter of about 350-500 micrometers in the horizontal and 200-350 micrometers in the vertical direction; the end of each ramulus forms the typical "candlestick", a little vertical string of 1-6 boutons on an axon fibre. These boutons form contacts with all parts of pyramidal cells in layer II and the upper part of layer III. Similarities and differences with respect to previous descriptions of these cells in other species are discussed. PMID:6837931

  16. Predictive value of early {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT studies for treatment response evaluation to ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma: preliminary results of an ongoing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Pan, Leyun; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Larribere, Lionel [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Dermato-Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hassel, Jessica C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Skin Cancer Center, Department of Dermatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    Ipilimumab is a newly approved immunotherapeutic agent that has been shown to provide a survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has demonstrated very satisfying results in detecting melanoma metastases in general. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT we monitored patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab therapy during the course of treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT performed after two cycles of ipilimumab in predicting the final response to therapy. In 22 patients suffering from unresectable metastatic melanoma, scheduled for ipilimumab treatment PET/CT scanning was performed before the start of treatment (baseline scan), after two cycles of treatment (early response) and at the end of treatment after four cycles (late response). Evaluation of the patient response to treatment on PET was based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 1999 criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data are presented. After the end of treatment, 15 patients were characterized as having progressive metabolic disease (PMD) and five as having stable metabolic disease (SMD), and two patients showed a partial metabolic response (PMR). Early PET/CT performed after two ipilimumab cycles predicted treatment response in 13 of the 15 PMD patients, in five of the five SMD patients and in neither of the two PMR patients. Both patients with PMR showed pseudoprogression after the second cycle and were therefore wrongly classified. According to the patients' clinical outcome, patients with late PMD had a median PFS of 3.6 months (mean 5.6 months), while patients with late SMD had a median PFS of 9.8 months (mean 9.0 months). In comparison, patients with early PMD had a median PFS of 2.7 months (mean 5.5 months) and patients with early SMD had a median PFS of 6.3 months (mean 7.5 months). The difference in PFS between the two groups was statistically

  17. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  18. Influence of spinal cord injury on cerebral sensorimotor systems : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Curt, A; Otte, A; Missimer, J; Maguire, RP; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL

    1997-01-01

    Objectives-To assess the effect of a transverse spinal cord lesion on cerebral energy metabolism in view of sensorimotor reorganisation. Methods-PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose were used to study resting cerebral glucose metabolism in 11 patients with complete paraplegia or tetraplegia after spinal

  19. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Song, Fahuan; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhou, Huifen; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with (18)F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  20. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET. Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d, DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d, and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d. AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN, glial marker (GFAP, vascular density factor (vWF, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  1. Comparative study of 18F-FLT PET and 18F-FDG PET of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi LIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current paper aims to investigate the value of 18F-FLT PET in the diagnosis of lung cancer and the monitoring of tumor proliferation.Methods A total of 36 patients received and cured by the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from September 2005 to October 2008(27 males and 9 females,aged 38 years to 74 years with chest CT suspected lung cancer were examined with 18F-FLT PET.Up to 42 patients(29 males and 13 females,aged 37 years to 75 years received and cured at the same time also underwent 18F-FDG PET.The current experimental results were compared with that of the tumor pathology.Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of cell nuclear antigen of excisional disease tissues Ki-67.Results The 18F-FDG PET standardize uptake value(SUV of lung cancer(SUV,5.2±2.9 was higher than that of the 18F-FLT PET SUV(3.2±1.3(P < 0.05.The sensitivity of 18F-FLT PET for the detection of primary lung cancer was 77%,the specificity was 86%,and the accuracy was 78%.The sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET were 88%,50%,and 79%,respectively.The sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy for the lymph node staging with 18F-FLT PET were 47%,88% and 75%,respectively,compared with the 68%,84%,and 79% for 18F-FDG PET,respectively.18F-FLT SUV of lung cancer was positively correlated with the Ki-67 index(r=0.8278,P < 0.001 than that of 18F-FDG SUV(r=0.0079,P=0.968.Conclusions 18F-FLT can be made to uptake by specificity of lung cancer tissue,and its uptake value is correlated significantly with the proliferation of lung cancer.Therefore,18F-FLT PET can be applied to assist the diagnosis of lung tumor,and is expected to be a tool to determine the proliferation activity of tumor cells.

  2. 18F-DG PET and RCBF SPECT in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional imaging of cortical metabolism and perfusion is of growing importance in the presurgical evaluation of patients suffering from intractable epilepsy. PET and SPECT are of proven value in functional imaging prior to epilepsy surgery. To date the best clinical experience was gained by using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose for PET and tracers for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) like 99mTc-HMPO or 99mTc-ECD for SPECT respectively. Their relative contribution towards detection of a probable focus site in epilepsy is still controversial. To determine the relative value of both procedures the literature has been reviewed with special respect to ictal SPECT studies. With regard to different standards used for correlation a relative sensitivity of 62.4% was found for interictal rCBF SPECT. 71% for 18-FDG-PET and 87% for ictal rCBF SPECT studies. In conclusion, earlier reported advantages of PET over SPECT seem to closely reflect the better spatial resolution of PET. Modern SPECT systems, dedicated for brain SPECT, provide appropriate and almost equal sensitivity. Regarding the limited specificity of interictal studies, both rCBF SPECT and FDG-PET need precise indications. However, further to detection of a probable focus site, metabolism and rCBF studies seem to be of value to predicit the post-surgical patients outcome as to seizure frequency and mental functions secondarily affected by epilepsy surgery such as memory impairment. Ictal rCBF SPECT provides higher sensitivity and specificity and virtually allows the detection lateralisation in almost every case. This means that a relatively precise anatomical localisation of an epileptogenic focus is being found in a rising number of patients. (orig.)

  3. {sup 18}FDG PET and acetazolamide-enhanced {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Schomburg, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Badali, A. [Dept. of Dermatology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Ruhlmann, J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Pavics, L. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin

    1995-09-01

    In this report, we present the case of a 70-year-old female patient, suffering from SLE without symptoms of CNS involvement. In addition to a SPET study using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) and a PET scan with fluorine-18 deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), a SPET study after acetazolamide injection was performed in order to assess the cerebral perfusion reserve. While the PET scan showed no major abnormalities, and the baseline SPET study revealed only minor changes, the acetazolamide-enhanced SPET study revealed a marked reduction of the cortical perfusion reserve, particularly in both frontal lobes. It is concluded that ``preclinical`` CNS involvement, mainly caused by pathological mechanisms involving the cerebral blood vessels, can be considered to exist in this patient with SLE. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  4. 18-FDG in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, Y. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)); Itoh, M. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Watabe, H. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Ghista, D.N. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates))

    1993-06-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test, IVGTT, has been used to evaluate patients in whom abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus are suspected. IVGTT, if analyzed using 'minimal models', or discrete-time methods, provides information on the sensitivity of glucose disappearance to insulin and on pancreatic sensitivity to glucose, information that cannot be obtained from direct analysis of the dynamic response alone. In a preliminary study, data obtained by intravenously injecting 18-FDG in four subjects was analyzed using a discrete-time model. The experimental details, the results and their implications will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Reliability of semiquantitative 18F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Simultaneous brain PET/MRI faces an important issue of validation of accurate MRI based attenuation correction (AC) method for precise quantitation of brain PET data unlike in PET/CT systems where the use of standard, validated CT based AC is routinely available. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluation of semiquantitative 18F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI using ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences for AC and to assess their agreement with those obtained from PET/CT examination. Methods: Sixteen patients (age range 18–73 years; mean age 49.43 (19.3) years; 13 men 3 women) underwent simultaneous brain PET/MRI followed immediately by PET/CT. Quantitative analysis of brain PET images obtained from both studies was undertaken using Scenium v.1 brain analysis software package. Twenty ROIs for various brain regions were system generated and 6 semiquantitative parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max), SUV mean, minimum SUV (SUV min), minimum standard deviation (SD min), maximum SD (SD max) and SD from mean were calculated for both sets of PET data for each patient. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined to assess agreement between the various semiquantitative parameters for the two PET data sets. Results: Intra-class co-relation between the two PET data sets for SUV max, SUV mean and SD max was highly significant (p < 0.00) for all the 20 predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.9. SD from mean was also found to be statistically significant for all the predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.8. However, SUV max and SUV mean values obtained from PET/MRI were significantly lower compared to those of PET/CT for all the predefined brain regions. Conclusion: PET quantitation accuracy using the MRI based UTE sequences for AC in simultaneous brain PET/MRI is reliable in a clinical setting, being similar to that obtained using PET/CT

  6. Reliability of semiquantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Amarnath, E-mail: drjena2002@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Taneja, Sangeeta, E-mail: s_taneja1974@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Goel, Reema, E-mail: reemagoell@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Renjen, Pushpendranath, E-mail: pnrenjen@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Negi, Pradeep, E-mail: pradeepmri@rediffmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Simultaneous brain PET/MRI faces an important issue of validation of accurate MRI based attenuation correction (AC) method for precise quantitation of brain PET data unlike in PET/CT systems where the use of standard, validated CT based AC is routinely available. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluation of semiquantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI using ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences for AC and to assess their agreement with those obtained from PET/CT examination. Methods: Sixteen patients (age range 18–73 years; mean age 49.43 (19.3) years; 13 men 3 women) underwent simultaneous brain PET/MRI followed immediately by PET/CT. Quantitative analysis of brain PET images obtained from both studies was undertaken using Scenium v.1 brain analysis software package. Twenty ROIs for various brain regions were system generated and 6 semiquantitative parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max), SUV mean, minimum SUV (SUV min), minimum standard deviation (SD min), maximum SD (SD max) and SD from mean were calculated for both sets of PET data for each patient. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined to assess agreement between the various semiquantitative parameters for the two PET data sets. Results: Intra-class co-relation between the two PET data sets for SUV max, SUV mean and SD max was highly significant (p < 0.00) for all the 20 predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.9. SD from mean was also found to be statistically significant for all the predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.8. However, SUV max and SUV mean values obtained from PET/MRI were significantly lower compared to those of PET/CT for all the predefined brain regions. Conclusion: PET quantitation accuracy using the MRI based UTE sequences for AC in simultaneous brain PET/MRI is reliable in a clinical setting, being similar to that obtained using PET/CT.

  7. Contraceptives and cerebral thrombosis: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis......Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis...

  8. Electrocardiographic-gated dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition SPECT using 18F-FDG and 99mTc-sestamibi to assess myocardial viability and function in a single study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 99mTc-sestamibi appears attractive for the detection of viable myocardium because it permits simultaneous assessment of glucose utilisation and perfusion. Another potential benefit of this approach is that the measurement of left ventricular (LV) function may be possible by ECG gating. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that both myocardial viability and LV function can be assessed by a single ECG-gated 18F-FDG/99mTc-sestamibi DISA SPECT study, based on comparison with 18F-FDG/13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference techniques. Thirty-three patients with prior myocardial infarction underwent ECG-gated 18F-FDG/99mTc-sestamibi DISA SPECT and 18F-FDG/13N-ammonia PET on a single day. Of these, 25 patients also underwent cine-MRI to assess LV function. The LV myocardium was divided into nine regions, and each region was classified as viable or scar using a semiquantitative visual scoring system as well as quantitative analysis. The global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT was compared with the results of MRI. There was good agreement in respect of viability (90-96%, κ0.74-0.85) between DISA SPECT and PET by either visual or quantitative analysis. Furthermore, although both global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT agreed with those by MRI, 99mTc-sestamibi showed a closer correlation with MRI than did 18F-FDG. In conclusion, ECG-gated DISA SPECT provides information on myocardial viability, as well as global and regional LV function, similar to that obtained by PET and MRI. (orig.)

  9. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  10. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kułak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42% and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%. The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  11. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  12. Positron emission tomography in Huntington's chorea using C15O2, 15O2 and 18 FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using C15 O2, 15O2 and 18FDG was performed in a father and his son with Huntington's chorea. It was suggested that striatal atrophy occurred before the extensive atrophy of the cerebral cortex and that the progression of atrophy of the right and left cerebral hemispheric cortexes was not uniform. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Brain metabolic changes in Hodgkin disease patients following diagnosis and during the disease course: An 18F-FDG PET/CT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHIARAVALLOTI, AGOSTINO; PAGANI, MARCO; CANTONETTI, MARIA; DI PIETRO, BARBARA; TAVOLOZZA, MARIO; TRAVASCIO, LAURA; DI BIAGIO, DANIELE; DANIELI, ROBERTA; SCHILLACI, ORAZIO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate brain glucose metabolism in patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) after diagnosis and during chemotherapy treatment. Following the administration of first-line doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, 74 HD patients underwent 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography brain scans, both baseline (PET0) and interim (PET2) at the Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata (Rome, Italy). Fifty-seven patients were further evaluated 15±6 days after four additional cycles (PET6). Furthermore, a control group (CG) of 40 chemotherapy-naïve subjects was enrolled. Differences in brain 18F-FDG uptake between the CG, PET0, PET2 and PET6 scans were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Compared with the PET0 and CG scans, the PET2 scan demonstrated a higher metabolic activity in Brodmann area (BA) 39, and a metabolic reduction in BA 11 bilaterally and in left BA 32. All of these changes disappeared at PET6. The results of the present study indicate that ABVD chemotherapy has a limited impact on brain metabolism. PMID:25621038

  14. Clinical study of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction. Method: Using urokinase, 35 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours were treated by intra-artery thrombolytic therapy. Europe stroke scale (ESS), Barthel index (BI) were used to evaluate the recovery of neurological functions. Result: ESS score increase rapidly after thrombolytisis, and there were significant difference between the two teams. Thirteen of 13 cases treated within 6 hours from onset showed complete/partial recanalization in cerebral angiography and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 0%, twenty-six of 35 cases treated within 24 hours showed complete/partial recanalization and intraparenchymal hemorrhagic rate were 5.71%. Conclusion: Interventional therapy for acute cerebral infarction within 6h were safe and effective. (authors)

  15. A study of cerebral perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography in neonates with brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, J.; Contantinesco, A.; Brunot, B.; Messer, J. (Hospital Universitaire de Strasbourg (France))

    1994-03-01

    In this study the authors used a single photon emission computed tomography technique (SPECT) with radiolabelled [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO to assess cerebral perfusion in newborn infants with documented cerebral lesions and to determine to what extent brain SPECT might be useful in the neonatal period. A total of 15 newborn infants with the following cerebral pathologies were enrolled: severe parietal bilateral periventricular leucomalacia; moderate parietal bilateral PVL; intraventricular haemorrhage grade II with unilateral parietal parenchymal extension; cerebral infarction in the zone of middle cerebral artery; and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Follow-up was available in all infants. Alterations in cerebral perfusion were seen in only 12 of 15 infants and at the location of severe PVL, PE and CI. It was noted that the regions of diminished perfusion extended beyond the apparent extent of cerebral pathology delineated by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Markedly diminished perfusion was seen in one infant with hydrocephalus, which recovered following placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Regarding outcome, SPECT data failed to provide additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. It is concluded that the use of SPECT, under these conditions, to assess alteration of cerebral perfusion in the neonatal period will not provide any additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A study on regional cerebral circulation in stroke patients with aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the pathophysiology of aphasia due to cerebral stroke, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the 133Xe clearance method and the volume of low density area (LDA) was estimated on the basis of computerized tomography in 43 thrombotic (24 aphasia and 19 non-aphasia), 30 hemorrhagic (16 aphasia and 14 non-aphasia) and 6 non-stroke cases. 1) In the healthy hemisphere, rCBF showed no significant difference between aphasia and non-aphasia in both thrombotic and hemorrhagic cases. In the affected hemisphere, thrombotic cases showed significantly decreased rCBF in aphasic cases as compared to non-aphasic, however, hemorrhagic cases revealed no difference. 2) LDA volume showed no significant difference between aphasia and non-aphasia in cerebral thrombosis, however, LDA volume in non-aphasia was smaller than that in aphasia in cerebral hemorrage. 3) Significant differences in the pathophysiology of aphasia due to cerebral stroke were recognized between cerebral thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhage. Such differences should be taken into consideration in the management and treatment of aphasia caused by cerebral stroke. (author)

  17. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik Bw

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  18. Simultaneous whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in primary staging of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Sangeeta, E-mail: s_taneja1974@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Jena, Amarnath, E-mail: drjena2002@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Goel, Reema, E-mail: reemagoell@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Sarin, Ramesh, E-mail: sarinramesh@hotmail.com [Department of Surgical Oncology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi––Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Kaul, Sumaid, E-mail: sumaidkaul53@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Initial staging of breast cancer important in treatment planning and prognostication. • We assessed role of simultaneous {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast cancer. • Primary, nodes and metastases on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for count and diagnostic confidence. • High diagnostic accuracy and confidence in detecting index and satellite lesions. • Comprehensive nodal and distant metastases staging with altered management (12 cases). - Abstract: Purpose: Accurate initial staging in breast carcinoma is important for treatment planning and for establishing the likely prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of whole body simultaneous {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast carcinoma. Methods: 36 patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma underwent simultaneous whole body {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI on integrated 3 T PET-MR scanner (Siemens Biograph mMR) for primary staging. Primary lesion, nodes and metastases were evaluated on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for lesion count and diagnostic confidence (DC). Kappa co relation analysis was done to assess agreement between the satellite, nodal and metastatic lesions detected by PET and MRI. Histopathology, clinical/imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. Results: 36 patients with 37 histopathologically proven index breast cancer were retrospectively studied. Of 36 patients, 25 patients underwent surgery and 11 patients received systemic therapy. All index cancers were seen on PET and MR. Fused PET-MRI showed highest diagnostic confidence score of 5 as compared to PET (median 4; range 3–5) and MRI (median 4; range 4–5) alone. 2/36 (5.5%) patients were detected to have unsuspected contralateral synchronous cancer. 47 satellite lesions were detected on DCE MRI of which 23 were FDG avid with multifocality and multicentricity in 21 (58%) patients. Kappa co relation analysis revealed fair agreement for satellite lesion detection by the two

  19. A case study on the Ayurvedic management of cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar Mahendrabhai Bhinde

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. CP is defined as a nonprogressive neuromotor disorder of cerebral origin. It cannot be correlated with any single disease or condition in Ayurveda, as it is a multi-factorial disease with clinical features of a wide variation. According to Vāgbhaṭa, it is classified in the disease categories of sahaja (hereditary) and garbhaja (congenital) and jātaja (psychosomatic) type of diseases. Of the ma...

  20. Proteomic Studies on Human and Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Moussa, Ehab

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of malaria infection that results from interrelated pathologies. Despite extensive research efforts, the mechanism of the disease is not completely understood. Clinical studies, postmortem analysis, and animal models have been the main research arenas in CM. In this thesis, shotgun proteomics approach was used to further understand the pathology of human and experimental CM. The mechanism by which CM turns fatal is yet to be identified. A clinical proteomics study was conducted on pooled plasma samples from children with reversible or fatal CM from the Gambia. The results show that depletion of coagulation factors and increased levels of circulating proteasomes are associated with fatal pediatric CM. This data suggests that the ongoing coagulation during CM might be a disseminated intravascular coagulation state that eventually causes depletion of the coagulation factors leading to petechial hemorrhages. In addition, the mechanism(s) by which blood transfusion benefits CM in children was investigated. To that end, the concentration and multimerization pattern of von-willebrand factor, and the concentration of haptoglobin in the plasma of children with CM who received blood transfusions were measured. In addition to clinical studies, experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice has been long used as a model for the disease. A shotgun proteomics workflow was optimized to identify the proteomic signature of the brain tissue of mice with ECM.Because of the utmost importance of membrane proteins in the pathology of the disease, sample fractionation and filter aided sample preparation were used to recover them. The proteomic signature of the brains of mice infected with P. berghei ANKA that developed neurological syndrome, mice infected with P. berghei NK56 that developed severe malaria but without neurological signs, and non-infected mice, were compared to identify CM specific proteins. Among the differentially

  1. Enhanced global mathematical model for studying cerebral venous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lucas O; Toro, Eleuterio F

    2014-10-17

    Here we extend the global, closed-loop, mathematical model for the cardiovascular system in Müller and Toro (2014) to account for fundamental mechanisms affecting cerebral venous haemodynamics: the interaction between intracranial pressure and cerebral vasculature and the Starling-resistor like behaviour of intracranial veins. Computational results are compared with flow measurements obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), showing overall satisfactory agreement. The role played by each model component in shaping cerebral venous flow waveforms is investigated. Our results are discussed in light of current physiological concepts and model-driven considerations, indicating that the Starling-resistor like behaviour of intracranial veins at the point where they join dural sinuses is the leading mechanism. Moreover, we present preliminary results on the impact of neck vein strictures on cerebral venous hemodynamics. These results show that such anomalies cause a pressure increment in intracranial cerebral veins, even if the shielding effect of the Starling-resistor like behaviour of cerebral veins is taken into account. PMID:25169660

  2. Neural responses of rats in the forced swimming test: [F-18]FDG micro PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Pyo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Park, Chan-Woong; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo

    2009-10-12

    The forced swimming test (FST) is a widely used tool in the assessment of behavioral despair and prediction of response to antidepressants. However, the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral changes between pretest and test sessions of the FST remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in rat brain activity during the FST using [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose micro PET. In both pretest and test sessions, the activity of the cerebellum and striatum increased, whereas significant deactivation was observed in the hippocampus, inferior colliculus, orbital cortex, and insula. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) region activated markedly in the pretest session, but did not activate in the test session. There was a significant increase in immobility and a decrease in climbing during the behavioral analysis test session. These results suggest that the PAG region may play an important role in the modulation of FST coping strategies subsequent to failure of the escape response during the pretest session.

  3. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seong Eun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32{approx}79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95{+-}4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9{+-}0.69 in ulcer, 3.08{+-}1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2{+-}1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous

  4. Analysis and interpretation of dynamic FDG PET oncological studies using data reduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Andres

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic positron emission tomography studies produce a large amount of image data, from which clinically useful parametric information can be extracted using tracer kinetic methods. Data reduction methods can facilitate the initial interpretation and visual analysis of these large image sequences and at the same time can preserve important information and allow for basic feature characterization. Methods We have applied principal component analysis to provide high-contrast parametric image sets of lower dimensions than the original data set separating structures based on their kinetic characteristics. Our method has the potential to constitute an alternative quantification method, independent of any kinetic model, and is particularly useful when the retrieval of the arterial input function is complicated. In independent component analysis images, structures that have different kinetic characteristics are assigned opposite values, and are readily discriminated. Furthermore, novel similarity mapping techniques are proposed, which can summarize in a single image the temporal properties of the entire image sequence according to a reference region. Results Using our new cubed sum coefficient similarity measure, we have shown that structures with similar time activity curves can be identified, thus facilitating the detection of lesions that are not easily discriminated using the conventional method employing standardized uptake values.

  5. Comparison of dynamic FDG PET and gene chip data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The kinetics of dynamic PET FDG studies in colorectal tumors and bone tumors was compared with results obtained from tumor samples and gene chip analysis. Methods: Dynamic PET FDG studies were performed in 9 patients prior to surgery. The PET data were acquired for 60 minutes using a dedicated PET ring system. Following iterative image reconstruction, the data were quantified using a dedicated software program. Besides the calculation of SUV, a two compartment model was used to retrieve the parameters VB (vessel density) and the FDG transport constants K1-k4. Furthermore, a non-compartment model was applied to gain information about the tumor heterogeneity using the fractal dimension (FD). Following surgery, tissue samples were processed and gene expression was measured using gene chips (U92A, Affymetrix Co.). The U92A chip provides semiquantitative information about the expression of 12276 genes. The quantitative gene chip data were analysed with respect to the parameters of the FDG metabolism in the individual patients. Results: FDG uptake, as measured by SUV, showed a low correlation to GLUT-1, GLUT-2 and GLUT-3, while no correlation was observed for GLUT-4 and GLUT-5. Interestingly, higher correlations were observed for FDG SUV and the SGLT transporter family. A multiple linear regression function was calculated and demonstrated a high correlation for GLUT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-3 and FDG SUV. Similar results were obtained for SGLT transporters and SUV. Oncogenes, e.g. k-ras, showed a nonlinear correlation of r=0.50. The FDG SUV was associated with the expression of the gastrointestinal peptide in colorectal tumors. The results will be discussed in detail, also with respect to the kinetic data. Conclusion: Gene chip analysis provides superior information about the association of gene expression and FDG kinetics

  6. The effect of aging on aortic atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification: A FDG and NaF PET CT imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene;

    2013-01-01

    prospectively assessed by 18-FDG (inflammation) and Sodium 18-Fluoride (Na-18F) (calcification metabolism) PET CT imaging. Global aortic uptake of 18-FDG and Na-18F was quantified by subtracting the blood pool SUVmean from the aortic SUVmax (cSUV) [maximum SUVaorta - mean SUVblood pool]. Calculating regression...

  7. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  8. 18F-FDG PET-CT在霍奇金淋巴瘤疗效评价中的临床价值%A preliminary study on clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in evaluation of efficacy of Hodgkin lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林端瑜; 唐明灯; 李生栩; 刘道佳; 张杰平; 蔡志华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨18F-FDG PET-CT在霍奇金淋巴瘤(HL)疗效评价中的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析31例HL患者化疗后的18F-FDG PET-CT图像资料,最终结果经病理和临床随访证实,并与治疗后单纯CT结果进行对比分析,采用四格表x2进行差异的显著性检验.结果 ①31例患者共发现病灶145处,其中恶性94处、良性51处.18F-FDG PET-CT评价HL治疗效果的灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值及准确率分别为97.87%、94.12%、96.84%、96.00%和96.55%,均明显优于单纯CT检查(x2=9.83、13.49、11.50、11.69、22.58,P均<0.05).②31例患者经PET-CT显像后,16例(51.61%)更改治疗方案.结论 18F-FDG PET-CT是HL疗效监测的有效手段.%Objective To explore the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in the evaluation of efficacy of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).Methods Thirty-one cases of post-treatment patients with HL were studied retrospectively.18F-FDG PET-CT images after chemotherapy were compared with CT post-therapy results.The final diagnosis was based on pathology or clinical follow-ups.Results ①A total of 94 malignant lesions and 51 benign lesions were found in 31 patients in the study.The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value,and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET-CT in the evaluation of efficacy of HL were 97.87%,94.12%,96.84%,96.00% and 96.55% respectively,which were significantly superior to CT examination alone (x2=9.83,13.49,11.50,11.69,22.58,all P<0.05).②According to the results of PET-CT,therapeutic schedules of 16 cases (51.61%)had been changed.Conclusion 18F-FDG PET-CT is an effective method in the evaluation of efficacy of HL.

  9. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Poitry-yamate, Carole; Gianoncelli, A; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B; Lepore, Mario; Gruetter, Rolf; M. Kiskinova

    2013-01-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19 F in 19 FDG, trapped as intracellular 19 F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate ( 19 FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19 FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribu...

  10. FDG-PET identification of intraperitoneal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Peritoneal metastases (PM) are usually from intra-abdominal primary neoplasms, such as carcinoma of the stomach, colon, ovary, and pancreas, or from intra-abdominal lymphoma. Metastases disseminate throughout the peritoneum in four ways: 1) direct spread along peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta; 2) via the flow of ascitis fluid. 3) lymphatic extension, and 4) embolic hematogenous spread. Although CT is quite specific in identifying PM it is not very sensitive, and peritoneal lavage or biopsy can be very useful but have sampling errors. This study assessed the clinical value of FDG-PET for the detection of PM of malignant diseases. Materials and Methods: 15 FDG-PET scans of patients referred for recurrence (mean age = 54 y/o, sex = 6M, 9F), with metabolic abnormalities suspicious findings of PM from carcinoma of the colon (7), ovary (3), lymphoma (2), pancreas (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1) and melanoma (1) were reviewed. The whole-body studies were performed 50 min following the intravenous administration of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG, in a high resolution dedicated PET scanner (Advance, GEMS), with images reconstructed using a iterative algorithm with segmented attenuation correction. Visual interpretation and SUV values were correlated with CT/MRI findings and biopsy/follow-up. Results: Of the 15 patients, 7 showed <3 sites of focal uptake and 8 presented multiple foci or a diffuse hypermetabolism in the abdomen (SUVmax3.04-18.83 g/ml). 6 patients had biopsy confirmation by PET-directed surgery (6 proven PM, 0 negative biopsies). 11 FDG-PET scans had correspondence with the CT/MRI findings and 4 showed discrepancies (PET positive-CT/MRI negative in patients with isolated raising tumor markers levels or unsuspected PM). FDG-PET influenced the therapeutic management in 2 patients as presented multiple metastases leading them from surgery to chemotherapy. Conclusion: When used as a complementary imaging tool to the conventional work up, FDG-PET is

  11. Cerebellar stimulation for cerebral palsy--double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R; Schulman, J; Delehanty, A

    1987-01-01

    Twenty spastic cerebral palsy (CP) patients undergoing chronic cerebellar stimulation (CCS) for reduction of spasticity and improvement in function have participated in a double-blind study. Seven US centers involving 9 neurosurgeons (1984-6) have replaced the depleted Neurolith 601 fully implantable pulse generator (Pacesetter Systems Incorp.-Neurodyne Corp., Sylmar, CA) with new units in 19 CP patients, 1 patient entered the study following his initial implant. A magnetically controllable switch was placed in line between the Neurolith stimulator and the cerebellar lead, so allowing switching sequences for the study. Physical therapists, living in the vicinity of the patient's home, carried out two quantitative evaluations: 1. Joint angle motion measurements (passive and active). 2. Motor performance testing was done when possible and included: reaction time, hand dynamonetry, grooved peg board placement, hand/foot tapping, and rotary pursuit testing. Testing was done presurgery, at 2 weeks postimplant, then the switch was activated either "on" or "off" to a schedule, with testing and reswitching at 1, 2 and 4 months, then the switch was left turned "on". Of the 20 patients, 16 finished the tests, 2 patients failed to finish and 2 had switch problems and were deleted from the study. Two of the 16 patients were "off" through the entire testing. Of the 14 that had periods of the stimulator being "on", 10 patients (72%) had quantitative improvements of over 20%, (1 pt: 50+% improvements; 4 pts: 30-50%, 5 pts: 20-30%); while 1 patient (7%) had improvements in the 10-20% level, whereas 3 patients (21%) showed no improvement.

  12. Clinical Application of 18F-FDG PET in Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose is increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis in the examination of patients with suspected major neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. 18F-FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance, especially, very high sensitivity in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of therapeutic efficacy. According to clinical research data hitherto, 18F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Since 2004, Medicare covers 18F-FDG PET scans for the differential diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) under specific requirements; or, its use in a CMS approved practical clinical trial focused on the utility of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis or treatment of dementing neurodegenerative diseases

  13. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    PET of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose is increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis in the examination of patients with suspected major neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance, especially, very high sensitivity in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of therapeutic efficacy. According to clinical research data hitherto, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Since 2004, Medicare covers {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans for the differential diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) under specific requirements; or, its use in a CMS approved practical clinical trial focused on the utility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the diagnosis or treatment of dementing neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Study on the relationship between serum interleukins, platelet activation indexes and cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and investigate the relationship between serum interleukins, platelet activation indexes and cerebral infarction.Methods:58 patients with cerebral infarction in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected as observation group; meanwhile, 58 healthy persons at the same period were selected as control group, then the serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes of two groups were detected and compared, then the detection results of observation group with different stages and severity of cerebral infarction were compared too, and the relationship between those blood detection indexes and cerebral infarction were analyzed by the Logistic analysis.Results:The serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes of observation group were obviously higher than those of control group, and the detection levels of observation group with cerebral infarction at early and severe stage were obviously higher than those of patients at other stages and light, moderate, and those blood indexes all had close relationship to the cerebral infarction by the Logistic analysis,P<0.05. Conclusion:The serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes all have close relationship to cerebral infarction, and they can be as the important monitoring indexes of the disease.

  15. Studies on Treatment of Cerebral Vascular Disease with Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙怡; 韩景献; 谢道珍; 李如奎; 高利; 许健鹏

    2003-01-01

    @@Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) also called the cerebral stroke or wind stroke. There are two common types in clinic, that is, thrombotic CVD and hemorrhagic CVD. CVD has both a high incidence rate and a high mortality rate. It has become the most dangerous factor that costs the lives of the urban population in our country. People of different age groups can develop this kind of disease, and the morbidity rate increases dramatically for those middle-aged in recent years. At present, the harms done by CVD to the human heath are more prominent.

  16. Arachidonic Acid and Cerebral Ischemia Risk: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Sakai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arachidonic acid (ARA is a precursor of various lipid mediators. ARA metabolites such as thromboxane A2 cause platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, thus may lead to atherosclerotic disease. It is unclear whether dietary ARA influences the ARA-derived lipid mediator balance and the risk for atherosclerotic diseases, such as cerebral ischemia. Considering the function of ARA in atherosclerosis, it is reasonable to focus on the atherothrombotic type of cerebral ischemia risk. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have been conducted to evaluate the effect of habitual ARA exposure on cerebral ischemia risk. We aimed to systematically evaluate observational studies available on the relationship between ARA exposure and the atherothrombotic type of cerebral ischemia risk in free-living populations. Summary: The PubMed database was searched for articles registered up to June 24, 2014. We designed a PubMed search formula as follows: key words for humans AND brain ischemia AND study designs AND ARA exposure. Thirty-three articles were reviewed against predefined criteria. There were 695 bibliographies assessed from the articles that included both ARA and cerebral ischemia descriptions. Finally, we identified 11 eligible articles and categorized them according to their reporting and methodological quality. We used the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement (STROBE checklist to score the reporting quality. The methodological quality was qualitatively assessed based on the following aspects: subject selection, ARA exposure assessment, outcome diagnosis, methods for controlling confounders, and statistical analysis. We did not conduct a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity among the studies. All eligible studies measured blood ARA levels as an indicator of exposure. Our literature search did not identify any articles that evaluated dietary ARA intake and tissue ARA as assessments of

  17. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels.

  18. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels. PMID:27622138

  19. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  20. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  1. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery

  2. Regional analysis of FDG and PIB-PET images in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Qilu hospital Shandong University, Jinan (China); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Naagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Mosconi, Lisa; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Rusinek, Henry; DeSanti, Susan [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kim, Byeong-Chae [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Neurology, Gwangju (Korea); Tsui, Wai [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Leon, Mony J. de [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic value of regional sampling of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism (MRglc) using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and amyloid-beta pathology using Pittsburgh Compound-B ([11C]PIB)-PET in the evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to normal elderly (NL). AD patients, 7NL, 13MCI, and 17, received clinical, neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FDG, and PIB-PET exams. Parametric images of PIB uptake and MRglc were sampled using automated regions-of-interest (ROI). AD showed global MRglc reductions, and MCI showed reduced hippocampus (HIP) and inferior parietal lobe (IP) MRglc compared to NL. On PIB, AD patients showed significantly increased uptake in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and IP (ps<0.05). PIB uptake in MCI subjects was either AD or NL-like. HIP MRglc and MFG PIB uptake were the best discriminators of NL from MCI and NL from AD. These two best measures showed high diagnostic agreement for AD (94%) and poor agreement for MCI (54%). For the NL vs. MCI discrimination, combining the two best measures increased the accuracy for PIB (75%) and for FDG (85%) to 90%. For AD, the pattern of regional involvement for FDG and PIB differ, but both techniques show high diagnostic accuracy and 94% case by case agreement. In the classification of NL and MCI, FDG is superior to PIB, but there is only 54% agreement at a case level. Combining the two modalities improves the diagnostic accuracy for MCI. (orig.)

  3. Computerized tomographic studies in cerebral palsy. Analysis of 200 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugie, Y. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 200 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were analysed from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations, disease complications and etiological factors. CT scans of 135 cases (67.5%) were found to be abnormal and there were 14 (7%) borderline cases. The major abnormality found on CT scans was cerebral atrophy. Other important changes included focal or diffuse low density area in the brain tissue, congenital malformation, and cerebellar atrophy. From the clinical point of view, a large number of patients with spastic tetraplegia and spastic diplegia showed highly abnormal CT scans. On the other hand, in patients with spastic monoplegia, spastic paraplegia, and athetotic type, CT findings were normal or revealed only minor cerebral atrophy. Most children showing asymmetric clinical symptoms had corresponding asymmetric CT abnormalities which included ventricular enlargement, low density area in the brain tissue, and hemispherical volume. There was a significant correlation between the severity of physical impairment and the extent of CT abnormalities. Severely affected children had grossly abnormal CT scans such as hydranencephaly, polycystic change, and extensive cerebral atrophy. In the patients complicated with epilepsy, the incidence and severity of abnormal CT were higher than those of non-epileptic patients. Mentally retarded patients had variable enlargement of the subarachnoidal space depending on the severity of their mental retardation. Patients with suspected postnatal etiology also had high incidence of severe CT abnormality. CT scan is a valuable tool for evaluating patients with CP and in some cases, possible etiology of the disease may be discovered.

  4. Distinct regional anatomic and functional correlates of neurodegenerative apraxia of speech and aphasia: an MRI and FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Xia, Rong; Mandrekar, Jay; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) can result from neurodegenerative disease and can occur in isolation or in the presence of agrammatic aphasia. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical and metabolic correlates of progressive AOS and aphasia. Thirty-six prospectively recruited subjects with progressive AOS or agrammatic aphasia, or both, underwent the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and Token Test to assess aphasia, an AOS rating scale (ASRS), 3T MRI and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Correlations between clinical measures and imaging were assessed. The only region that correlated to ASRS was left superior premotor volume. In contrast, WAB and Token Test correlated with hypometabolism and volume of a network of left hemisphere regions, including pars triangularis, pars opercularis, pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Progressive agrammatic aphasia and AOS have non-overlapping regional correlations, suggesting that these are dissociable clinical features that have different neuroanatomical underpinnings. PMID:23542727

  5. Right Limbic FDG-PET Hypometabolism Correlates with Emotion Recognition and Attribution in Probable Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerami

    Full Text Available The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is a rare disease mainly affecting the social brain. FDG-PET fronto-temporal hypometabolism is a supportive feature for the diagnosis. It may also provide specific functional metabolic signatures for altered socio-emotional processing. In this study, we evaluated the emotion recognition and attribution deficits and FDG-PET cerebral metabolic patterns at the group and individual levels in a sample of sporadic bvFTD patients, exploring the cognitive-functional correlations. Seventeen probable mild bvFTD patients (10 male and 7 female; age 67.8±9.9 were administered standardized and validated version of social cognition tasks assessing the recognition of basic emotions and the attribution of emotions and intentions (i.e., Ekman 60-Faces test-Ek60F and Story-based Empathy task-SET. FDG-PET was analysed using an optimized voxel-based SPM method at the single-subject and group levels. Severe deficits of emotion recognition and processing characterized the bvFTD condition. At the group level, metabolic dysfunction in the right amygdala, temporal pole, and middle cingulate cortex was highly correlated to the emotional recognition and attribution performances. At the single-subject level, however, heterogeneous impairments of social cognition tasks emerged, and different metabolic patterns, involving limbic structures and prefrontal cortices, were also observed. The derangement of a right limbic network is associated with altered socio-emotional processing in bvFTD patients, but different hypometabolic FDG-PET patterns and heterogeneous performances on social tasks at an individual level exist.

  6. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  7. Brain reserve capacity in frontotemporal dementia: a voxel-based {sup 18}F-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Muenchen (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The association of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilisation (rCMRglc) and years of schooling has been extensively studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results suggest that brain reserve capacity (BRC) allows patients with more years of schooling to cope better with AD pathology. The objective of this study was to provide initial evidence for BRC in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Twenty-nine patients with FTD and 16 healthy age- and education-matched controls underwent PET imaging of the brain with {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose. A group comparison of rCMRglc was conducted between patients and controls and the output was saved as region of interest (ROI). A linear regression analysis with education as the independent and rCMRglc as the dependent variable, adjusted for age, gender and total score on the CERAD neuropsychological battery, was conducted in SPM2 over the pre-assigned ROI. Patients showed a reduced rCMRglc in almost the entire prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex as compared with controls (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). The regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between years of schooling and rCMRglc in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (p < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), which was independent of demographic variables and cognitive performance level. There was a strong negative correlation of rCMRglc and education (r = -0.45). The study provides initial evidence for BRC in FTD. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in educational level affect BRC by partially mediating the relationship between neurodegeneration and the clinical manifestation of FTD. (orig.)

  8. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Bender, H.; Palmedo, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  9. Early prediction of histopathological response of rectal tumors after one week of preoperative radiochemotherapy using 18 F-FDG PET-CT imaging. A prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT is standard in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC. Initial data suggest that the tumor’s metabolic response, i.e. reduction of its 18 F-FDG uptake compared with the baseline, observed after two weeks of RCT, may correlate with histopathological response. This prospective study evaluated the ability of a very early metabolic response, seen after only one week of RCT, to predict the histopathological response to treatment. Methods Twenty patients with LARC who received standard RCT regimen followed by radical surgery participated in this study. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV-MAX, measured by PET-CT imaging at baseline and on day 8 of RCT, and the changes in FDG uptake (ΔSUV-MAX, were compared with the histopathological response at surgery. Response was classified by tumor regression grade (TRG and by achievement of pathological complete response (pCR. Results Absolute SUV-MAX values at both time points did not correlate with histopathological response. However, patients with pCR had a larger drop in SUV-MAX after one week of RCT (median: -35.31% vs −18.42%, p = 0.046. In contrast, TRG did not correlate with ΔSUV-MAX. The changes in FGD-uptake predicted accurately the achievement of pCR: only patients with a decrease of more than 32% in SUV-MAX had pCR while none of those whose tumors did not show any decrease in SUV-MAX had pCR. Conclusions A decrease in ΔSUV-MAX after only one week of RCT for LARC may be able to predict the achievement of pCR in the post-RCT surgical specimen. Validation in a larger independent cohort is planned.

  10. {sup 18}F-FDG PET in small-cell cervical cancer: a prospective study with long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min-Yu; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Chang, Ting-Chang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Liu, Feng-Yuan; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Gigin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Biostatistics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Pan, Yu-Bin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Biostatistics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Jung, Shih-Ming; Wu, Ren-Chin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting; Tsai, Jason Chien-Sheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Taoyuan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Small-cell cervical cancer (SCCC) is rare and prone to metastasize. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the management of this aggressive malignancy. Patients with untreated primary, histologically confirmed SCCC were enrolled. {sup 18}F-FDG PET (or PET/CT) was performed immediately after MRI or CT, for primary staging, monitoring response to treatment or restaging when there was suspicion of recurrence. The clinical impact of PET was determined on a scan basis. A total of 25 patients were recruited and 43 PET scans were performed. The PET images were obtained for primary staging (25 patients), monitoring response (10 patients) and restaging when there was suspicion of recurrence (8 patients). The median follow-up time in event-free patients was 109.3 months (range 97.5 - 157.7 months). A positive impact of PET was found in 8 (18.6 %) of the 43 scans, which included detection of additional regions of distal lymph node (LN) metastasis (one primary staging scan, two restaging scans), bone metastasis (two primary staging scans, one monitoring response scan), and exclusion of false-positive lesions on MRI (one primary staging scan, one restaging scan). On the other hand, one negative impact was recorded as one false-positive lesion on a restaging PET scan. One positive impact was noted for monitoring response (bone metastasis). The impact of three scans was indeterminate. The positive impact of down-staging in avoiding overtreatment but finding additional distal LN (except one on restaging) or bone metastases had no beneficial effect on long-term survival. The results of this preliminary study suggest that PET is useful in the management of SCCC. PET could have more value in detecting occult metastases if future novel therapies are able to offer better control of extensive SCCC. (orig.)

  11. Characterizing bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma by FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is superior to iliac bone marrow biopsy (iBMB) for detection of bone marrow involvement (BMI) in staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). The present study aims to characterize the patterns and distribution of BMI in HL as determined by FDG-PET/CT. Reports of FDG-PET/CT studies performed for staging of HL were reviewed. BMI was defined as positive iBMB and/or foci of pathological FDG uptake in the skeleton that behaved in concordance with other sites of lymphoma in studies following chemotherapy. Number of FDG uptake foci, their specific location in the skeleton and the presence of corresponding lesions in the CT component of the study, and stage according to the Ann Arbor staging system, were recorded. The study included 473 patients. iBMB was performed in 336 patients. Nine patients had positive iBMB (9/336, 3 %). Seventy-three patients (73/473, 15 %) had FDG-PET/CT-defined BMI. The BM was the only extranodal site of HL in 52/473 patients (11 %). Forty-five patients had three or more foci of pathological skeletal FDG uptake (45/73, 62 %). Sixty-four patients (64/73, 88 %) had at least one uptake focus in the pelvis or vertebrae. In 60 patients (60/73, 82 %), the number of skeletal FDG uptake foci without corresponding CT lesions was equal to or higher than the number of foci with morphological abnormalities. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated BMI in 15 % of patients with newly diagnosed HL. Diagnosis of BMI in HL by FDG-PET/CT was more sensitive than iBMB with potential upstage in 11 % of patients. The most common pattern of FDG-PET/CT BMI was multifocal (at least three foci) skeletal FDG uptake, with at least one focus in the pelvis or vertebrae and no corresponding CT lesions. (orig.)

  12. PET/CT studies of multiple myeloma using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-NaF: comparison of distribution patterns and tracers' pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpekidis, Christos [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Medical PET Group - Biological Imaging Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Medical Clinic V, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Pan, Leyun; Cheng, Caixia; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the combined use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride ({sup 18}F-NaF) PET/CT in the skeletal assessment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare the efficacy of these two PET tracers regarding detection of myeloma-indicative osseous lesions. The study includes 60 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) diagnosed according to standard criteria. All patients underwent dynamic (dPET/CT) scanning of the pelvis as well as whole body PET/CT studies with both tracers. The interval between the two exams was one day. Sites of focal increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were considered as highly suspicious of myelomatous involvement. The lesions detected on the {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT scans were then correlated with those detected on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, which served as a reference. Moreover, the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT results were also correlated with the low-dose CT findings. The evaluation of dPET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, SUV calculation, and quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model and a non-compartmental approach. Whole body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT revealed approximately 343 focal lesions while {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT revealed 135 MM-indicative lesions (39 % correlation). CT demonstrated 150 lesions that correlated with those in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (44 % correlation). Six patients demonstrated a diffuse pattern of disease with {sup 18}F-FDG, while 15 of them had a mixed (diffuse and focal) pattern of skeletal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. A high number of degenerative, traumatic and arthritic disease lesions were detected with {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT. In three patients with multiple focal {sup 18}F-FDG-uptake, {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT failed to demonstrate any bone lesion. The dPET/CT scanning of the pelvic area with {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-NaF revealed 77 and 24 MM-indicative lesions, respectively. Kinetic analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG revealed the

  13. Use of FDG-PET to guide dose prescription heterogeneity in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancers with volumetric modulated arc therapy: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess if FDG-PET could guide dose prescription heterogeneity and decrease arbitrary location of hotspots in SBRT. For three patients with stage I lung cancer, a CT-simulation and a FDG-PET were registered to define respectively the PTVCT and the biological target volume (BTV). Two plans involving volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) were calculated. The first plan delivered 4 × 12 Gy within the PTVCT and the second plan, with SIB, 4 × 12 Gy and 13.8 Gy (115% of the prescribed dose) within the PTVCT and the BTV respectively. The Dmax-PTVCT had to be inferior to 60 Gy (125% of the prescribed dose). Plans were evaluated through the D95%, D99% and Dmax-PTVCT, the D2 cm, the R50% and R100% and the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between the isodose 115% and BTV. DSC allows verifying the location of the 115% isodose (ideal value = 1). The mean PTVCT and BTV were 36.7 (±12.5) and 6.5 (±2.2) cm3 respectively. Both plans led to similar target coverage, same doses to the OARs and equivalent fall-off of the dose outside the PTVCT. On the other hand, the location of hotspots, evaluated through the DSC, was improved for the SIB plans with a mean DSC of 0.31 and 0.45 for the first and the second plans respectively. Use of PET to decrease arbitrary location of hotspots is feasible with VMAT and SIB for lung cancer

  14. Acupoints combination correlates with activation of cerebral areas A functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinsheng Lai; Yong Huang; Chunzhi Tang; Junjun Yang; Yanqi Zou; Junxian Wu; Yangjia Lu; Renyong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Acupoint combination is a method used for acupoint treatment of patients. Traditionally, acupoints are matched along the meridian distribution, which is a common rule in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cerebral scans with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in the study of acupuncture and acupoint specifically. In this study,fMRI was used to detect the activation of the brain areas under different acupoints, matched along different meridians, to elucidate the acupoint combination via a modern medical approach. Forty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into the following groups: Waiguan point (SJ5), Waiguan (SJ5) + Zhigou (SJ6) (2 acupoints come from the same meridian), Waiguan (SJ 5) + Neiguan (PC 6)(2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the relationship of interior-exterior), Waiguan (SJ 5) +Yanglingquan (GB 34) (2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the same name-Shaoyang Meridian), and sham point groups (needling in different points on the right hand). A real-time cerebral fMRI scan was simultaneously performed. The cerebral activation rate, and the number and strength of different regions of interest ware compared among the groups. The fMRI cerebral imaging confirmed that there were some differences in the activation of cerebral areas by the needlings in SJ 5, and in combination with other acupoints. Needling at SJ 5 alone greatly activated the right cerebellum, while needling at both SJ 5 and different co-needling points activated different cerebral functional areas.

  15. Potential F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of ocular prosthesis MEDPOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient with a history of choroidal melanoma, which was studied with F-FDG PET-CT for staging and then for followup after enucleation and placement of a MEDPOR prosthesis, in which we found FDG uptake within the prosthesis after 17 months due to inflammatory changes. F-FDG PET-CT could be an alternative imaging technique of MRI in the evaluation of these patients

  16. FDG-PET changes in brain glucose metabolism from normal cognition to pathologically verified Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first clinicopathological series of longitudinal FDG-PET scans in post-mortem (PM) verified cognitively normal elderly (NL) followed to the onset of Alzheimer's-type dementia (DAT), and in patients with mild DAT with progressive cognitive deterioration. Four NL subjects and three patients with mild DAT received longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological and dynamic FDG-PET examinations with arterial input functions. NL subjects were followed for 13 ± 5 years, received FDG-PET examinations over 7 ± 2 years, and autopsy 6 ± 3 years after the last FDG-PET. Two NL declined to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and two developed probable DAT before death. DAT patients were followed for 9 ± 3 years, received FDG-PET examinations over 3 ± 2 years, and autopsy 7 ± 1 years after the last FDG-PET. Two DAT patients progressed to moderate-to-severe dementia and one developed vascular dementia. The two NL subjects who declined to DAT received a PM diagnosis of definite AD. Their FDG-PET scans indicated a progression of deficits in the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) from the hippocampus to the parietotemporal and posterior cingulate cortices. One DAT patient showed AD with diffuse Lewy body disease (LBD) at PM, and her last in vivo PET was indicative of possible LBD for the presence of occipital as well as parietotemporal hypometabolism. Progressive CMRglc reductions on FDG-PET occur years in advance of clinical DAT symptoms in patients with pathologically verified disease. The FDG-PET profiles in life were consistent with the PM diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. The clinical contribution of FDG-PET in the peritoneal metastasis from colorectal or ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical contribution of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detecting peritoneal metastasis and therapeutic decision in patients with colorectal or ovarian cancer. Twenty patients with abnormal FDG uptake in the peritoneum were enrolled in this study. We could distinct the peritoneum from the enteric loop by PET/CT. Clinical management was altered by FDG-PET in 11 patients that were performed operation or chemotherapy. FDG-PET/CT has a clinical contribution in the peritoneal metastasis from colorectal or ovarian cancer. (author)

  18. Hyperglycemia-induced stimulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle measured by PET- [18F]6FDG and [18F]2FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based model proposed by our group has been developed to assess glucose transport and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether our model has the ability to detect a glucose-induced increase in glucose transport in skeletal muscle. In particular, we used small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained from [18F]6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]6FDG). A 2 h PET scan was acquired following a bolus injection of [18F]6FDG in rats currently under euglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, while somatostatin was infused during both conditions in order to prevent a rise in the endogenous plasma insulin concentration. We were thus able to assess the effect of hyperglycemia per se. For a comparison of radiopharmaceuticals, additional rats were studied under the same conditions, using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]2FDG). When [18F]6FDG was used, the time-activity curves (TACs) for skeletal muscle had distinctly different shapes during euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. This was not the case with [18F]2FDG. For both [18F]6FDG and [18F]2FDG, the model detects increases in both interstitial and intracellular glucose concentrations, increases in the maximal velocity of glucose transport and increases in the rate of glucose transport, all in response to hyperglycemia. In contrast, there was no increase in the maximum velocity of glucose phosphorylation or in the glucose phosphorylation rate. Our model-based analyses of the PET data, obtained with either [18F]6FDG or [18F]2FDG, detect physiological changes consistent with established behavior. Moreover, based on differences in the TAC shapes, [18F]6FDG appears to be superior to [18F]2FDG for evaluating the effect of hyperglycemia on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. (paper)

  19. Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, n=18, withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, n=13, and not taking metformin (noMET, n=9. Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI- based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Cerebral vascular effects of loading dose of dexmedetomidine: A Transcranial Color Doppler study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appavoo Arulvelan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine has been widely used in critical care settings because of its property of maintaining stable hemodynamics and inducing conscious sedation. The use of dexmedetomidine is in increasing trend particularly in patients with neurological disorders. Very few studies have focused on the cerebral hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine. This study is aimed to address this issue. Methods: Thirty patients without any intracranial pathology were included in this study. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity obtained from transcranial color Doppler was used to assess the cerebral hemodynamic indices. Mean flow velocity (mFV, pulsatility index (PI, cerebral vascular resistant index (CVRi, estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (eCPP, and zero flow pressure (ZFP were calculated bilaterally at baseline and after infusion of injection Dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/Kg over 10 min. Results: Twenty-six patients completed the study protocol. After administration of loading dose of dexmedetomidine, mFV and eCPP values were significantly decreased in both hemispheres (P < 0.05; PI, CVRi, and ZFP values showed significant increase (P < 0.05 after dexmedetomidine infusion. Conclusion: Increase in PI, CVRi, and ZFP suggests that there is a possibility of an increase in distal cerebral vascular resistance (CVR with loading dose of dexmedetomidine. Decrease in mFV and eCPP along with an increase in CVR may lead to a decrease in cerebral perfusion. This effect can be exaggerated in patients with preexisting neurological illness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on various other pathological conditions involving brain like traumatic brain injury and vascular malformations.

  1. Non FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, C., E-mail: cristina.nanni@aosp.bo.i [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fantini, L.; Nicolini, S.; Fanti, S. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    2- [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the radiopharmaceutical most frequently used for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). However, FDG cannot be used for many oncological, cardiological, or neurological conditions, either because the abnormal tissue does not concentrate it, or because the tissues under investigation demonstrate high physiological glucose uptake. Consequently, alternative PET tracers have been produced and introduced into clinical practice. The most important compounds in routine practice are {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-choline, mainly for the evaluation of prostate cancer; {sup 1}C-methionine for brain tumours; {sup 118}F-DOPA ({sup 18}F- deoxiphenilalanine) for neuroendocrine tumours and movement disorders; {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC (tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid-[1-Nal3]-octreotide) and other somatostatin analogues for neuroendocrine tumours; 11C-acetate for prostate cancer and hepatic masses and 18F-FLT (3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine) for a number of malignant tumours. Another impetus for the development of new tracers is to enable the investigation of biological processes in tumours other than glucose metabolism. This is especially important in the field of response assessment, where there are new agents that are targeted more specifically at angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis and other processes.

  2. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  3. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  4. Early cerebral circulatory disturbance in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage prior to the delayed cerebral vasospasm stage. Xenon computed tomography and perfusion computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), and results in delayed ischemia due to vasospasm, and early perfusion deficits before delayed cerebral vasospasm (CVS). The present study examined the severity of cerebral circulatory disturbance during the early phase before delayed CVS and whether it can be used to predict patient outcome. A total of 94 patients with SAH underwent simultaneous xenon computed tomography (CT) and perfusion CT to evaluate cerebral circulation on Days 1-3. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using xenon CT and the mean transit time (MTT) using perfusion CT and calculated cerebral blood volume (CBV). Outcome was evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (good recovery [GR], moderate disability [MD], severe disability [SD], vegetative state [VS], or death [D]). Hunt and Hess (HH) grade II patients displayed significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than HH grade IV and V patients. HH grade III patients displayed significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than HH grade IV and V patients. Patients with favorable outcome (GR or MD) had significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than those with unfavorable outcome (SD, VS, or D). Discriminant analysis of these parameters could predict patient outcome with a probability of 74.5%. Higher HH grade on admission was associated with decreased CBF and CBV and prolonged MTT. CBF reduction and MTT prolongation before the onset of delayed CVS might influence the clinical outcome of SAH. These parameters are helpful for evaluating the severity of SAH and predicting the outcomes of SAH patients. (author)

  5. Evaluation of acetazolamine response in patients with cerebellar ataxia using dynamic quantitative F-18-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, K. M.; Yeo, J. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Cerebellar Ataxia (CA) usually shows dramatic response to acetazolamide treatment. But few cases of acetazolamide unresponse CA were reported recently. Using dynamic FDG PET, we tried to evaluate the metabolic abnormality and its drug response in CA. Quantitative F-18-FDG PET was performed prior and after treatment of acetazolamide (250 mg qid for 10 days) in two patient suspected episodic cerebellar ataxia. Using Model-based clustering method, the regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglu) was calculated. Two patients showed different treatment response to acetazolamide. In one patient who showed markedly reduced frequency of the ataxic attack after treatment. FDG PET showed that mean cerebellar glucose metabolism was increased after treatment ({delta}rCMRglu:9%). However, in the other who showed poor response to acetazolamide, FDG PET showed the more decrease metabolism in cerebellar metabolism after treatment ({delta}rCMRglu:-17%). The change of the cerebellar glucose metabolism on FDG PET reflected the symptomatic improvement after acetazolamide in these two CA patients. We could expected that FDG PET might be a very useful tool to quantitatively predict the treatment response in CA and other neurologic disorder.

  6. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  7. F-18 FDG PET in Detecting Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ak, I.; Can, C. [Osmangazi Univ. Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey). Depts. of Nuclear Medicine and Urology

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of F-18 FDG imaging with a dual head coincidence mode gamma camera (Co-PET) in the detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with renal masses. Material and Methods: An F-18 FDG Co-PET study was performed in 19 patients (7 F, 12 M; mean age 58.15{+-}2.5 years, age range 45-79 years) with suspected primary renal tumors based on conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) before nephrectomy or surgical resection of the mass. Results: Histologically documented RCC was present in 15 patients. Of the 19 patients with suspected primary renal tumors, F-18 FDG Co-PET was true-positive in 13, false-negative in 2, true-negative in 3, and false-positive in 1 patient. Twangiomyolipomas and one renal mass due to infarction and hemorrhage showed a true-negative Co-PET result. The patient with false-positive FDG Co-PET study was diagnosed as xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG Co-PET for RCC were 86% (13/15), 75% (3/4), and 84% (16/19), respectively. Positive predictive value for RCC was 92% and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that F-18 FDG Co-PET may have a role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with RCC and primary staging of disease. Positive F-18 FDG study may be predictive of the presence of RCC. However, a negative study does not exclude the RCC.

  8. Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients with Cerebral Infarction: A Transesophageal Echocradigraphy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, George W.; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Chu, Chu-Pin; Sicks, JoRean D.; Whisnant, Jack P.

    1997-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale was detected in 37 patients (32%). Mean age was similar in those with (60 years) and those without (64 years) PFO. Patent foramen ovale was more frequent among men (39%) than women (20%, P=.03). Patients with PFO had a lower frequency of atrial fibrillation, diabetes me!litus, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease compared with those without PFO. There was no difference in frequency of the following characteristics in patients with PFO compared with those without PFO: pulmonary embolus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral embolism, prior cerebral infarction, nosocomial cerebral infarction, Valsalva maneuver at the time of cerebral infarction, recent surgery, or hemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction. Patent foramen ovale was found in 22 (40%) of 55 patients with infarcts of uncertain cause and in 15 (25%) of 61 with infarcts of known cause (cardioembolic, 21%; large vessel atherostenosis, 25%; lacune, 40%) (P=.08). When the analysis was restricted to patients who underwent Valsalva maneuver, PFO with right to left or bidirectional shunt was found in 19 (50%) of 38 patients with infarcts of uncertain cause and in 6 (20%) of 30 with infarcts of known cause (P=.Ol). Conclusion: Although PFO was over-represented in patients with infarcts of uncertain cause in our and other studies, it has a high frequency among patients with cerebral infarction of all types. The relation between PFO and stroke requires further study.

  9. Altered biodistribution of FDG in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging of patients with diabetes can be problematic because elevated glucose levels may cause competitive inhibition of [F-18]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in different tissues. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the biodistribution of FDG in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Two hundred forty patients were retrospectively enrolled to the study. Study population was divided into three subgroups, named as the normal (group 1), the insulin (group 2) and the oral anti-diabetic (group 3). Unenhanced low-dose CT and PET emission data were acquired from the mid-thigh to the vertex of the skull. FDG uptakes in different organs were evaluated qualitatively or semi-quantitatively. In the diabetic groups, diffuse FDG uptake of the colon was increased (p > 0.001) but segmental FDG uptake was decreased (p > 0.001). Intestinal FDG uptake was detected in 20% of the study population and only 3% of these uptakes were in diffuse pattern. Segmental FDG uptake in the bowel was increased significantly in the groups of patients with diabetes (p = 0.002). Maximum standardized uptake values of the liver in the groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.66 ± 0.6, 3.25 ± 0.9 and 3.16 ± 0.8, respectively, and the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.083). Cardiac FDG uptake was decreased significantly in the groups of patients with diabetes (p < 0.001). According to our results, whole body bio-distribution of FDG uptake seems to be changed in patients with type-2 diabetes who were using insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs. Although the use of oral antidiabetic drugs was known to change the biodistribution of FDG, insulin use also seems to change FDG uptake in different organs of diabetic patients. (author)

  10. Monitoring bone and soft-tissue tumors after carbon-ion radiotherapy using 18F-FDG positron emission tomography: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of treatment for malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors arising from the deep trunk and pelvis are still not acceptable due to the relatively high recurrence and low overall survival rates. Recently, carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) was applied for several malignancies, including bone and soft-tissue sarcomas, and provided favorable results. However, it has been unclear what modalities should be used for evaluating the response and for the follow-up of these patients. Here, we analyzed the methods used to predict local recurrence and to find local failures or metastases. We analyzed 37 patients with bone and soft-tissue tumors who received CIRT at our institute. The patients were examined with FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and enhanced MRI before and three months after CIRT. The pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and that three months after treatment, the difference between the pre- and post-CIRT SUVmax, the ratio of the post- to pre-SUVmax in FDG-PET and the size of the tumors were evaluated as predictors for local recurrence. FDG-PET and enhanced MRI were used to detect local recurrence. Local recurrence appeared in 10 cases after CIRT. Nine of the 10 lesions (90.0 %) were detected with FDG-PET, while enhanced MRI detected just 50.0 % of the recurrences. One case of local recurrence, in which the lesion was negative on FDG-PET, was detected using enhanced MRI. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that neither the SUVmax on FDG-PET nor the tumor size before or three months after CIRT could be used to predict local recurrence. The combination of FDG-PET and enhanced MRI is recommended to detect local recurrence for patients with sarcomas who have received CIRT; however, no parameters obtained during the examinations performed before and three months after CIRT accurately predicted the development of local recurrence

  11. Administered activities of {sup 18}F-FDG PET clinics in pediatrics patients in Brazil- preliminary study; Atividades administradas de {sup 18}F-FDG aos pacientes pediatricos nas clinicas PET no Brasil - estudo preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri, E-mail: cmo@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sa, Lidia V. de, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the Brazilian clinical PET, with the purpose of investigating the activities administered to pediatric oncology patients and assess whether significant differences between the protocols adopted. In addition, this survey can cooperate to the suggestion diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in nuclear medicine. Although the methodology for delivering doses by most clinics be based on patient's weight, the results showed variations of up to 191, 6% between the activities administered in clinics, even for similar devices. The average value of the distribution of activities reported was 4.46 {+-} 1,6 MBq /kg. These data demonstrate the need for harmonization and optimization of {sup 18}F-FDG/PET procedures, as well as training for professionals involved in the clinical routine.

  12. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 {approx} 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 {+-} 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 {+-} 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 {+-} 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 {+-} 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( {rho} =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern

  13. Chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence for bilateral putaminal hypermetabolism on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Wook Jang; Chung, Son Mi; Koh, Su Jin; Lee, Chang Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee Bom [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Im, Joo Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who suddenly presented with chorea and had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. F-18 FDG PET showed abnormally increased glucose metabolism in bilateral putamen and primary motor cotex. Tc-99m ECD SPECT also showed abnormally increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral putamen. She was treated with corticosteroid and aspirin after which the symptoms improved. Four months later, follow up F-18 FDG PET showed improvement with resolution of hypermetabolism in bilateral putamen. This case suggests that striatal hypermetabolism is associated with chorea in SLE.

  14. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  15. Study of the Dynamics of Transcephalic Cerebral Impedance Data during Cardio-Vascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, S. R.; Seoane, F.; Lindecrantz, K.

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative neurological deficits are one of the risks associated with cardio vascular surgery, necessitating development of new techniques for cerebral monitoring. In this study an experimental observation regarding the dynamics of transcephalic Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC) was conducted to investigate the potential use of electrical Bioimpedance for cerebral monitoring in cardio vascular surgery. Tetrapolar transcephalic EBI measurements at single frequency of 50 kHz were recorded prior to and during cardio vascular surgery. The obtained results show that the transcephalic impedance decreases in both groups of patients as operation starts, however slight differences in these two groups were also observed with the cerebral impedance reduction in patients having no ECC being less common and not as pronounced as in the ECC group. Changes in the cerebral impedance were in agreement with changes of haematocrit and temperature. The origin of EBI changes is still unexplained however these results encourage us to continue investigating the application of electrical bioimpedance cerebral monitoring clinically.

  16. Study of the Dynamics of Transcephalic Cerebral Impedance Data during Cardio-Vascular Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postoperative neurological deficits are one of the risks associated with cardio vascular surgery, necessitating development of new techniques for cerebral monitoring. In this study an experimental observation regarding the dynamics of transcephalic Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC) was conducted to investigate the potential use of electrical Bioimpedance for cerebral monitoring in cardio vascular surgery. Tetrapolar transcephalic EBI measurements at single frequency of 50 kHz were recorded prior to and during cardio vascular surgery. The obtained results show that the transcephalic impedance decreases in both groups of patients as operation starts, however slight differences in these two groups were also observed with the cerebral impedance reduction in patients having no ECC being less common and not as pronounced as in the ECC group. Changes in the cerebral impedance were in agreement with changes of haematocrit and temperature. The origin of EBI changes is still unexplained however these results encourage us to continue investigating the application of electrical bioimpedance cerebral monitoring clinically.

  17. Usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy in acute cerebral infarction: an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of single-voxel localized proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) in monitoring changes in cerebral metabolites in cases of acute cerebral infarction. In 15 cats with common carotid artery occlusion and 21 patients with acute cerebral infarction T2-weighted (T2WI), diffusion-weighted (DWI), and MR spectroscopic images were obtained at various times after stroke onset. In the cat model, Lac and α-Glx levels increased as early as 30 minutes after vascular occlusion and continued to increase for a further 2.5 hours. The remaining metabolites, NAA, Cho, mI, and β,γ-Glx, showed no significant change. During clinical study, increases in Lac and β,γ-Glx, and decreases in NAA were detected three hours after stroke onset. These metabolites continued to change until 72 hours had elapsed. The remaining metabolites, Cho, mI, and α-Glx tended to be constant. MRS is capable of measuring and monitoring the metabolites involved in acute cerebral infarction. MRS may play an important role in the investigation of pathophysiology as well as in the early diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction

  18. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake as a prognostic variable in primary differentiated thyroid cancer incidentally detected by PET/CT: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Puntoni, Matteo [Galliera Hospital, Clinical Trial Unit, Office of the Scientific Director, Genoa (Italy); Bertagna, Francesco; Giubbini, Raffaele [University of Brescia and Spedali Civili di Brescia, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy); Treglia, Giorgio; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Foppiani, Luca [Galliera Hospital, Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Arecco, Federico; Bardesono, Francesca; Orlandi, Fabio [University of Turin, Presidio Sanitario Gradenigo, Department of Oncology, Turin (Italy); Naseri, Mehrdad; Cabria, Manlio [Galliera Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Cistaro, Angelina [IRMET, PET Centre, Turin (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Our aim was to investigate the association between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and event-free survival in patients in whom a differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was detected by {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Among 884 focal {sup 18}F-FDG PET thyroid incidentalomas referred to our 4 Nuclear Medicine Departments, we investigated 54 patients in whom a DTC was confirmed and a clinical follow-up was available. The ratio between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of DTC and SUV{sub mean} of the liver (SUV ratio) was recorded for each scan. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and {sup 131}I remnant ablation. After a median follow-up of 39 months we assessed the outcome. The association between disease persistence/progression, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and other risk factors (T, N, M and histological subtype) was evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 54 patients, 39 achieved complete remission. The remaining 15 showed persistence/progression of disease. High {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, i.e. SUV ratio ≥3, showed a low positive predictive value (48 %). Low {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (SUV ratio < 3) displayed a high negative predictive value (93 %). The median of SUV ratios in T1-T2 (2.2), in M0 (2.7) and in non-virulent subtypes (2.7) were significantly lower (p < 0.03) than in T3-T4 (5.0), M1 (7.3) and virulent subtypes (6.0). Kaplan-Maier analysis showed a significant association between high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and disease persistence/progression (p = 0.001). When we adjusted risk estimates by using a multivariate Cox model, only T (p = 0.05) remained independently associated with disease persistence/progression. An intense {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the primary DTC is associated with persistence/progression of disease. However, when all other prognostic factors have been taken into account, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake does not add further prognostic information. (orig.)

  19. Feasibility of perfusion CT technique integrated into conventional {sup 18}FDG/PET-CT studies in lung cancer patients: clinical staging and functional information in a single study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ippolito, Davide; Capraro, Cristina; Sironi, Sandro [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, H.S. Gerardo Monza, Via Pergolesi 11, Monza, Milan (Italy); Guerra, Luca [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); De Ponti, Elena [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Monza (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); Tecnomed Foundation, University of Milano-Bicocca, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council, Milan (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the additional functional vascular information and the relationship between perfusion measurements and glucose metabolism (SUVmax) obtained by including a perfusion CT study in a whole-body contrast-enhanced PET/CT protocol in primary lung cancer lesions. Enrolled in this prospective study were 34 consecutive patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of lung cancer who were referred for contrast-enhanced PET/CT staging. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Perfusion CT was performed with the following parameters: 80 kV, 200 mAs, 30 scans during intravenous injection of 50 ml contrast agent, flow rate 5 ml/s. Another bolus of contrast medium (3.5 ml/s, 80 ml, 60-s delay) was administered to ensure a full diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT scan for clinical staging. The perfusion CT data were used to calculate a range of tumour vascularity parameters (blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time), and tumour FDG uptake (SUVmax) was used as a metabolic indicator. Quantitative and functional parameters were compared and in relation to location, histology and tumour size. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. A cut-off value of 3 cm was used according to the TNM classification to discriminate between T1 and T2 tumours (i.e. T1b vs. T2a). There were significant perfusion differences (lower blood volumes and higher mean transit time) between tumours with diameter >30 mm and tumours with diameter <30 mm (p < 0.05; blood volume 5.6 vs. 7.1 ml/100 g, mean transit time 8.6 vs. 3.9 s, respectively). Also there was a trend for blood flow to be lower in larger lesions (p < 0.053; blood flow 153.1 vs. 98.3 ml/100 g tissue/min). Significant inverse correlations (linear regression) were found between blood volume and SUVmax in tumours with diameter >30 mm in diameter. Perfusion CT combined with PET/CT is feasible technique that may provide

  20. 细支气管肺泡癌1BF FDG PET/CT SUV值与HRCT形态学的相关性研究%Study of the Relationship between 18F-FDG PET/CT SUV and HRCT Morphology in Bronchial Alveolar Carcinoma (BAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宝明; 王志忠; 刘晓飞; 姚昊; 欧阳晓辉; 苏家贵

    2011-01-01

    探讨不同类型细支气管肺泡癌的HRCT形态学表现与FDG PET SUV值的相关性.回顾性地分析经病理证实的28例细支气管肺泡癌患者的FDG PET和HRCT的影像资料,分别记录分析其形态学改变特点及FDG摄取程度和摄取特点,同时测量其最大SUV值(SUVmax),将不同形态的细支气管肺泡癌影像与所测得的最大SUV值进行对比研究.28例中单发结节13例,其中磨玻璃密度结节5例,直径1.1-2.8 cm,SUVmax值均<1.5.4例结节边缘可见分叶,2例可见胸膜牵拉、凹陷,2例见血管聚集;8例实性结节,直径1.8-3.8 cm,SUVmax值4.8-8.3.边缘短毛刺7例,分叶7例,支气管充气症6例,空泡症5例,胸膜凹陷症3例,血管集聚症7例,结节堆聚症3例.多发结节型9例,其中4例为粟粒性结节,5例表现为2个以上结节,磨玻璃密度结节、小的粟粒结节(<3 mm)无FDG摄取,融合结节,大于3mm的粟粒结节可见FDG摄取,SUVmax值在2.1-3.9.肺炎型6例,单肺叶受累4例,双肺叶受累2例,表现为病变肺叶内大片状实变影,7例可见支气管充气、支气管扭曲、僵硬,1例见空洞影,1例见支气管截断,3例见支气管管壁不规则增厚,PET显示实变病灶内FDG摄取不均匀增高,最大SUVmax值4.5-11.8.说明细支气管肺泡癌HRCT所示的形态学表现与PET所测得SUV值之间存在一定的相关性.磨玻璃密度影、小于3 mm的粟粒结节影大多数无异常FDG摄取,肺炎型和肿块型则多数具有较高的FDG摄取.%To investigation of the relationship between F-FDG PET/CT standardized uptake value (SUV)and HRCT morphology in BAC,in total 28 histologically diagnosed BAC patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and HRCT were entered into this retrospective study. The morphology and the radioactive finding were observed and the max standardized uptake value SUV were measured. It is resulted there were three type of morphology of BAC; 13 case of . Solitary nodule which include ground-glass opacity nodule GGO

  1. Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion Results in Better Perfusion to the Striatum Than the Cerebral Cortex During Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest: A Microdialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Meng-Ya; Chen, Guang-Xian; Tang, Zhi-Xian; Rong, Jian; Yao, Jian-ping; Wu, Zhong-Kai

    2016-03-01

    It remains controversial whether contemporary cerebral perfusion techniques, utilized during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), establish adequate perfusion to deep structures in the brain. This study aimed to investigate whether selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) can provide perfusion equally to various anatomical positions in the brain using metabolic evidence obtained from microdialysis. Eighteen piglets were randomly assigned to 40 min of circulatory arrest (CA) at 18°C without cerebral perfusion (DHCA group, n = 6) or with SACP (SACP group, n = 6) or RCP (RCP group, n = 6). Microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate) were measured every 30 min in cortex and striatum. After 3 h of reperfusion, brain tissue was harvested for Western blot measurement of α-spectrin. After 40 min of CA, the DHCA group showed marked elevations of lactate and glycerol and a reduction in glucose in the microdialysis perfusate (all P spectrin expression in brain tissue were similar between cortex and striatum in the SACP group (all P > 0.05). In the RCP group, the cortex exhibited lower glucose, higher lactate, and higher glycerol in the perfusate and higher α-spectrin expression in brain tissue compared with the striatum (all P 0.05). In summary, SACP provided uniform and continuous cerebral perfusion to most anatomical sites in the brain, whereas RCP resulted in less sufficient perfusion to the cortex but better perfusion to the striatum. PMID:26333187

  2. Chemotherapy response evaluation with FDG-PET in patients with colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Visser, E.P.; Hermsen, R.; Hoorn, B.A. van; Kamm, Y.J.L.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Punt, C.J.A.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the value of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for early assessment of chemotherapy response in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: Dynamic FDG-PET was carried out before and at 2 (n = 50) and 6

  3. Large-Vessel Vasculitis : Interobserver Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, K. D. F.; Comans, E. F. I.; Voskuyl, A. E.; van der Laken, C. J.; Brouwer, E.; Zwijnenburg, A. T.; Arias-Bouda, L. M. Pereira; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Smulders, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. F-18-FDG-PET visualises inflammation. Both atherosclerosis and giant cell arteritis cause vascular inflammation, but distinguishing the two may be difficult. The goal of this study was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of F-18-FDG-PET for the detection of large

  4. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p experimental SAH.

  5. Studies on intracranial collateral circulation with multi-slice CT angiography in patients with symptomatic cerebral artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-qing ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the features of intracranial collateral circulation in patients with symptomatic cerebral artery stenosis.Method Ninety-four patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease admitted from Apr.2004 to Jun.2009 were involved in present study.All the patients were examined with cerebral multi-slice CT angiography,and the features of cerebral artery stenosis and intracranial collateral circulation were evaluated using maximum intensity projection(MIP and volume rendering(VR images of CT angiography.Result Of the 94 patients involved,48 were diagnosed as cerebral artery stenosis,including 29 cases of cerebral infarction,18 of transient ischemic attack(TIA and 1 of moyamoya disease(MMD.Among the 14 cases of severe cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion,cerebral infarction was found in 6 cases with lesser intracranial collateral vessels(including massive cerebral infarction in 4 cases and watershed infarction in 2 cases,and focal infarction of central semi-ovale in 1 case and TIA in 7 cases were found with abundant intracranial collateral vessels.Multiple lacunar infarction was found in 22 cases of mild or moderate cerebral artery stenosis,but there was no significant correlation between the stenosed arteries and infarction sites.Abundant intracranial collateral vessels were found in one patient with Moyamoya disease but no infarction was observed.Conclusions Intracranial collateral circulation plays an important role of compensation in patients with severe cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion.Cerebral angiography with multi-slice CT is of great significance in evaluation of cerebral artery stenosis and intracranial collateral circulation.

  6. Diagnostic value of18F-FDG PET in the assessment of myocardial viability in coronary artery disease:A comparative study with99mTc SPECT and echocar-diography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Al Moudi; Zhong-Hua Sun

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the as-sessment of myocardial viability in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared to99mTc single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and echocardiography, with invasive coronary angiography as the gold standard.MethodsThirty patients with diagnosed CAD met the selection criteria, with 10 of them (9 men, mean age 59.5 ± 10.5 years) undergoing all of these imaging proce-dures consisting of SPECT and PET, echocardiography and invasive angiography. Diagnostic sensitivity of these less invasive modalities for detection of myocardial viability was compared to invasive coronary angiography. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was assessed for di-agnostic performance of SPECT and PET.ResultsOf all patients with proven CAD, 50% had triple vessel disease. Diagnostic sensitivity of SPECT, PET and echocardiography was 90%, 100% and 80% at patient-based assessment, respectively. Excellent agreement was achieved between inter-observer and intra-observer agreement of the diagnostic value of SPECT and PET in myocardial viability (k= 0.9). Conclusion18F-FDG PET has high diagnostic value in the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with known CAD when com-pared to SPECT and echocardiography. Further studies based on a large cohort with incorporation of18F-FDG PET into patient management are warranted.

  7. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    FDG PET has been used as a diagnostic tool for localization of seizure focus for last 2-3 decades. In this article, the clinical usefulness of FDG PET in the management of patients with epilepsy has been reviewed, which provided the evidences to justify the medicare reimbursement for FDG PET in management of patients with epilepsy. Literature review demonstrated that FDG PET provides an important information in localization of seizure focus and determination whether a patients is a surgical candidate or not. FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance in localization of seizure focus in neocortical epilepsy as well as temporal lobe epilepsy regardless of the presence of structural lesion on MRI. Particularly, FDG PET can provide the additional information when the results from standard diagnositic modality such as interictal or video-monitored EEG, and MRI are inconclusive or discordant, and make to avoid invasive study. Furthermore, the presence of hypometabolism and extent of metabolic extent has been reported as an important predictor for seizure free outcome. However, studies suggested that more accurate localization and better surgical outcome could be expected with multimodal approach by combination of EEG, MRI, and functional studies using FDG PET or perfusion SPECT rather than using a single diagnostic modality in management of patients with epilepsy. Complementary use of FDG PET in management of epilepsy is worth for good surgical outcome in epilepsy patients.

  8. A study on regional cerebral blood flow measurement by 133FXe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental and clinical investigations were performed on reliability of Fourier analysis of head clearance curves in regional cerebral blood flow measurement by 133Xe inhalation methods as compared with conventional Obrist analysis. Fourier analysis revealed better reproducibilities determined by computer simulated curves and repetitive measurements in man than Obrist analysis. In the studies of the changes of regional cerebral blood flow from the resting conditions to the conditions of finger movement, listening to verbal material or music and reading aloud in right-handed normal subjects, both F1 (a flow of the fast component of two compartmental model) and ISI (Initial Slope Index: calculated from the initial slope of the wash out curves corrected for recirculation) of Fourier analysis were more sensitive to detect significant changes than Obrist analysis. On the basis of the fact mentioned above, it was concluded that ISI of Fourier analysis was the best index of regional cerebral blood flow. Age-matched normal values of ISI of Fourier analysis were calculated from 132 measurements in 105 normal right-handed subjects, aged 19 to 80 years old (mean 42 years). Mean brain ISI showed significant negative correlation with advancing age (r = -0.70, p < 0.001). The regression line and 95% confidence interval were Y = -0.32X + 69.6 and +- 11.2, respectively. In comparison with the measured values of the patients with cerebrovascular disorders, this age-matched normal values were proved to be sufficient for practical use. Regional ISI also showed significant negative correlations with advancing age in the entire brain (p < 0.001). The regional reduction of ISI with advancing age was significantly greater in the regional distribution of the middle cerebral arteries bilaterally, compared with regions in the distributions of either the anterior cerebral, the posterior cerebral or vertebrobasilar arteries (p < 0.05). (J.P.N.)

  9. Preliminary study of novel, timed walking tests for children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Musselman, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Walking assessment is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice; yet, clinicians have few psychometrically sound options for evaluating walking in highly ambulatory children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of two new measures of walking function—the Obstacles and Curb tests—relative to the 10-Meter Walk test and Timed Up and Go test in children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Methods: A total of 16 ambulatory children with spina bifida (n=9) or cerebral palsy (n=7) (9 boys; mean age 7years, 7months; standard deviation 3years, 4months) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children participated. Children completed the walking tests, at both self-selected and fast speeds, twice. To evaluate discriminative validity, scores were compared between typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy groups. Within the spina bifida/cerebral palsy group, inter-test correlations evaluated convergent validity and intraclass correlation coefficients evaluated within-session test–retest reliability. Results: At fast speeds, all tests showed discriminative validity (p<0.006 for typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy comparisons) and convergent validity (rho=0.81–0.90, p⩽0.001, for inter-test correlations). At self-selected speeds, only the Obstacles test discriminated between groups (p=0.001). Moderately strong correlations (rho=0.73–0.78, p⩽0.001) were seen between the 10-Meter Walk test, Curb test, and Timed Up and Go test. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.97, with higher test–retest reliability for tests performed at fast speeds rather than self-selected speeds. Conclusion: The Obstacles and Curb tests are promising measures for assessing walking in this population. Performing tests at fast walking speeds may improve their validity and test–retest reliability for children with spina bifida/cerebral palsy. PMID:27493754

  10. CLINICAL STUDY ON THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION WITH ACUPUNCTURE COMBINED WITH MEDICINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-hao; SHEN Qing-wei; LIN Mi-xiang; WANG Shao-zhen; ZHANG Qing-chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with medicines for acute cerebral infarction and to study its mechanism. Methods: A total of 80 acute cerebral infarction patients were evenly randomized into treatment and control groups. Patients of treatment group were treated with acupuncture of Baihui (百会GV 20), Fengchi (风池GB 20), Jiquan (极泉HT 1), Neiguan (内关PC 6), etc. and those of control group treated with conventional medicines as low molecular dextran, compound Red Sage injection, Citicolinum, etc. Scores of clinical neurological deficits, blood flow velocity peak (Vp) and mean blood flow velocity (Vm) of the bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), basilar artery (BA) and vertebral artery (VA) were detected with transcranial Doppler (TCD) were analyzed before and after treatment. Results: After 12 days' treatment, the neurological deficit scores in both treatment and control groups decreased significantly, and the difference values of the score of the former group was significantly bigger than these of the later group (P<0.01). Vp and Vm of all the detected arteries in treatment group and bilateral ACA, MCA and PCA of control group increased significantly in comparison with pre-treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01); and the difference values of Vm of bilateral MCA and VA (between post- and pre-treatment) of treatment group were significantly bigger than those of control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with medication is significantly superior to that of simple medication in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.

  11. Comparative studies of '18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and EEG in preoperative localization of temporal lobe epileptic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and EEG in preoperative localization of the epileptic focus at the temporal lobe. Methods: A total of 152 patients (108 males, 44 females, age ranged from 3 to 59 years old) with past history of temporal lobe epilepsy were included.All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and long-range or video EEG, and 29 patients underwent intracranial electrode EEG due to the failure to localize the disease focus by non-invasive methods.Histopathologic findings after operative treatment were considered the gold standard for disease localization. All patients were followed up for at least six months after the operation. The accuracy of the 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and long-range or video EEG examination were compared using χ2 test. Results: The accuracy of locating the epileptic focus was 80.92% (123/152) for 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and 43.42% (66/152) for long-range or video EEG (χ2=22.72, P<0.01). The accuracy of locating the epileptic focus for the 29 cases with intracranial electrode EEG was 100%. Conclusions: Interictal 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging is a sensitive and effective method to locate the temporal lobe epileptic focus and is better than long-range or video EEG. The combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging and intracranial electrode EEG examination can further improve the accuracy of locating the epileptic focus. (authors)

  12. Whole-body MRI for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma: prospective study in 116 patients and comparison with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess and compare the value of whole-body MRI with FDG-PET for detecting bone marrow involvement in lymphoma. A total of 116 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent whole-body MRI and blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) of the posterior iliac crest. Of 116 patients, 80 also underwent FDG-PET. Patient-based sensitivities of whole-body MRI for detecting bone marrow involvement were calculated using BMB as reference standard and compared with FDG-PET in aggressive and indolent lymphomas separately. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in all lymphomas was 45.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.8-62.0 %]. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in aggressive lymphoma [88.9 % (95 % CI: 54.3-100 %)] was significantly higher (P = 0.0029) than that in indolent lymphoma [23.5 % (95 % CI: 9.1-47.8 %)]. Sensitivity of FDG-PET in aggressive lymphoma [83.3 % (95 % CI: 41.8-98.9 %)] was also significantly higher (P = 0.026) than that in indolent lymphoma [12.5 % (95 % CI: 0-49.2 %)]. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between whole-body MRI and FDG-PET (P = 1.00) Sensitivity of whole-body MRI for detecting lymphomatous bone marrow involvement is too low to (partially) replace BMB. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI is significantly higher in aggressive lymphoma than in indolent lymphoma and is equal to FDG-PET in both entities. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of grey matter and metabolic reductions in frontotemporal dementia using FDG-PET and voxel-based morphometric MR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Kono, Atsushi K. [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Neuroimaging Research, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirteen FTD patients (mean age, 64.9 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.7), 20 sex-matched Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (mean age, 65.0 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.5), and 20 normal volunteers (mean age, 65.2 years old; mean MMSE score, 29.0) underwent both [{sup 18}F]FDG positron emission tomography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo MRI. Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct a VBM analysis of the morphologic data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of glucose metabolic data. FTD patients showed decreased grey matter volume and decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and anterior temporal lobe. In addition, there was a clear asymmetry in grey matter volume in FTD patients by the VBM analysis while the glucose metabolic data showed little asymmetry. In AD patients, glucose metabolic reduction occurred in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobules while grey matter density decreased the least in the same patients. In FTD, metabolic and morphologic changes occur in the bilateral frontal lobe and temporal lobe with a limited asymmetry whereas there was considerable discordance in the AD group. (orig.)

  14. SPECT study of regional cerebral perdusion in the early phase of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data are exposed obtained from a group of relapsing/remitting MS patients with mild neurological disability examined by a neuropsychological test battery, MRI and Single Photon Computerized Tomography (SPECT)-CBF (Cerebral Blood Flow) study. This report concentrates on the analysis of CBF data and on the relationship betweenspecific neuropsychological defects and regional CBF patterns. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Therapist-Designed Adaptive Riding in Children With Cerebral Palsy : Results of a Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Visser, Baudina; Alkema, Anne; Meinsma-van der Tuin, Marja; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is debatable whether adaptive riding (AR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) improves postural control and gross motor development. Objective. The study aim was to explore the feasibility of an extensive assessment protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapist-designed ada

  16. Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT, clinical relevance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT will gain increasing clinical relevance for functional neuroanatomy (reading, speaking), localisation of largely unknown cortical functions (vestibular cortex), imaging of subjective complaints of functional impairments (pain, smell, memory), and documentation of neurological rehabilitation at neuronal level (regeneration, compensation, substitution, learning). (orig.)

  17. Altered cerebral hemodynamics in early Alzheimer disease: a pilot study using transcranial Doppler.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Diaz-Arrastia, R.; Martin-Cook, K.; Levine, B.D.; Zhang, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease may contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated whether impairments in cerebral hemodynamics can be detected in early-stage AD. Nine patients with mild AD and eight cognitively normal controls matched for age underwent br

  18. Asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli and mood in a cohort of older people: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by transcrania

  19. Retinal vessel diameters and cerebral small vessel disease: the Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, M.K.; Jong, F.J. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Prins, N.D.; Hofman, A.; Breteler, M.M.B.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The direct visualization of retinal vessels provides a unique opportunity to study cerebral small vessel disease, because these vessels share many features. It was reported that persons with smaller retinal arteriolar-to-venular ratio tended to have more white matter lesions on MRI. It is unclear wh

  20. Developmental trajectories of social participation in individuals with cerebral palsy : A multicentre longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Siok Swan; Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Vos, Rimke C.; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Twisk, Jos W R; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Roebroeck, Marij E.; Dallmeijer, A. J.; Vos, R. C.; Van Eck, M.; Van Schie, P.; Voorman, J. M.; Becher, J. G.; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Smits, D. W.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Van Meeteren, J.; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Gorter, J. W.; Verheijden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the developmental trajectories of social participation, by level of gross motor function and intellectual disability, in a Dutch population of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 1 to 24 years. Method: As part of the Pediatric Rehabilitation Research in the N

  1. Impact of [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET on the primary staging of small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, I.; Mix, M.; Ruhland, S.; Moser, E. [University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Schumacher, T. [Diakonie Clinic Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Stoelben, E. [University Hospital, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Digel, W. [University Hospital, Division of Oncology and Hematology, Freiburg (Germany); Henke, M. [University Hospital, Division of Radiation Therapy, Freiburg (Germany); Ghanem, N. [University Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, E.U. [University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on the primary staging of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). FDG-PET was performed in 120 consecutive patients with SCLC during primary staging. In addition, brain examinations with both FDG-PET and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) were performed in 91 patients. Results of FDG-PET were compared with those of conventional staging procedures. FDG-PET detected markedly increased FDG uptake in the primary tumours of all 120 patients (sensitivity 100%). Complete agreement between FDG-PET results and other staging procedures was observed in 75 patients. Differences occurred in 45 patients at 65 sites. In 47 sites the FDG-PET results were proven to be correct, and in ten, incorrect. In the remaining eight sites, the discrepancies could not be clarified. In 14/120 patients, FDG-PET caused a stage migration, correctly upstaging ten patients to extensive disease and downstaging three patients by not confirming metastases of the adrenal glands suspected on the basis of CT. Only 1/120 patients was incorrectly staged by FDG-PET, owing to failure to detect brain metastases. In all cases the stage migration led to a significant change in the treatment protocol. Sensitivity of FDG-PET was significantly superior to that of CT in the detection of extrathoracic lymph node involvement (100% vs 70%, specificity 98% vs 94%) and distant metastases except to the brain (98% vs 83%, specificity 92% vs 79%). However, FDG-PET was significantly less sensitive than cranial MRI/CT in the detection of brain metastases (46% vs 100%, specificity 97% vs 100%). The introduction of FDG-PET in the diagnostic evaluation of SCLC will improve the staging results and affect patient management, and may reduce the number of tests and invasive procedures. (orig.)

  2. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  3. Does cerebral lateralisation develop? A study using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound assessing lateralization for language production and visuaspatial memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.A.; Whitehouse, A.J.O.; Badcock, N.A.; Bishop, D.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of people, language production is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere and visuospatial skills to the right. However, questions remain as to when, how, and why humans arrive at this division of labor. In this study, we assessed cerebral lateralization for language production a

  4. Cerebrovascular ischemic changes associated with fetal posterior cerebral artery- descriptive retrospective study with magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Indiran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Circle of Willis, the main collateral pathway for cerebral circulation, is complete in only a portion of the population. There are many variations in the Circle of Willis. Fetal posterior cerebral artery, which is defined as posterior cerebral artery arising from internal carotid artery, is a common variant of the Circle of Willis. Though association between the fetal posterior cerebral artery and ischemia have been studied, no specific study has been conducted in the Indian population. We aim to identify the incidence of small and large vessel strokes in patients with fetal posterior cerebral artery using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA of brain in the Indian population. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed MR angiographies of the brain performed in our institution, in order to assess the posterior cerebral circulation and its association with small ischemic changes and large vessel strokes. Results: 92 of the 140 patients (65% with fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA had small vessel ischemic changes. 72 patients (51.4% had large vessel infarcts in any of the vascular territories. 35% of the patients included in this study showed infarcts in the middle cerebral artery (MCA territory and 15 % showed infarcts in the PCA territory. Conclusion: Higher incidence of MCA infarcts in our study probably suggests that PCA cannot aid in collateral formation cases of reduced flow across the internal carotid artery and that fetal PCA could be an important risk factor in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases.

  5. The study of protective effects and mechanisms of rofecoxib on focal cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJuan; ZHOUYu; QIULi-Ying; CHENBai-Ling; CHENChong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM : To study the protective effects and the mechanisms of rofecoxib as a specific type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX- 2 inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury ( CIRI in rats. METHODS : The model of focal CIRI was induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAO with inserting a thread through internal carotid artery, 2 h occlusion followed

  6. Factors Associated with Diffusely Increased Splenic F-18 FDG Uptake in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seongjang; Kim, Injoo; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Sojung; Ahn, Sang Hyun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Although diffuse splenic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake exceeding hepatic activity, is considered abnormal, its clinical significance is rarely discussed in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the contributing factors causing diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. From January 2010 to March 2013, 140 patients (84 men, 56 women) were enrolled in this study. All patients had been diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the pretreatment staging work up. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Various hematological parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CEA, CA19-9, pancreatic enzymes and liver function tests were conducted within 2 days after the F-18 FDG PET/CT study. Diffuse splenic uptake was observed in 23 patients (16.4%). Of those, 19 patients (82.6%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreastography (ERCP) 7 days before F-18 FDG PET/CT. The CRP level (p <0.001) and white blood cell count (p =0.023) were significantly higher in the group of patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. The hemoglobin (p <0.001) and the hematocrit (p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. Pancreatic enzymes, liver function test results, and tumor markers were not significantly different between the patients who did or did not have diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. The significant factors for diffuse splenic F-18 FDG uptake exceeding hepatic F-18 FDG uptake on multivariate analysis included: performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET-CT (odds ratio [OR], 77.510; 95% CI, 7.624-132.105), and the presence of leukocytosis (OR, 12.436; 95% CI, 2.438-63.445) or anemia (OR, 1.211; 95% CI, 1.051-1.871). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concurrent inflammation could be associated with diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. We suggest that performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET

  7. Study of the subarachnoid space in cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 135 cases of cerebral cysticercosis are analysed, whereby the cisternoscintillographic and neuroradiological methods are combined. For this, in the first case a Searle model H.P. gamma camera was used; the investigation was performed 2, 6, 24, 48 and in some cases 72 h after intrathecal injection of 131I human seroalbumin by lumbar puncture. All these patients were subjected to cliniconeurological and neuroradiological examinations, routine laboratory tests (blood, seriate coproparasitological examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis) and special tests of intradermal reactions and histopathology. The results from the 135 patients examined were as follows: 58 were normal, while blockage was indicated in 77. The sites of obstruction were identified as being in the foramina of Luschka and Magendie in most cases and also, in order of frequency, in convexities, the aqueduct of Sylvius, the fourth ventricle and the foramen of Monro. The correlation between the clinical and radiological findings was higher than that between radiological investigations and cisternography. With cisternoscintillography a total of four false negatives and seven positives was found. (author)

  8. Value of 111In-DOTA-lanreotide and 111In-DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide in differentiated thyroid cancer: results of in vitro binding studies and in vivo comparison with 18F-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer presents diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, warranting the implementation of new imaging and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we investigated in vitro the binding characteristics of 111In-DOTA-lanreotide (111In-DOTA-LAN) and 111In-DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide (111In-DOTA-TOC) to cells derived from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Second, we evaluated the value of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy with these radioligands, as compared with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), for the detection of tumour lesions in DTC patients. Binding of 111In-DOTA-LAN and 111In-DOTA-TOC to cells isolated from surgically removed thyroid tissue was evaluated in vitro by performing saturation and displacement studies. Eighteen DTC patients with elevated thyroglobulin (12 radioiodine-negative, six radioiodine-positive) were investigated with 111In-DOTA-LAN, 111In-DOTA-TOC and 18F-FDG PET scans. Large numbers of SSTR binding sites for 111In-DOTA-LAN and 111In-DOTA-TOC were found on the cells investigated. Both SSTR radioligands exhibited a high binding affinity for these SSTR binding sites. 111In-DOTA-LAN and 111In-DOTA-TOC scintigraphy detected 37 and 33 lesions, respectively, in 17 (94%) patients each, whereas 18F-FDG PET revealed 30 lesions in 15 (83%) patients. Uptake of both SSTR radioligands was found in several radioiodine-negative sites. No striking differences in lesion imaging by 111In-DOTA-LAN and 111In-DOTA-TOC were found. In both radioiodine-negative and radioiodine-positive patients, more lesions were SSTR-positive/18F-FDG-negative than were 18F-FDG-positive/SSTR-negative. Adding a SSTR scan with these radioligands to the diagnostic work-up increases the diagnostic capacity in DTC, and should be considered particularly in radioiodine-negative patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels. (orig.)

  9. A new dimension of FDG-PET interpretation: assessment of tumor biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Basu, Sandip [Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center (Bhabha Atomic Research Center), Bombay (India); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ambrosini, Valentina [Sant' Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used for the evaluation of several malignancies. Key to the correct interpretation of oncological FDG-PET studies is awareness of the concept that the degree of FDG uptake reflects the biology of the tumor in many cancers. More specifically, cancers with high FDG uptake are often histologically and clinically more aggressive than those with low or no FDG uptake. Therefore, although a negative FDG-PET scan in a patient with a cancer that has a size above the spatial resolution of PET may be interpreted as false-negative in terms of tumor detectability, it should in fact be regarded as true-negative from the view-point of tumor biology. This nonsystematic review will give examples of several major cancers in which the relationship between FDG avidity and tumor biology is applicable, and emphasizes the need to reconsider the definition of a ''false-negative'' FDG-PET scan in clinical oncology. (orig.)

  10. Study of the optimal threshold for predicting axillary lymph nodes metastasis in women with breast cancer by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The presence of axillary lymph nodes(ALN)metastasis was the most important prognostic factor in women with breast cancer. The ability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET determining axillary status was argued. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal threshold and ability of semiquantitative analysis to determine axillary status by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods: Fifty-six patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent ALN biopsy (ALNB) were divided into 2 groups:positive group (with axillary metastasis), control group(no axillary metastasis).All the patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning for their preoperative evaluation. The maximum standardized uptake values of primary tumor (SUV-T) of ALN (SUV-T) and of mirror imaging background of ALN (SUV-T) were measured. The ratio of L/B was calculated (L/B=SUV-L/SUV-B). With the histopathologic standards of reference for each ALN, the optimal threshold of SUV-T, and SUV-L L/B were identified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Using the optimal threshold, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, negative predictive values and accuracies were calculated and compared with pathologic diagnosis (Kappa test was performed), respectively. Results: Of 56 cases,there were 56 breast primary tumors. The average of size was (30 ± 19) mm and SUV-T Was 5.5 ± 3.5. There were 38 cases (68%) in positive group and 18 eases (32%) in control group. The values in positive group[primary tumor size: (36 ± 19) mm, SUV-T (6.3 ± 3.5) ]were higher significantly than control group (t=4.060, P-T). Of all 628 ALN(565 in level I, 49 in level II and 14 in level III)were histopathologic dissected. 182 (29%) ALN were metastasis and 446 (71%) were negative. Only 145 (23%) were found in PET/CT. and of them 116(103, 11 and 2 in level I, II and III, respectively) were metastasis. In level I, the size, SUV-L, L/B of metastasis nodes were higher significantly than benign nodes (t=6.701, 7.020, 1

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT显像对心肌“缺血记忆”的分子机制研究%Experimental Study of the Molecular Mechnisms of Myocardial Ischemic Memory With 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢博洽; 杨敏福; 叶珏; 杨子鹤; 窦克非; 韩春雷; 田毅

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore whether the changes of mRNA and the existence and duration of ischemic 18F-FDG uptake correlate with the extent of myocardial ischemia inischemia-reperfusion canine model. The 20-minute (77= 4) and 40-minute (n= 4) coronary artery occlusion followed by 24 h of open-artery reperfusion in canine model were performed. All dogs underwent fasting (>12 h) dynamic 18F-FDG PET/CT and 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT imaging at baseline, 1 h and 24 h after reperfusion. When all imaging were completed, myocardial samples from the ischemic and nonischemic region were obtained, and the mRNA expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), and heart-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were estimated by Real Time PCR. There was no difference in the ratio of hypoperfused region/nomoperfused region of 18F-FDG uptake between the 20-minute group and 40-minute group at baseline. When examined at 1 h, increased 18F-FDG uptake was observed in the 40-minute group. When estimated at 24 h, only the 40-minute group showed slightly higher 18F-FDG uptake than baseline, whereas no such difference was demonstrated in the 20-minute group. Similar mRNA expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and H-FABP were demonstrated in the nonischemic regions between the 2 groups, whereas increased expressions of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, and decreased H-FABP mRNA were demonstrated in the ischemic regions. The changes of mRNA expression were more obvious in the 40 minute group than in the 20-minute group. The results showed that the existence and persistent period of ischemic 18F-FDG uptake (ischemic memory) was correlated with the extent of myocardial ischemia.%建立了不同程度的犬急性心肌缺血-再灌注模型.利用18F-FDG PET/CT动态心肌显像和实时定量PCR方法探讨了缺血心肌葡萄糖代谢改变(缺血记忆)和缺血程度的关系.将8只杂种犬随机分为球囊封堵20 min组(4只)和40 min组(4只),在空腹状态下(禁食>12 h

  12. Evolving role of FDG PET imaging in assessing joint disorders: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing joint disorders has been a relatively recent and evolving application of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. FDG is taken up by inflammatory cells, particularly when they are active as part of an ongoing inflammatory process. Hence FDG PET has been employed to assess a wide array of arthritic disorders. FDG PET imaging has been investigated in various joint diseases for diagnostic purposes, treatment monitoring, and as a prognostic indicator as in other disorders. In some of the diseases the ancillary findings in FDG PET have provided important clues about the underlying pathophysiology and pathogenesis processes. While substantial promise has been demonstrated in a number of studies, it is clear that the potential utility of PET in this clinical realm far outweighs that which has been established to date. (orig.)

  13. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-07-01

    Interpretation of F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  14. Primary cerebral neuroblastoma. A clinicopathological study of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horten, B C; Rubinstein, L J

    1976-12-01

    A series of 35 primary cerebral neuroblastoma is reported. These rare tumours occur most often in children in the first half of the first decade. Grossly the tumors are often massive, discrete, lobular, firm and cystic. Histologically three variants, largely determined by the extent and distribution of the fibrous connective tissue stroma, are recognized: (1) a classical variant, which most resembles the peripheral neuroblastoma and is characterized by a high frequency of Homer Wright rosettes and a relatively high frequency of ganglionic differentiation; (2) a desmoplastic variant, which is characterized by an intense connective tissue stroma; and (3) a transitional variant, in which both the classical and the desmoplastic features may be present within the same case, either concurrently or consecutively. Both the desmoplastic and the transitional forms are less likely to exhibit differentiation to mature ganglion cells, but the importance of identifying the primitive cell elements as neuroblasts is emphasized. With rare exceptions, this can be established only by specific silver impregnations on frozen material. Occasionally the direction of growth may be largely leptomeningeal. Seven illustrative clinical histories with pathological correlations are described. The over-all clinical behaviour of these tumours is that of malignant neuroepithelial neoplasms, characterized by a high recurrence rate. Recurrence may, however, be a late development, in some cases occurring five or seven years after apparently successful surgical removal. The tumour shows shows a high incidence of metastatic spread, almost 40 per cent of the cases examined at autopsy having disseminated in the cerebrospinal pathways. Exceptionally, extraneural metastases may also develop. However, long post-operative survival occasionally occurs, and the subsequent clinical course is not always predictable in the individual case. The differential diagnosis is briefly discussed. The cellular nature of

  15. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Kelly A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years. Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year. Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary and their impact on the growth, body composition and

  16. A dual tracer (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT pilot study for detection of cardiac sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Lars C; Haraldsen, Ate; Kramer, Stine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a potentially fatal condition lacking a single test with acceptable diagnostic accuracy. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has emerged as a promising imaging modality, but is challenged by physiological myocardial glucose uptake. An alternative tracer, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, binds...

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Vessel Wall Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients FDG-PET and CT Imaging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bucerius; R. Duivenvoorden; V. Mani; C. Moncrieff; J.H.F. Rudd; C. Calcagno; J. Machac; V. Fuster; M.E. Farkouh; Z.A. Fayad

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We investigated the prevalence and clinical risk factors of carotid vessel wall inflammation by means of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a population consisting of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. BACKGROUND The atherosclerotic disease process is

  18. Value of f-18 FDG PET/CT in preoperative staging of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Byun, Sung Su; Park, Sun Won; Kim, Mi Young; Hyun, In Young [lnha University College of Medicine, lncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The current study examined the value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging of head and neck cancer. Nineteen patients (M/F=17/2, 59{+-}12 yr) with histologically proven head and neck cancer (squamous cell carcinoma:18, adenocarcinoma:1) were studied by F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging before surgery. Preoperative CT/MRI were performed in all patients within 1 months preceding FDG PET/CT. The degree of FDG uptake was scored as grade 1 (no enhanced uptake), grade 2(equal to liver), grade 3(lower than cerebellum, but higher than liver), grade 4 (equal to cerebellum). Grade 3, 4 were considered malignant. Standardized uptake values(SUV) were also calculated. SUV > 2.0 was considered malignant. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT by visual and semiquantitative methods for the detection of cervical lymph node metastasis were compared with CT/MRI. In the 19 patients, a total of 138 lymph node levels were dissected, 37 of which showed metastatic involvement. On visual analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of F-18 FDG PET/CT were 73% (27/37) and 95% (96/101), those for semiquantitative analysis were 70% (26/37) and 91% (92/101), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CT/MRI were 78% (29/37) and 93% (94/101). Visual analysis showed similar diagnostic values compared to semiquantitative analysis. There was no significant difference in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis between FDG PET/CT and CT/MRI (p=0.5). In contrast to CT/MRI, FDG PET/CT detected double primary tumor (hepatocellular carcinoma) and bone metastasis in two patients, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck cancer was similar to CT/MRI. However, F-18 FDG PET/CT provides important additional information in preoperative M staging.

  19. Evaluation of anesthesia effects on [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in mouse brain and heart using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroshi E-mail: htoyama@fujita-hu.ac.jp; Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Vines, Douglass C.; Seneca, Nicholas M.; Modell, Kendra J.; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Innis, Robert B

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluates effects of anesthesia on {sup 18}F-FDG (FDG) uptake in mouse brain and heart to establish the basic conditions of small animal PET imaging. Prior to FDG injection, 12 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane gas; 11 mice were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a ketamine/xylazine mixture; and 11 mice were awake. In isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine conditions, FDG brain uptake (%ID/g) was significantly lower than in controls. Conversely, in the isoflurane condition, %ID/g in heart was significantly higher than in controls, whereas heart uptake in ketamine/xylazine mice was significantly lower. Results suggest that anesthesia impedes FDG uptake in mouse brain and affects FDG uptake in heart; however, the effects in the brain and heart differ depending on the type of anesthesia used.

  20. FDG-PET changes in brain glucose metabolism from normal cognition to pathologically verified Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); New York University School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, MHL 400, New York, NY (United States); Mistur, Rachel; Switalski, Remigiusz; Glodzik, Lidia; Li, Yi; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; De Santi, Susan; Reisberg, Barry [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); Tsui, Wai Hon; De Leon, Mony J. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Wisniewski, Thomas [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); New York University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New York (United States); New York University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, New York (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We report the first clinicopathological series of longitudinal FDG-PET scans in post-mortem (PM) verified cognitively normal elderly (NL) followed to the onset of Alzheimer's-type dementia (DAT), and in patients with mild DAT with progressive cognitive deterioration. Four NL subjects and three patients with mild DAT received longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological and dynamic FDG-PET examinations with arterial input functions. NL subjects were followed for 13 {+-} 5 years, received FDG-PET examinations over 7 {+-} 2 years, and autopsy 6 {+-} 3 years after the last FDG-PET. Two NL declined to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and two developed probable DAT before death. DAT patients were followed for 9 {+-} 3 years, received FDG-PET examinations over 3 {+-} 2 years, and autopsy 7 {+-} 1 years after the last FDG-PET. Two DAT patients progressed to moderate-to-severe dementia and one developed vascular dementia. The two NL subjects who declined to DAT received a PM diagnosis of definite AD. Their FDG-PET scans indicated a progression of deficits in the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) from the hippocampus to the parietotemporal and posterior cingulate cortices. One DAT patient showed AD with diffuse Lewy body disease (LBD) at PM, and her last in vivo PET was indicative of possible LBD for the presence of occipital as well as parietotemporal hypometabolism. Progressive CMRglc reductions on FDG-PET occur years in advance of clinical DAT symptoms in patients with pathologically verified disease. The FDG-PET profiles in life were consistent with the PM diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of craniosynostosis surgery. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow study in children with craniosynostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Noda, Kojiro; Hayashi, Takashi [St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Sato, Kaneshige

    1998-09-01

    Premature fusion of multiple cranial sutures has been associated with increased intracranial pressure and the potential for mental impairment. Isolated craniosynostosis, however, is considered a benign condition primarily reconstructed for aesthetic purposes. A comparative analysis, to assess the differences between pre- and post operatory cerebral perfusion of patients who underwent surgery for simple cranisynostosis, was performed using single positron emission computed tomography ``SPECT`` Images. Cerebral blood flow studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in children with simple cranisynotoses. The subjects were 8 children with craniosynostosis (age, 2 months-9 years). Preoperative revealed regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere in 5 cases (62%). In 6 patients the cerebral blood flow normalized or increased after craniofacial reconstruction. We demonstrated the presence of regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere of simple craniosynostotic cases which suggests that early surgery and release is essential to achieve optimal perfusion and brain development. (author)

  2. Evaluation of craniosynostosis surgery. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow study in children with craniosynostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premature fusion of multiple cranial sutures has been associated with increased intracranial pressure and the potential for mental impairment. Isolated craniosynostosis, however, is considered a benign condition primarily reconstructed for aesthetic purposes. A comparative analysis, to assess the differences between pre- and post operatory cerebral perfusion of patients who underwent surgery for simple cranisynostosis, was performed using single positron emission computed tomography ''SPECT'' Images. Cerebral blood flow studies were performed using 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in children with simple cranisynotoses. The subjects were 8 children with craniosynostosis (age, 2 months-9 years). Preoperative revealed regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere in 5 cases (62%). In 6 patients the cerebral blood flow normalized or increased after craniofacial reconstruction. We demonstrated the presence of regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere of simple craniosynostotic cases which suggests that early surgery and release is essential to achieve optimal perfusion and brain development. (author)

  3. Cerebral vascular effects of loading dose of dexmedetomidine: A Transcranial Color Doppler study

    OpenAIRE

    Appavoo Arulvelan; Sethuraman Manikandan; Hari Venkat Easwer; Kesavapisharady Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine has been widely used in critical care settings because of its property of maintaining stable hemodynamics and inducing conscious sedation. The use of dexmedetomidine is in increasing trend particularly in patients with neurological disorders. Very few studies have focused on the cerebral hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine. This study is aimed to address this issue. Methods: Thirty patients without any intracranial pathology were included in this study. Middle c...

  4. Contrast study on CT and BA in cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension%CONTRAST STUDY ON CT AND BA IN CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE DUE TO HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshun Liu; Guoqiu Wang; Po Ma

    2007-01-01

    Objectives:To explore contrast application on CT and BA in cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension. Methods: CT and BA were examined in 106 patients with cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension. Results:The different changes of CT and BA were showed in 106 patients with cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension. Conclusions: There were separately different advantage and shortcoming in CT and BA in diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension. The value of clinical application of BA was important in cerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension.

  5. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) images compared with histology of atherosclerotic plaques: {sup 18}F-FDG accumulates in foamy macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Seigo [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa (Japan); Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Biomolecular Research Laboratories, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Medical Photonics Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Mori, Ikuo; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Shota; Sugita, Taku; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Horiguchi, Takashi [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) and {sup 18}F-FDG PET have been used to evaluate the efficacy of antiatherosclerosis drugs. These two modalities image different characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques, and a comparison of IVUS and PET images with histology has not been performed. The aim of this study was to align IVUS and PET images using anatomic landmarks in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (WHHL) rabbits, enabling comparison of their depiction of aortic atherosclerosis. Cellular {sup 18}F-FDG localization was evaluated by {sup 3}H-FDG microautoradiography (micro-ARG). A total of 19 WHHL rabbits (7 months of age) were divided into three groups: baseline (n = 6), 3 months (n = 4), and 6 months (n = 9). PET, IVUS and histological images of the same aortic segments were analysed. Infiltration by foamy macrophages was scored from 0 to IV using haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and antimacrophage immunohistochemical staining, and compared with {sup 3}H-FDG micro-ARG findings in two additional WHHL rabbits. IVUS images did not identify foamy macrophage deposition but revealed the area of intimal lesions (r = 0.87). {sup 18}F-FDG PET revealed foamy macrophage distribution in the plaques. The intensity of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was correlated positively with the degree of foamy macrophage infiltration. Micro-ARG showed identical {sup 3}H-FDG accumulation in the foamy macrophages surrounding the lipid core of the plaques. F-FDG PET localized and quantified the degree of infiltration of foamy macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. IVUS defined the size of lesions. {sup 18}F-FDG PET is a promising imaging technique for evaluating atherosclerosis and for monitoring changes in the composition of atherosclerotic plaques affecting their stability. (orig.)

  6. Applications of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in Plant Imaging: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatangare, Amol; Svatoš, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to explore and establish the current status of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) applications in plant imaging. In the present article, we review the previous literature on its experimental merits to formulate a consistent and inclusive picture of FDG applications in plant-imaging research. 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose is a [(18)F]fluorine-labeled glucose analog in which C-2 hydroxyl group has been replaced by a positron-emitting [(18)F] radioisotope. As FDG is a positron-emitting radiotracer, it could be used in in vivo imaging studies. FDG mimics glucose chemically and structurally. Its uptake and distribution are found to be similar to those of glucose in animal models. FDG is commonly used as a radiotracer for glucose in medical diagnostics and in vivo animal imaging studies but rarely in plant imaging. Tsuji et al. (2002) first reported FDG uptake and distribution in tomato plants. Later, Hattori et al. (2008) described FDG translocation in intact sorghum plants and suggested that it could be used as a tracer for photoassimilate translocation in plants. These findings raised interest among other plant scientists, which has resulted in a recent surge of articles involving the use of FDG as a tracer in plants. There have been seven studies describing FDG-imaging applications in plants. These studies describe FDG applications ranging from monitoring radiotracer translocation to analyzing solute transport, root uptake, photoassimilate tracing, carbon allocation, and glycoside biosynthesis. Fatangare et al. (2015) recently characterized FDG metabolism in plants; such knowledge is crucial to understanding and validating the application of FDG in plant imaging research. Recent FDG studies significantly advance our understanding of FDG translocation and metabolism in plants but also raise new questions. Here, we take a look at all the previous results to form a comprehensive picture of FDG translocation, metabolism, and applications in

  7. The effect of Ventricular Assist Devices on cerebral autoregulation: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunster Kimble R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insertion of Ventricular Assist Devices is a common strategy for cardiovascular support in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. This study sought to determine the impact of ventricular assist devices on the dynamic relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Methods A sample of 5 patients supported with a pulsatile ventricular assist device was compared with 5 control patients. Controls were matched for age, co-morbidities, current diagnosis and cardiac output state, to cases. Beat-to-beat recordings of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity, using transcranial Doppler were obtained. Transfer function analysis was performed on the lowpass filtered pressure and flow signals, to assess gain, phase and coherence of the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. These parameters were derived from the very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz, low frequency (0.07-0.2 Hz and high frequency (0.2-0.35 Hz. Results No significant difference was found in gain and phase values between the two groups, but the low frequency coherence was significantly higher in cases compared with controls (mean ± SD: 0.65 ± 0.16 vs 0.38 ± 0.19, P = 0.04. The two cases with highest coherence (~0.8 also had much higher spectral power in mean arterial blood pressure. Conclusions Pulsatile ventricular assist devices affect the coherence but not the gain or phase of the cerebral pressure-flow relationship in the low frequency range; thus whether there was any significant disruption of cerebral autoregulation mechanism was not exactly clear. The augmentation of input pressure fluctuations might contribute in part to the higher coherence observed.

  8. A study of cerebral circulation in elderly patients with dementia using 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and multi-infarct dementia (MID), 18 age-matched controls, 22 SDAT cases, 10 MID cases, and 15 multiple infarction without dementia (MI) cases, totaling 65 cases, were enrolled into a study of cerebral blood flow using single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The diagnosis of dementia was made based on the clinical history, findings of brain CT, MRI, and Hachinski's ischemic score. Lateral asymmetric perfusion was evaluated by using the asymmetry index (AI). Quantitative cerebral blood flow was analyzed by using the venous blood sampling method with IMP SPECT. Cerebral infarction, ischemic changes, and brain atrophy were diagnosed by CT and MRI. mCBF values were significantly lower in SDAT and MID than in those of controls, while rCBF values were lowest at the frontal lobes in MID and at the parietal lobes in SDAT. Hasegawa's dementia score was correlated with the rCBF at the frontal lobes in MID. In MID, there was a greater number of infarction, and atrophic changes were significantly remarkable, while the rCBF values were significantly lower at the frontal lobes compared to the MI group. Multi-variate analysis suggested that among the factors contributing to MID, brain atrophy was most relevant to dementia. In SDAT, rCBF values showed the most lateral asymmetry at the parietal lobes, the least, at the occipital lobes. The lateral asymmetry of the cerebral blood flow at the parietal lobes showed an association with clinical symptoms. There was a negative coefficiency between the cerebellum and the cerebral hemisphere in the evaluation of lateral asymmetry. These results suggest that rCBF estimation by IMP SPECT is useful in the differential diagnosis between MID and SDAT, and may also contribute to the classification of these two diseases. (author)

  9. Dynamic FDG PET in characterizing and staging lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT has proven inadequate for staging lung cancer. This study evaluates F-18 deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing mediastinal metastases of lung tumors, differentiating benign from malignant parenchymal masses, and complementing radiographic and laboratory findings in lymphoma. The authors of this paper examined 13 patients with pulmonary masses as determined by chest radiographs and CT scans. PET scans were obtained with 255.3-592 MBq FDG scanned in dynamic mode at 5 minutes per frame for 45 minutes and one 15 minutes per frame. Image analysis included visual inspection, time activity curves (TAC), and calculation of differential uptake ratio (DUR) in regions of interest versus normal tissue

  10. FDG gamma camera PET equipped with one inch crystal and XCT. Assessment of myocardial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshti, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET CT Centre, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Linz (Austria); Khorsand, A.; Graf, S. [Dept. of Cardiology, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Dobrozemsky, G. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria); Oezer, S.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Pirich, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine und Endocrinology, Paracelsus Private Medical Univ., SALK, Salzburg (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Metabolic imaging with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is actually considered as the best method to detect and quantitatively assess myocordial tissue viability. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of FDG gamma camera positron emission tomography (GCPET) imaging equipped with one inch NaI crystals in comparison to FDG dedicated PET (dPET) imaging as a ''gold standard'' in phantom and clinical studies. Patients, methods: nineteen patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent both imaging modalities. Phantom and clinical GCPET imaging were performed with a dual-headed, coincidence based gamma camera equipped with 1 inch thick NaI crystals and an X-ray tube (XCT) for attenuation correction (AC), as well as with a dedicated PET scanner with AC. {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies were performed for assessment of myocardial perfusion, with AC. Results: phantom studies showed a significant relation in segmental activity between FDG imaging with AC using GCPET and dPET (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). In clinical studies with AC correlation coefficients of mean segmental FDG uptake and regional defect size were r = 0.87 (p < 0.0001) and r = 0.83 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In regional analysis close agreement was even found in the most attenuated regions of the heart if AC was used in GCPET imaging. The overall agreement for detection of viable myocardium was 81% between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (AC) and 74% between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (NC). Conclusions: suggests that the assessment of myocardial metabolism by means of FDG is feasible with a coincidence based gamma camera equipped with 1 inch thick NaI crystal if AC is performed. The results reveal a close concordance and agreement between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (AC) as compared to FDG-GCPET (NC). (orig.)

  11. GABA-A stimulation in normal volunteers and during temporal epilepsy measured by 18FDG with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain and it has been evoked in epilepto-genesis. Using a GABA analog, the THIP, we tried to establish if the gabaergic neurotransmission was modified in the epileptic focus. For this purpose, we measured the effects of this specific GABA agonist on the cerebral glucose consumption (CMRGlu) as measured by 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET). Eight patients presenting temporal epilepsy and three normal volunteers received two 18FDG PET studies, after placebo and THIP injection, in random order. Clinical symptoms and electroencephalographic data demonstrated a trend towards sleepiness and a diminution of alpha waves after THIP injection. CMRGlu was globally increased with THIP in cortical regions, cerebellum and caudate nuclei. The average increase was 17% in grey matter while it did not reach significancy in white matter. Under the placebo condition, the asymmetry between the focus and the controlateral internal temporal zone was 18% as an average, and reduced significantly to 11% after THIP injection. In the external temporal zones, the asymmetry decreased from 28% to 14%. These results suggest that gabaergic inhibition requires energy in the normal brain tissue and in this with temporal epilepsy. Since the asymmetry of glucose consumption tends to diminish, the inhibitory GABA system appears preserved in temporal epilepsy with an enhanced sensitivity in the focus. (Authors). 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. Glatiramer acetate reduces the risk for experimental cerebral malaria: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Helbok Raimund; Broessner Gregor; Dietmann Anelia; Burger Christoph; Part Andrea; Lackner Peter; Reindl Markus; Schmutzhard Erich; Beer Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with high mortality and morbidity caused by a high rate of transient or persistent neurological sequelae. Studies on immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drugs as ancillary treatment in murine CM indicate promising potential. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulatory drug approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, in preventing the death of C57Bl/6J...

  13. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...... in longitudinal studies of MS patients, but little is known about the associated changes in cerebral neural function. METHODS: The authors studied 10 patients with clinically definite MS who underwent serial measurements of CMRglc, MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), and clinical evaluation of disability...... and parietal cortical areas. There was a statistically significant increase of disability (pMS is decreased significantly during a 2...

  14. Prognostic indices for cerebral venous thrombosis on CT perfusion: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, E-mail: rakrakgupta@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala (India); Bapuraj, J.R., E-mail: jrajiv@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Khandelwal, N. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Khurana, Dheeraj [Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: We determined the prognostic significance of CT perfusion characteristics of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and assessed the change in perfusion parameters following anticoagulation therapy. Materials and methods: 20 patients with CVST diagnosed on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were included in this study. The initial CT perfusion study was performed at the time of admission. The following perfusion parameters: relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) were calculated in the core and periphery of the affected area of the brain. Follow-up CT perfusion studies were performed at 1 month following anticoagulation therapy and the perfusion parameters thus obtained were compared with pre-treatment results. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the prognostic significance of perfusion parameters. Results: All patients in this study showed areas of hypoperfusion on CT perfusion. To determine the favorable clinical outcome on basis of perfusion parameters, ROC curve analysis was performed which showed that the optimal threshold for rCBF > 60.5%, rCBV > 75.5%, and rMTT < 148.5% correlated with better clinical outcomes. Post treatment perfusion parameters showed significant correlation in core of the lesion (p < 0.05) than in the periphery. Conclusion: CT perfusion studies in CVST are a good prognostic tool and yield valuable information regarding clinical outcome.

  15. Aspiration Pneumonia in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos-Guimarães, Hellen Nataly Correia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Celli, Adriane; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Abdulmassih, Edna Marcia da Silva; Hirata, Gisela Carmona; Gallinea, Liliane Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Dysphagia is a common symptom in children with cerebral palsy, either in oral or pharyngeal phases. Children who face such difficulties tend to show health problems such as food aspiration, malnutrition and respiratory infections. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is the most recommended for these cases, as it reveals the real situation during swallowing. Objective The study aimed to verify the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in children with cerebral palsy after videofluoroscopy. Methods The population for this prospective cross-sectional study involved 103 children with cerebral palsy, referred for videofluoroscopic who had returned for medical examination after a week to search for signs and symptoms of pneumonia. Results The study involved 46 girls (44.66%) and 57 boys (55.34%), aged between 0 and 14 years of age. Of the total, 84 (81.5%) had dysphagia, of which 24 (23.3%) were severe, 8 (7.7%) were moderate and 52 (50.4%) were mild dysphagia. None of the children presented aspiration pneumonia or infectious complications during the course of videofluoroscopy or after the procedure. Conclusion In the population studied, the authors found no cases of aspiration pneumonia, even with tracheal aspiration present in 32 (31.07%) cases. PMID:27096017

  16. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  17. Assessment of cerebral blood flow autoregulation (CBF AR) with rheoencephalography (REG): studies in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of cerebral vasculature to regulate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the face of changes in arterial blood pressure (SAP) or intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important guard against secondary ischemia in acute brain injuries, and official guidelines recommend that therapeutic decisions be guided by continuous monitoring of CBF autoregulation (AR). The common method for CBF AR monitoring, which rests on real-time derivation of the correlation coefficient (PRx) between slow oscillations in SAP and ICP is, however, rarely used in clinical practice because it requires invasive ICP measurements. This study investigated whether the correlation coefficient between SAP and the pulsatile component of the non-invasive transcranial bioimpedance signal (rheoencephalography, REG) could be used to assess the state and lower limit of CBF AR. The results from pigs and rhesus macaques affirm the utility of REG; however, additional animal and clinical studies are warranted to assess selectivity of automatic REG-based evaluation of CBF AR.

  18. Assessment of cerebral blood flow autoregulation (CBF AR) with rheoencephalography (REG): studies in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Djordje; Bodo, Michael; Pearce, Frederick; van Albert, Stephen; Garcia, Alison; Settle, Tim; Armonda, Rocco

    2013-04-01

    The ability of cerebral vasculature to regulate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the face of changes in arterial blood pressure (SAP) or intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important guard against secondary ischemia in acute brain injuries, and official guidelines recommend that therapeutic decisions be guided by continuous monitoring of CBF autoregulation (AR). The common method for CBF AR monitoring, which rests on real-time derivation of the correlation coefficient (PRx) between slow oscillations in SAP and ICP is, however, rarely used in clinical practice because it requires invasive ICP measurements. This study investigated whether the correlation coefficient between SAP and the pulsatile component of the non-invasive transcranial bioimpedance signal (rheoencephalography, REG) could be used to assess the state and lower limit of CBF AR. The results from pigs and rhesus macaques affirm the utility of REG; however, additional animal and clinical studies are warranted to assess selectivity of automatic REG-based evaluation of CBF AR.

  19. Frequency of risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. a study of 100 cases in naseer teaching hospital, peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. It is a descriptive hospital based study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Naseer Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2005 to December 2005. One hundred patients of stroke with cerebral infarction confirmed on C.T. scan brain and more than twenty years of age were included. Risk factors for cerebral infarction were defined in terms of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, smoking, dyslipidaemia, TIAs (transient ischemic attacks), carotid artery stenosis and family history of stroke. Data of 100 cases with cerebral infarction was recorded. Most of the patients had more than one risk factors for cerebral infarction. hypertension was commonest risk factor (55%), smoking (30%), ischemic heart disease (34%), diabetes mellitus) (26%), hyperlipedaemia (30%), atrial fibrillation (25%), carotid artery stenosis (27%), obesity (15%) and family history of stroke (12%). 39% of patients had physical inactivity. Males were slightly predominant than females (51% vs 49%) and mean age was 50 years. females were rather older with mean age of 53 years. Cerebral infarction accounts for 80% to 85% of cases of stroke, which is a common neurological disorder. It increases a burden of disability and misery for patients and their families. Most of the risk factors of cerebral infarction are modifiable, its prevention should be the main cause of concern for the community. (author)

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cerebral arterial and venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marchione

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although recent studies excluded an association between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (MS, controversial results account for some cerebrovascular haemodynamic impairment suggesting a dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation mechanisms. The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is to evaluate cerebral arterial inflow and venous outflow by means of a non-invasive ultrasound procedure in Relapsing Remitting (RR, Primary Progressive (PP Multiple Sclerosis and age and sex-matched controls subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All subjects underwent a complete extra-intracranial arterial and venous ultrasound assessment with a color-coded duplex sonography scanner and a transcranial doppler equipment, in both supine and sitting position by means of a tilting chair. Basal arterial and venous morphology and flow velocities, postural changes in mean flow velocities (MFV of middle cerebral arteries (MCA, differences between cerebral venous outflow (CVF in clinostatism and in the seated position (ΔCVF and non-invasive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were evaluated. RESULTS: 85 RR-MS, 83 PP-MS and 82 healthy controls were included. ΔCVF was negative in 45/85 (52.9% RR-MS, 63/83 (75.9% PP-MS (p = 0.01 and 11/82 (13.4% controls (p<0.001, while MFVs on both MCAs in sitting position were significantly reduced in RR-MS and PP-MS patients than in control, particularly in EDSS ≥ 5 subgroup (respectively, 42/50, 84% vs. 66/131, 50.3%, p<0.01 and 48.3 ± 2 cm/s vs. 54.6 ± 3 cm/s, p = 0.01. No significant differences in CPP were observed within and between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF and CVF and their postural dependency may be related to a dysfunction of autonomic nervous system that seems to characterize more disabled MS patients. It's not clear whether the altered postural control of arterial inflow and venous outflow is a specific MS condition or simply an

  1. Longitudinal Studies of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Late-Life Depression and Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol R.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Late-life depression (LLD) has a substantial public health impact and is both a risk factor for and prodrome of dementia. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have demonstrated sensitivity in evaluating neural circuitry involved in depression, aging, incipient cognitive decline and dementia. The present study evaluated the long term effects of a course of antidepressant treatment on glucose metabolism in LLD patients. Methods Nine LLD patients and 7 non-depressed control subjects underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging and PET studies of cerebral glucose metabolism at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment with citalopram for a major depressive episode (patients only), and at an approximately 2 year follow-up. Results The majority of LLD patients were remitted at follow-up (7/9). Neither patients nor controls showed significant cognitive decline. The patients showed greater increases in glucose metabolism than the controls in regions associated with mood symptoms (anterior cingulate and insula). Both groups showed decreases in metabolism in posterior association cortices implicated in dementia. Conclusions Longitudinal changes in cerebral glucose metabolism are observed in controls and LLD patients without significant cognitive decline that are more extensive than the decreases in brain volume. Longer duration follow-up studies and the integration of other molecular imaging methods will have implications for understanding the clinical and neurobiological significance of these metabolic changes. PMID:22740289

  2. Association of frontal gray matter volume and cerebral perfusion in heroin addiction: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    OpenAIRE

    StefanBorgwardt; Ernst-WilhelmRadue

    2013-01-01

    Structure and function are closely related in the healthy human brain. In patients with chronic heroin exposure, brain imaging studies have identified long-lasting changes in gray matter (GM) volume. More recently, we showed that acute application of heroin in dependent patients results in hypoperfusion of fronto-temporal areas compared with the placebo condition. However, the relationship between structural and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in heroin addiction has not yet been investigat...

  3. Epidemiological study of 183 patients with spontaneous rupture of cerebral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral vessels aneurysms represent a significant part of the cerebral vessels pathology. There is no extensive study on that in Bulgaria. We present a study of 183 patients with spontaneous rupture of cerebral aneurysm, diagnosed and treated in UMHATEM ‘Pirogov’, Sofia. We used clinical methods - data from subject history, analysis of the accompanying documentation, subject medical chart; imaging-diagnostics methods - CT, DSA and MRI; and statistical methods. A total of 183 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were studied. 65% were females and 35% were men.The ration female/male is 1.86, The mean age of all patients is 53.1 ±10.1 years. The highest incidence of ruptured aneurysms is seen in the age group 50 to 59 years. Aneurysms of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior are the most frequent (63.4% in total); while the lest are those of a basilaris (4.9%). 88.5% of the aneurysms in the studied group are small, 9.8% are large and 1.6% are giant. Intracranial hematomas are seen in 13.1% of the patients with ruptured aneurysms. Most frequently hematomas are connected with a. cerebri media and a.communicants anterior (87.5% in total). Patients with multiple aneurysms are 11.5% in total, 85.7% of them with an aneurysm of a.cerebri media. The incidence of ruptured cerebral aneurysms is higher amongst female. Frequency in the fifth decade of life is the highest. Most often seen are the aneurysms of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior, and the least - those of a. basilaris. Intracranial hematomas most frequently are associated with ruptures of a. cerebri media and a. communicants anterior, in patients with multiple aneurysms the highest is the frequency of aneurysms of a. cerebri media. (authors)

  4. FDG-PET imaging in HIV-infected subjects: relation with therapy and immunovirological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterise tissue sites of immune activation and HIV replication we performed FDG-PET in ART-treated and ART-naive HIV-infected individuals. Specific aims were to establish whether HIV-infected patients can be differentiated on the basis of the detection of specific locations of viral replication, even in the presence of an apparently optimal immunovirological response to ART, and whether these FDG-PET findings can be related to immunovirological variables and AIDS history status. Patients were divided into five groups as follows: subgroup A1 (full responders, n=8): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes >500/mL, viral load 50,000 copies/mL; group C (ART-naive, n=5): no current or previous ART treatment, increased viral load. PET images revealed different patterns of FDG uptake. All ART-treated patients with either suppressed (<50 copies/mL; Group A) or high viremia (group B) showed a normal pattern of FDG uptake. On the contrary, the ART-naive subjects with high viraemia (group C) displayed multiple foci of increased glucose metabolism in the lymph nodes. In the ART-naive subjects, FDG uptake, apparently related to viraemia level, was observed in the upper torso mainly in the axillary nodes bilaterally in patients with viraemia below 100,000 copies/mL; in those with viraemia higher than 100,000 copies/mL, FDG uptake was also observed in the inguinal lymph nodes. The emergence, in our study, of a correlation between the percentage of CD8+/CD38+/RO+ T cells (well established markers of progression to AIDS independently of CD4+ T lymphocytes) and positive FDG-PET in ART-naive patients is a novel finding that seems to confer prognostic value on FDG uptake. FDG uptake is strongly associated with response to ART independently of a previous AIDS diagnosis. Notably, no differences were observed between ART-treated subjects classed as immunological responders and those classed as non responders. Data herewith indicate that FDG uptake and immunological variables are

  5. Determination of cerebral metabolic patterns in dementia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Kety-Schmidt method whole brain measurements of blood flow and metabolism were first applied to normal aged and demented patients. Chronically demented patients were consistently found to have marked reductions in cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization when dementia was severe, and lesser reductions when it was mild. Others found that cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization were decreased in parallel in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple infarct dementia (MID). The intraarterial /sup 133/Xe method has been used to determine abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow that correlate with cognitive deficits in patients with organic dementia, mostly Alzheimer's cases. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the /sup 18/F fluorodeoxyglycose (FDG) method have been applied to small numbers of demented patients with advanced AD. In general, decreases were found in global cerebral glucose utilization, but especially in temporal and parietal cortex. Others, using PET and the /sup 15/O/sub 2/ steady-state method, found a coupled decline in global cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization that was correlated with increasing severity of dementia in both AD and MID, but there was no increase in oxygen extraction ratio, and therefore no evidence to support the existence of a chronic ischemic brain process. In this chapter, the author reviews some of the recent findings at UCLA using PET and the method in the study of normal aging and dementing disorders

  6. Radionuclide imaging of spinal osteomyelitis: prospective comparison of FDG-PET and Ga-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: MRI is currently recognized as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. Radionuclide imaging with 67Ga citrate (Ga) is usually reserved for those situations in which the MRI cannot be performed or is inconclusive. The delay between injection of radiogallium and imaging, typically 48 -72 hours, as well as the unfavorable imaging characteristics of this radionuclide are disadvantages of the procedure. There are data that suggest that 18F-FDG-PET (FDG-PET) imaging may be useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. We are prospectively studying the role of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of spinal osteomyelitis, and comparing it to Ga for this purpose. Materials and Methods: To date, 8 patients, 5 males and 3 females, 44 - 74 years old have undergone Ga-SPECT and FDG-PET imaging within 48 hours of each other. The regions of concern were: cervical spine (n=1), thoracic spine (n=2), and lumbar spine (n=5). Results: Five patients had spinal osteomyelitis; one patient also had an adjacent psoas abscess. Final diagnoses in the 3 remaining patients were degenerative joint disease, soft tissue infection, and chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy. Imaging results are presented. FDG-PET vs Gallium-SPECT. Results of FDG-PET and Ga-SPECT were concordant in all 8 patients. Conclusion: Although further study in a larger population is needed, FDG-PET, which is rapidly completed and has superior image quality, may emerge as the radionuclide imaging procedure of choice for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis

  7. Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical significance of 18F-FDG PET in the brain mass survey studies. Thirty-two (58%) out of 55 patients examined showed regional decreases in the cerebrum and cerebellum, which were caused by ischemia, macroangiopathy of diabetes mellitus, crossed cerebellar diaschisis and Alzheimer's disease. Two patients with suspicious Alzheimer's disease (early stage) and one with cerebrovascular dementia were observed. One patient showed high uptake of 18F-FDG in the pituitary gland with pituitary adenoma. 18F-FDG PET is very useful not only to pick up early stage of dementia but also to examine several pathological conditions. (author)

  8. EFFECT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Kulikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction on cerebral hemodynamic in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI during acute period. Material and methods. Cerebral hemodynamics ultrasound assessment was performed in the extra-and intracranial vessels in 118 patients with STEMI. Results. Significant changes in cerebral hemodynamics were found in LV systolic dysfunction with ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40% due to hemispheric blood flow asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery (MCA as large as 45.1±6.7% with correlation coefficient r=-0.87. Compensation of cerebral blood flow was manifested in vasoconstriction or vasodilation (resistive index 0.63-0.76 and 0.49-0.43 c.u., respectively. Conclusion. A strong relationship between LV systolic dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic was found in patients with STEMI. It was manifested in significant contralateral hemispheric blood flow asymmetry in MCA in patients with LVEF ≤40%. Reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity activated autoregulation mechanism in the form of vasoconstriction or vasodilation.

  9. Retrospective quality control review of FDG scans in the imaging sub-study of PALETTE EORTC 62072/VEG110727: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristova, Ivalina [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters, Brussels (Belgium); Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [Maastricht University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Marreaud, Sandrine; Collette, Sandra [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters, Brussels (Belgium); Schoeffski, Patrick [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of General Medical Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven (Belgium); Sanfilippo, Roberta [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Dewji, Raz [GlaxoSmithKline, Oncology R and D, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Graaf, Winette van der [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    {sup 18}F-Labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can detect early changes in tumour metabolism and may be a useful quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) for prediction of disease stabilization, response and duration of progression-free survival (PFS). Standardization of imaging procedures is a prerequisite, especially in multicentre clinical trials. In this study we reviewed the quality of FDG scans and compliance with the imaging guideline (IG) in a phase III clinical trial. Forty-four cancer patients were enrolled in an imaging sub-study of a randomized international multicentre trial. FDG scan had to be performed at baseline and 10-14 days after treatment start. The image transmittal forms (ITFs) and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) [1] standard headers were analysed for compliance with the IG. Mean liver standardized uptake values (LSUV{sub mean}) were measured as recommended by positron emission tomography (PET) Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 (PERCIST) [2]. Of 88 scans, 81 were received (44 patients); 36 were properly anonymized; 77/81 serum glucose values submitted, all but one within the IG. In 35/44 patients both scans were of sufficient visual quality. In 22/70 ITFs the reported UT differed by >1 min from the DICOM headers (max. difference 1 h 4 min). Based on the DICOM, UT compliance for both scans was 31.4 %. LSUV{sub mean} was fairly constant for the 11 patients with UT compliance: 2.30 ± 0.33 at baseline and 2.27 ± 0.48 at follow-up (FU). Variability substantially increased for the subjects with unacceptable UT (11 patients): 2.27 ± 1.04 at baseline and 2.18 ± 0.83 at FU. The high attrition number of patients due to low compliance with the IG compromised the quantitative assessment of the predictive value for early response monitoring. This emphasizes the need for better regulated procedures in imaging departments, which may be achieved by education of involved personnel or efforts towards regulations. LSUV{sub mean} could be

  10. Retrospective quality control review of FDG scans in the imaging sub-study of PALETTE EORTC 62072/VEG110727: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-Labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can detect early changes in tumour metabolism and may be a useful quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) for prediction of disease stabilization, response and duration of progression-free survival (PFS). Standardization of imaging procedures is a prerequisite, especially in multicentre clinical trials. In this study we reviewed the quality of FDG scans and compliance with the imaging guideline (IG) in a phase III clinical trial. Forty-four cancer patients were enrolled in an imaging sub-study of a randomized international multicentre trial. FDG scan had to be performed at baseline and 10-14 days after treatment start. The image transmittal forms (ITFs) and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) [1] standard headers were analysed for compliance with the IG. Mean liver standardized uptake values (LSUVmean) were measured as recommended by positron emission tomography (PET) Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 (PERCIST) [2]. Of 88 scans, 81 were received (44 patients); 36 were properly anonymized; 77/81 serum glucose values submitted, all but one within the IG. In 35/44 patients both scans were of sufficient visual quality. In 22/70 ITFs the reported UT differed by >1 min from the DICOM headers (max. difference 1 h 4 min). Based on the DICOM, UT compliance for both scans was 31.4 %. LSUVmean was fairly constant for the 11 patients with UT compliance: 2.30 ± 0.33 at baseline and 2.27 ± 0.48 at follow-up (FU). Variability substantially increased for the subjects with unacceptable UT (11 patients): 2.27 ± 1.04 at baseline and 2.18 ± 0.83 at FU. The high attrition number of patients due to low compliance with the IG compromised the quantitative assessment of the predictive value for early response monitoring. This emphasizes the need for better regulated procedures in imaging departments, which may be achieved by education of involved personnel or efforts towards regulations. LSUVmean could be monitored to assess

  11. Preliminary EEG study of protective effects of Tebonin in transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Munteanu, A M;

    2000-01-01

    and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preventive treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761--Tebonin) in cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in rats using computerized EEG analysis. Ginkgo biloba extract, known to be, in vitro, a free radicals scavanger and a PAF......--antagonist, was administrated in dose of 100 mg/kg over 24 hours, for 5 days before and 5 days after cerebral ischemia--reperfusion. The apparition of isoelectric EEG (flat-line) following 4-vessel occlusion was observed after a mean time of 25 sec. in Ginkgo biloba treated rats and after 18 sec. in control rats (p ....0015). Computerized spectral analysis of EEG has shown that the percentage of slow waves at 10 minutes after reperfusion was 117% higher in control group than in Ginkgo biloba group (p Ginkgo...

  12. Neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria in adults:A pilot study in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Peixoto; Isabel Kalei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria (CM) in an adult sample of the city of Benguela, Angola. Methods:A neuropsychological assessment was carried out in 22 subjects with prior history of CM ranging from 6 to 12 months after the infection. The obtained results were compared to a control group with no previous history of cerebral malaria. The study was conducted in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola in 2011. Results: CM group obtained lower results on the two last trials of a verbal learning task and on an abstract reasoning test. Conclusions: CM is associated to a slower verbal learning rate and to difficulties in the ability to discriminate and perceive relations between new elements.

  13. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  14. Biopsy versus FDG PET/CT in the initial evaluation of bone marrow involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to assess the role of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT versus bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the initial evaluation of bone marrow (BM) involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients. Fifty-four pediatric patients with pathologically proven lymphoma [31 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 23 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] were included in this study. All patients had soft tissue biopsy and BMB and had FDG PET/CT scans within 2 weeks of biopsy. Among the 31 HD patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 4 patients, while BMB revealed BM involvement in 2 patients who were also positive on FDG PET/CT imaging. Among the 23 NHL patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 8 patients, while biopsy revealed BM involvement in 5 patients on initial studies (4 of them were also positive on FDG PET/CT, and 1 was BMB positive but was negative on FDG PET/CT), plus 1 false-negative BMB study initially but positive on repeat biopsy after FDG PET/CT. The overall sensitivity of detecting BM involvement by lymphoma was 92 and 54% (p < 0.05) for FDG PET/CT and BMB, respectively. It is noted that there were more positive BMB findings in patients with abnormal FDG activities seen in the biopsy sites on PET/CT. Our study demonstrates that FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and accuracy and a substantial complementary value to BMB in the initial diagnosis of pediatric lymphoma, and should be employed as a first-line study. (orig.)

  15. Biopsy versus FDG PET/CT in the initial evaluation of bone marrow involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chen, Wengen [University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The objective is to assess the role of {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT versus bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the initial evaluation of bone marrow (BM) involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients. Fifty-four pediatric patients with pathologically proven lymphoma [31 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 23 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] were included in this study. All patients had soft tissue biopsy and BMB and had FDG PET/CT scans within 2 weeks of biopsy. Among the 31 HD patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 4 patients, while BMB revealed BM involvement in 2 patients who were also positive on FDG PET/CT imaging. Among the 23 NHL patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 8 patients, while biopsy revealed BM involvement in 5 patients on initial studies (4 of them were also positive on FDG PET/CT, and 1 was BMB positive but was negative on FDG PET/CT), plus 1 false-negative BMB study initially but positive on repeat biopsy after FDG PET/CT. The overall sensitivity of detecting BM involvement by lymphoma was 92 and 54% (p < 0.05) for FDG PET/CT and BMB, respectively. It is noted that there were more positive BMB findings in patients with abnormal FDG activities seen in the biopsy sites on PET/CT. Our study demonstrates that FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and accuracy and a substantial complementary value to BMB in the initial diagnosis of pediatric lymphoma, and should be employed as a first-line study. (orig.)

  16. Characteristic of {sup 18}F-FDG Excretion According to Use Diuretics in {sup 18}F-FDG of PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Sang Ho [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong Lim [Dept. of Physics, Daegu University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Koo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) causes a significant amount of radioactivity retention in kidneys and urinary tract and degrades image quality and diagnostic performance. Diuretics are used to perform tests and prevent the urinary tract retention of {sup 18}F-FDG. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the diuretics affect images and excretion rates of {sup 18}F-FDG. The study consists of a group using diuretics for patients with no primary tumors or transfer lesions in kidneys according to PET/CT images, a group using physiological saline and the control group injecting only {sup 18}F-FDG and SUVs are measured by configuring interested areas for each group. Also, SUVs are compared and evaluated depending on the lasix injection after basic inspection and injecting {sup 18}F-FDG for quantitative analysis. The study shows that images with decreased background radioactivity and increased urine excretion due to using diuretics. However, an opposite result that there is no change in the amount of radioactivity in urine appears. The study concludes that the diuretics may decrease background radioactivity in the images but may not affect the {sup 18}F-FDG excretion.

  17. Incidental prostate ¹⁸F-FDG uptake without calcification indicates the possibility of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Hiroko; Ono, Shuichi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Morohashi, Satoko; Wu, Yunyan; Tsushima, Fumiyasu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Incidental 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in the prostate is often experienced in clinical practice; however, it is difficult to determine whether incidental uptake is indicative of a malignancy or benign state based on the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance of incidental prostate uptake by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, and examined the differences between malignant and benign uptake from a clinicopathological viewpoint. We reviewed 3,236 male subjects who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans at Hirosaki University Hospital (Japan) from 2008 to 2012 in order to identify cases of incidental prostate FDG uptake. The final diagnosis was made by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, biopsy, imaging studies and clinical follow-up with PET findings. Incidental FDG uptake of the prostate was observed in 53 cases (2%). Four cases were excluded due to insufficient clinical data, and 49 cases were included in the present study. Of the 49 cases, 8 (16%) had prostate cancer, while 41 (84%) were benign. All 8 malignant cases had high uptake areas, e.g. in the prostate peripheral zone, where there was no coexistence of calcification or FDG uptake. Of the 41 benign cases, 19 had high uptake in the inner zone, 17 in the peripheral zone, and 5 in both the inner and peripheral zones. Of the 41 cases, 18 (44%) showed FDG uptake coexisting with prostatic calcification. Incidental prostate 18F-FDG uptake infrequently signifies prostate cancer; however, FDG uptake not coexisting with calcification indicates the possibility of prostate cancer and should be included in the differential diagnosis for performing other clinical examinations.

  18. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Dong, Zhengchao [Columbia University, Translational Imaging and MRI Unit, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Khursheed, Aiman [Tianjin Medical University, International Medical School, Tianjin (China)

    2015-11-15

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  19. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  20. FDG-PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanGinkel, RJ; Hoekstra, HJ; Pruim, J; Nieweg, OE; Molenaar, WM; Paans, AMJ; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated FDG-PET in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with rTNF-alpha, rIFN-gamma and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities. Methods: Twenty patients (11 women, 9 men; aged 18-80 yr, mean age 49 yr) were studied, FDG-PET studies we

  1. FDG-PET/CT in staging of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, R; Ravi Kumar, A S; Batstone, M

    2014-11-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare neoplasm; only 75 cases have been reported in the English language literature. They have a tendency for recurrence and a capacity to metastasize. There is very little known regarding the metabolic features of this tumour or the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans in the staging and follow-up of these tumours. We present two cases of CCOC with their relevant FDG-PET/CT scan findings. The first patient had primary CCOC of the mandible that was FDG-avid, and the other had recurrence of CCOC of the anterior mandible and superomedial orbit that was not FDG-avid. FDG uptake in CCOC appears to be variable. Although FDG-PET/CT is useful in other head and neck cancers and has benefits compared to other imaging modalities, further studies are needed to investigate the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT in CCOC. PMID:25015905

  2. Characterizing bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma by FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler-Sagie, Michal; Kagna, Olga [Rambam Health Care Campus, Nuclear Medicine Department, Haifa (Israel); Dann, Eldad J. [Rambam Health Care Campus and B. and R. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Hematology Department, Haifa (Israel); Ben-Barak, Ayelet [Rambam Health Care Campus and B. and R. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Department, Haifa (Israel); Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus and B. and R. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Nuclear Medicine Department, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-06-15

    Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is superior to iliac bone marrow biopsy (iBMB) for detection of bone marrow involvement (BMI) in staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). The present study aims to characterize the patterns and distribution of BMI in HL as determined by FDG-PET/CT. Reports of FDG-PET/CT studies performed for staging of HL were reviewed. BMI was defined as positive iBMB and/or foci of pathological FDG uptake in the skeleton that behaved in concordance with other sites of lymphoma in studies following chemotherapy. Number of FDG uptake foci, their specific location in the skeleton and the presence of corresponding lesions in the CT component of the study, and stage according to the Ann Arbor staging system, were recorded. The study included 473 patients. iBMB was performed in 336 patients. Nine patients had positive iBMB (9/336, 3 %). Seventy-three patients (73/473, 15 %) had FDG-PET/CT-defined BMI. The BM was the only extranodal site of HL in 52/473 patients (11 %). Forty-five patients had three or more foci of pathological skeletal FDG uptake (45/73, 62 %). Sixty-four patients (64/73, 88 %) had at least one uptake focus in the pelvis or vertebrae. In 60 patients (60/73, 82 %), the number of skeletal FDG uptake foci without corresponding CT lesions was equal to or higher than the number of foci with morphological abnormalities. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated BMI in 15 % of patients with newly diagnosed HL. Diagnosis of BMI in HL by FDG-PET/CT was more sensitive than iBMB with potential upstage in 11 % of patients. The most common pattern of FDG-PET/CT BMI was multifocal (at least three foci) skeletal FDG uptake, with at least one focus in the pelvis or vertebrae and no corresponding CT lesions. (orig.)

  3. Effects of statins on the progression of cerebral white matter lesion: Post hoc analysis of the ROCAS (Regression of Cerebral Artery Stenosis) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Wynnie W M; Fan, Yu Hua; Wong, Adrian; Ng, Ping Wing; Tsoi, Tak Hon; Yeung, Vincent; Wong, Ka Sing

    2009-05-01

    Arteriosclerotic related cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is associated with increased risk of death, stroke, dementia, depression, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. We investigated the effects of statins on WML progression by performing a post hoc analysis on the ROCAS (Regression of Cerebral Artery Stenosis) study, which is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of statins upon asymptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis progression among stroke-free individuals. Two hundreds and eight randomized subjects were assigned to either placebo (n = 102) or simvastatin 20 mg daily (n = 106) for 2 years. Baseline severity of WML was graded visually into none, mild, and severe. Volume (cm3) of WML was determined quantitatively at baseline and at end of study using a semi-automated method based on MRI. Primary outcome was the change in WML volume over 2 years. After 2 years of follow-up, there was no significant change in WML volume between the active and the placebo group as a whole. However, stratified analysis showed that for those with severe WML at baseline, the median volume increase in the active group (1.9 cm3) was less compared with that in the placebo group (3.0 cm3; P = 0.047). Linear multivariate regression analysis identified that baseline WML volume (beta = 0.63, P < 0.001) and simvastatin treatment (beta = -0.214, P = 0.043) independently predicted change in WML volume. Our findings suggest that statins may delay the progression of cerebral WML only among those who already have severe WML at baseline. PMID:19252811

  4. Whether chronic bronchitis is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction in the elderly 1:1 case paired study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inflammatory reaction already becomes an important risk factor of causing acute cerebral infarction; however, the correlation between chronic bronchitis and senile cerebral infarction is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study whether the chronic bronchitis is the risk factor for senile cerebral infarction.DESIGN: 1:1 pair, case contrast, and risk factor study.SETTINGS: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Third Hospital of Tangshan; Department of Neurology,Affiliated Hospital of North China Coal Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction who were regarded as case group were selected from Department of Neurology, the Third Hospital of Tangshan from January 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Diseases Meeting. There were 87 males and 60 females, and their ages ranged from 65 to 83 years. Based on 1∶1 pair study, another 147 subjects without cerebrovascular disease were regarded as control group. Except the diseases about infection, there were 73 males and 74 females, and their ages ranged from 62 to 81 years. All subjects provided the confirm consent and agreed with the coordinate experiment.METHODS: ① Questionnaire of risk factor of cerebral infarction was designed to measure the following items: chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, coronary heart disease, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack and history of smoking. ② Cerebral infarction was regarded as the dependent variance, while chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperiipemia, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease and smoking were regarded as the independent variance for multiple regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors of senile cerebral infarction.RESULTS: All 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 147 subjects without cerebrovascular diseases were involved in

  5. Clinical usefulness of Adeli suit therapy for improving gait function in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Adeli suit therapy (AST) on gross motor function and gait function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Two participants with spastic cerebral palsy were recruited to undergo AST. AST was applied in 60-minute sessions, five times per week, with 20 sessions total over 4 weeks. Assessments of gross motor function, spatiotemporal parameters, and functional ambulation performance for gait were conducted. [Results] Gross motor function, cadence, and functional ambulation performance improved after the intervention in both cases. [Conclusion] Although additional follow-up studies are required, the results demonstrated improved gross motor function and functional ambulation performance in the children with cerebral palsy. These findings suggest a variety of applications for conservative therapeutic methods that require future clinical trials in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27390453

  6. 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT-PET imaging for monitoring everolimus effect on tumor-growth in neuroendocrine tumors: studies in human tumor xenografts in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Bardram Johnbeck

    Full Text Available The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has shown promising results in some but not all neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore, early assessment of treatment response would be beneficial. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro treatment effect of everolimus in neuroendocrine tumors and evaluated the performance of 18F-FDG and the proliferation tracer 18F-FLT for treatment response assessment by PET imaging.The effect of everolimus on the human carcinoid cell line H727 was examined in vitro with the MTT assay and in vivo on H727 xenograft tumors. The mice were scanned at baseline with 18F-FDG or 18F-FLT and then treated with either placebo or everolimus (5 mg/kg daily for 10 days. PET/CT scans were repeated at day 1,3 and 10.Everolimus showed significant inhibition of H727 cell proliferation in vitro at concentrations above 1 nM. In vivo tumor volumes measured relative to baseline were significantly lower in the everolimus group compared to the control group at day 3 (126±6% vs. 152±6%; p = 0.016, day 7 (164±7% vs. 226±13%; p<0.001 and at day 10 (194±10% vs. 281±18%; p<0.001. Uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT showed little differences between control and treatment groups, but individual mean uptake of 18F-FDG at day 3 correlated with tumor growth day 10 (r2 = 0.45; P = 0.034, 18F-FLT mean uptake at day 1 correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.63; P = 0.019 and at day 3 18F-FLT correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.87; P<0.001 and day 10 (r2 = 0.58; P = 0.027.Everolimus was effective in vitro and in vivo in human xenografts lung carcinoid NETs and especially early 18F-FLT uptake predicted subsequent tumor growth. We suggest that 18F-FLT PET can be used for tailoring therapy for neuroendocrine tumor patients through early identification of responders and non-responders.

  7. A Microarray Study of Middle Cerebral Occlusion Rat Brain with Acupuncture Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray analysis was used to investigate the changes of gene expression of ischemic stroke and acupuncture intervention in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo rat brain. Results showed that acupuncture intervention had a remarkable improvement in neural deficit score, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction volume of MCAo rats. Microarray analysis showed that a total of 627 different expression genes were regulated in ischemic stroke. 417 genes were upregulated and 210 genes were downregulated. A total of 361 different expression genes were regulated after acupuncture intervention. Three genes were upregulated and 358 genes were downregulated. The expression of novel genes after acupuncture intervention, including Tph1 and Olr883, was further analyzed by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Upregulation of Tph1 and downregulation of Olr883 indicated that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture for ischemic stroke may be closely related to the suppression of poststroke depression and regulation of olfactory transduction. In conclusion, the present study may enrich our understanding of the multiple pathological process of ischemic brain injury and indicate possible mechanisms of acupuncture on ischemic stroke.

  8. Cross sectional PET study of cerebral adenosine A1 receptors in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study cerebral adenosine receptors (AR) in premanifest and manifest stages of Huntington's disease (HD). We quantified the cerebral binding potential (BPND) of the A1AR in carriers of the HD CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion using the radioligand [18 F]CPFPX and PET. Four groups were investigated: (i) premanifest individuals far (preHD-A; n = 7) or (ii) near (preHD-B; n = 6) to the predicted symptom onset, (iii) manifest HD patients (n = 8), and (iv) controls (n = 36). Cerebral A1AR values of preHD-A subjects were generally higher than those of controls (by up to 31 %, p 1AR BPND was observed to the levels of controls in preHD-B and undercutting controls in manifest HD by down to 25 %, p 1AR BPND and years to onset. Before onset of HD, the assumed annual rates of change of A1AR density were -1.2 % in the caudatus, -1.7 % in the thalamus and -3.4 % in the amygdala, while the corresponding volume losses amounted to 0.6 %, 0.1 % and 0.2 %, respectively. Adenosine receptors switch from supra to subnormal levels during phenoconversion of HD. This differential regulation may play a role in the pathophysiology of altered energy metabolism. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic Value of Dual-Time-Point 18F-FDG PET for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Umeda, Yukihiro; DEMURA, Yoshiki; Morikawa, Miwa; Anzai, Masaki; Kadowaki, Maiko; Ameshima, Shingo; TSUCHIDA, Tatsuro; TSUJIKAWA, Tetsuya; Kiyono, Yasushi; OKAZAWA, Hidehiko; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to clarify whether dual-time-point (18)F-FDG PET imaging results are useful to predict long-term survival of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients.METHODS:Fifty IPF patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET examinations at 2 time points: 60 min (early imaging) and 180 min (delayed imaging) after (18)F-FDG injection. The standardized uptake value (SUV) at each point and retention index value (RI-SUV) calculated from those were evaluated, and then the results...

  10. Efficacy of FDG PET/CT Imaging for Venous Thromboembolic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning; Iversen, Else Dalsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    VTE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) were included prospectively and underwent a whole-body FDG PET/CT. Patients were divided into 4 groups as follows: DVT+ (DVT proven by high clinical suspicion and positive compression......PURPOSE: In recent years, several case reports have described venous thromboembolism (VTE) on FDG PET/CT. In this short communication, we present results from a proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at providing some preliminary data on the efficacy of FDG PET/CT in prospective patients with suspected...

  11. Evaluation of strategies towards harmonization of FDG PET/CT studies in multicentre trials: comparison of scanner validation phantoms and data analysis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET quantification based on standardized uptake values (SUV) is hampered by several factors, in particular by variability in PET acquisition settings and data analysis methods. Quantitative PET/CT studies acquired during a multicentre trial require harmonization of imaging procedures to maximize study power. The aims of this study were to determine which phantoms are most suitable for detecting differences in image quality and quantification, and which methods for defining volumes of interest (VOI) are least sensitive to these differences. The most common accreditation phantoms used in oncology FDG PET/CT trials were scanned on the same scanner. These phantoms were those used by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Clinical Trials Network (SNM-CTN), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine/National Electrical Manufacturers Association (EANM/NEMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR). In addition, tumour SUVs were derived from ten oncology whole-body examinations performed on the same PET/CT system. Both phantom and clinical data were reconstructed using different numbers of iterations, subsets and time-of-flight kernel widths. Subsequently, different VOI methods (VOIA50%, VOImax, VOI3Dpeak, VOI2Dpeak) were applied to assess the impact of changes in image reconstruction settings on SUV and recovery coefficients (RC). All phantoms demonstrated sensitivity for detecting changes in SUV and RC measures in response to changes in image reconstruction settings and VOI analysis methods. The SNM-CTN and EANM/NEMA phantoms showed almost equal sensitivity in detecting RC differences with changes in image characteristics. Phantom and clinical data demonstrated that the VOI analysis methods VOIA50% and VOImax gave SUV and RC values with large variability in relation to image characteristics, whereas VOI3Dpeak and VOI2Dpeak were less sensitive to these differences. All three phantoms may be used to harmonize parameters for data acquisition, processing and analysis. However

  12. [Cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, S; Ide, M; Takagi, S; Shohtsu, A

    1996-10-01

    We are using whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) for cancer screening. A total of 1,105 healthy subjects have undergone PET studies 1,138 times in fifteen months. Emission scans were performed from the pelvis to the maxilla 45 to 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 260 to 370 MBq 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). Malignant tumors were detected with PET in nine patients (0.81%): 2 lung cancers, 2 colonic cancers, 1 breast cancer, 1 thyroid cancer, 1 gastric cancer, 1 renal cancer, and 1 lymphoma. Eight of these patients underwent surgery (excepting the lymphoma patient). Lymph node metastasis was not observed in any of the eight cases and surgery was curative. PET scan results were negative in the cases of three prostatic cancers, one bladder cancer, and two colonic mucosal cancers. High FDG accumulations were noticed in benign lesions such as sarcoidosis, chronic thyroiditis, pulmonary tuberculoma, Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland, and chronic sinusitis. In some cases, image artifacts caused by intense myocardial FDG accumulations resulted in incomplete examinations of the lung. Occasionally, high FDG accumulations were observed in the bowel. Our study results suggest the possibility of using whole-body PET for detecting wide varieties of cancers in resectable stages.

  13. A multi-center randomized proof-of-concept clinical trial applying [¹⁸F]FDG-PET for evaluation of metabolic therapy with rosiglitazone XR in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimopoulou, Sofia; Cunningham, Vincent J; Nichols, Thomas E; Searle, Graham; Bird, Nick P; Mistry, Prafull; Dixon, Ian J; Hallett, William A; Whitcher, Brandon; Brown, Andrew P; Zvartau-Hind, Marina; Lotay, Narinder; Lai, Robert Y K; Castiglia, Mary; Jeter, Barbara; Matthews, Julian C; Chen, Kewei; Bandy, Dan; Reiman, Eric M; Gold, Michael; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Matthews, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first multi-center clinical trial in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) measures of brain glucose metabolism as the primary outcome. We contrasted effects of 12 months treatment with the PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone XR versus placebo in 80 mild to moderate AD patients. Secondary objectives included testing for reduction in the progression of brain atrophy and improvement in cognition. Active treatment was associated with a sustained but not statistically significant trend from the first month for higher mean values in Kiindex and CMRgluindex, novel quantitative indices related to the combined forward rate constant for [18F]FDG uptake and to the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, respectively. However, neither these nor another analytical approach recently validated using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative indicated that active treatment decreased the progression of decline in brain glucose metabolism. Rates of brain atrophy were similar between active and placebo groups and measures of cognition also did not suggest clear group differences. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using [18F]FDG-PET as part of a multi-center therapeutics trial. It suggests that Rosiglitazone is associated with an early increase in whole brain glucose metabolism, but not with any biological or clinical evidence for slowing progression over a 1 year follow up in the symptomatic stages of AD. PMID:20930300

  14. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.

  15. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alterations contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Methods To investigate the relation of electrophysiological, metabolic and morphological changes caused by SE, we simultaneously assessed systemic circulation, regional cerebral blood flow and cortical electroencephalography in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, cerebral glucose uptake, astro- and microglial activation as well as changes of inflammatory gene transcription were examined by small animal PET using [18F]FDG, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Results While the systemic hemodynamic did not change significantly, regional cerebral blood flow was decreased in the cortex paralleled by a decrease of alpha activity of the electroencephalography. Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus. Sepsis enhanced the transcription of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta, and monocot chemoattractant protein 1 in the cerebrum. Regional analysis of different brain regions revealed an increase in ED1-positive microglia in the cortex, while total and neuronal cell counts decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus. Conclusion Together, the present study highlights the complexity of sepsis induced early impairment of neuronal metabolism and activity. Since our model uses techniques that determine parameters relevant to the clinical setting, it might be a useful tool to develop brain specific therapeutic strategies for human septic encephalopathy.

  16. Anesthesia condition for {sup 18}F-FDG imaging of lung metastasis tumors using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, June-Youp; Jung, Jae Ho; Kang, Joo Hyun [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: larry@kcch.re.kr; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-FDG has been increasingly used for tumor imaging in the murine model. The aim of this study was to establish the anesthesia condition for imaging of lung metastasis tumor using small animal {sup 18}F-FDG PET. Methods: To determine the impact of anesthesia on {sup 18}F-FDG distribution in normal mice, five groups were studied under the following conditions: no anesthesia, ketamine and xylazine (Ke/Xy), 0.5% isoflurane (Iso 0.5), 1% isoflurane (Iso 1) and 2% isoflurane (Iso 2). The ex vivo counting, standard uptake value (SUV) image and glucose SUV of {sup 18}F-FDG in various tissues were evaluated. The {sup 18}F-FDG images in the lung metastasis tumor model were obtained under no anesthesia, Ke/Xy and Iso 0.5, and registered with CT image to clarify the tumor region. Results: Blood glucose concentration and muscle uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the Ke/Xy group markedly increased more than in the other groups. The Iso 2 group increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in heart compared with the other groups. The Iso 0.5 anesthesized group showed the lowest {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in heart and chest wall. The small size of lung metastasis tumor (2 mm) was clearly visualized by {sup 18}F-FDG image with the Iso 0.5 anesthesia. Conclusion: Small animal {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging with Iso 0.5 anesthesia was appropriate for the detection of lung metastasis tumor. To acquire {sup 18}F-FDG PET images with small animal PET, the type and level of anesthetic should be carefully considered to be suitable for the visualization of target tissue in the experimental model.

  17. Comparative study of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy, 18F-FDG PET and diffusion weighted imaging for detecting secondary infection associated with severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic values of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT, 18F-FDG PET and MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for detecting secondary infection associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in swine. Methods: Swine models were constructed and grouped, including control group (normal swine, n=6), non-infected SAP group (inoculated with inactivation Escherichia coli, n=6)and infected SAP group (inoculated with Escherichia coli, n=16). At 7 d after inoculation,a series of 99Tcmciprofloxacin SPECT, 18F-FDG PET and MR DWI scans were performed. The imaging findings were visually evaluated and semi-quantitative analyzed. Lesion-background radioactive counts ratio (L/B), SUVmax and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated. The image results were compared with histopathological and bacteriological results, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Bonferroni test, the least significant difference t test and χ2 test were used for statistical data analysis. Results: (1) The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT via visual analysis were 93.8% (15/16), 5/6, 90.9% (20/22), 93.8%(15/16) and 5/6, whereas 81.2% (13/16), 2/6, 68.2% (15/22), 76.5%(13/17) and 2/5 for 18F-FDG PET, and 15.4% (2/13), 5/6, 36.8%(7/19), 2/3 and 31.3% (5/16) for MRI DWI respectively. Both 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin SPECT and 18F-FDG PET had higher sensitivities (both P>0.05), but the specificity of 18F-FDG PET was lower. (2)99Tcm-ciprofloxacin imaging showed the changes of L/B for the infected SAP swine were significantly different from those of the non-infected and normal swine (F=95.66, P<0.001). 18F-FDG PET early-phase images showed SUVmax was not significantly different between infected SAP (2.61±1.07) and non-infected SAP (1.87±0.76) groups (P>0.05), but the SUVmax of infected SAP group was higher than that of non

  18. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.; Lin, X. [Shanghai Medical Univ., Shanghai (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To study the relationship between dopamine (DA) D{sub 2} receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemiparkinsonism rats. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to screen that rats, {sup 125}I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO regional brain biodistribution were used to study D{sub 2} receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure the concentration of DA and it metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dehydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in bilateral striatum (ST). The lesioned side ST DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated control group, ST/cerebellum (CB) {sup 125}I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 {+-}0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p<0.05), 30{sup 99m}Tc 30.1{+-}4.53% enhancement as compared to the intact side, and also show good correlation with 30 min Apo induced rotation numbers (r=0.98), the regional cerebral blood flow study didn't show significant difference between bilateral brain cortex area (p>0.05). The DA content decreased significantly and induced an up-regulation of ST D{sub 2} receptor binding sites in 6-OH-DA lesioned side in hemi-parkinsonism rats, the increased percentage of lesioned-intact side ST/CB {sup 125}I-IBZM uptake ratio showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Compare with cerebral blood flow, D{sub 2} receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism.

  19. FDG uptake on PET and enhancement on CT or MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, K. H.; Yun, M.; Kim, M. J.; Ryu, Y. H.; Lee, J. D. [Yonsei University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To correlate between FDG PET and enhancement pattern on CT and MRI and assess the factors affecting FDG uptake in HCC. Thirty seven nontreated HCC from 34 pts (M:F=30:4, mean age 53) were enrolled. All cases were histologically diagnosed and classified according to Edmonson and Steiner's grading. Tumor FDG uptake was visually assessed on a scale of 0 to 3 compared to the adjacent liver. (0liver and 3>>liver) and was semi-quantitatively analyzed using SUV. Enhancement pattern on CT and MRI was classified into 3 groups according to signal intensity or density in arterial and portal phase (GroupI: hyperintense-hypointense, GroupII: isointense-hypointense, GroupIII: hypointense-hypointense). Tumor FDG uptake was correlated with enhancement pattern, grade, size and serum aFP level. The tumor ranged from 1.5cm to 20cm. Of the 37 cases, 19(51%) had positive FDG uptake (2 or 3), while 18(49%) were negative (0 or 1). The correlation between FDG uptake and enhancement pattern was statistically insignificant. Lower FDG uptake was associated with lower tumor grade and/or smaller tumor size (P<0.005). FDG uptake of HCC seems to be useful in predicting the differentiation of the tumor and may be prognostic. Although the significance of dynamic enhancement pattern on CT or MRI is yet controversial, it has no specific correlation with FDG uptake and grade on the tumor in this study.

  20. F.D.G. PET role in the management of refractory epilepsy; Place de la TEP au FDG dans le bilan des epilepsies pharmacoresistantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papathanassiou, D.; Domange-Testard, A.; Bruna-Muraille, C.; Cuif-Job, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 51 - Reims (France); Thiriaux, A. [CHU de Reims, Service de Neurologie, 51 - Reims (France); Motte, J. [CHU de Reims, Service de Pediatrie, 51 - Reims (France)

    2009-06-15

    The work-up of drug-resistant partial epilepsy is intended to localize epileptogenic foci in the purpose of a possible surgery. We aimed to assess the role of fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (F.D.G. PET) in this scope. This study involved 34 patients who underwent brain F.D.G. PET, with a final diagnosis in 21. The value of F.D.G. PET for lateralization and localisation of the epileptogenic focus was evaluated by a blinded interpretation, and compared with the value of standard investigations. The impact of F.D.G. PET was assessed by the means of questions intended for the neurologist in each case. All the epilepsy types together, F.D.G. PET lateralized and localised the foci in 65 and 47% of the 34 subjects respectively. Among the 19 subjects with final diagnosis (patients with bilateral foci excluded), lateralization was correct in 84% and localisation in 63% (and the values were greater for temporal epilepsy than for extra temporal foci). PET frequently provided additional information compared with MRI, but not with EEG. F.D.G. PET was useful in 82.5% of cases (confirming management in 65% and changing it in 17.5% of the patients). Our experience corroborated the value of F.D.G. PET for lateralization and localisation of epileptogenic foci, and its role in case of normal MRI. However, F.D.G. PET appears as a confirmation tool rather than an examination resulting in a change in management rate. (authors)

  1. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  2. Laser Doppler flowmeter study on regional cerebral blood flow in early stage after standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GESANG Dun-zhu; ZHANG Dong; ZHAO Ji-zong; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Rong; SUN Jian-jun; MENG Ze

    2009-01-01

    Background Standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease, but recent evidence suggests that postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion can occur. In this study, the trendline of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after surgery were continually monitored near the site of anastomosis in order to investigate both the efficacy of the procedure for improving rCBF and the possible riskof hyperperfusion.Methods Standard STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed on 13 patients, rCBF was measured continually using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) until the 5th day after the operation with the LDF probe implanted adjacent to the area of the anastomosis. The trendline of rCBF changes postoperatively was recorded for the analysis performed using SPSS 13.0.Results The baseline LDF value of cortical rCBF was (84.68±14.39) perfusion unit (PU), which was linear relative to absolute perfusion volume before anastomosis and (88.90±11.26) PU immediately after anastomosis (P >0.05). The value changed significantly from before to after anastomosis (P 0.05).Conclusions STA-MCA anastomosis improves the cerebral blood supply significantly in the early stage after surgery,however, the risk of symptomatic hyperperfusion may exist, which may possibly occur on the 1st day and 5th day after surgery. A LDF is useful for postoperative monitoring for both the efficacy of bypass and possible risk of neurologic deterioration or bleeding from hyperperfusion.

  3. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and cerebral malaria: TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria in a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malaria endemic areas, host genetics influence whether a Plasmodium falciparum-infected child develops uncomplicated or severe malaria. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor for P. falciparum-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI, and polymorphisms within the TLR2 gene may affect disease pathogenesis. There are two common polymorphisms in the 5' un-translated region (UTR of TLR2, a 22 base pair deletion in the first unstranslated exon (Δ22, and a GT dinucleotide repeat in the second intron (GTn. Methods These polymorphisms were examined in a Ugandan case control study on children with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria. Serum cytokine levels were analysed by ELISA, according to genotype and disease status. In vitro TLR2 expression was measured according to genotype. Results Both Δ22 and GTn polymorphisms were highly frequent, but only Δ22 heterozygosity was associated with protection from cerebral malaria (OR 0.34, 95% confidence intervals 0.16, 0.73. In vitro, heterozygosity for Δ22 was associated with reduced pam3cys inducible TLR2 expression in human monocyte derived macrophages. In uncomplicated malaria patients, Δ22 homozygosity was associated with elevated serum IL-6 (p = 0.04, and long GT repeat alleles were associated with elevated TNF (p = 0.007. Conclusion Reduced inducible TLR2 expression may lead to attenuated pro-inflammatory responses, a potential mechanism of protection from cerebral malaria present in individuals heterozygous for the TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism.

  4. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, G.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Diender, M.G.; Oyen, W.J.; Draaisma, J.M.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with compute

  5. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Draaisma, Jos M. Th.; Geus-Oei, de Lioe-Fee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed

  6. 18F-FDG PET Increases Visibility of Bone Lesions in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma : Is This Hypoxia-Driven?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Esther G. M.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Leene, Marnix J.; Kluin, Philip M.; Vellenga, Edo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Whole-body x-ray (WBX) is used for detecting skeleton abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). An alternative might be F-FDG PET, which makes use of metabolic changes of malignant cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether F-FDG PET detects more lesions compare

  7. Risk of Cerebral Infarction in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study (MID study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunori Toida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Predictors including the preventive effects of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs on cerebral infarction (CI events have not yet been clarified in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of CI and preventive effects of these drugs in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Methods: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (n=1,551, median age (interquartile range, 69.0 (59.0-78.0 years; 41.5% female were enrolled in the Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study and prospectively followed-up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox's regression analyses were used to clarify the risk of CI. Results: Eighty-four patients developed CI at an incidence of 21.5/1000 patients per year. The presence of a previous history of CI, atrial fibrillation (AF, and diabetes mellitus in addition to age were also identified as predictive factors for new CI, whereas no relationship was observed between antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant usage and CI. Furthermore, no significant difference was noted in the frequency of CI events between patients with AF who received warfarin and those who did not. Conclusions: The incidence of CI was higher in dialysis patients with a previous history of CI and AF; however, the preventive effects of antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs on the development of CI were not evident.

  8. Development of the human cerebral cortex: a histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Sau Cheung; Yew, David T; Chan, Wood Yee

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, improvement in diagnostic techniques has led to better recognition of "disorders of cortical development". These disorders constitute a significant cause of epilepsy, mental retardation, developmental delay and neurological deficits in childhood, and may also contribute to the pathogenesis of psychological and neurodegenerative diseases in adults. Hitherto, however, few systematic studies of the human fetal cortex have been performed, and little is known about the ontogenetic processes of the neocortex in man. The aim of the study is to establish an understanding of the developmental events that occur in the second and third trimesters of gestation, by investigating the biochemical patterns of development of the human neocortex during this period. The temporal and spatial patterns of expression of the neuronal markers gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), dopamine receptor DR1 and synaptophysin, as well as the glial cell markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B and excitatory amino acid transporter protein GLT-1 are delineated in the fetal cortex using immunohistochemistry. Results of this study showed that different neuronal and glial cell proteins follow different developmental patterns and many show inter- or intra-regional variations in expression. Details of these patterns are described and discussed. The early expression of these proteins suggests that they play important roles in the developmental processes of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Both neurotransmitters and glial cell proteins probably function outside the confines of synapses in the fetal brain, as paracrine/autocrine factors. Early developmental events seem to be dictated by an innate programme, whereas late events may be more susceptible to extrinsic influences. It is hoped that knowledge of the normal developmental process can lead to better understanding of the causes and mechanisms

  9. Cerebral migration of intraocular silicone oil: an MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Milea, Dan; Løgager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    for retinal detachment. Methods: Nineteen patients included in this study were referred for silicone oil removal after uncomplicated retinal detachment surgery using internal silicone oil tamponade. Patients with a previous history of intraocular silicone oil, glaucoma or optic pit were excluded. After...... informed consent, the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fat saturation as well as short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequences combined with water saturation allowed silicone oil to be easily detectable. Results: The mean delay between the silicone oil injection and the MRI procedure...

  10. Role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziosi, Maddalena; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Diemberger, Igor; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (≥48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of

  11. 18F-FDG PET-CT显像在头颈部肿瘤的临床诊断中的效果研究%Study on the effect of 18F-FDG PET-CT in diagnosis of head and neck cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家富; 李勇; 韩巍; 王丽范; 马铎

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate of the efficacy of 18F-FDG PET-CT in diagnosis of head and neck cancer. METHODS Patients diagnozed by 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging were collected for analysis. RESULTS The total detection rate of PET/CT was significantly higher than that of PET and CT. The positioning accuracy of PET/CT was significantly higher than that of PET. CONCLUSION T-FDG PET-CT can effectively identify the head and neck cancer treatment scar and tumor recurrence, lymph node and distant organ metastasis, and improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis.%目的 评价18F-FDG PET-CT对头颈部肿瘤患者的临床诊断价值.方法 患者均行18F-FDG PET-CT显像,对图像进行分析.结果 PET/CT的总检出率高于PET和CT,PET/CT的定位准确率高于PET.结论 18F-FDG PET-CT能够有效地鉴别头颈部肿瘤治疗后瘢痕与肿瘤复发、淋巴结及远处脏器转移,可提高对其诊断的敏感性和准确性.

  12. Resveratrol inhibits matrix metalloproteinases to attenuate neuronal damage in cerebral ischemia: a molecular docking study exploring possible neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is the structural alteration in the neurovascular unit, coinciding with neurovascular matrix degradation. Resveratrol has been reported to be one of the most potent chemopreventive agents that can inhibit cellular processes associated with ischemic stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs has been considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. To explore this, we tried to investigate the interaction of resveratrol with MMPs through molecular docking studies. At 30 minutes before and 2 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 40 mg/kg resveratrol was intraperitoneally administered. After resveratrol administration, neurological function and brain edema were significantly alleviated, cerebral infarct volume was significantly reduced, and nitrite and malondialdehyde levels in the cortical and striatal regions were significantly decreased. The molecular docking study of resveratrol and MMPs revealed that resveratrol occupied the active site of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The binding energy of the complexes was -37.848672 kJ/mol and -36.6345 kJ/mol for MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. In case of MMP-2, Leu 164, Ala 165 and Thr 227 were engaged in H-Bonding with resveratrol and in case of MMP-9, H-bonding was found with Glu 402, Ala 417 and Arg 424 residues. These findings collectively reveal that resveratrol exhibits neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity.

  13. Study on the Mechanism of mTOR-Mediated Autophagy during Electroacupuncture Pretreatment against Cerebral Ischemic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou-Quan; Cui, Su-yang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the association between the electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment-induced protective effect against early cerebral ischemic injury and autophagy. EA pretreatment can protect cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injuries, but whether the attenuation of early cerebral ischemic injury by EA pretreatment was associated with autophagy is not yet clear. This study used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model to monitor the process of ischemic injury. For rats in the EA pretreatment group, EA pretreatment was conducted at Baihui acupoint before ischemia for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. The results suggested that EA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of autophagy in the cerebral cortical area on the ischemic side of rats. But the EA pretreatment-induced protective effects on the brain could be reversed by the specific inhibitor 3-methyladenine of autophagy. Additionally, the Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the impact of EA pretreatment on p-mTOR (2481) was negatively correlated with its impact on autophagy. In conclusion, the mechanism of EA pretreatment at Baihui acupoint against cerebral ischemic injury is mainly associated with the upregulation of autophagy expression, and its regulation of autophagy may depend on mTOR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:27547233

  14. Resveratrol inhibits matrix metalloproteinases to attenuate neuronal damage in cerebral ischemia:a molecular docking study exploring possible neuroprotection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand Kumar Pandey; Pallab Bhattacharya; Swet Chand Shukla; Sudip Paul; Ranjana Patnaik

    2015-01-01

    The main pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is the structural alteration in the neurovascular unit, coinciding with neurovascular matrix degradation. Resveratrol has been reported to be one of the most potent chemopreventive agents that can inhibit cellular processes associated with ischemic stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. To explore this, we tried to investigate the inter-action of resveratrol with MMPs through molecular docking studies. At 30 minutes before and 2 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 40 mg/kg resveratrol was intraperitoneally administered. After resveratrol administration, neu-rological function and brain edema were significantly alleviated, cerebral infarct volume was signiifcantly reduced, and nitrite and malondialdehyde levels in the cortical and striatal regions were signiifcantly decreased. The molecular docking study of resveratrol and MMPs revealed that resveratrol occupied the active site of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The binding energy of the complexes was –37.848672 kJ/mol and –36.6345 kJ/mol for MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. In case of MMP-2, Leu 164, Ala 165 and Thr 227 were engaged in H-Bonding with resveratrol and in case of MMP-9, H-bonding was found with Glu 402, Ala 417 and Arg 424 residues. These ifndings collectively reveal that resveratrol exhibits neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity.

  15. Paediatric dosimetry of 18F-FDG whole body PET/CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined 18F-FDG (18F-2-deoxy-D-glucose) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan provides both the metabolic information from FDG-PET and anatomic information from CT in a single examination. The use of PET/CT for management of malignancies in children has increased over the past few years. This raises an important consideration of radiation exposure in children since they are relatively more radiosensitive than adults and also have a potential for a longer life thereby increasing the probability of manifestation of late radiation effects; particularly cancer. Unfortunately, the data regarding the doses received by children from undergoing such examinations is scarce. The present study aims at estimating the effective doses to paediatric patients from whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT studies. The purpose of the study is to estimate the radiation doses to children from undergoing whole body PET/CT scans using 18F-FDG

  16. FDG-PET imaging in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, L; Badve, C; Avril, S; Herrmann, K; Faulhaber, P; O'Donnell, J; Avril, N

    2016-07-01

    The majority of aggressive lymphomas is characterized by an up regulated glycolytic activity, which enables the visualization by F-18 FDG-PET/CT. One-stop hybrid FDG-PET/CT combines the functional and morphologic information, outperforming both, CT and FDG-PET as separate imaging modalities. This has resulted in several recommendations using FDG-PET/CT for staging, restaging, monitoring during therapy, and assessment of treatment response as well as identification of malignant transformation. FDG-PET/CT may obviate the need for a bone marrow biopsy in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. FDG-PET/CT response assessment is recommended for FDG-avid lymphomas, whereas CT-based response evaluation remains important in lymphomas with low or variable FDG avidity. The treatment induced change in metabolic activity allows for assessment of response after completion of therapy as well as prediction of outcome early during therapy. The five-point scale Deauville Criteria allows the assessment of treatment response based on visual FDG-PET analysis. Although the use of FDG-PET/CT for prediction of therapeutic response is promising it should only be conducted in the context of clinical trials. Surveillance FDG-PET/CT after complete remission is discouraged due to the relative high number of false-positive findings, which in turn may result in further unnecessary investigations. Future directions include the use of new PET tracers such as F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT), a surrogate biomarker of cellular proliferation and Ga-68 CXCR4, a chemokine receptor imaging biomarker as well as innovative digital PET/CT and PET/MRI techniques. PMID:27090170

  17. Serial and static brain radioangiogram in diagnosis of carotid disease: value, indication and limits by comparative study with EEG, Doppler study and cerebral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value, indication and limits of serial and static brain radioangiogram in carotid disease are studied comparatively with EEG, Doppler study and cerebral arteriograhy. The isotopic study shows the occlusion and its consequences on middle cerebral artery and cerebral hemisphere. The 'Hot-Nose' sign is rarely seen, but then with large focal abnormalities. In 20% of studied cases, isotopic study provides information about the efficiency of suppleance circulation or the existence of a blood derivation. The value of serial and static scintigraphy deserves it a better place among the non invasive diagnosis method of carotid disease

  18. Clinical study of cerebral infarction in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in patients undergoing chronic dialysis. However, few clinical studies have so far examined stroke, especially brain infarction, under such conditions. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features and risk factors for brain infarction in 33 patients undergoing hemodialysis (hemodialysis, 29 patients; continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, 4 patients; male:female ratio, 25:8) between May 2003 and August 2006. The mean age was 68.5±10.9 (mean±standard deviation (SD)) years. The basal renal diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis (n=16), diabetes mellitus (n=10) and other diseases (n=7). The mean duration of maintenance dialysis before the onset of stroke was 5.6±5.2 years. All 33 patients developed brain infarction, including the atherothrombotic (n=13), lacunar (n=9) and cardioembolic (n=11) types. The complications included a high frequency of hypertension (79%) in all groups, diabetes mellitus (36%) and atrial fibrillation (21%). Four of the patients, 2 with lacunar and 2 with atherothrombotic infarction, developed brain infarction within 3 hours after hemodialysis. Hemodynamic changes might have caused the infarction in these patients. The proportion of patients with a modified Rankin Scale grade of 4-6 at discharge was 42%, and the mortality rate was high (15%). The prognosis of brain infarction was poorer in patients with hemodialysis than in those without. (author)

  19. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  20. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT to detect subclinical HNSCC recurrence 6 months after the end of treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, Philippe; Abgral, Ronan; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Keromnes, Nathalie; Palard, Xavier; Salaun, Pierre-Yves [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest Cedex (France); Valette, Gerald; Potard, Gael; Marianowski, Remi [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Brest (France); Rousset, Jean [Military Hospital of Brest, Department of Radiology, Brest (France)

    2015-01-15

    Posttreatment follow-up for the recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a diagnostic challenge. Tissue distortion from radiation and surgery can obscure early detection of recurrence by conventional follow-up approaches such as physical examination or conventional imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is widely validated for the diagnosis of suspected recurrence. Moreover, we have shown in a previous prospective study the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical recurrence 12 months after treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an earlier FDG PET/CT, at 6 months after the end of treatment. All patients treated for histologically proven HNSCC from April 2009 to May 2012 at the University Hospital of Brest who did not show any findings suggestive of recurrence at 6 months of their usual follow-up underwent an FDG PET/CT examination. FDG PET/CT findings were correlated with histopathology or imaging follow-up. The study included 116 patients. FDG PET/CT examinations were performed within a mean period ± SD of 5.6 ± 1.8 months after treatment. FDG PET/CT examinations exhibited abnormal FDG uptake in 34 patients and found no suspected recurrence in 82 cases. Of these 82 FDG PET/CT considered as negative, only 1 had a recurrence. Among the 34 positive FDG PET/CT, 22 relapsed whereas 12 did not show evidence of recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT in this study for the diagnosis of occult HNSCC recurrence were 96 (22/23) and 87 % (81/93), respectively. The positive predictive value was 65 % (22/34). The negative predictive value was 99 % (81/82). The overall accuracy was 89 % (103/116). Of the 116 patients, FDG PET/CT highlighted 22 (19 %) subclinical recurrences. Our study showed the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical HNSCC recurrence 6 months after completion of treatment. These results

  1. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (Puptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake. PMID:26702781

  2. Value of surveillance {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer:comparison with conventional imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park, Hye Lim; Choi, Hyun Su; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; O, Joo Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the value of PET/CT for detecting local or distant recurrence in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC)and to compare the accuracy of PET/CT to that of conventional imaging studies (CIS). Tumor surveillance PET/CT scans done between March 2005 and December 2009 of disease free patients after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC were retrospectively studied. CIS (serial enhanced CT from lung base to pelvis and plain chest radiograph)were performed within 1 month of PET/CT. We excluded patients with distant metastasis on initial staging, a known recurrent tumor, and a lack of follow up imaging. The final diagnosis was based on at least 6 months of follow up with colonoscopy, biopsy, and serial imaging studies in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen levels. A total of 262 PET/CT scans of 245 patients were included. Local and distant recurrences were detected in 27 cases (10.3%). On case based analysis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100, 97.0, and 97.3% for PET/CT and 85.1, 97.0, and 95.8% for CIS, respectively. On lesion based analysis, PET/CT detected more lesions compared to CIS in local recurrence and lung metastasis. PET/CT and CIS detected the same number of lesions in abdominal lymph nodes, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET/CT detected two more metachronous tumors than did CIS in the lung and thyroid gland. PET/CT detected more recurrences in patients who underwent surgery for CRC than did CIS and had the additional advantage of evaluating the entire body during a single scan.

  3. Value of surveillance 18F FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer:comparison with conventional imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the value of PET/CT for detecting local or distant recurrence in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC)and to compare the accuracy of PET/CT to that of conventional imaging studies (CIS). Tumor surveillance PET/CT scans done between March 2005 and December 2009 of disease free patients after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC were retrospectively studied. CIS (serial enhanced CT from lung base to pelvis and plain chest radiograph)were performed within 1 month of PET/CT. We excluded patients with distant metastasis on initial staging, a known recurrent tumor, and a lack of follow up imaging. The final diagnosis was based on at least 6 months of follow up with colonoscopy, biopsy, and serial imaging studies in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen levels. A total of 262 PET/CT scans of 245 patients were included. Local and distant recurrences were detected in 27 cases (10.3%). On case based analysis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100, 97.0, and 97.3% for PET/CT and 85.1, 97.0, and 95.8% for CIS, respectively. On lesion based analysis, PET/CT detected more lesions compared to CIS in local recurrence and lung metastasis. PET/CT and CIS detected the same number of lesions in abdominal lymph nodes, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET/CT detected two more metachronous tumors than did CIS in the lung and thyroid gland. PET/CT detected more recurrences in patients who underwent surgery for CRC than did CIS and had the additional advantage of evaluating the entire body during a single scan

  4. [18F] FDG PET in gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using [18F] FDG PET for assessment of tumor extension in primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was studied in 8 patients (6 high-grade and 2 low-grade, one of the MALT type) and in a control group of 7 patients (5 patients with NHL without clinical signs of gastric involvement, 1 patient with NHL and benign gastric ulcer and 1 patient with adenocarcinoma of the stomach). All patients with gastric NHL and the two with benign gastric ulcer and adenocarcinoma, respectively, underwent endoscopy including multiple biopsies for histopathological diagnosis. All patients with high-grade and one of the two with low-grade NHL and the patient with adenocarcinoma displayed high gastric uptake of [18F] FDG corresponding to the pathological findings at endoscopy and/or CT. No pathological tracer uptake was seen in the patient with low-grade gastric NHL of the MALT type. In 6/8 patients with gastric NHL, [18F] FDG PET demonstrated larger tumor extension in the stomach than was found at endoscopy, and there was high tracer uptake in the stomach in two patients who were evaluated as normal on CT. [18F] FDG PET correctly excluded gastric NHL in the patient with a benign gastric ulcer and in the patients with NHL without clinical signs of gastric involvement. Although the experience is as yet limited, [18F] FDG PET affords a novel possibility for evaluation of gastric NHL and would seem valuable as a complement to endoscopy and CT in selected patients, where the technique can yield additional information decisive for the choice of therapy. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral spectroscopic and oxidative stress studies in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously violently offended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Basant K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to bring together all the results of in vivo studies of ethane excretion and cerebral spectroscopy in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously seriously violently offended in order to determine the extent to which they shed light on the degree to which the membrane phospholipid hypothesis and the actions of free radicals and other reactive species are associated with cerebral pathophysiological mechanisms in this group of patients. Methods The patients investigated were inpatients from a medium secure unit with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia. There was no history of alcohol dependency or any other comorbid psychoactive substance misuse disorder. Expert psychiatric opinion, accepted in court, was that all these patients had violently offended directly as a result of schizophrenia prior to admission. These offences consisted of homicide, attempted murder or wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. Excreted ethane was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (m/z = 30. 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were obtained at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T using an image-selected in vivo spectroscopy sequence (TR = 10 s; 64 signal averages localized on a 70 × 70 × 70 mm3 voxel. Results Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, in the patient group the mean alveolar ethane level was higher (p p p Conclusion Our results are not necessarily inconsistent with the membrane phospholipid hypothesis, given that the patients studied suffered predominantly from positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is increased cerebral mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously and seriously violently offended, with an associated increase in oxygen flux and subsequent electron 'leakage' from the electron transport chain leading to the formation of superoxide radicals and other

  6. Capacity of zonography in the study of cerebral and visceral cranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on examination of 226 roentgeno- and zonograms of patients with various diseases of the central nervous system, ORL-organs and the maxillodental apparatus, optimal zonographic sections for the study of different cranial portions, as well as a table (nomogram) have been developed. The proposed nomogram helps to receive most diagnostically informative zonographic sections of the separate anatomical cranial portions in standard projections in health and disease. Zonography is recommended for the employment in the radiologists' practice in examination of patients with cerebral and visceral pathology

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow studied by gamma camera and gamma tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional multi-detector systems used for studying regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF, are stationary, usually viewing the hemispheres laterally. A 2-dimensional brain image is obtained. The intrinsic limitation of this approach in recording flow in a complex 3-dimensional structure such as the brain is obvious. This difficulty can be circumvented by applying a tomographic approach to the detection of the emission of radioisotopes. Current development in this field will be outlined with special regard to the dynamic single photon emission tomograph we have developed specifically for the purpose of measuring rCBF. (orig./VJ)

  8. [Neuropsychological studies of the gnostic processes in children with various forms of infantile cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaĭchuk, I I

    1992-01-01

    Psychometric and neuropsychological studies were carried out in 182 patients with three forms of infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP). Of these, 112 children presented with spastic diplegia, 50 with hemiparetic diplegia, and 20 with hyperkinetic diplegia. The children's age ranged from 8 to 14 years. Depending on the form of ICP, the structural characteristics of intellect were defined as were specific features of the development of higher cortical functions depending on the localization of the underdevelopment of different brain areas. The classification of the structure of the disorders with the aid of the methods used makes it possible to have a differentiated approach to the medical and pedagogical correction of those patients. PMID:1333706

  9. Effects of cerebrolysin on moderate cognitive impairments in cerebral vascular insufficiency (a clinical-electrophysiological study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damulin, I V; Koberskaya, N N; Mkhitaryan, E A

    2008-07-01

    The efficacy of treatment with cerebrolysin was studied in 40 patients with cerebral vascular insufficiency. Cerebrolysin (20 daily i.v. infusions of 10 ml in 200 ml of physiological saline) was found to be an effective means of treating this group of patients. Courses of cerebrolysin treatment decreased the severity of memory and attention impairments, improving the overall cognitive status of the patients. Clinical observations and neuropsychological testing were supported by electrophysiological results, in terms of the P300 cognitive evoked potential. The effects of treatment at the doses used here were delayed and were seen three months after completion of treatment.

  10. Finger exercise with keyboard playing in adults with cerebral palsy: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung-Rae; Jeong, Eunju; Kim, Soo Ji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Therapeutic Instrument Music Performance (TIMP) for fine motor exercises in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Individuals with CP (n = 5) received a total of twelve, 30-min TIMP sessions, two days per week for six to nine weeks. Pre- and post-Music Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data were used as a measure of hand function. Pre-velocity was significantly different from the normative data obtained from typical adults (n = 20); however,...

  11. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Nonmelanomatous Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Nonmelanomatous skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, merkel cell carcinoma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance. So far, there have been a few reports that {sup 18}F-FDG PET was useful in the evaluation of metastasis and therapeutic response in nonmelanomatous skin cancer, however, those are very weak evidences. Therefore, further studies on the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in nonmelanomatous skin cancer are required.

  12. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  13. Cerebral Responses to Vocal Attractiveness and Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired self-monitoring and abnormalities of cognitive bias have been implicated as cognitive mechanisms of hallucination; regions fundamental to these processes including inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal gyrus (STG are abnormally activated in individuals that hallucinate. A recent study showed activation in IFG-STG to be modulated by auditory attractiveness, but no study has investigated whether these IFG-STG activations are impaired in schizophrenia. We aimed to clarify the cerebral function underlying the perception of auditory attractiveness in schizophrenia patients. Cerebral activation was examined in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls when performing Favourability Judgment Task (FJT and Gender Differentiation Task (GDT for pairs of greetings using event-related functional MRI. A full-factorial analysis revealed that the main effect of task was associated with activation of left IFG and STG. The main effect of Group revealed less activation of left STG in schizophrenia compared with controls, whereas significantly greater activation in schizophrenia than in controls was revealed at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right occipital lobe, and right amygdala (p<0.05, FDR-corrected. A significant positive correlation was observed at the right TPJ and right MFG between cerebral activation under FJT minus GDT contrast and the score of hallucinatory behaviour on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Findings of hypo-activation in the left STG could designate brain dysfunction in accessing vocal attractiveness in schizophrenia, whereas hyper-activation in the right TPJ and MFG may reflect the process of mentalizing other person’s behaviour by auditory hallucination by abnormality of cognitive bias.

  14. A study on cerebral hemodynamic analysis of moyamoya disease by using perfusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the clinical applications of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). Twenty-two patients with moyamoya disease (9 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 9.3 years (range: 4-22 years) were enrolled in this study. Perfusion MRI was performed by scanning the patients7.5 cm upward from the base of the cerebellum before their being process for post-treatment. The scan led to the acquisition of the following four map images: the cerebral blood volume (CBV), the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the mean transit time (MTT) for the contrast medium, and the time to peak (TTP) for the contrast medium. The lesions were assessed using the CBV, the CBF, the MTT and the TTP maps of perfusion MRI; the MTT and the TTP were measured in the lesion areas, as well as in the normal and the symmetric areas. Perfusion defects were recognizable in all four perfusion MRI maps, and the MTT and the TTP showed a conspicuous delay in the parts where perfusion defects were recognized. The MTT and the TTP images of perfusion MRI reflected a significant correlation between the degrees of stenosis and occlusion in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), as well as the development of collateral vessels. The four perfusion MRI maps could be used to predict the degrees of stenosis and occlusion in the posterior circulation, as well as the development of the collateral vessels, which enabled a hemodynamic evaluation of the parts with perfusion defects. Overall, perfusion MRI is useful for the diagnosis and the treatment of moyamoya disease and can be applied to clinical practice.

  15. The significance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li-Juan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the significance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH patients. A total of 18 patients received 18F-FDG PET/CT scan at initial diagnosis. All patients (18/18 had at least 3 organs involved, with increased FDG metabolism in different degrees. Fifteen cases (15/18 had definite underlying diseases, including infections (IAHLH, rheumatosis (RAHLH, or malignancy (MAHLH. The SUVmax of patients in MAHLH group was significantly higher than patients in IAHLH group or RAHLH group (P = 0.015, P = 0.045. Furthermore, the SUVmax of patients in IAHLH group was significantly higher than patients of RAHLH group (P = 0.043. Therefore, we concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT may especially play important role in differential diagnosis of sHLH.

  16. Evaluation of thymic tumors with 18F-FDG PET-CT - A pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Kumar, Rakesh [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)], e-mail: rkphulia@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arvind [Dept. of Surgical Disciplines, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-02-15

    Thymic tumors represent a broad spectrum of neoplastic disorders and pose considerable diagnostic difficulties. A non-invasive imaging study to determine the nature of thymic lesions can have significant impact on management of such tumors. 18F-flurorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has shown promising results in characterization of thymic tumors. The objective of this article is to provide an illustrative tutorial highlighting the clinical utility of 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging in patients with thymic tumors. We have pictorially depicted the 18F-FDG PET-CT salient imaging characteristics of various thymic tumors, both epithelial and non-epithelial. Also discussed is the dynamic physiology of thymus gland which is to be kept in mind when evaluating thymic pathology on 18F-FDG PET-CT, as it can lead to interpretative pitfalls.

  17. The Values and Limitations of FDG-PET/CT for Diagnosis of Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hoon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibernoma is a rare benign lipogenic tumor of brown fat that develops in a wide variety of locations. Although the features of hibernoma demonstrated by MRI resemble those of liposarcoma, recent FDG-PET/CT studies have documented higher radiotracer uptake than liposarcoma, suggesting that FDG/PET/CT is useful for differentiating hibernoma from liposarcoma. Here we report two cases of hibernoma that showed relatively lower SUVs than those reported previously, lying within the range for liposarcoma. Our findings emphasize that hibernoma needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of any fat-containing tumor showing intense accumulation by FDG-PET/CT. Although it is unlikely that such a rare condition could be reasonably diagnosed on the basis of MRI and FDG-PET/CT alone due to possible SUV overlap between hibernoma and liposarcoma, it is important to recognize this extremely rare lipogenic tumor for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  18. {sup 18}F-FDG in distinction of atherosclerotic plaque: Innovation in PET/MRI technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetto, Raquel; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da, E-mail: benedettoraquel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes; Junqueira, Flavia Albuquerque; Coutinho Junior, Antonio [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ristow, Arno von [Centervasc, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The glucose analogue, {sup 18}F-FDG, can be used to image inflammatory cell activity non-invasively by PET. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using {sup 18}F-FDG to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. A 77-year-old man with symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis was imaged using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET and co-registered MRI. A plaque with intense fibrotic and necrotic content was obtained. Due to the fact that the tissue showed up as inactive, according to the metabolic activity, it was not possible to observe {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our aim was to confirm that it could be clinically used to predict the inflammatory activity of the plaque. (author)

  19. 18F-FDG PET/CT对骨骼孤立性高代谢病灶的初步诊断价值%Preliminary study of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of solitary hypermetabolic lesion of bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文兰; 吴湖炳; 韩彦江; 钟锦梅; 王全师

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing solitary hypermetabolic lesion of the bone. Methods Twenty-two patients with solitary FDG uptake in the bone were enrolled. Patient diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy or surgery. PET/CT images were analyzed. Results Of the 22 patients, 5 had primary bone lymphoma and bone eosinophilic granuloma, 4 had plasma cell myeloma and osteosarcoma, and 2 had Ewing's sarcoma and giant cell tumor of the bone. The mean SUVmax of bone lesions is 11.08±8.06(2.1-32.6). Nineteen lesions had well-distributed FDG uptake. The other three lesions were unevenly distributed. No significant difference in FDG uptake was found between malignant and benign lesions (SUVmax: 8.86 ±2.40 vs. 12.12 ±9.58, respectively;t=-1.241, P=0.231), and among different kinds of bone lesions(F=0.296, df=5, P=0.908). Syn-modality CT images showed that 17 patients have osteolytic changes, 5 of which with sclerosis edge. Some bone lesions presented as “bow tie sign”, “soap bubble sign”, and “lace sign”. The other 5 patients, 3 with primary bone lymphoma and 2 with osteosarcoma, presented with ossification changes. Otherwise, soft tissue mass was formulated in 17 patients, and periosteal proliferation developed in 4 patients. Conclusion Syn-modality CT images should be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary hypermetabolic lesion of the bone.%目的:分析骨骼孤立性高代谢病灶的18F-FDG PET/CT表现,以提高其诊断的水平。方法回顾性分析22例经病理学确诊的骨骼孤立性高代谢病灶的PET/CT征象。结果22例患者中,淋巴瘤及嗜酸性肉芽肿各5例、浆细胞性骨髓瘤及骨肉瘤各4例、尤文氏肉瘤和I级骨巨细胞瘤各2例。病灶平均SUVmax为11.08±8.06(2.1~32.6)。良恶性病灶对FDG摄取的差异无统计学意义(SUVmax:8.86±2.40 vs.12.12±9.58,t=-1.241,P=0.231)。按病理类型进行

  20. Pilot study of a targeted dance class for physical rehabilitation in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, Citlali; Egan, Tara; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study evaluates the effects of a targeted dance class utilizing classical ballet principles for rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy on balance and upper extremity control. Methods: Twelve children with cerebral palsy (ages 7–15 years) with Gross Motor Function Classification scores II–IV participated in this study and were assigned to either a control group or targeted dance class group. Targeted dance class group participated in 1-h classes three times per week in a 4-week period. The Pediatric Balance Scale and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test were administered before, after, and 1 month after the targeted dance class. Results: Improvements in the Pediatric Balance Scale were present in the targeted dance class group in before versus after and before versus 1 month follow-up comparisons (p-value = 0.0088 and p-value = 0.019, respectively). The Pediatric Balance Scale changes were not significant in the control group. The Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test did not reach statistical differences in either group. Conclusion: Classical ballet as an art form involves physical training, musical accompaniment, social interactions, and emotional expression that could serve as adjunct to traditional physical therapy. This pilot study demonstrated improvements in balance control. A larger study with a more homogeneous sample is warranted. PMID:27721977

  1. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with physical frailty: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Ta; Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ching-Po; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), as a presentation of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVDs), are associated with physical frailty. This is a cross-sectional evaluation in participants from a community-based study, the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study. The physical frail status was evaluated using the Cardiovascular Health Study score, which includes components of weakness, low physical activity, slowness, exhaustion, and weight loss. The CMBs were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging using susceptibility-weighted imaging. Of the 962 subjects (62.5 [8.6] years, 44.2% men) included, 33.2% had physical prefrail and 3.3% had frail status. Compared with the robust subjects, prefrail and/or frail subjects presented with more overall CMB numbers and a higher number and/or incidence of CMB in the deep and/or infratentorial regions. Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and vascular risk factors revealed that the CMB numbers were significantly associated with physical frailty. The brainstem was the only CMB location significantly associated with physical frailty (odds ratio, 95% CI, 13.50, 1.23-147.79) and the weakness component (5.04, 1.47-17.2), independent of age, sex, vascular risk factors, and the other presentations of CSVDs. Our results suggest that CSVD is involved in the pathophysiology of physical frailty.

  2. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV{sub maxs} of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Staging in childhood lymphoma. Differences between FDG-PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The clinical value of positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET) in the staging of adult lymphoma has been shown in many studies. However, there are only few data regarding childhood lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the staging of childhood lymphoma using FDG-PET and the established computed tomography (CT). Method: Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 25 children with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease (n=18) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=7) using a dedicated PET. The findings were compared with the CT results. Both examinations, FDG-PET and CT, were assessed by two experienced physicians. In each patient, 30 regions were analysed (22 nodal, 8 extranodal). Each region was assessed using a five-value scale (definitely/probably positive, equivocal, probably/definitely negative). Results: 662 regions (470 nodal, 192 extranodal) were compared. 91 regions (81 nodal, 10 extranodal; 14%) were concordant positive and 517 regions (347 nodal, 170 extranodal; 78%) were concordant negative. In 47 regions, 48 discordant findings (7%) were described: 27 findings (22 nodal, 5 extranodal) were positive using FDG-PET and negative using CT whereas 21 findings (17 nodal, 4 extranodal) were positive using CT and negative using PET. A total of 7 regions (1%) were judged equivocal in one imaging modality (1 FDG/PET, 6 CT). Using FDG-PET as compared to CT, resulted in a higher staging in 4 of 25 patients and in a lower staging in 2 of 25 patients. Conclusion: Staging of childhood lymphoma using FDG-PET shows differences compared with CT resulting in a different staging in 6 of 25 patients. Prospective studies are required to evaluate the impact of these discrepancies on the clinical management of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Staging in childhood lymphoma. Differences between FDG-PET and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, S.; Pixberg, M.; Schober, O.; Franzius, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Muenster (Germany); Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Muenster (Germany); Hunold, A.; Juergens, H. [Dept. of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Muenster (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Aim: The clinical value of positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET) in the staging of adult lymphoma has been shown in many studies. However, there are only few data regarding childhood lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the staging of childhood lymphoma using FDG-PET and the established computed tomography (CT). Method: Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 25 children with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease (n=18) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=7) using a dedicated PET. The findings were compared with the CT results. Both examinations, FDG-PET and CT, were assessed by two experienced physicians. In each patient, 30 regions were analysed (22 nodal, 8 extranodal). Each region was assessed using a five-value scale (definitely/probably positive, equivocal, probably/definitely negative). Results: 662 regions (470 nodal, 192 extranodal) were compared. 91 regions (81 nodal, 10 extranodal; 14%) were concordant positive and 517 regions (347 nodal, 170 extranodal; 78%) were concordant negative. In 47 regions, 48 discordant findings (7%) were described: 27 findings (22 nodal, 5 extranodal) were positive using FDG-PET and negative using CT whereas 21 findings (17 nodal, 4 extranodal) were positive using CT and negative using PET. A total of 7 regions (1%) were judged equivocal in one imaging modality (1 FDG/PET, 6 CT). Using FDG-PET as compared to CT, resulted in a higher staging in 4 of 25 patients and in a lower staging in 2 of 25 patients. Conclusion: Staging of childhood lymphoma using FDG-PET shows differences compared with CT resulting in a different staging in 6 of 25 patients. Prospective studies are required to evaluate the impact of these discrepancies on the clinical management of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, Anders

    2012-07-01

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  6. Use of FDG PET/CT for investigation of febrile neutropenia: evaluation in high-risk cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a frequent complication of cancer care and evaluation often fails to identify a cause. [18 F]FDG PET/CT has the potential to identify inflammatory and infectious foci, but its potential role as an investigation for persistent FNP has not previously been explored. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in patients with cancer and severe neutropenia and five or more days of persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy. Adult patients with a diagnosis of an underlying malignancy and persistent FNP (temperature ≥38 C and neutrophil count <500 cells/μl for 5 days) underwent FDG PET/CT as an adjunct to conventional evaluation and management. The study group comprised 20 patients with FNP who fulfilled the eligibility criteria and underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to conventional evaluation. The median neutrophil count on the day of the FDG PET/CT scan was 30 cells/μl (range 0-730 cells/μl). Conventional evaluation identified 14 distinct sites of infection, 13 (93 %) of which were also identified by FDG PET/CT, including all deep tissue infections. FDG PET/CT identified 9 additional likely infection sites, 8 of which were subsequently confirmed as ''true positives'' by further investigations. FDG PET/CT was deemed to be of 'high' clinical impact in 15 of the 20 patients (75 %). This study supports the utility of FDG PET/CT scanning in severely neutropenic patients with five or more days of fever. Further evaluation of the contribution of FDG PET/CT in the management of FNP across a range of underlying malignancies is required. (orig.)

  7. Use of FDG PET/CT for investigation of febrile neutropenia: evaluation in high-risk cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Stephen D.; Tramontana, Adrian R. [Western Health, Department of Infectious Diseases, Private Bag, Footscray, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Worth, Leon J.; Thursky, Karin A.; Slavin, Monica A. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departme