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Sample records for cerebral decortication

  1. Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria

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    Ogutu Bernhards

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria. Methods Records of children admitted to Kilifi district hospital with cerebral malaria from January, 1999 through December, 2001 were reviewed for posturing occurring on or after admission. The clinical characteristics, features of raised intracranial pressure, number of seizures and biochemical changes in patients that developed posturing was compared to patients who did not. Results Of the 417 children with complete records, 163 (39.1% had posturing: 85 on admission and 78 after admission to hospital. Decorticate posturing occurred in 80, decerebrate in 61 and opisthotonic posturing in 22 patients. Posturing was associated with age ≥ 3 years (48.1 vs 35.8%, p = 0.01 and features of raised intracranial pressure on funduscopy (adjusted OR 2.1 95%CI 1.2–3.7, p = 0.009 but not other markers of severity of disease. Unlike decorticate posturing, decerebrate (adjusted OR 1.9 95%CI 1.0–3.5 and opisthotonic posturing (adjusted OR 2.9 95%CI 1.0–8.1 were, in addition, independently associated with recurrence of seizures after admission. Opisthotonus was also associated with severe metabolic acidosis (OR 4.2 95%CI 3.2–5.6, p Conclusion Abnormal motor posturing is a common feature of cerebral malaria in children. It is associated with features of raised intracranial pressure and recurrence of seizures, although intracranial hypertension may be the primary cause.

  2. Decorticate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorticate posture is an abnormal posturing in which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs ... Decorticate posture is a sign of damage to the nerve pathway between the brain and spinal cord. Although it ...

  3. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

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    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  4. Open thoracotomy and decortication for chronic empyema

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    Rafael Andrade-Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, chronic empyema has been treated by thoracotomy and decortication. Some recent reports have claimed similar clinical results for videothoracoscopy, but with less morbidity and mortality than open procedures. Our experience with thoracotomy and decortication is reviewed so that the results of this surgical procedure can be adequately evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1992 to June 2006, 85 patients diagnosed with empyema were treated at Santo Tomás Hospital by the first author. Diagnosis of chronic empyema was based on the duration of signs and symptoms before definitive treatment and imaging findings, such as constriction of the lungs and the thoracic cage. Thirty-three patients fulfilled the criteria for chronic empyema and underwent open thoracotomy and decortication. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (81.8 % were male and the average age of the study group was 34 years. The etiology was pneumonia in 26 patients (78.8% and trauma in 7 (21.2%. The duration of symptoms and signs before definitive treatment averaged 37 days. All patients had chronic empyema, as confirmed by imaging studies and operative findings. Surgery lasted an average of 139 min. There were 3 (9% complications with no mortality. The post-operative length of stay averaged 10 days. There were no recurrences of empyema. CONCLUSIONS: Open thoracotomy and decortication can be achieved with low morbidity and mortality. Long-term functional results are especially promising. We suggest that the validation of other surgical approaches should be based on comparative, prospective and controlled studies.

  5. Effects of flapless bur decortications on movement velocity of dogs′ teeth

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    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: (1 Corticotomy facilitated orthodontic tooth movement is achievable with flapless bur decortication technique. (2 Velocity of tooth movement decreases in later stages of treatment due to maturation of newly formed bone at decortication sites.

  6. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) With Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Flours in Bread Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF) was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext.) to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling n...

  7. Development of Vegetable Based Milk from Decorticated Sesame (Sesamum Indicum

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    Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Decorticated sesame seed can supply us with nutritious, functional and healthy meals with relatively low cost. These properties make sesame a valuable source of protein and other nutrients to be utilized in imitated dairy products, which could be used for infant and adults with lactose intolerance as well as for vegetarian or others who like to eat dairy products free from cholesterol. Additionally, the production of sesame-based dairy products can overcome the problems that limit consumption of soy-based dairy products such as antinutritional factors, flavor and flatulence. The major challenges in developing dairy analogs from plant sources are: unacceptable flavor, low solids yield and low dispersion stability. Approach: The following factors were investigated to increase/optimize the sesame milk yield, dispersion stability and sensory acceptance: pretreatment of sesame seed with simple physical treatments (soaking in water, boiling, pressure cooking, steaming and combination treatments and heat treatment of sesame milk (pasteurization or sterilization. Results: Heat treatments during all steps of processing proved to be the most important factor in determining the yield and quality of sesame milk. The best treatment was pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 12% initial sesame seed concentration (previously dried at 170°C for 5 sec and formulated with the addition of 2% sucrose. Conclusion: The developed procedure for sesame milk production resulted in high yield, excellent dispersion stability and good sensory acceptability.

  8. A filmed hanging without decerebrate and decorticate rigidity: a case report and pathophysiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Anny; Kelly, Sean; Ambrosi, Corinne

    2012-06-01

    The study of filmed hangings in the recent has reveal a striking similarity in the agonal sequences, with a sequence of rapid loss of consciousness, convulsions, and then a complex pattern of decerebrate rigidity and decorticate rigidity. We report a case of filmed hanging not presenting with decerebrate and decorticate rigidity. A 52-year-old man stepped off a stool, hanging himself in a complete suspension in an upright position. The movement of the body stepping off the stool created a rotary movement around the ceiling's ring and the body of the hanging man immediately started to revolve around the ring. Apart for the rolling around the ceiling's ring, the body stayed motionless for the duration of the movie, without any evidence of decerebrate or decorticate rigidity. A review of the pathophysiology of these reflex posturing gives some insight as to the possible elucidation for their absence in this specific case. PMID:20661125

  9. Laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cyst using conventional monopolar device.

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    Tuncel, Altug; Aydin, Omur; Balci, Melih; Aslan, Yilmaz; Atan, Ali

    2011-02-01

    In our study, we assessed the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cysts using conventional monopolar device. Long-term symptomatic and radiological results of 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic renal symptomatic simple cyst decortication, which was performed by conventional monopolar device, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 49.7 years. There were nine male and six female patients. Their presenting symptoms were lumber pain in 93% (n=14), and hypertension in 7% (n=1). The mean operating time was 64.6 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 2.2 days. After a mean follow up of 12.08 months, the radiological and symptomatic successes were 100% and 86.6%, respectively. Laparoscopic renal cyst decortication using conventional monopolar device represents an effective and safe treatment option in the management of renal cyst without any need for more expensive energy sources. PMID:21354520

  10. Cyberknife radiosurgery for focal paravertebral recurrence after radical pleurectomy/decortication in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    Lang-Lazdunski, Loïc; Barrington, Sally; Bille, Andrea; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma with focal relapse in the Azygos arch region after radical pleurectomy/decortication and adjuvant chemotherapy. Tumour recurrence was successfully treated by Cyberknife radiosurgery (70 Gy in five fractions). Patient remains disease-free at 40 months without any other treatment. PMID:22290898

  11. Which Stage of ADPKD Is More Appropriate for Decortication? A Retrospective Study of 137 Patients from a Single Clinic.

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    Xiaoqiang Qian

    Full Text Available To study retrospectively the efficacy of decortication in patients with different stages of ADPKD and to determine which stage for decortication is more appropriate.We analyzed 137 patients with ADPKD from 2001 to 2010. All patients were divided into three stages. A total of 70 patients underwent decortication, and we studied intraoperative indicators and postoperative indicators at 1 and 3 years follow-up.In 70 patients who underwent decortication, significant differences were observed in operative duration and bleeding volume between patients with stage I and II ADPKD (P 0.05. The total complication occurrence rate was significantly different between them (P 0.05. Scr levels were significantly decreased in patients with stage II ADPKD in the 1st postoperative year (P 0.05. In the 1st postoperative year, VAS value, blood pressure and renal volume significantly differed (P 0.05.Decortication in patients with stage I ADPKD can alleviate back pain symptoms and decrease blood pressure within 1 year, but the long-term efficacy is not ideal. Scr levels can be maintained within normal limits, suggesting that decortication does not lead to deterioration of renal function. For patients with stage II ADPKD, decortication can significantly improve renal function over the short term. However, after 3 years, renal function returns to the preoperative level, and surgical difficulties and complications also increase.

  12. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

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    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  13. Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues

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    Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi; Anthony Manoni Mshandete; Mutemi Muthangya

    2009-01-01

    Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agro-industrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four...

  14. Laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic renal cysts. Experience from a referral center in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to present our experience with laparoscopic management of symptomatic simple renal cysts. From April 2004 to November 2006, 21 patients (10 men; 11 women) underwent laparoscopic decortication for simple renal cysts at our department and were included in the analysis. All procedures were carried out by one surgeon using a transperitoneal approach. Patients underwent radiological follow-up with computerized tomography and/or ultrasonography. Procedural success was defined as no recurrence of the cyst and complete pain relief. Symptomatic success was defined as a significant pain decrease. All 21 procedures were completed laparoscopically, without major complications or conversion to open surgery. Estimated mean blood loss during surgery was about 50 mL. Patients were hospitalized for a mean of 1.9±1.1 (range: 1-5) days. Age of the patients and size and location of the cysts, had no relationship with the duration of operation as well as the length of hospital stay (P>0.05). Patients who experienced complete pain relief had significantly larger cyst sizes compared with patients with a partial pain decrease (7.3±1.1 vs 9.1±2.0, respectively; P=0.023, F=0.606). All patients had negative cytological and pathological findings for malignancy or any other abnormalities. At 16.6 months of mean follow up, none of the patients reported symptomatic and/or radiologic failure. Laparoscopic transperitoneal decortication represents an effective and safe treatment option in the management of symptomatic renal cysts. (author)

  15. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  16. Losses of nutrients and anti-nutritional factors during abrasive decortication of two pearl millet cultivars (Pennisetum glaucum)

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    Lestienne, Isabelle; Buisson, Marie; Lullien Pellerin, V.; Picq, Christian; Trèche, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Losses of nutrients such as starch, lipids, proteins, iron and zinc as well as phytase activity and of recognised anti-nutritional compounds (some insoluble fibres, iron-binding phenolic compounds and phytates) were determined following abrasive decortication of grains from two pearl millet cultivars (Gampela and IKMP-5) with different composition cultivated in Burkina Faso. In both cultivars, abrasion of the starchy endosperm started when about 12% of the dry matter had been removed from gra...

  17. Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR is amongst the most abundant agroindustrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pretreatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD was investigated using a twostage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VSadded. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR.

  18. Influence of decortication of the recipient graft bed on graft integration and tissue neoformation in the graft-recipient bed interface.

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    Canto, Fabiano R T; Garcia, Sergio B; Issa, João P M; Marin, Anderson; Del Bel, Elaine A; Defino, Helton L A

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of decortication of the posterior elements of the vertebra (recipient bed) and the nature of the bone graft (cortical or cancellous bone) on graft integration and bone, cartilage and fiber neoformation in the interface between the vertebral recipient bed and the bone graft. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups according to the presence or absence of decortication of the posterior vertebral elements and the use of a cortical or cancellous bone graft. Group I--the posterior elements were decorticated and cancellous bone used. Group II--the posterior elements were decorticated and cortical graft was used. Group III--the posterior elements were not decorticated and cancellous graft was used. Group IV--the posterior elements were not decorticated and cortical graft was used. The animals were killed 3, 6 and 9 weeks after surgery and the interface between the posterior elements and the bone graft was subjected to histomorphometric evaluation. Mean percent neoformed bone was 40.8% in group I (decortication and cancellous graft), 39.13% in group II (decortication and cortical graft), 6.13% in group III (non-decorticated and cancellous graft), and 9.27% in group IV (non-decorticated and cortical graft) for animals killed at 3 weeks (P = 0.0005). For animals killed at 6 weeks, the mean percent was 38.53% for group I, 40.40% for group II, 10.27% for group III, and 7.6% for group IV (P = 0.0005), and for animals killed at 9 weeks, the mean was 25.93% for group I, 30.6% for group II, 16.4% for group III, and 18.73% for group IV (P = 0.0026). The mean percent neoformed cartilage tissue was 8.36% for group I, 7.46% for group II, 11.1% for group III, and 9.13% for group IV for the animals killed at 3 weeks (P = 0.6544); 6.6% for group I, 8.07% for group, 7.47% for group III and 6.13% for group IV (P = 0.4889) for animals killed at 6 weeks, and 3.13% for group I, 4.06% for group II, 10

  19. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

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    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants. PMID:26724549

  20. AB190. Transumbilical single incision for laparoendoscopic bilateral renal cyst decortication using a homemade glove port device (video available)

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    Li, Gang; Quan, Changyi; Niu, Yuanjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Transumbilical single incision surgery (TSIS) has recently gained popularity for symptomatic renal cysts. We evaluated the clinical utility and safety of homemade glove port device in bilateral renal cyst decortication patients at our institution. Methods We reviewed our series of 42 bilateral symptomatic renal cyst (range, 4-12 cm) decortication performed from November 2010 to December 2013. A homemade port device consisted of two control loops and a glove to form three channels was placed through the umbilical single incision. A homemade single port device was made by fixing a size 7 1/2 surgical glove to the retractor outer ring and securing the glove fingers to the end of 3 trocars with a tie. The homemade port was inserted at the umbilical incision; operation was performed by using a special flexible 30-degree laparoscope and conventional laparoscopic instruments. Results All cases were completed successfully, without conversion to a standard laparoscopic or open approach. The average operative time was 75 min and the estimated blood loss was less than 30 mL, no intraoperative complication occurred. The mean hospital stay was 2.8±1.5 (range, 2-5) days, with a median follow-up of 20 (range, 8-32) months, there was no recurrence. Conclusions Our homemade single port device is cost-effective and more flexible to deal with bilateral renal cysts especially ventral lesions than the current multichannel port or traditional laparoscopic surgery.

  1. AB202. Transumbilical single incision for laparoendoscopic bilateral renal cyst decortication using a homemade glove port device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Quan, Changyi; Niu, Yuanjie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transumbilical single incision surgery (TSIS) has recently gained popularity for symptomatic renal cysts. We evaluated the clinical utility and safety of homemade glove port device in bilateral renal cyst decortication patients at our institution. Methods We reviewed our series of 42 bilateral symptomatic renal cyst (range, 4–12 cm) decortication performed from November 2010 to December 2013. A homemade port device consisted of two control loops and a glove to form three channels was placed through the umbilical single incision. A homemade single port device was made by fixing a size 7 1/2 surgical glove to the retractor outer ring and securing the glove fingers to the end of three trocars with a tie. The homemade port was inserted at the umbilical incision, operation was performed by using a special flexible 30-degree laparoscope and conventional laparoscopic instruments. Results All cases were completed successfully, without conversion to a standard laparoscopic or open approach. The average operative time was 75 min and the estimated blood loss was less than 30 mL, no intraoperative complication occurred. The mean hospital stay was 2.8 d lap[2–5] days, with a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 8–32) there was no recurrence. Conclusions Our homemade single port device is cost-effective and more flexible to deal with bilateral renal cysts especially ventral lesions than the current multichannel port or traditional laparoscopic surgery.

  2. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  3. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  4. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  5. Cerebral Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... lead to cerebral atrophy. NIH Patient Recruitment for Cerebral Atrophy Clinical Trials ... by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  6. Design of coconuts rolling-cut decorticator%椰子滚切式剥衣机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩栋; 张燕; 梁栋

    2013-01-01

    Aimming at coconut's production handcraft or half-hand-craft and the growing business needs in Hainan, designed a new type of coconut decorticator. Adopt the method of mechanical blades, imitating the manual coconut stripping, and use high-pressure gas and work principle of overload protecting device to assist to reach coconut coating peeling rate of 90% with the rate of coconut's damage under 5%. The method is simple, less destructive, safety, efficiency and can improve the multipurpose utilization of coconut stripping.%针对目前海南手工或半手工的椰子加工现状以及椰子产品的需求前景,设计一种新型的椰子剥衣机.采用机械刀片模仿手工剥衣的方法,并以高压气体辅助剥衣,同时有过载保护装置,使得椰衣的一次剥除率达90%,椰果损伤率在5%以内,操作简单方便,对椰衣纤维的破坏降到了最低,从而提高椰子的剥衣安全性和效率以及综合利用率.

  7. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa 5-15% das formas extrapulmonares e é reconhecida como de alta letalidade. Apresentação tumoral como a relatada é rara, particularmente em imunocompetentes. Quando tratada, pode ter bom prognóstico e deve entrar sempre no diagnóstico diferencial de massas cerebrais.It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

  8. The effect of saline coolant on temperature levels during decortication with a Midas Rex: An in vitro model using sheep cervical vertebrae.

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    Asher eLivingston

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decortication of bone with a high speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data is available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high speed burr.Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2mm below the end plate surface and a thermal-camera set up to measure surface temperature. A high speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30 with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data was compared between groups using a student t-test.Application of coolant at the bone-burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high speed burr provides a quick and effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimised through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high speed burr.

  9. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cerebral Palsy: Keith's Story Physical Therapy I Have Cerebral Palsy. Can I Babysit? Body Image and Self-Esteem Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  10. Cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  11. Cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the veins ( deep vein thrombosis ) Lung infections (pneumonia) Malnutrition When to Contact a Medical Professional Cerebral hypoxia ... References Bernat JL. Coma, vegetative state, and brain death. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  12. Influência da decorticação vertebral na neoformação dos tecidos da interface do enxerto ósseo Influence of vertebral decortication on tissue neoformation at bone graft interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ricardo Tavares Canto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a influência da decorticação dos elementos posteriores da coluna vertebral na integração do enxerto ósseo, considerando a avaliação quantitativa e qualitativa dos tecidos (ósseo, cartilaginoso e fibroso da interface entre o leito receptor e o enxerto ósseo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a realização da decorticação do leito receptor do enxerto. Foi utilizado enxerto autólogo derivado dos processos espinhosos das duas primeiras vértebras lombares. A neoformação tecidual na interface entre o leito receptor e seu enxerto ósseo foi avaliada após três semanas por meio de análise histomorfométrica. RESULTADOS: No grupo de animais com o leito receptor decorticado a média da porcentagem de osso neoformado foi de 40%±6,1, e 7,7%± 3,5 no grupo não decorticado (p=0,0001. A média da porcentagem de formação do tecido cartilaginoso no grupo decorticado foi de 7,2%±3,5, no não decorticado de 10,9%±5,6 (p=0,1123. A formação de tecido fibroso no grupo decorticado apresentou média de 8,6%±3,9 e no não decorticado e 24%±10,1, (p=0,0002. CONCLUSÕES: A decorticação acelerou o processo histológico da integração do enxerto ósseo. Ocorrendo maior produção de tecido ósseo neoformado e predomínio da ossificação do tipo intramembranosa no grupo de animais nos quais a decorticação foi realizada.OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of vertebral posterior elements decortication in bone graft integration, considering a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the (bone, cartilaginous, and fibrous tissues in the interface between the receptor bed and the bone graft. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to the decortication of the bone graft receptor bed. Autologous bone graft from the first and second lumbar vertebrae were used. The new tissue formation in the interface between the receptor bed and its bone graft

  13. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  14. Tuberculoma cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO ELIZABETH CLARA; OLIVEIRA TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE; AMARAL ANA MARIA DANTAS DO; PINHEIRO VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA; SOUSA ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  15. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.

  16. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  17. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  18. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, William W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rice, David C. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsao, Anne S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fontanilla, Hiral P. [Princeton Radiation Oncology, Monroe Township, New Jersey (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza J. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  19. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  20. Cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  1. Estudo experimental da decorticação óssea na integração dos enxertos na coluna vertebral Bone decortication in spinal graft integration - an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo José de Conti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo experimental com a finalidade de avaliar a influência da decorticação óssea na incorporação de enxerto ósseo autólogo. Foram utilizados 15 cães mestiços adultos de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Biotério Geral da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeiro Preto. A primeira vértebra lombar foi selecionada para o estudo, tendo sido realizado a decorticação superficial da lâmina vertebral pelo lado direito. Enxerto ósseo oriundo dos processos espinhosos de L 1 e vértebras adjacentes foram aposicionados sobre a lâmina de L1 bilateralmente. Os animais foram divididos em grupos experimentais de acordo com o período de sacrifício (1 mês, 3 meses e 6 meses, sendo cada grupo formado por 5 animais.A avaliação histológica por meio da microscopia foi o método empregado no estudo, e demonstrou diferenças na incorporação do enxerto ósseo, entre as superfícies decorticadas e não decorticadas da lâmina vertebral. As diferenças foram observadas nos animais sacrificados com 1 mês e 3 meses após a cirurgia, tendo sido observado integração óssea mais intensa do enxerto no local em que a lâmina vertebral foi decorticada. Com 6 meses de pós- operatório não foi observado diferenças entre as faces da lâmina vertebral (decorticada e não decorticada, sendo que houve reparação óssea completa em ambas as superfícies.An experimental study was conducted aiming to evaluate the influence of bone decortication for autologous bone graft integration. Fifteen undefined-race adult dogs of both genders, supplied by the General Animal Lab of the Medical School, University of São Paulo, in Ribeirão Preto, were used. The first lumbar vertebra was selected for study purposes, with surface decortication of the vertebral layer through the right side. Bone grafts removed from L1 and adjacent vertebrae's spinous processes were bilaterally apposed on the L1 layer. The animals were divided into

  2. Cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered

  3. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voices of UCP blog for the latest updates. United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support ... Our Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 ...

  4. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  5. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  6. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  7. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  8. THE TREATMENT WITH WATER SEAL CHEST DRAIN (PDU IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENT WITH RIGHT HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX OF TUBERCULAR AETIOLOGY WITH PERSISTENT RIGHT PNEUMOTHORAX WITH BPF AFTER FAILURE OF DECORTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient, D. Sanjeev Rao, aged 50 years, lorry driver by occupation, residing at Vijayawada, AP, presented with Rt. sided chest pain, cough, severe breathlessness, low-grade fever since one day. He was admitted in the casualty under emergency condition and was resuscitated with oxygen inhalation. On inspection, trachea was deviated to right side. Chest was bilaterally asymmetrical. Intercostal tube with underwater seal drainage on right side was found. Right side of chest shows loss of lung volume with wasting of muscles, drooping of shoulder, narrowing of intercostal spaces with crowding of ribs. Apical impulse appears to be shifted to right side. On palpation respiratory movements diminished all over the right chest with increased vocal fremitus over the middle of chest and decreased in base. On percussion dull note was present in base, resonant in middle of the chest. On auscultation, amphoric breathing with metallic quality were heard on right side. CVS-S1, S2 present. On percussion, heart borders were in normal limits. ICD tube column moving continuously. CX-Ray PA view with right pneumothorax encysted with thickened pleural margins with right upper lobe collapse. Patient underwent right decortication on 30th June 2015. Since then lung was not expanded, but landed into continuous air leakage with bronchopleural fistula with persistent right pneumothorax pocket. Patient was diagnosed as hydropneumothorax. 1 on 1-6-15, treated with intercostal tube. 2 drainage, but was failed with occurrence of bronchopleural fistula.3 Later, he underwent decortication. 1 and presented with persistent pneumothorax. 4 Patient is a known case of type-2 diabetic, on medication with Human Mixtard insulin for the past 5years. Diabetes was under control. Pus from ICD bag sent for culture for AFB- not detected by culture, confirmed by “MycoReal” real time PCR by SRL diagnostic test.

  9. 胡椒经地衣芽孢杆菌发酵脱皮过程中的主要酶系及pH值变化%Dynamic Changes in Main Enzyme Activities and pH during Pepper(Piper nigrum L.) Decortication by Bacillus licheniformis Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海波; 侯源源; 刘四新; 苗子健; 李从发

    2011-01-01

    采用地衣芽孢杆菌进行静置液态发酵对胡椒进行脱皮,与生产实践中传统水沤法脱皮对比,研究二者发酵脱皮过程中的果胶酶、木聚糖酶、纤维素酶和发酵液pH值的动态变化。结果表明:在发酵脱皮过程中,两种方法的聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)和果胶裂解酶(PL)变化规律相似,都出现两次酶活力高峰;而纤维素酶活力都很低,果胶酯酶(PE)酶活力都比较高;在传统水沤法中木聚糖酶活力出现两个高峰,而在发酵法中木聚糖酶活力在脱皮后期逐渐上升;pH值变化总趋势也相似,脱皮完成时pH值均在5~5.5之间。由此推知,胡椒鲜果发酵脱皮过程中果胶酶系%Static liquid-state Bacillus licheniformis fermentation was used for pepper decortication and compared with traditional water retting.Meanwhile,the dynamic changes of pectinases,xylanase,cellulase and pH during pepper decortication by the two methods were explored.The results showed that the changes of polygalacturonase(PG) and pectin lyase(PL) revealed a similar pattern with two activity peaks during both decortication processes.However,cellulase activity was low and the pectin esterase(PE) activity remained high.Similar pH changes were observed during both decortication processes pH was between 5 and 5.5 at the end of decortication.Xylanase activity showed two peaks in traditional water retting method and a gradual increase in the late stage of Bacillus licheniformis fermentation.Therefore,pectinase might play an important role during pepper decortication.In the early stage of decortication,PG and PL first acted on pectin substances and damaged the pectin complex structure,and then PE hydrolyzed pectin molecules to form pectic acid accompanied with pH decrease.Further,xylanase activity increased gradually in the late stage of decortication and as a result,hemicellulose was rapidly depolymerized.Therefore,pepper decortication was completed under the

  10. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and Tc-99m human serum albumin were used. Cerebral tomographic imaging was performed using a rotating scintillation camera. The values of cerebral haematocrit obtained, taken as a ratio to venous haematocrit, range between 0.65-0.88 in the subjects studied. As a general finding in normal subjects and in patients with transient ischaemic attacks, no significant difference between right and left hemispheric haematocrit value was noted. However, in the group of patients affected with stroke, a significant difference in the right versus left hemispheric Hct was observed in 3 patients, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side. The clinical implication is on the emphasis of cerebral Hct measurement when the measurement of cerebral blood flow or volume is sought. Also the variation in regional Hct value observed in patients with stroke, above mentioned, points to a regulation mechanism of the blood composition for optimal oxygen delivery to the brain that is impaired in these patients. 14 refs. (Author)

  11. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  12. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  13. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The presentation, treatment, and outcome of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (SVT) were studied in 42 children, using neurology clinic records (1986-2005) at Indiana University School of Medicine.

  14. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  15. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  16. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  17. Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Yokoi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.

  18. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process.

  19. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.; Johnston, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothe...

  20. Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: a challenge for neuroscience and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Bjorn

    2007-02-01

    A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain - spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data - is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the vertebrate brain can be seen to form a centralized functional design in which an upper brain stem system organized for conscious function performs a penultimate step in action control. This upper brain stem system retained a key role throughout the evolutionary process by which an expanding forebrain - culminating in the cerebral cortex of mammals - came to serve as a medium for the elaboration of conscious contents. This highly conserved upper brainstem system, which extends from the roof of the midbrain to the basal diencephalon, integrates the massively parallel and distributed information capacity of the cerebral hemispheres into the limited-capacity, sequential mode of operation required for coherent behavior. It maintains special connective relations with cortical territories implicated in attentional and conscious functions, but is not rendered nonfunctional in the absence of cortical input. This helps explain the purposive, goal-directed behavior exhibited by mammals after experimental decortication, as well as the evidence that children born without a cortex are conscious. Taken together these circumstances suggest that brainstem mechanisms are integral to the constitution of the conscious state, and that an adequate account of neural mechanisms of conscious function cannot be confined to the thalamocortical complex alone. PMID:17475053

  1. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  2. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  3. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  4. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the...... radical scavenger α-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial...

  5. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W;

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types of...... migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do not...

  6. Cerebral abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral abscess (CA) is a focal, infectious process only or multiple, located in the cerebral parenchyma that produces tisular lysis and it behaves like a lesion of space occupative, being a suppurative illness, who origin is a distant infection, or for continuity that studies initially as an area of focal cerebritis and it is developed to a collection surrounded purulent. At the moment they are perfecting technical and protocols diagnoses and therapeutic and measures for allow to control the natural history of the illness, making from the confrontation to this pathology a necessarily interdisciplinary complicated art, stiller in the infantile population, due to their difficulty in the diagnosis and the relevance of the same one. The paper includes epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, localization, pathology, clinic, diagnoses, treatment and diagnostic images

  7. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  8. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  9. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  11. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  12. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  13. Cerebral infarction showed hyperperfusion pattern on radionuclide cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients of middle cerebral infarctin showed hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and fan-shape accumulation at the area of middle cerebral artery on early and delayed brain scan. In these patients, bone scanning agents such as sup(99m)Tc-EHDP or sup(99m)Tc-MDP also prominently accumulated at the area of infarction. These findings were observed on the study when it was performed within seventeen days after attack, but reexamination tended to show normal or decreased perfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and improve abnormal accumulation on brain scans. The clinical diagnosis of these three patients were cerebral embolism with heart disease, but one patient was internal carotid artery occlusion. The prognosis of all patients were very good. The hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography of these patients represents the luxury perfusion in the lesion and these infarction has been called hot stroke by Yarnell et al. (author)

  14. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures

  15. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan B; Nance E; Johnston MV; Kannan R; Kannan S

    2013-01-01

    Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the...

  16. Cerebral palsy and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Haak, Peterson; Lenski, Madeleine; HIDECKER, MARY JO COOLEY; Li, Min; Paneth, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common major disabling motor disorder of childhood, is frequently thought of as a condition that affects only children. Deaths in children with CP, never common, have in recent years become very rare, unless the child is very severely and multiply disabled. Thus, virtually all children assigned the diagnosis of CP will survive into adulthood. Attention to the adult with CP has been sparse, and the evolution of the motor disorder as the individual moves through ad...

  17. Osteopenia in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, N J; White, C. P.; Fraser, W. D.; ROSENBLOOM, L.

    1994-01-01

    The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was assessed in nine non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy combined with measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and urinary calcium excretion. Three children with recurrent fractures received treatment with bisphosphonates for periods ranging from 12-18 months. All the children demonstrated a severe reduction in bone mineral density even when allowance was made for their body weight. There were no consistent abnormaliti...

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  19. Plasticidad cerebral y lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Torres Sánchez, Ignacio; Berthier Torres, Marcelo Luís

    2012-01-01

    Hace pocos años se daba por sentado que la recuperación del lenguaje tras una lesión cerebral era imposible, al igual que adquirir la lengua materna más allá de los tres primeros años de vida. Sin embargo, las últimas indagaciones muestran que nuestra capacidad de aprender es mucho mayor.

  20. Dysphagia in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Salghetti, Annamaria; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Feeding problemsare often present in children with neuromotor impairment: dysphagia is usuallyseen in the most severe form of cerebral palsy and it’s defined as thedifficulty with any of the four phases of swallowing. Clinical consequences aremalnutrition and recurrent chest infections that reduce expected duration andquality of life. In order to prevent these consequences it’s important todetect with clinical and instrumental examinations dysphagia symptoms and totreat them. Clinic...

  1. Perfusion MRI in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the hemodynamic changes in patients with acute cerebral stroke by perfusion MRI. Materials and methods: In 12 patients with acute stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, perfusion MRI was performed. Peak time, mean transit time, regional cerebral blood volume and regional cerebral blood flow were calculated in the infarction, the peri-infarction area and the contralateral hemisphere. Results: In the infarction the mean blood flow was 29 ml/100 g/min, compared to about 40 ml/100 g/min in the peri-infarction area and the contralateral hemisphere. In two patients increased cortical blood flow was found in the infarction due to luxury perfusion. The cerebral blood volume was reduced in the infarction, but significantly increased, to 7.3 ml/100 g, in the peri-infarction tissue. Conclusion: Perfusion MRI allows one to differentiate various patterns of perfusion disorders in patients with acute cerebral stroke. (orig./AJ)

  2. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H;

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2 the......This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon...... contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...

  3. [Insomnia and cerebral hypoperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára

    2007-11-18

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century. PMID:17988972

  4. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyRichardBain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  5. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  7. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response on...... cerebral vessels....

  8. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  9. Techniques in cerebral protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization

  10. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  12. Cerebral Hemorrhage and APOE genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun xiaojiang; Wu ping; Zhang jing; Lu shanqing; Li bing

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Current evidence Suggests that the apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε 4 allele predisposes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) whereas ε 2 is associated with CAA-zelated hemorrhage. In this study we examined potential clinical risk factors inpatients with cerebral hemorrhage and assessed these with respect to APOE genotype. Methoeds: 146 patinas with cerebral hemorrhage and 70 normal controls were investigated. APOE genotypes were determined with use of polymerase Chain reaction techniques.Results: The frequency of allele gene ( 0.180 ) and the percentage of the APOE ε 4 genotype in the cerebral hemorrhage group were Significantly higher as compared with the e 4 prequency ( O.O72 ) in the control group respectively ( p=O.O389 ) .Conelusious: APOE ε 4 :allele is a risk gene for cerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I. [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  14. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  15. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  16. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  17. Obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from cerebral venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare form of stroke in childhood. Increased intracranial pressure is a well-defined complication of cerebral venous thrombosis but obstructive hydrocephalus as a presentation finding of cerebral venous thrombosis is rarely described. A child case of cerebral sinus thrombosis presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and management of clinical condition is presented with discussion of reported cases and treatment recommendations.

  18. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  19. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  20. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  1. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ; EMINOVIKJ Fadilj N.; NIKIKJ Radmila M.; Gordana I. ACHIKJ; Sanela R. PACIKJ

    2015-01-01

    Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral pal...

  2. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.)

  3. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  4. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  5. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  6. Diagnostic Assessment of Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society have developed practice parameters for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP).

  7. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  8. Diagnostic Assessment of Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society have developed practice parameters for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP.

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging moda...

  10. Cerebral involvement in Whipple's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple's disease is a rare protean disease. Cerebral involvement occurs in ten percent of the cases. CCT findings in two patients with cerebral symptoms are presented. There was an unspecific atrophy in one patient. Patient two had hydrocephalus occlusus and a temporal lesion enhanced by contrast agent. A specific diagnosis on the sole basis of the CCT without additional clinical data does not seem possible. (orig.)

  11. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern seve...

  12. NEYROPSYCHOLOGICAL CONSECUENCES OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    ANA MARÍA NAVARRO MELENDRO; ANDREA PATRICIA RESTREPO IBIZA

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy is defined as a movement alteration result of a non progressive damage witch is permanent in anencephalon that has not acquired its final maturation. Patients that suffer cerebral palsy present learning disabilities,that varies between being completely normal to severe as a consequence of memory, gnosis, praxis, perceptive andlanguage impairments. Nevertheless the consequences of this disease are not always predictable. This paper pretendsto make a description of the cognitive ...

  13. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  15. Cerebral palsy: classification and etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bialik, Gad M.; Givon, Uri

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), a common condition of abnormalities in the brain, arises early in life. Since the term was first introduced in 1843, many authors have tried to define and classify CP. The most recent definition was released by the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) in 2005. This article summarizes the latest and familiar classifications of, and etiologies associated with CP.

  16. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O;

    1987-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 56 patients before and one to four times after uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy. The findings were related to the ratio between internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) mean pressures. Within the 1st...... ratio suggests a temporary impairment of autoregulation. Special care should be taken to avoid postoperative hypertension in such patients, who typically have preoperative hypoperfusion, to avoid the occurrence of cerebral edema or hemorrhage....

  17. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  18. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  19. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable for....... Using it even without knowing the exact level of CBF and CBV, it is possible to aim to keep CBF and CBV stable. Futureresearch should focus on development of monitoring tools, gaining more insight in neonatal cerebral autoregulation, and demonstrating clinical benefits of a 'cerebral perfusion...

  20. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cerebral Malaria (CM) is the most severe complication of malaria and a major cause of death. The mechanisms underlying human CM pathogenesis might be due to mechanical cause, as demonstrated by cytoadherence of parasitised erythrocytes pRB, or to excessive cytokine production by the host in response to Plasmodium falciparum, or a combination of the two together with neuronal injury by malaria toxins. Antibody response, genetic traits and other factors have been proposed to explain why only some episodes have life-threatening complications. The microvascular endothelial cell is a major target of inflammatory cytokines overproduced in infectious diseases. Fatal CM is associated with widespread induction of endothelial activation markers, with significant higher levels of ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expression on vessels in the brain. 199 patients were admitted at the hospital and were classified with malaria-based neurological disfunctions, such as acute psychosis, ataxia, hallucinations, fever and convulsions, prostration or coma. On a flow chart, 65 of those patients with the most acute syndromes mentioned above, were found to have negative BSN (blood slide), compared to 124 where the BSN showed to be positive. Identically to the 10 other patients from the severe form group, also presented positive BSN. The condition of some of these two subgroup patients (15), will later evolve into a more severe form with acute neurological disfunctions attributed to the cerebral malaria. The interesting aspect in regards to the 65 patients considered as having CM, upon severe manifestations of the disease, show no or little peripheral parasitemia. This fact confirms our experimental conclusion that, in the process of pRB adhesion to the microvessels of the brain, they are sequestered by monocytes and platelets, leading to vessel rupture. This fact could be an explanation of the lower % of circulating pRB and low peripheral parasitemia. There is a relationship between

  1. Effects of Hyperglycemia and Effects of Ketosis on Cerebral Perfusion, Cerebral Water Distribution, and Cerebral Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O’Donnell, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], ...

  2. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  3. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  4. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  5. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  6. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun ... Damage Treatments Click image to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a ...

  7. Cerebral abscess in the recently born

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual case of cerebral abscess in a newborn is reported. Emphasis is made in the paramount importance of its early diagnosis; mainly with imaging modalities like cerebral ultrasound and CT, in order to establisher the most appropriate therapy

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  9. Primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare the survival of the patients treated with radiotherapy alone vs. patients treated with a combined schedule of radio-chemotherapy. Our results will be compared with currently published data and main prognostic factors will be briefly discussed. Patients and methods: Between 1974 and 1990, 27 cases of primary cerebral lymphoma were diagnosed at our institution. All patients had biopsy-proven disease, the pathology of which was reviewed for this study. Results: The overall median survival time was 24 months and one-, two- and three-year overall survival was 59, 46 and 29% respectively. The median radiation dose was 46 Gy, ranging from 19.5 to 60 Gy. The median dose per fraction was 2 Gy (ranging from 1.61 to 3 Gy). The median elapsed treatment time was 32 days (ranging from three to 45 days). We were not able to demonstrate any statistically significant difference between patients who received radiotherapy alone (n = 14, median survival time = 24 months) and those who received a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 11, median survival time = 30 months), (p = 0.4). Prognostic factors of survival were tested using a univariate analysis (Wilcoxon test). Parameters such as mass appearance (unilobular, p = 0.048), performance status at the time of the diagnosis (0 to 1, p = 0.014), and CT imaging (hypodense, p = 0.043) influenced positively survival. Centroblastic histology (Kiel) was found associated with a negative prognosis (p = 0.043). (orig./MG)

  10. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe,Akiharu; Yamauchi,Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi,Toshihiro; Nagashima,Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  11. Cerebritis: an unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes, David C; Prabha, Ramesh D

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  12. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes1, David C.; Prabha1, Ramesh D.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an e...

  13. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes1, David C.; Prabha1, Ramesh D.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  14. Mechanisms of cerebral radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ability of exogenous succinate to prevent the postradiation violations in neuronal respiration and to correct the manifestations of cerebral radiation syndrome is studied. Rats-males were used for experiments. RUM-17 X-ray therapeutic apparatus was applied for irradiation at the dose rate of 25 Gy/min. It is established that the neurological violations in rats following X-ray exposure at 150 Gy dose depend on cerebral energy deficiency connected with NAD neuronal pool depletion. Efficiency is demonstrated of two approaches to the prevention of cerebral radiation syndrome providing: a) retroinhibition of adenosine diphosphoribosyltransferase, b) administration of NAD - independently oxidated bioenergetic substrate. It is marked that the application of sodium succinate may be of special interest in the cases when the dose for forthcoming irradiation is unknown

  15. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  17. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  18. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  19. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis

  20. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... The population analyzed was retrieved from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, which covers the eastern part of the country and has registered about half of the Danish population of individuals with CP since 1950. For this study we analyzed 2367 individuals with CP, who were born in 1930 to 2000 and...

  1. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  2. Vortex Dynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in phase space as fixed points undergo saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines. We illustrate how saddle-node bifurcations along vortex core lines also govern the formation and evolution of embedded vortices in cerebral aneurysms under variable inflow rates during the cardiac cycle.

  3. Radiosurgery for cerebral cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, G; Kemeny, A A

    2015-09-01

    The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of cerebral cavernomas (CCMs) remains controversial. However, during the last decade the increasing knowledge on natural history and numerous publications from SRS centers using modern treatment protocols has been changing the initial resistance of the neurosurgical community. Unfortunately, the quality of publications on CCM SRS remains heterogeneous. Controversies arise from the lack of control groups, the different definition of hemorrhage, heterogeneous patient populations, and poor definition of treatment protocols. The key for proper interpretation of results is the understanding of the natural history of CCMs, which is varied both according to anatomical location and the presence or absence of previous hemorrhage. Hemispheric lesions appear to be more benign with lower annual bleed rate and risk of persisting disability, whereas those found in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brainstem typically have higher rebleed risk resulting in higher cumulative morbidity following subsequent hemorrhages. However, we are still unable at presentation to predict the future behavior of an individual lesion. In the present paper we critically review and analyze the modern SRS literature on CCMs. The expanding number of available data with current treatment protocols strongly supports the initial intuition that SRS is an effective treatment alternative for deep-seated CCMs with multiple hemorrhages reducing pretreatment annual rebleed rates from 32% pre-treatment to 1.5% within 2 years after treatment (N.=197). Moreover, it appears to stabilize lesions with no more than one bleed, and it is also effective for CCMs causing therapy resistant epilepsy especially if applied within 3 years after presentation. In modern SRS series the rate of persisting adverse radiation effects is low, resulting only in mild morbidity even in deep-seated lesions (4.16%, N.=376), and morbidity caused by post-treatment hemorrhages is also

  4. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  5. Caffeine induced changes in cerebral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differences between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values

  6. Contraceptives and cerebral thrombosis: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis......Oral contraceptives; Cerebral thrombosis; Thrombotic stroke; Transitory cerebral ischemic attack; Thrombosis...

  7. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA

  8. Investigating cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). PMID:26749338

  9. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  10. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

  11. Cerebral Palsy and Neonatal Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The type and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and pattern of associated disability in children with or without preceding neonatal encephalopathy (NE) were compared in a population-based case-control study of patients followed for 6 years at the Children’s Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

  12. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Katoch Sabita; Devi Anjana; Kulkarni Prajakta

    2007-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP) patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  13. [Cerebral ischemia in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlit, P; Endemann, B; Vetter, P

    1991-08-01

    An overview is given over etiology and prognosis of cerebral ischemias until the age of 40. In a time period of 19 years, 168 patients were diagnosed with cerebral ischemia until the age of 40 (91 females, 77 males). The most frequent etiology is premature atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors (up to 50%). Cardiogenic embolism is responsible for 1 to 34% of the cases: cardiac valve diseases and endocarditis being the most frequent sources. In 2 to 19% a vasculitis is diagnosed. While infectious arteritis is especially frequent in countries of the third world, immunovasculitides are common in Europe and the USA. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include spontaneous or traumatic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and vascular malformations. A migrainous stroke is especially frequent in female smokers with intake of oral contraceptives. During pregnancy both sinus thrombosis and arterial ischemia occur. Hematologic causes for ischemia are polycythemia, thrombocytosis and genetic diseases (sickle cell anemia, AT3-deficiency). Cerebral ischemia may occur in connection with the ingestion of ergot-derivates. The prognosis of cerebral ischemia in young adults is better than in older stroke-patients. PMID:1937340

  14. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  16. [Should cerebral autoregulation be reassessed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Maintained cardiac output (CO) and cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) are of importance for a reduction in perioperative complications. Normovolaemia is defined as a central blood volume that does not limit CO for the supine patient and is maintained by individualized goal directed fluid therapy. Thereby...

  17. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  18. Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Povlsen, G K

    2011-01-01

    Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) carries high morbidity and mortality because of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and subsequent cerebral ischaemia. This is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in cerebral artery smooth muscles via the activation of...... intracellular signalling. In addition, delayed cerebral ischaemia after SAH is associated with inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This article reviews recent evidence concerning the roles of vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation, inflammation and BBB breakdown in delayed cerebral...... ischaemia after SAH. In addition, recent studies investigating the role of various intracellular signalling pathways in these processes and the possibilities of targeting signalling components in SAH treatment are discussed. Studies using a rat SAH model have demonstrated that cerebral arteries increase...

  19. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório neste tipo de paciente. CONTEÚDO: O artigo aborda aspectos da paralisia cerebral como etiologia, classificação, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, terapêuticas utilizadas bem como avaliação pré-operatória, medicação pré-anestésica, manuseio intra e pós-operatório, analgesia pós-operatória e dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O anestesiologista desempenha um papel importante na diminuição da morbidade e mortalidade anestésico-cirúrgica em pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral. O conhecimento da fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de paralisia cerebral bem como das doenças associadas e suas terapêuticas é imprescindível, pois permite ao anestesiologista antecipar e prevenir complicações intra e pós-operatórias neste tipo de paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La parálisis cerebral (PC es una enfermedad no progresiva consecuente de una lesión en el sistema nervioso central, llevando a un comprometimiento motor del paciente. El portador de PC, frecuentemente es sometido a procedimientos quirúrgicos debido a enfermedades usuales y situaciones particulares consecuentes de la parálisis cerebral. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar aspectos de la parálisis cerebral de interés para el anestesista, permitiendo un adecuado manoseo pre, intra y posoperatorio en este tipo de paciente. CONTENIDO: El artículo aborda aspectos de la parálisis cerebral como etiología, clasificación, factores de

  20. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered

  1. Cerebral aterial spasm. I. Adrenergic mechanism in experimental cerebral vasospasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morooka,Hiroshi

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that an adrenergic mechanism plays an important role in producing the delayed cerebral vasospasm which follows subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results were as follows: 1. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was produced by injection of fresh arterial blood into the cisterna magna in cats. The cerebral vasospasm was shown angiographically to be biphasic in nature: immediate constriction lasting 1 h and marked prolonged spasm occurring between the 3rd and 5th day after SAH. The amount of noradrenaline (NA and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH activity decreased over a period of 24 h both within the wall of the basilar artery and in the locus ceruleus and then gradually increased, reaching a maximum on the 3rd day after SAH. 2. Topical application of spasmogenic substances (NA and blood produced a marked constriction of the hypersensitive basilar artery on the 3rd day after SAH. 3. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the cisterna magna produced prolonged vasocilatation. The dilated vessel responded with mild transient constriction after the topical application of NA or fresh blood. DBH activity and NA concentration in the vessels, locus ceruleus and medial hypothalamus decreased markedly on the 3rd day after the cisternal injection of 6-OHDA. 4. Various spasmogenic substances (i.e. serotonin, NA, prostaglandins and methemoglobin were measured in a mixture of equal volume of CSF and blood in cats. ONly the serotonin in the mixed fluid produced vasoconstriction. Spasmogenic substances decreased markedly in the mixed fluid incubated for 3 days at 37 degrees C, and none of these substances apart from methemoglobin was present in a concentration sufficient to produce constriction of vessels. 5. These results suggest that early spasm is induced by serotonin around the arteries of the cranial base, and delayed spasm might be caused by hyperreaction of cerebral vessels to spasmogenic substances such as methemoglobin, during the

  2. What's new in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M H

    1953-11-01

    Among new researches bearing on cerebral palsy are the growth of brain cells in tissue cultures for experimentation; the use of polysaccharides to prevent the formation of a glial barrier to nerve growth after injury; observation of changes in reactions of neurons at various stages of development; the finding of hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in lesions of the frontal lobe and the thalamus; stimulation of cerebral blood flow by injection of sodium bicarbonate and retardation with ammonium chloride; and studies of serial sections of brains of palsied children who died. Study of development in the early months of life has made possible the detection of significant abnormalities in behavior early in life. Loss of hearing may be tested in very young children by measuring minute variations in electrical resistance of the skin upon auditory stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Conditions which have been described as having been confused with cerebral palsy are dislocation of a cervical vertebra, hereditary spastic paraplegia, transverse myelopathy, injury to the spinal cord or cauda equina by anomalous growths of the spine, and also encephalitis and meningitis. Sedation has proved a valuable adjunct to electroencephalographic study of cerebral palsy. Better criteria for abnormality in the young child should be determined and the application of them more clearly standardized. Simple exercises are useful for early training of palsied children to stimulate development. "Crossed laterality"-the dominant eye being contralateral to the preferred hand-has been counteracted by special training with great success in eliminating emotional and behavior problems and accelerating development.Recent studies indicate that only 50 per cent of cerebral palsy patients have normal or better intelligence. Subluxation of the hip joint, a common deformity associated with cerebral palsy, can sometimes be corrected by operation if detected at an early stage. Radical ablation of

  3. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  4. CEREBRAL PALSY. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANCE, BURTON, JR.; MCDONALD, EUGENE T.

    THIS INTRODUCTORY TEXT ON CEREBRAL PALSY IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS. THE FIRST SECTION OF THE BOOK CONTAINS INFORMATION ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF CEREBRAL PALSY, PROGRAMS FOR THOSE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, THE NEUROLOGICAL BASES, ETIOLOGY, AND DIAGNOSIS, AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL PALSY. PROBLEMS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH CEREBRAL PALSY…

  5. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  6. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  7. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.

  8. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  9. Clinical studies on cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemorrhagic infarction (HI) is termed as the infarction in which a large part of the necrotic tissue is stippled with small hemorrhage. The pathogenetic mechanism of this disease still remains controversial. Cerebral infarction has long been divided into two subtypes-thrombosis and embolism-according to the pathogenetic mechanisms. Clinical studies were carried out in 31 cases of HI with cerebral thrombosis. CT findings of these cases were classified into five groups according to both size of low density area which indicates regions of infarction and distribution of arterial supply. The low density area of Type I-Type III were observed in the area of the middle cerebral artery. That of Type IV was observed in the area of the internal capsule and basal ganglia. That of Type V was observed in the area of the posterior cerebral artery. CT reveals two patterns of HI -pattern A and pattern B-. The CT finding of pattern A is appearance of high density area in the low density area. The CT finding of pattern B is appearance of iso density area in the low density area. rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation technique in 21 patients with CT type I, II and III. Thereafter, with regard to the various findings in CT, the clinical findings and CBF findings, a comparative study was carried out on these ten groups. From the results of present studies, it is concluded that sequential changes of CBF in cases with pattern A are different from those with pattern B, and that CBF measurement does not permit an estimation of a patient's chance for functionary recovery after a stroke in acute and subacute stage but permits estimation of functional outcome in chronic stage. (J.P.N.)

  10. Cerebral palsy and neonatal encephalopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, G; Flavell, V; Johnson, A; Squier, M.; Sellers, S

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that children born at term with cerebral palsy with signs of neurological dysfunction preceded by depression at birth (termed neonatal encephalopathy) differ from those without such signs in the frequency of antenatal and perinatal factors, and in the severity and characteristics of their impairment and disability. The study was carried out in the area covered by Oxford Regional Health Authority. Antenatal, intrapartum, neona...

  11. Visual disorders in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Amita; Lamba P

    1988-01-01

    Seventy children with cere-bral palsy were examined for aetiological factors responsible, type of disorder and ocular abnormalities. The overall inci-dence of ocular abnormalities was 68.69%, the highest frequency being of squint (35.7%). Other anomalies detected inclu-ded refractive errors (28.5%), optic atrophy (10%) and coloboma (2.9%). Most children were spastic quadriplegics with asphyxia as the major aetiological factor. The study created an awareness ...

  12. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  13. Baclofen in Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhundian

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral baclofen in spastic cerebral palsy (cp), we studied 40 children with different clinical types of spastic cp. Half of these children served as control group and the others received oral baclofen. All of them were treated with physiotherapy under equal conditions for 6 weeks. We used two methods, modified Ashworth scale and range of motion for evaluation. At the end of therapy we found a significant improvement in the baclofen group compared to control group. As a...

  14. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Demeši-Drljan Čila; Mikov Aleksandra; Filipović Karmela; Tomašević-Todorović Snežana; Knežević Aleksandar; Krasnik Rastislava

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size w...

  15. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal ...

  16. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  17. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  18. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  19. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  20. Parental age, genetic mutation, and cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, N A; Foley, J

    1993-01-01

    Parental age and birth order were studied in 251 patients with cerebral palsy. No parental age or birth order effects were observed in spastic quadriplegia or diplegia, but a paternal age effect was detected in those with athetoid/dystonic cerebral palsy and congenital hemiplegia. These observations indicate that some cases of athetoid/dystonic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy might arise by fresh dominant genetic mutation.

  1. Cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, R W

    1990-01-01

    Eighty one very low birthweight survivors with cerebral palsy were matched with controls by sex, gestational age, and place of birth. Using discriminant analysis, the perinatal profiles for infants with cerebral palsy and their controls were shown to differ significantly. When infants with various types of cerebral palsy were analysed with their controls the discriminating variables differed. Diplegic infants could be differentiated from controls on antenatal variables alone, but significant ...

  2. Evaluation measures for children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sršen, Katja Groleger

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cerebral palsy is a well-recognized neurodevelopmental condition. The most recentdefinition describes cerebral palsy as a group of disorders of movement andposture, causing activity limitation. An important step in the process of(re)habilitation is evaluation of functional abilities of an individual. To beas accurate as possible in the evaluation of functioning, proper measurementinstruments have to be used. There are many different measurement tools forchildren with cerebral palsy,...

  3. Dental characteristics of children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Radoje; Jovičić Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is one of the commonest children's physical handicaps with frequency of 1.5-3/1000. Beside many other disturbances, these children may have serious disorders caused by dental diseases. Concerning this fact, the objective of our study was to examine children with cerebral palsy in our country and determine condition of dental health and suggest adequate protective measures. A total of 116 children, 3-18 years old, with cerebral palsy were examined and the results were compared t...

  4. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhundian

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy occurs in 15-60% of children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its clinical course is not well defined. This retrospective study reviews the prevalence, nature and prognosis of epilepsy in cerebral palsy. 53 of 133 children with cerebral palsy seen in the neuropediatric clinic in Mashhad emam Reza hospital between 1999 and 2001 had epilepsy. A control group of 70 epileptic children with normal neurodevelopment status was seen during the same period. Epilepsy most commonly affected p...

  5. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruck Isac; Antoniuk Sérgio Antônio; Spessatto Adriane; Bem Ricardo Schmitt de; Hausberger Romeu; Pacheco Carlos Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy in a tertiary center. METHODS: a total of 100 consecutive patients with cerebral palsy were retrospectively studied. Criteria for inclusion were follow-up period for at least 2 years. Types and incidence of epilepsy were correlated with the different forms of cerebral palsy. Other factors associated with epilepsy such as age of first seizure, neonatal seizures and family history of epilepsy w...

  6. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M;

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes in...... brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  7. Assessment of the hand in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Bhardwaj; S Raja Sabapathy

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the musculoskeletal manifestation of a nonprogressive central nervous system lesion that usually occurs due to a perinatal insult to the brain. Though the cerebral insult is static the musculoskeletal pathology is progressive. Some patients with cerebral palsy whose hands are affected can be made better by surgery. The surgical procedures as such are not very technically demanding but the assessment, decision-making, and selecting the procedures for the given patient make th...

  8. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  9. A study on the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria and cerebral babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Aikawa

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral complications are important, but poorly understood pathological features of infections caused by some species of Plasmodium and Babesia. Patients dying from P. falciparum were classified as cerebral or non-cerebral cases according to the cerebral malaria coma scale. Light microscopy revealed that cerebral microvessels of cerebral malaria patients were field with a mixture of parazited and unparazited erythrocytes, with 94% of the vessels showing parasitized red blood cell (PRBC sequestration. Some degree of PRBC sequestration was also found in non-cerebral malaria patients, but the percentage of microvessls with sequestered PRBC was only 13% Electron microscopy demonstrated knobs on the membrane of PRBC that formed focal junctions with the capillary endothelium. A number of host cell molecules such as CD36, thrombospondim (TSP and intracellular adhesion molecule I (ICAM-1 may function as endothelial cell surfacereports for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Affinity labeling of CD36 and TSP to the PRBC surface showed these molecules specifically bind to the knobs. Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes procedure projections of the erythrocyte membrane that are similar to knobs. When brain tissue from B. bovis-infected cattle was examined, cerebral capillaries were packed with PRBC. Infected erythrocytes formed focal attachments with cerebral endothelial cells at the site of these knob-like projections. These findings indicate that cerebral pathology caused by B. bovis is similar to human cerebral malaria. A search for cytoadherence proteins in the endothelial cells may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenisis of cerebral babesiosis.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-five patients with cerebral infarction were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative CT scans. MRI was more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral infarction, and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) pulse sequence was most sensitive for detecting cerebral infarction except for some subcortical infarction. The size of infarcted areas on MRI was larger than that on CT in 29 of 51 infarcted areas, equal in 22. The pulse sequence using long repetition time (TR) and double echo delay time (TE), such as SE (2000/30, 90), improved the detectability of cerebral infarction. (author)

  11. Acute cerebral vascular accident associated with hyperperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral radionuclide angiography can demonstrate decreased or normal radioactivity in the affected region during the arterial phase in patients who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident and thus enhances the diagnostic specificity of the static brain image. In an occasional patient, however, a seemingly paradoxical pattern of regional hyperperfusion with a return to normal or subnormal perfusion following the acute phase has been observed. This phenomenon, called luxury perfusion, has been defined using intra-arterial 133Xe for semiquantitative cerebral blood flow measurements and should be kept in mind as a potentially misleading cerebral imaging pattern

  12. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Mainak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven.

  13. Ipsilateral Cerebral and Contralateral Cerebellar Hyperperfusion in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Infarction; SPM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortical reorganization has an important role in the recovery of stroke. We analyzed the compensatory cerebral and cerebellar perfusion change in patients with unilateral cerebral infarction using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Fifty seven 99mTc-Ethylene Cystein Diethylester (ECD) cerebral perfusion SPECT images of 57 patients (male/female=38/19, mean age=56±17 years) with unilateral cerebral infarction were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the location (left, right) and the onset (acute, chronic) of infarction. Each subgroup was compared with normal controls (male/female=11/1, mean age =36±10 years) in a voxel-by-voxel manner (two sample t-test, p99mTc-ECD SPECT, we observed ipsilateral cerebral and contralateral cerebeller hyperperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction. However, whether these findings are related to the recovery of cerebral functions should be further evaluated

  14. Clinicopathological features of cerebral lipoastrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang WEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinicopathological features, immune phenotype, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral lipoastrocytoma. Methods Retrospective analysis of the clinical manifestations, histopathological and immunohistochemical features were conducted in one case of cerebral lipoastrocytoma. Results A 48-year-old male presented with numbness and inflexibility of the fourth and little fingers of his left hand over the previous 2 weeks. Cranial MRI revealed a space-occupying lesion with cystic degeneration in the right parietal lobe that showed obvious enhancement after contrast administration. The patient subsequently underwent craniotomy with stereotactic gross total excision of the lesion. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were not administered. Histologically the tumor showed classical features of low-grade astrocytoma, including a few scattered medium-large neuron-like cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Most notably, the glial cells contained fat droplets or vacuoles giving an appearance of mature adipocytes. Focally microcystic change was evident resulting from adipocyte-like cells fusion with each other. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S-100 protein (S-100, focally positive for WT-1, weakly positive for oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Olig-2, and negative for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1. Meanwhile, the tumor cells also expressed several neuronal markers including synaptophysin (Syn, microtube-associated protein-2 (MAP-2, neurofilament (NF, neuron specific enolase (NSE and CD34. P53 protein was weakly expressed in 5% of tumor cells. Ki-67 labeling index was low (1% . The patient remained well without recurrence 20 months after surgery. Conclusions Cerebral lipoastrocytoma is an extremely rare tumor. Histologically, the tumor showed classical features of low-grade astrocytoma and extensive

  15. MRI of sickle cell cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients with sickle cell disease and neurological symptoms underwent MRI examination. Cerebral infarcts of two types were found, those in the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery and those in the deep white matter. In the patient whose hydration and whose oxygenation of erythrocytes has been treated, MRI offers diagnostic advantages over arteriography and CT. (orig.)

  16. Mobility Experiences of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…

  17. Ataxic cerebral palsy and genetic predisposition.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G.

    1988-01-01

    It was calculated that in the 962 family members of 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy there were 75 (8%) with a history of neurodevelopmental disorder and 31 (3%) with a major congenital malformation. This was not significantly greater than expected, and does not support the hypothesis of a genetic non-Mendelian role in the aetiology of ataxic cerebral palsy.

  18. Fatal cerebral oedema in adult diabetic ketoacidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringhuizen, A.; Tjan, D.H.; Grool, A.; Vugt, R. van; Zante, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    In this report, a case of adult onset fatal cerebral oedema as a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is described and confirmed at post-mortem pathological examination. The pathogenesis of cerebral oedema due to DKA is still unknown. Potential mechanisms include the administration of so

  19. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T;

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA...

  20. Assistive technology for people with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Anton; Jenko, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Assistive technology includes equipment, devicesand software solutions that increase functional capabilities of people withdisabilities and improve the quality of their lives. The article presentsassistive technology for people with cerebral palsy. These are mobility aidsthat enable people with cerebral palsy independent walking. For those whocannot walk, proper seating is very important. People, who cannot propel manualwheelchair, can control electric wheelchair with various contro...

  1. Mechanical Impedance of Cerebral Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hédi Ben Ghozlen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tentative variation of the mechanical impedance, of a cylindrical sample of cerebral material, has been achieved by Vibrometer Laser according to the frequency. The studied matter is supposed homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. A multilayered mechanical model has been associated to the studied sample to simulate its vibration. The theoretical expression of mechanical impedance has been determined while taking the mechanical/electric analogy as a basis. A good adjustment of theoretical model parameters permitted us to have a good agreement theory/experience of the mechanical impedance variation according to the sample vibration frequency.

  2. Cerebral blood-flow tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L; Holm, S;

    1983-01-01

    Tomographic maps of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained with xenon-133 and with isopropyl-amphetamine-iodine-123 (IMP) in 11 subjects: one normal, two tumor cases, and eight cerebrovascular cases. A highly sensitive four-face, rapidly rotating, single-photon emission tomograph was used...... sampling, and with low radiation exposure to patient and personnel. On the other hand, IMP gives an image of slightly higher resolution. It also introduces a new class of iodinated brain-seeking compounds allowing, perhaps, imaging of other functions more important than mere blood flow....

  3. ECG changes during cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Itoh, K.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, J.; Nakamura, K.; Imai, M.; Ono, T.; Morikawa, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have analyzed HR changes greater than 20% among 334 patients and 942 cerebral angiographies. A tachycardial effect was seen in 14.9% of patients, while a bradycardial effect was seen in 7.1% including two patients having cardiac standstill (0.5%). These two patients were examined without atropine premedication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients under 19 years of age, unpremedicated with atropine sulfate and suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation showed a significantly high incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, patients with the neoplastic disease and having an initial sinus bradycardia showed a significantly high incidence of a tachycardial effect.

  4. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases.

  5. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  7. [Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, T M; Baljozović, B V; Rakić, M Lj; Nestorović, B D; Dostanić, M M; Milaković, B D; Kojić, Z Z; Repac, N R; Cvrkota, I S

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm causes permanent neurolological deficit or death occurance in 13% of clinical cases. Peak frequency is from 8-10th day after SAH. The purpose of this study is factor analysis that may have influence on vasospasm development , as well as predictor determination. The study is prospective and analysis 192 patients treated in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The majority of patients were admitted in hospital in first four days after SAH, and 184 had GCS over 7. Univariate methods of factor analysis were used, and for significance of predictors influence testing multivariante regression analysis was used. Vasospasm occurred in 22,40% of all cases. No relationships have been found between sex, age, previous hypertension, timing of surgery, appearance of hydrocephalus and intracerebral hematoma, hypertermia or mean arterial blood pressure, with occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Factors with significantly associated with the occurance of vasospasm were: hearth disease, hypernatriemia, Hct, clinical grade on admission as well as preoperative clinical grade and Fisher CT scan grade. In the first four days after SAH, Fisher scan grade, preoperative clinical grade and Hct, appeared as predictors. After four days, clinical grade on admission and hypernatiemia, showed as poredictors. PMID:18792575

  8. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  9. MRI of acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in sixteen patients with acute cerebral infarction are studied in comparison with the findings of computed tomography (CT). The sixteen patients were examined within 36 hours from the onset of syptoms on resistive type MRI (0.15T) using T1 weighted image (IR2000/500) and T2 weighted image (SE2000/80), and on CT. In general, large infarcted lesions of the cortexsubcortex seemed to be visualized earlier than small lesions of the basal ganglia and brainstem. In 8 patients, the infarcted lesions were detected on MRI earlier than on CT. For example, early detecting time within 12 hours were 2, 6, 7, and 10 hours after onset. In two patients of this group, lesions were detected on T2 weighted image earlier than on T1-weighted image. In two cases, small lesions of the brainstem were detected only on MRI. The size of abnormal findings gradually developed and reached a maximum on days 5 to 7 sequentially. The difference between infarction and perifocal edema was not clear even on MRI. The changes gradually subsided and assumed a stable size after about 2 months. Contrast enhancement effect was observed in four patients. In two of these cases, the signal intensity of T2-weighted imaging was decreased just at the region which was enhanced with contrast medium. MRI is useful for early diagnosis of ischemic cerebral infarction, and may eludidate some aspects of the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. (author)

  10. Caring for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormans, John P., Ed.; Pellegrino, Louis, Ed.

    Twenty-one papers on caring for children with cerebral palsy are organized into four sections, including: (1) cerebral palsy and the interdisciplinary team approach; (2) management of impairments related to cerebral palsy; (3) preventing disability by optimizing function of the child with cerebral palsy; and (4) preventing handicap by creating…

  11. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  12. Validation of a cerebral palsy register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Monica Wedell; Langhoff-Roos, J; Uldall, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse completeness and validity of data in the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982. METHODS: Completeness has been assessed by comparing data from The Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) with the cases included in the Cerebral Palsy Register (CPR). Agreement between...... gestational age was subject to a systematic error, and urinary infections in pregnancy (kappa = 0.43) and placental abruption (kappa = 0.52) were seriously under-reported in the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: Completeness of the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982, has been assessed to maximal 85%, emphasizing...

  13. EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pour Ahmadi; M. Jafarzadeh; Abbas, M; J Akhondian

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveEpilepsy occurs in 12 % to 90 % of children with cerebral palsy (CP). However its clinical course is not well defined. This investigation was undertaken to study and determine the characteristics and prevalence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy.Materials & MethodsOf 133 children with cerebral palsy, seen between 1998 and 2001, in the pediatric neurology clinic of the Imam Reza hospital, fifty-three had epilepsy.During the same period, a group of 70 epileptic children with n...

  14. Human cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the literature on human cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), with respect to normal values and of regulation of cerebral circulation. A multicenter study in Japan showed that between-center variations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) values were not considerably larger than the corresponding within-center variations. Overall mean±SD values in cerebral cortical regions of normal human subjects were as follows: CBF=44.4±6.5 ml/100 ml/min; CBV=3.8±0.7 ml/100 ml; OEF=0.44±0.06; CMRO2=3.3±0.5 ml/100 ml/min (11 PET centers, 70 subjects). Intrinsic regulation of cerebral circulation involves several factors. Autoregulation maintains CBF in response to changes in cerebral perfusion pressure; chemical factors such as PaCO2 affect cerebral vascular tone and alter CBF; changes in neural activity cause changes in cerebral energy metabolism and CBF; neurogenic control of CBF occurs by sympathetic innervation. Regional differences in vascular response to changes in PaCO2 have been reported, indicating regional differences in cerebral vascular tone. Relations between CBF and CBV during changes in PaCO2 and during changes in neural activity were in good agreement with Poiseuille's law. The mechanisms of vascular response to neural activation and deactivation were independent on those of responses to PaCO2 changes. CBV in a brain region is the sum of three components: arterial, capillary and venous blood volumes. It has been reported that the arterial blood volume fraction is approximately 30% in humans and that changes in human CBV during changes in PaCO2 are caused by changes in arterial blood volume without changes in venous blood volume. These findings should be considered in future studies of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (author) 136 refs

  15. The serpentine mitral valve and cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker James

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valvular strands, well-delineated filiform masses, attached to cardiac valve edges are associated with cerebral embolism and stroke. Strokes, caused by emboli from valvular strands, tend to occur among younger persons. In this case report a valvular strand, giving a peculiar serpentine appearance to the mitral valve is described. This mitral valvular strand was the only explanation for an episode of cerebral embolism, presenting with a transient right sided hemiparesis. It is proposed that a randomized study involving combined treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is warranted in young patients with valvular strands, presenting with a first episode of cerebral embolism.

  16. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Rosenbloom, I; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000 live births. There was no discernible trend in overall prevalence, but there was a highly significant upward trend in the prevalence of cerebral palsy amo...

  17. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni;

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d......CA) post-CPB and changes in neurocognitive function in patients that had undergone CABG. Materials and Methods We assessed dCA by transfer function analysis of spontaneous oscillations between arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound...

  18. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Boots Rob; Barnett Adrian G; Timms Daniel; Dunster Kimble; Geng Shureng; Bellapart Judith; Fraser John F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and in...

  19. Cerebral Metabolic Alterations in Rats With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Nicole; Yuen, Natalie; Anderson, Steven E; Tancredi, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Recent data suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion and activation of cerebral ion transporters may be involved, but data describing cerebral metabolic alterations during DKA are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated 50 juvenile rats with DKA and 21 normal control rats using proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS measured cerebral intracellular pH and ratio...

  20. Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemia, trauma, tumors, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. The formation of cerebral edema results in an increase in tissue water content and brain swelling which, if unchecked, can lead to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), reduced cerebral blood flow, and ultimately cerebral herniation and death. Despite the clinical significance of cerebral edema, the mechan...

  1. Clinical significance of determination of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY levels (with RIA) and serum lipid profile (with biochemistry) were determined in (1) 48 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (2) 46 patients with acute cerebral infarction and (3) controls.Results Plasma NPY levels in both patients with cerebral hemorrhage and patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P0.05). Conclusion: NPY played important roles in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral vascular accidents. Lipid profile changes was the basic etiological factor. (authors)

  2. Cerebral hemodynamics in aging : the interplay between blood pressure, cerebral perfusion, and dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in measurement techniques have made it possible to study dynamic changes in brain blood flow. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures changes in cerebral blood flow-velocity in the larger cerebral arteries (e.g. the middle cerebral artery). Near infrared spectroscopy records changes in brain cortical tissue concentrations of hemoglobin. These techniques are non-invasive, and can be performed with the subject in supine, sitting or standing position. Together with photoplethysmog...

  3. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy Epilepsia em crianças com paralisia cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Bruck; Sérgio Antônio Antoniuk; Adriane Spessatto; Ricardo Schmitt de Bem; Romeu Hausberger; Carlos Gustavo Pacheco

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy in a tertiary center. METHODS: a total of 100 consecutive patients with cerebral palsy were retrospectively studied. Criteria for inclusion were follow-up period for at least 2 years. Types and incidence of epilepsy were correlated with the different forms of cerebral palsy. Other factors associated with epilepsy such as age of first seizure, neonatal seizures and family history of epilepsy w...

  4. Malignant cerebral swelling following cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybul, S; Damodaran, O; Lind, C R P; Lee, G

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years there have been a number of case reports and small cohort studies that have described so called "malignant" cerebral swelling following an uneventful cranioplasty procedure. The pathophysiology remains to be established however it has been suggested that it may be related to a combination of failure of autoregulation and the use of closed vacuum suction drainage. The current study presents three further patients who had had a decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke. If decompressive craniectomy is utilised in the management of neurological emergencies, close attention and wider reporting of this type of complication is required not only to focus attention on possible management strategies, but also to determine which patients are at most risk of this devastating complication. PMID:27189792

  5. Endovascular therapy of cerebral AVMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the results of completed endovascular treatment on all patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 1985 and 1989, 125 patients with AVMs completed endovascular treatment. Treatment decisions were made by means of multidisciplinary consultation (neuroradiology, neurosurgery, neurology, and radiation therapy) depending on the presentation, location, size, and angioarchitecture of the lesion (hemorrhage in 87 patients, seizures in seven, headaches in nine, and progressive neurologic deficit in 22). Superselective catheterization of feeding pedicles to the AVM nidus was performed with either microcatheters delivered by a propulsion chamber or variable-stiffness catheters. Tiny quantities (0.08--0.15 mL) or varying dilutions of NBCA Pantopaque were injected by means of a sandwich technique, drop by drop

  6. Computed tomography of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy patients who had suffered from severe damages in the brain in their early lives were examined using a CT scanner, DELTA-25. The results are summerized as follows: 1. CT findings of the brain were classified into four groups; (1) low density in 11 cases, (2) atrophy in 23, (3) hydrocephalus in 12, and (4) no findings in 24. 2. The low density in the CT finding was assumed as cystic degeneration due to circulatory disturbance in the cerebral hemispheres in their early developmental stages. 3. The ''acerebrate'' state denotes no or little development in mental and motor functions which is attributed to a severe damage in the developing brain. According to the CT findings, the ''acerebrate'' state was resulted from extensive destruction in the greater part of both hemispheres. (author)

  7. Cerebral astroblastoma: A radiopathological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astroblastoma is a rare glial neoplasm whose histogenesis has been clarified recently. It primarily occurs in children and young adults. We are reporting a case of 12-year-old girl child who presented with features of raised intracranial tension and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large well-circumscribed, cystic lesion without perifocal edema, and enhancing mural nodule in right parietal region. A radiological differential diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma and cerebral astroblastoma was made. A complete excision was done and histologically the lesion turned out to be an astroblastoma. We review the histology, immunohistochemistry, and imaging features of astroblastoma and survey the current literature, treatment strategies, and prognostic aspects for the management of this rare neoplasm.

  8. A case of cerebral cryptococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 66-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with chief complaint of vertigo, gait disturbance and dysarthria. These symptoms started about one year before admission and worsened. Vomiting and urinary incontinence appeared. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria. In plain CT (computerized tomography) irregular ill-defined low density area was noted in the cerebellar vermis and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. And slight ventricular dilatation was found. Irregular shape of ring-like enhancement corresponding to capsule and patchy or mottled enhancement inside the tumor were seen. Suboccipital craniectomy was performed and yellowish necrotic tumor with hard capsule was removed. Histological diagnosis was not neoplasm or tuberculoma. Postoperatively liver function progressively worsened. She died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Autopsy revealed typical liver cirrhosis without malignant change. 3.0 x 2.5 cm sized, slightly hard, yellowish lesion was found on upper part of cerebellar hemispheres. This had extremely necrotic tissue and a great number of cryptococcus neoformans were found. And other intracranial lesion was not confirmed. Finding of pulmonary cryptococcosis was not gained. Our case is very rare because of solitary cerebellar abscess and absence of meningitic episode or pulmonary cryptococcosis. There are three types of inflammation in cerebral cryptococcosis. The commonest manifestation is the meningitic type, the second mode is granulomatous lesion and the third and the least presentation is intracranial abscess formatior. CT reveals various finidngs according to clinical stage. CT findings are those of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, granuloma and abscess. Cryptococcal granuloma or abscess often simulates brain abscess, glioma and metastatic brain tumor. We discussed CT findings of cerebral cryptococcosis and examined the CT number of our case. (J.P.N.)

  9. Effect of prostaglandin E1 on cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 10 patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single photon emission computed tomography before and after they received PGE1 120 μg daily for 2 weeks. The rCBF of the brainstem, cerebellum, and frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes increased significantly after PGE1 administration. PGE1 also significantly increased the rCBF of the non-infarcted area adjacent to infarction. The results indicate that PGE1 increases the CBF of patients with chronic cerebral infarction without causing the intracerebral steal phenomenon. (author)

  10. CT classification and clinical prognosis of cerebral infarction in the area of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomographies (CT) were repeatedly scanned on 70 patients with cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery. Low density area (LDA) was measured with HounFsfield's Unit (HU) and studied on the progressive changes. Classification of LDA was attempted and studied on correlation with mass effect, contrast enhancement, angiographical findings, clinical symptoms and prognosis. It was considered that important points of diagnosis of cerebral infarction were timing of examination of CT and determination of LDA with HUF. It was also thought that CT classification of LDA was usefull to estimate prognosis of the patients with cerebral infarction. (author)

  11. Ipsilateral Cerebral and Contralateral Cerebellar Hyperperfusion in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Infarction; SPM Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Pyo; Yoon, Joon Kee; Choi, Bong Hoi; Joo, In Soo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Cortical reorganization has an important role in the recovery of stroke. We analyzed the compensatory cerebral and cerebellar perfusion change in patients with unilateral cerebral infarction using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Fifty seven {sup 99m}Tc-Ethylene Cystein Diethylester (ECD) cerebral perfusion SPECT images of 57 patients (male/female=38/19, mean age=56{+-}17 years) with unilateral cerebral infarction were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the location (left, right) and the onset (acute, chronic) of infarction. Each subgroup was compared with normal controls (male/female=11/1, mean age =36{+-}10 years) in a voxel-by-voxel manner (two sample t-test, p<0.001) using SPM. All 4 subgroups showed hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, but not in the contralateral cerebral cortex. Chronic left and right infarction groups revealed hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex, meanwhile, acute subgroups did not. Contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was also demonstrated in the chronic left infarction group. Using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT, we observed ipsilateral cerebral and contralateral cerebeller hyperperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction. However, whether these findings are related to the recovery of cerebral functions should be further evaluated.

  12. Effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoli Xia; Baoling Sun; Mingfeng Yang; Dongmei Hu; Tong Zhao; Jingzhong Niu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that although brain does not contain lining endothelial lymphatic vessel,it has lymphatic drain.Anterior lymphatic vessel in brain tissue plays a key role in introducing brain interstitial fluid to lymphatic system;however,the significance of lymphatic drain and the affect on cerebral edema remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Institute of Cerebral Microcirulation of Taishan Medical College and Department of Neurology of Affiliated Hospital.MATERIALS:A total of 63 healthy adult male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were selected in this study.Forty-seven rats were used for the morphological observation induced by lymphatic drain and randomly divided into three groups:general observation group(n=12),light microscopic observation group(n=21)and electronic microscopic observation group(n=14).The rats in each group were divided into cerebral lymphatic block subgroup and sham-operation control subgroup.Sixteen rats were divided into cerebral the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cortical evoked potential,in which the animals were randomly divided into sham-operation group(n=6)and cerebral lymphatic block group(n=10).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Institute of Cerebral Microcirculation of Taishan Medical College from January to August 2003.Rats in cerebral lymphatic block group were anesthetized and separated bilateral superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes under sterile condition. Superior and inferior boarders of lymph nodes were ligated the inputting and outputting channels, respectively, and then lymph node was removed so as to establish cerebral lymphatic drain disorder models. Rats in sham-operation control group were not ligated the lymphatic vessel and removed lymph nodes.and other operations were as the same as those in cerebral lymphatic block group

  13. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in cerebral infarction of middle cerebral artery territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen metabolism (rCMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) and blood volume (rCBV) were measured with a high performance positron CT (HEADTOME-III) and the 15O labeled gas steady-state method. Seven normal volunteers and 13 patients with ischemic infarction located in the territory of unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) were subjected to the positron CT measurement. In the present study, over estimation of rOEF and rCMRO2 were corrected by rCBV using the principle described by Lammertsma and Jones. From these paremeters we also calculated an rCBV/rCBF which meant regional blood transient time of cerebral vessels (rTT). Early ischemic lesions showed two types of uncoupling between rCBF and rCMRO2. Patients studied within the 5th day of the onset showed high rOEF with low rCBF in the infarcted forcus (misery perfusion). About a week after onset rOEF was changed into low level with decreased rCMRO2 and recovered rCBF, and the change lasted to a month after onset recovered rCBF, and the change lasted to a month after onset (luxury perfusion). Then, about two months later, the lesions gradually went to matched change of rCBF and rCMRO2 (coupled perfusion). These changes of rCBF and rCMRO2 described above will reveal the natural course of ischemic brain tissue with acute onset. It was also proved that there was positive correlation between rTT and rOEF. A parameter of rTT will be important to presume rOEF from a single photon emission CT measurement, which has not been able to study oxygen metabolism but could measure rCBF and rCBV. The threshold levels of rCBF and rCMRO2 for morphological tissue damages assessed as a low density area on a X-ray CT were clinically estimated from the present study. The thresholds evaluated in patients within a day of onset, were 12 ml/100 ml/min, and 1.5 ml/ 100 ml/min for rCBF and rCMRO2, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  14. Intra Cerebral Hemorrhage Following Scorpion Sting

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur P C; Trikha Sushma; Kohli Ritesh

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system manifestations following scorpion sting have been infrequently reported in literature. To emphasise the fact that this form of clinical presentation is not unusual we are reporting a case of scorpion sting associated with intra cerebral hemorrhage.

  15. Scorpion bite and multiple cerebral infarcts.

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker A; Lal R; Misra M

    2002-01-01

    Multiple cerebral infarcts, bilateral optic neuropathy with limb ischemia, following scorpion bite is documented. Vasospasm and autonomic storm due to envenomation is a plausible explanation for this symptom complex.

  16. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a comprehensive update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ali; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-09-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without neurologic symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. RCVS affects patients in various racial and ethnic groups and in all age groups, although most commonly in the fourth decade of life. Many conditions and exposures have been linked to RCVS, including vasoactive drugs and the peripartum period. Disturbance of the cerebral vascular tone is thought to contribute to the disease's pathophysiology. RCVS generally follows a monophasic course. Associated strokes and cerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon. In this review we will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of RCVS, with emphasis on the controversies in the field and the newest findings in the reported literature. PMID:25138149

  17. Cerebral Ischemic Events with Sickle Cell Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital and several additional centers in the US and UK studied the incidence of acute silent cerebral ischemic events (ASCIEs) in MRIs of children with asymptomatic sickle cell anemia (SCA).

  18. Increased Prevalence of Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) in European children born 1976-1996 were analyzed in a multicenter study in Goteborg, Sweden; Cork, Ireland; Tubingen, Germany; and Grenoble, France.

  19. Spastic Diplegic and Tetraplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Risk factors of cerebral palsy (CP), seizures, CP severity, EEG, and MRI findings were compared in 38 children with spastic diplegic (DCP) and 48 with spastic tetraplegic (TCP), in a report from Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.

  20. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  1. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency The prevalence of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unknown. The Dutch type is the most common, with over 200 ...

  3. Cerebral Microcirculation during Experimental Normovolaemic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellapart, Judith; Cuthbertson, Kylie; Dunster, Kimble; Diab, Sara; Platts, David G.; Raffel, O. Christopher; Gabrielian, Levon; Barnett, Adrian; Paratz, Jenifer; Boots, Rob; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is accepted among critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anemia. Experimental studies suggest that anemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise, when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion among critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure, and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anemia does not result in short-term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain. PMID:26869986

  4. Wearable wireless cerebral oximeter (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral oximeters measure continuous cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology noninvasively. It has been involved into operating room setting to monitor oxygenation within patient's brain when surgeons are concerned that a patient's levels might drop. Recently, cerebral oxygen saturation has also been related with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency (CCVI). Patients with CCVI would be benefited if there would be a wearable system to measure their cerebral oxygen saturation in need. However, there has yet to be a wearable wireless cerebral oximeter to measure the saturation in 24 hours. So we proposed to develop the wearable wireless cerebral oximeter. The mechanism of the system follows the NIRS technology. Emitted light at wavelengths of 740nm and 860nm are sent from the light source penetrating the skull and cerebrum, and the light detector(s) receives the light not absorbed during the light pathway through the skull and cerebrum. The amount of oxygen absorbed within the brain is the difference between the amount of light sent out and received by the probe, which can be used to calculate the percentage of oxygen saturation. In the system, it has one source and four detectors. The source, located in the middle of forehead, can emit two near infrared light, 740nm and 860nm. Two detectors are arranged in one side in 2 centimeters and 3 centimeters from the source. Their measurements are used to calculate the saturation in the cerebral cortex. The system has included the rechargeable lithium battery and Bluetooth smart wireless micro-computer unit.

  5. Pathophysiology of dysarthria in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Neilson, P D; O'Dwyer, N J

    1981-01-01

    Electromyograms were recorded with hooked-wire electrodes from sixteen lip, tongue and jaw muscles in six normal and seven cerebral palsied adult subjects during a variety of speech and non-speech tasks. The recorded patterns of muscle activity fail to support a number of theories concerning the pathophysiology of dysarthria in cerebral palsy. There was no indication of weakness in individual articulator muscles. There was no evidence of uncontrolled sustained background activity or of abnorm...

  6. The changing epidemiology of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Platt, M J; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of cerebral palsy in a specific population. METHODS: Multiple sources of ascertainment were used to create and maintain a register of all cases of cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire in the years 1966 to 1989. Denominator data of infant births and deaths from 1966 to 1981 were obtained from statutory notifications made to health authorities and, for the period 1982-89, from statutory birth and death registrations....

  7. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa, Jesús; Casteleiro, Nerea; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Reimunde, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal ...

  8. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebral Abscess Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Barrueta Reyes; Néstor Pulido Ríos

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebral Abscess Treatment. It has been defined as a festering process caused by any germ and placed inside the cerebral parenchyma; this is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for surgeons and general doctors since the clinical and radiological manifestations are often imprecise. This document describes its etiological agents, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accom...

  9. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebral Abscess Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Barrueta Reyes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebral Abscess Treatment. It has been defined as a festering process caused by any germ and placed inside the cerebral parenchyma; this is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for surgeons and general doctors since the clinical and radiological manifestations are often imprecise. This document describes its etiological agents, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  10. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C1 AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Crossed cerebral - cerebellar diaschisis : MRI evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available MRI, done later in life, in two patients with infantile hemiplegia syndrome showed significant volume loss in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the side of the affected cerebrum. The cerebellar volume loss seemed to correlate with the degree of volume loss in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. These observations provide morphological evidence of the phenomenon of crossed cerebral-cerebellar diaschisis (CCD. Functional neuroimaging studies in support of the concept of CCD has been critically reviewed.

  12. Applications of cerebral MRI in neonatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) has become the most important method in the workup of infantile cerebral complications after primary sonography. Cerebral MR examination and image interpretation during the infantile period require extensive knowledge of morphological manifestations, their pathophysiological background, and frequency. The choice of imaging parameters and image interpretation is demonstrated in infarctions and hemorrhages of the mature and immature brain. A review of the main differential diagnoses is also given. The relevance of MR spectroscopy and fetal MRI is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Joubert syndrome labeled as hypotonic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dekair, Lubna H.; Kamel, Hussein; El-Bashir, Haitham O.

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and complex brainstem malformation. The diagnosis of cases can be difficult as the presentation can be similar to cases of cerebral palsy. We present a case of JS in an 18-month-old girl who presented to pediatric rehabilitation with a diagnosis of hypotonic cerebral palsy and abnormal eye movements. The brain MRI confirmed the typical brain malformations.

  14. Tongue mobility in patients with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Zorica; Golubović Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. In children with cerebral palsy speech is a big problem. Speech of these children is more or less understandable, depending on the degree of reduced mobility of articulatory organs. Reduced mobility is affected by inability to control facial grimacing and poor muscle strength when performing targeted movements. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility of tongue in patients with cerebral palsy. Methods. The study included a sample of 34 children - patients with...

  15. Ocular problems in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Ayhan Tuzcu; Fatmagül Başarslan; Cahide Yılmaz; Seçil Arıca; Nilgün Üstün; Özgür İlhan; Mesut Coşkun; Uğurcan Keskin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate eye problemsin children with cerebral palsy in our region.Materials and Methods: 90 patients which was diagnosedas cerebral palsy, treated and followed up in PediatricNeurology Department of Mustafa Kemal University,were included to this study. The history was taken, anda physical examination was performed to determine theetiology of the disease and type of SP. All of the patientswere underwent a detailed ophthalmological examinationincluding visual acuity...

  16. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  17. Temperament of premature infants with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyo Jeong; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the infant temperaments of children with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected through questionnaires sent to 118 mothers of infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Results] Different infant temperament scores were obtained according to the degrees of disability, type of palsy, birth weights, gestational age, and periods of hospitalization in an NICU; however, the differences ...

  18. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction

  19. Ocular problems in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ayhan Tuzcu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate eye problemsin children with cerebral palsy in our region.Materials and Methods: 90 patients which was diagnosedas cerebral palsy, treated and followed up in PediatricNeurology Department of Mustafa Kemal University,were included to this study. The history was taken, anda physical examination was performed to determine theetiology of the disease and type of SP. All of the patientswere underwent a detailed ophthalmological examinationincluding visual acuity, refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus,nystagmus and fundus examination.Results: Totally 90 patients, 51 male and 39 female,were included to the study. When the etiologic factorswere evaluated, the asphyxia was seen in 33.3% of thepatients. The most common type of cerebral palsy wasspastic quadriplegia at the rate of 43.3%. Eye problemswere detected in 60% of our cases. Of this, 54.4% wererefractive errors, 35.6% were strabismus, and 22.2%were optic nerve pathologies. Amblyopia was found in11.1% of cases. Although strabismus is more common inspastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy, there was no statisticallysignificant differenceConclusions: In conclusion, eye problems are commonin children with cerebral palsy. Therefore, we recommendroutine eye examination in these patients due to be beneficialin reducing the detection and communication difficulties.Key words: Cerebral palsy, refractive error, strabismus,optic atrophy

  20. [Platelets, atherothrombosis, antiplatelet drugs and cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2013-02-01

    Platelets play a much more important role in myocardial ischemia than in cerebral ischemia, because atherothrombosis - the underlying cause of the vast majority of myocardial infarcts - is responsible for only 25-30% of cerebral infarcts. Aspirin is the only effective antiplatelet drug for primary prevention of ischemic events, especially those affecting the heart. For secondary prevention of cerebral infarction, clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin with extended-release dipyridamole are both marginally better than aspirin alone, but aspirin remains the gold standard worldwide because of its remarkable cost/benefit/tolerability ratio. The clopidogrel-aspirin combination is to be avoided because of the risk of hemorrhage, particularly in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Revascularization strategies and the choice of antiplatelet drugs for the acute phase of myocardial and cerebral ischemia are very different, consisting of endovascular treatment and aggressive platelet inhibition for coronary infarcts, versus intravenous thrombolysis and / or aspirin for cerebral infarcts. None of the new antiplatelet drugs used in acute coronary syndromes has so far been studied in acute cerebral ischemia. PMID:24919368

  1. Angiographic Findings In Patients With Cerebral Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri S M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation was conducted in order to study angiographic findings in patients with cerebral aneurysm. Materials and Methods: The study conducted on 136 cases of ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 1995-2000 confirmed by means of 4-vessel cerebral angiography to get an insight to racial, geographic and environmental factors predisposing to the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm formation. Results: The data analysis revealed the following results: 58% of the population comprised of male and 42% female with a mean age of 46 years. 89% of the aneurysms were found in the anterior circulation and 11% occurred in the posterior cerebral circulation. The most common site in both the sexes was the anterior communicating artery. 9.6% of the patients displayed two separate aneurysms. 5.2% of the aneurysms were found to be giant aneurysms and 3% of the patients had fusiform aneurysms. Conclusion: The low average age, a predilection in male population and the prevalence of aneurysms at carotid and middle cerebral artery bifurcation and the distal branches of anterior cerebral artery and a higher incidence of anterior communicating artery in women were the findings observed in this study.

  2. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, S. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mochizuki, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Kuru, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Miwa, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Kondo, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mori, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizuno, Y. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity during cognitive task-induced cerebral fatigue in high performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that sustained cognitive tasks can induce cognitive fatigue and that the mean cerebral blood flow velocity changes in some cerebral regions during cerebral fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically monitor the changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in different brain regions of high performance fighter pilots during mental arithmetic tasks and consecutive performance tasks. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present neurophysiological trial, based on controlled observation, was performed at the Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force of China between January 2003 and December 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five males, high performance fighter pilots, averaging (27.6 ± 2.5) years, were recruited for this study. METHODS: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery of subjects was dynamically tested using transcranial Doppler during 5- hour mental arithmetic tasks and during 5- hour consecutive performance tasks. The neurobehavioral ability index was analyzed throughout each trial according to the number of correct responses, false responses, and lost responses. Simultaneously, cerebral cognitive fatigue-induced lethargy was assessed by the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery; neurobehavioral ability index of mental arithmetic and consecutive performance tasks; Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores. RESULTS: During mental arithmetic tasks, the mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery increased during hour 2 and decreased after hour 4. There was no significant change in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. During hour 4, cerebral cognitive fatigue was observed and, simultaneously, Stanford Sleepiness

  5. A clinical study of cerebral vaso paralysis during a period of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ the 123I-infinitum (Imp) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) dual table autoradiography (Arg) method and stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) analysis 7 or 8 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) onset to predict cerebral vasospasm. We report new findings of cerebral vasoparalysis during a period of cerebral vasospasm after SAH. From January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2008, we encountered 330 cases of aneurysmal SAH, and treated 285 cases. Of these, 65 were excluded as unsuitable for this study, for reasons such as lack of SPECT data, external decompression, admission over 7 days from SAH onset. We studied 220 cases treated by microsurgical clipping (n=178) or endovascular coil embolization (n=42). Vasoparalysis was defined as a rise in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a loss of vascular reserve on SEE analysis of CBF-SPECT. Vasoparalysis occurred in 15 cases (6.8%). Of these, 9 cases (60.0%) had cerebral hematoma, temporary clips had been used in the operation for 8 cases (53.3%), 9 cases (60.0%) experienced postoperative cerebral infarction, and 3 cases (20.0%) had postoperative convulsions. Vasoparalysis occurs in relation to perioperative cerebral damage. In terms of the loss of vascular reserve following SAH, vasoparalysis resembles hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, although the conditions are quite different. Differentiating between these 2 conditions is important, as different forms of management are required. Dual table ARG and SEE analysis are very useful for the evaluating these 2 conditions. (author)

  6. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S; Lassen, N A; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness...

  7. Ischaemic cerebral infarction combined determination of regional cerebral blood flow and volume via SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (r CBF) and volume (r CBV) by SPECT was performed in 15 patients with ischaemic cerebral infarction. For measurement of r CBF 99mTc-HMPAO was used, and for r CBV 99mTc-labelled red blood cells. Patients with acute or subacute cerebral infarction (n=10) showed elevation of r CBV whereas r CBF was either reduced or elevated. Patients with chronic cerebral infarction (n=5) showed reduction of both r CBF and R CBV. The combined measurement of both r CBF and r CBV by SPECT allows imaging and semiquantitative evaluation of haemodynamic changes in ischaemic cerebral infarction at various stages. The resulting data may be helpful in describing the pathophysiologic compensatory mechanisms. (orig.)

  8. The effect of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Vascular dementia is one of the most familiar types of senile dementia. Over the past few years, the research on the damage of cerebral tissues after ischemia has become a focus. The factors and mechanism of cerebral tissue damage after ischemia are very complex. The handicap of energy metabolism is regarded as the beginning factor which leads to the damage of neurons, but its dynamic changes in ischemic area and its role during the process of neuronal damage are not very clear. There are few civil reports on using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance instrument to explore the changes of cerebral energy metabolism in intravital animals. After exploring the influence of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice, we came to the conclusion that herbs can improve the cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice.

  9. Cerebral sino-venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cerebral sino-venous thrombosis were reported. Repeated CT findings were studied and discussed on account of the treatments for those pathologic conditions. Those of studied cases are; a 22-year-old postpartum woman, a 42-year-old woman with irregular vaginal bleeding, and a 26-year-old man with severe reactive emesis after drinking alcohol. They were treated conservatively. Case 1 died in its acute stage. In the remaining ones, each had an uneventful recovery. CT scan findings of them manifested their exact clinical conditions. These findings were devided into two categories, one was direct signs expressed sino-venous occlusion, the other was indirect signs which appeared as a result of these occlusion. Direct signs cannot always get in every cases with sino-venous occlusion, but as for indirect signs, we can get various changes corresponding to the time taken CT photoes, and they are useful to decide appropriate treatments at that time. Considering suitable treatments for this disease, it is necessary to select most suitable ones according to their pathologic conditions, which may be precisely drawn with CT scans. (J.P.N.)

  10. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  11. Cerebral concussion: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina; Bost, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    No topic in sports has gathered more attention and publicity than the diagnosis, management, and long-term effects of cerebral concussion. The relevant history of concussion starts in 1905 when President Theodore Roosevelt drew attention to the football 'death harvest'. Soon after, rules started to change to reduce the amount and severity of head injuries in football. Up until 1980, the primary focus regarding concussions was to diagnose a potentially fatal intracranial hemorrhage. While aware of long-term consequences of concussions, the perception at the time was that virtually all concussions would 'clear' with time and rest. Concussion management guidelines gave way to objective neuropsychological testing in the early 1990s with the development of the ImPACT™ (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) neurocognitive test. Led by organized football, in 1994 the National Football League (NFL) formed the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee which began to investigate the cause of concussions, evaluate equipment (particularly helmets), and recommend methods for prevention. In 2005, the first case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy was described in a deceased football player, raising concerns about the long-term consequences of head injuries and concussions. Major advancements in contact sports and the military are underway to reduce the incidence of concussions and subconcussive blows to the head. PMID:24923388

  12. The hip in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, E E

    1980-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery can alleviate the hip flexion, adduction, and medial rotation deformities of the hip and improve the function and appearance of gait. To accomplish this, however, careful examination and prudence in the operative procedure to avoid overdoing and overcorrecting are important. Orthopedic surgery can prevent subluxation and dislocation of the hip before the age of seven years, and consequently repetitive radiographic examinations of the hip in children who have spastic paralysis of the hip musculature should be a routine procedure. Subluxation and dislocation of the hip, when established, can be successfully treated with orthopedic surgical procedures. Physicians must keep in mind that the spastic paralysis of cerebral palsy originates in the brain, and therefore the spasticity cannot be eliminated. The best that can be done is to weaken or remove some muscles as deforming forces and to achieve compromises for continued function. The goal should be optimal independence for the child and adolescent during development, and freedom from pain with deteriorating function due to degenerative arthritis in the adult. PMID:7360505

  13. Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, Alessandro [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Pravatà, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.pravata@gmail.com [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); De Blasi, Roberto [Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Tschuor, Costa Silvia [Dipartimento di Radiologia, Ospedale Civico di Lugano, via Tesserete, 46, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Bonaldi, Giuseppe [U.O. Neuroradiologia, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, Largo Barozzi, 1, 24128 Bergamo (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls.

  14. Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls

  15. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity. PMID:26277658

  16. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.

  17. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  18. Cerebral Air Embolism from Angioinvasive Cavitary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nontraumatic cerebral air embolism cases are rare. We report a case of an air embolism resulting in cerebral infarction related to angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports associating these two conditions together. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female was admitted for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Her hospital course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis. On hospital day 55, she acutely developed severe global aphasia with right hemiplegia. A CT and CT-angiogram of her head and neck were obtained demonstrating intravascular air emboli within the left middle cerebral artery (MCA branches. She was emergently taken for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. Evaluation for origin of the air embolus revealed an air focus along the left lower pulmonary vein. Over the course of 48 hours, her symptoms significantly improved. Conclusion. This unique case details an immunocompromised patient with pulmonary aspergillosis cavitary lesions that invaded into a pulmonary vein and caused a cerebral air embolism. With cerebral air embolisms, the acute treatment option differs from the typical ischemic stroke pathway and the provider should consider emergent HBOT. This case highlights the importance of considering atypical causes of acute ischemic stroke.

  19. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  20. Gastrostomy tube feeding of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlseng, Magnus O; Andersen, Guro L; DA Graca Andrada, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries.......To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries....

  1. Cerebral vascular effects of hypovolemia and dopamine infusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Hahn, Gitte; Heiring, Christian; Pryds, Ole;

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use, effects of volume boluses and dopamine in hypotensive newborn infants remain controversial. We aimed to elucidate if hypovolemia alone impairs cerebral autoregulation (CA) and if dopamine affects cerebral vasculature....

  2. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE-RETAINING DURATION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL PARALYSIS CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 王琴玉; 冯健强; 张壮涛; 陈雪云; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of different needle-retaining duration on cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral paralysis (CP) children.Methods: A total of 20 cases of CP children were subjected into this study.Changes of systolic peak value (Vs), blood flow velocity at the end-diastolic phase (Ved), mean velocity (Vm), pulsation index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the cerebral hemodynamics before and after performing JIN's Three-Needling Therapy with the needles retained for 30 min (group A) and 5 min (group B) were observed by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Results: After acupuncture, the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was accelerated, and the resistance of blood vessels decreased.The effect of needle-retaining-30 min was better than that of needle-retaining-5 min.Conclusion: In treating cerebral paralysis by using JIN's Three-Needling Therapy, sufficient stimulation provided by needle remaining is an important factor for achieving satisfactory therapeutic effects.

  3. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Two Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Carreira, M. C.; D. Cánovas Vergé; Branera, J.; Zauner, M.; J. Estela Herrero; E. Tió; G. Ribera Perpinyà

    2014-01-01

    Although few patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension develop cerebral venous thrombosis, the association between these two entities seems too common to be simply a coincidental finding. We describe two cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. In one case, extensive cerebral venous thrombosis involved the superior sagittal sinus and multiple cortical cerebral veins. In the other case, only a right frontoparietal cortical vein was invo...

  4. An Adult Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting with Cerebral Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Akıncı

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA which may predominantly develop in pediatric cases during the management of DKA.. Symptomatic cerebral edema in children is rarely detected at admission, before initiation of the treatment. Cerebral edema associated with DKA is extremely rare in adults. Here, we report an adult patient with DKA who presented with symptomatic cerebral edema. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 16-8

  5. Nitric oxide increases carbon monoxide production by piglet cerebral microvessels

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Charles W.; Balabanova, Liliya; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Parfenova, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) can be involved in regulation of cerebral circulation. Inhibition of production of either one of these gaseous intercellular messengers inhibits newborn pig cerebral arteriolar dilation to the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate can increase NO production. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that NO, which is increased by glutamate, stimulates the production of CO by cerebral microvessels. Experiments used freshly isolated cerebr...

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  7. An Adult Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting with Cerebral Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Barış Akıncı; Abdurrahman Çömlekçi; Serkan Yener; Süleyman Men

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which may predominantly develop in pediatric cases during the management of DKA.. Symptomatic cerebral edema in children is rarely detected at admission, before initiation of the treatment. Cerebral edema associated with DKA is extremely rare in adults. Here, we report an adult patient with DKA who presented with symptomatic cerebral edema. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 16-8

  8. The value of computed tomography in cerebral syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic findings of three patients with cerebral syphilis, including cerebral gumma, which regressed completely under penicillin therapy, syphilitic angiitis with cerebral infarction, and syphilitic cerebral atrophy, are reported CT is unable to provide specific diagnostic data for these conditions. The etiology can be clarified only by taking into consideration the clinical findings and course, the serological results, and the result of therapy. (orig.)

  9. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar Mainak; Simes David; Prabha Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if ...

  10. Relationship between cerebral sodium-glucose transporter and hyperglycemia in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-09-14

    Post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia. To elucidate this exacerbation mechanism, we focused on sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) as a mediator that lead hyperglycemia to cerebral ischemia. SGLT transport glucose into the cell, together with sodium ion, using the sodium concentration gradient. We have previously reported that suppression of cerebral SGLT ameliorates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. However, detail relationship cerebral between SGLT and post-ischemic hyperglycemia remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT on cerebral ischemic neuronal damage with or without hyperglycemic condition. Cell survival rate of primary cultured neurons was assessed by biochemical assay. A mouse model of focal ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal damage was assessed with histological and behavioral analyses. Concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment exacerbated hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death. Although a SGLT family-specific inhibitor, phlorizin had no effect on developed hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death, it suppressed cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment. α-MG induced a concentration-dependent and significant decrease in neuronal survival. PHZ administered on immediately after reperfusion had no effect, but PHZ given at 6h after reperfusion had an effect. Our in vitro study indicates that SGLT is not involved in neuronal cell death in non-hyperglycemic condition. We have already reported that post-ischemic hyperglycemia begins to develop at 6h after MCAO. Therefore, current our in vivo study show post-ischemic hyperglycemic condition may be necessary for the SGLT-mediated exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. PMID:26254165

  11. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  12. Contrast MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients with acute and subacute cerebral infarction (13 and 17 deep cerebral infarction) were studied with 0.5 T MR unit before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. Thirteen patients were studied within 7 days after neurological ictus, 17 patients were studied between 7 and 14 days. Two types of abnormal enhancement, cortical arterial and parenchymal enhancement, were noted. The former was seen in 3 of 4 cases of very acute cortical infarction within 4 days after clinical ictus. The latter was detected in all 7 cases of cortical infarction after the 6th day of the ictus, and one patient with deep cerebral infarction at the 12th day of the ictus. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging seems to detect gyral enhancement earlier compared with contrast CT, and depict intra-arterial sluggish flow which was not expected to see on contrast CT scans. (author)

  13. Cerebral Malaria in Children: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Keshavarz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an acute and chronic illness characterized by paroxysms of fever, chills, sweating, fatigue, anemia, and splenomegaly. Most malarial deaths occur in infants and young children. Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria and is associated with more intense parasitemia. A manifestation of severe disease most common in young children includes cerebral malaria. Mortality rate of cerebral malaria is 20 to 40%. Malaria acquired in P. falciparum areas with known chloroquine resistance or where there is any malaria hotline should generally be treated with drugs other than chloroquine. In this paper we introduce a case of cerebral malaria from Zahedan/Iran. Case report: A 13-year old girl is presented with fever, jaundice, pallor and seizure. She was treated initially with chloroquine and premaquine. During treatment she developed convulsions with decreased level of consciousness. Suspecting chloroquine resistance this was substituted by quinine. After three days, she recovered completely and blood smear was free of parasites

  14. Neurociências, neurocultura e autoajuda cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar o fenômeno denominado de neuroascese, ou autoajuda cerebral no contexto do crescente impacto das neurociências e do surgimento da neurocultura e do sujeito cerebral. Para tanto, é importante compreender o âmbito sóciocultural mais amplo no qual a neuroascese se insere e que corresponde ao que vem se chamando de 'cultura somática' ou, mais especificamente, de biossociabilidade. O objetivo do artigo é explorar como uma forma de subjetividade reducionista, o sujeito cerebral, dá lugar à aparição de práticas de si cerebrais, isto é, práticas de como agir sobre o cérebro para maximizar a sua performance, que levam a formação de novas formas de sociabilidade.

  15. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  16. Assessment of the hand in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Bhardwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is the musculoskeletal manifestation of a nonprogressive central nervous system lesion that usually occurs due to a perinatal insult to the brain. Though the cerebral insult is static the musculoskeletal pathology is progressive. Some patients with cerebral palsy whose hands are affected can be made better by surgery. The surgical procedures as such are not very technically demanding but the assessment, decision-making, and selecting the procedures for the given patient make this field challenging. When done well, the results are rewarding not only in terms of improvement in hand function but also in appearance and personal hygiene, which leads to better self-image and permits better acceptance in the society. This article focuses on the clinical examination, patient selection, and decision-making while managing these patients.

  17. Brain protection therapy in acute cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Suda, Satoshi; Abe, Arata; Kanamaru, Takuya; Toda, Yusuke; Katayama, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs for cerebral infarction that were shown to be effective in animal experiments have shown negative results in human clinical trials. For this reason, a completely new approach is needed to develop brain protection therapies against cerebral infarction. Brain protection therapies can be categorized into 3 types: 1) lengthening the therapeutic time window for thrombolytic therapy, 2) reducing the side effects of thrombolytic therapy, and 3) brain protection drug therapy for patients with contraindications for thrombolytic therapy (including combination therapy). Here, we show our recent results of brain protection therapy. First, combination therapy with 2 effective drugs was tried, and time-lag administration was performed. Combination therapy was effective and lengthened the therapeutic time window. Next, a completely new approach to improve cerebral ischemic damage, namely, H2 gas inhalation therapy, was tried. This therapy was also effective, even in the ischemic core. PMID:22687352

  18. Renovascular hypertension causes cerebral vascular remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamei Tang; Xiangpen Li; Yi Li; Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Ruxun Huang; Ying Peng

    2011-01-01

    Renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRs) were developed using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method. All RHRs at 10 weeks displayed high permeability of the cerebral surface blood vessels. Vascular casts of the RHRs showed that the vascular network was sparse. The arterioles of the RHRs at 10 weeks had smaller lumen diameters, but thicker vessel walls with hyalinosis formation compared with control animals. The endothelial cell membrane appeared damaged, and microthrombus formed. After ischemia, the infarction size was larger in RHRs than in control animals. These results suggest that cerebral arterioles in RHRs underwent structural remodeling. High blood pressure may aggravate the severity of brain injury in cerebral ischemia and affect the recovery of ischemia.

  19. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  20. Studies of cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolism, cerebral glucose metabolism, and tissue pH in human acute cerebral infarction using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary PET study was designed to investigate physiological and biochemical changes in acute cerebral infarction by positron emission tomography (PET). PET studies were performed in six patients with acute cerebral infarction within 48 hours after onset of stroke using continuous inhalation of C15O2 for cerebral blood flow (CBF), 15O2 for cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), 11CO for cerebral blood volume, the intravenous injection of 11C-dimethyloxazolidinedione for tissue pH and the intravenous injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu). Metabolic coupling index (MCI) image was made from CBF image and CMRGlu image to investigate relation between CBF and CMRGlu. Aslo oxygen glucose index (OGI) image was made from CMRO2 image and CMRG lu image to investigate relation between CMRO2 and CMRGlu. Preliminary resul ts demonstrate that reduction of CBF, CMRO2, and CMRGlu in the affected co rtex except for reperfusion case. Increase of OER was recognized four of six cases. Patterns of MCI and OGI in the cortex which CMRO2 value is less than 65 μmol/100g/min were different from those in the cortex which CMRO2 value is more than 65. MCI of the affected cortex (CMRO22>=65). OGI of the affected cortex (CMRO22>=65). Two patients showed decrease of tissue pH and reperfusion case showed increase of tissue pH in infarcted area as compared to contralateral cortex. In addition it was suggested that threshold of CBF for tissue pH was approximately 14ml/100g/min. (J.P.N.)

  1. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  2. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUVmax, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUVmax with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  3. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  4. Mental Imagery Abilities in Adolescents with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbois, Yanick; Coello, Yann; Bouchart, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Four visual imagery tasks were presented to three groups of adolescents with or without spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The first group was composed of six adolescents with cerebral palsy who had associated visual-perceptual deficits (CP-PD), the second group was composed of five adolescents with cerebral palsy and no associated visual-perceptual…

  5. Recirculation usually precedes malignant edema in middle cerebral artery infarcts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Ståhl, N; Schalén, W;

    2012-01-01

    In patients with large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts, maximum brain swelling leading to cerebral herniation and death usually occurs 2-5 days after onset of stroke. The study aimed at exploring the pattern of compounds related to cerebral energy metabolism in infarcted brain tissue....

  6. Clinical significance of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find an indicator in urine to assist diagnosis of cerebral infarction,we investigated the changes of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction.Methods Collected serum from 30 healthy volunteers and 53 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) ,with ratio ofmales to females

  7. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the 'TB zone' supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the 'IS zone' supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS, 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TBM (71%) but rare with IS (5%). (orig.)

  8. Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation and Dysautoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, William M

    2016-09-01

    This article provides a review of cerebral autoregulation, particularly as it relates to the clinician scientist experienced in neuroscience in anesthesia and critical care. Topics covered are biological mechanisms; methods used for assessment of autoregulation; effects of anesthetics; role in control of cerebral hemodynamics in health and disease; and emerging areas, such as role of age and sex in contribution to dysautoregulation. Emphasis is placed on bidirectional translational research wherein the clinical informs the study design of basic science studies, which, in turn, informs the clinical to result in development of improved therapies for treatment of central nervous system conditions. PMID:27521192

  9. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17....... Primary prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  10. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T;

    2005-01-01

    Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...... participants with CP born between 1965 and 1978 (471 males; mean age 28y 10 mo, SD 4y, range 21 to 35y) in the Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry were compared with 4406 controls without CP born between 1965 and 1978 (2546 males; mean age 28y 10 mo, SD 4y, range 21 to 35y). Diagnostic subtypes of the 819...

  11. CEREBRAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS IN CHILDREN. ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Scheglov, D.; Zagorodniy, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective — to learn the features of the cerebral arteriovenous malformations (АVМ) endovascular treatment in children. Materials and methods. Totally 39 children with cerebral AVMs were treated at the center from 2005 to 2012. The average age of the patients (12.6 ± 1.2) years. It was found that the most of AVMs were occurred in temporoparietal subcortical area — 46.2 % cases. Results. Small size of AVMs were detected in 15.4 % of patients, the middle — in 33.3 %, the large — in 38.5 %, ...

  12. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  13. Radiotherapy for Small Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Yasushi; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Abiko, Seisho; Shiroyama, Yujiro; Kamiryo, Toshifumi; Nakano, Shigeki; Eguchi, Yuuki; Tsurutani, Toru; Ito, Haruhide

    1991-01-01

    The result of two types of radiation therapy for small cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were analyzed, and the indications and limitations of radiation therapy for small AVMs discussed. Four patients with small AVMs received radiation therapy. There were three males and one female, ranging in age from 7 to 44 years with an average of 29 years. One cerebral AVM was located in the right thalamus, two were in the left central sulcus and one was in the left parietal lobe. Three AVMs wer...

  14. Experimental thrombolysis of middle cerebral artery thromboemboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the majority of ischaemic cerebral infarcts is caused by thromboemboli, we determined the benefit of firbrinolytic therapy in acute stroke. Thromboemboli were induced in the middle cerebral artery of 21 dogs. Urokinase was started at different time intervals after infarction (1, 3 and 5 hours) at a rate of 1000 IU/kg/min. Angiographically controlled thrombolysis was achieved in all 15 treated cases, whereas in the control group (n=6) no case of recanalisation was observed. Systemic fibrinolysis occurred in all cases. Postmortem examinations of the brains showed no intracerebral haemorrhages. Our findings indicate the urokinase treatment may be of value in acute ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  15. Functional stability of cerebral circulatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Y. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The functional stability of the cerebral circulation system seems to be based on the active mechanisms and on those stemming from specific of the biophysical structure of the system under study. This latter parameter has some relevant criteria for its quantitative estimation. The data obtained suggest that the essential part of the mechanism for active responses of cerebral vessels which maintains the functional stability of this portion of the vascular system, consists of a neurogenic component involving central nervous structures localized, for instance, in the medulla oblongata.

  16. Neurociências, neurocultura e autoajuda cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo pretende analisar o fenômeno denominado de neuroascese, ou autoajuda cerebral no contexto do crescente impacto das neurociências e do surgimento da neurocultura e do sujeito cerebral. Para tanto, é importante compreender o âmbito sóciocultural mais amplo no qual a neuroascese se insere e que corresponde ao que vem se chamando de 'cultura somática' ou, mais especificamente, de biossociabilidade. O objetivo do artigo é explorar como uma forma de subjetividade reducionista, o sujeito...

  17. Carotid angioplasty with cerebral protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stenosis persisted and in 1 patient, a 30 % residual stenosis was detected. In 15 patients, CAS was performed without complications, in one patient the hyperperfusion syndrome occurred and in one periprocedural stroke occurred. Conclusions. According to our initial experience on 17 patients CAS could gain more importance in stroke prevention with proper selection of patients with brain ischemia and improved cerebral protection during procedure. (author)

  18. Regulatory mechanism of endothelin receptor B in the cerebral arteries after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Thigarajah, Rushani; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increased expression of endothelin receptor type B (ETBR), a vasoactive receptor, has recently been implied in the reduced cerebral blood flow and exacerbated neuronal damage after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The study explores the regulatory mechanisms of ETBR to identify...... drug targets to restore normal cerebral artery contractile function as part of successful neuroprotective therapy. METHODS: We have employed in vitro methods on human and rat cerebral arteries to study the regulatory mechanisms and the efficacy of target selective inhibitor, Mithramycin A (MitA), to...... arteries. RESULTS: Increased expression of specificity protein (Sp1) was observed in human and rat cerebral arteries after organ culture, strongly correlating with the ETBR upregulation. Similar observations were made in MCAO rats. Treatment with MitA, a Sp1 specific inhibitor, significantly downregulated...

  19. Cerebral blood flow in humans following resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and may indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage

  20. Delayed gastric emptying time in adult cerebral falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Mohapatra , P.C. Dash , S.C. Mohapatro & R.N. Mishra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We hypothesize that upper gastrointestinal symptoms in cerebral malaria are due to gastric motordysfunction. But gastric motility studies in cerebral malaria are scarce.Methods: We determined gastric emptying half-time (GET½ of liquid meals quantitatively by radio isotopescintigraphy in 25 patients of cerebral malaria and 10 healthy controls.Results: GET½ was prolonged (46.5 ± 4.8 min significantly (p <0.001 in patients of cerebral malaria comparedto healthy controls (27.6 ± 5.3 min.Conclusion: Cerebral malaria can cause prolongation of gastric emptying time of liquid foods.

  1. Tuberculosis: an uncommon cause of cerebral venous thrombosis? Tuberculose: uma causa rara de trombose venosa cerebral?

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Fiorot Júnior; André Carvalho Felício; Márcia Mauimi Fukujima; Celso Arraes Rodrigues; Vânia Maria Morelli; Dayse Maria Lourenço; Gilmar Fernandes do Prado

    2005-01-01

    Several infectious etiologies are related to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but a review of literature showed only few cases related to tuberculosis (TB), and only one with neurological manifestations.We report an unusual case of CVT related to TB and mutation in prothrombin gene. A 38-man black presented abrupt right hemiparestesis, and hemiparesis. Investigations revealed CVT. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) examination evidenced a infection by Mycobacterium. He was heterozygous for G20210A ...

  2. What is cerebral palsy - new advances in treatment of cerebral palsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Perat, Milivoj Veličković

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cerebral palsy is the most frequent motorimpairment in childhood. In many countries, its prevalence is predicted toincrease. There are an estimated 15 million people with cerebral palsy aroundthe world and more than half of them are mentally retarded and one third haveepilepsy. It should be seen that it is more than merely a motor disorder. Therecan be problems of development, perceptual-cognitive impairment, social andfunctional problems of daily living, emotional and behavioural p...

  3. Immunocompetent young man with cerebral abscess and cortical venous infarction mimicking cerebritis caused by Gemella morbillorum

    OpenAIRE

    Milnik, Annette; Gazis, Angelos; Tammer, Ina; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum is an anaerobic gram-positive diplococcus and in most cases a harmless commensal, which occasionally causes infections in the central nervous system. We report on an immunocompetent young man with focal neurological symptoms and cephalgia caused by a cerebral abscess. Although successful treatment was done with neurosurgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, he suffered from a venous infarction 5 weeks after first diagnosis, which mimicked cerebritis as an early stage o...

  4. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  5. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (Prelationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  6. Cerebrovascular endothelin receptor upregulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a serious neurological disease and the third leading cause of death in the western world. In roughly 15 % of the cases, the cause is due to an intracranial haemorrhage, and the remaining 85 % represent ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of a cerebral artery eit...

  7. Parental infertility and cerebral palsy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Basso, Olga;

    2010-01-01

    Children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported to have a higher risk of cerebral palsy (CP), perhaps due to the higher frequency of preterm birth, multiple births or vanishing embryo in the pregnancies. However, it has been suggested...

  8. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.)

  9. SPECT analysis of recent cerebral infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raynaud, C; Rancurel, G; Tzourio, N; Soucy, J P; Baron, J C; Pappata, S; Cambon, H; Mazoyer, B; Lassen, N A; Cabanis, E

    1989-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow and [123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) uptake in 16 patients with unilateral brain infarcts during the subacute period (Day 3 to Day 50) and again after 3 months. Our results show that the central and peripheral areas described earlier in the chronic period were ...

  10. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  11. Thyroxine Level of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the thyroxine level of Children with cerebral palsy so as to understand thd changes of their nevous endocrine. Methods:Radioimmunoassay was applied to 57 Children with cerebral palsy and 108 normal children.The serum level of tridothyronine(T3), thyroxine(T4)free tridothyronine(FT3),free thyroxin(FT4),and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) were measured for those children in the moming and and in condition without any food Rsults: (1)Chiidren with cerebral palsy all showed low T3 values.The difference of T3 value between CP children and norrmal children was significant (P<0.001). (2)Results from groups with difference ages:the CP toddler′s age group also showed low T4 and FT4 values The difference of T4 and FT4 values between the toddler′s age CP childrengroup and the toddler′s age normal children group tegted was significant (CP<0.01 for T4, P <0. 05 for FT4): Conclusion:The tlyroxine level of children with cerebral palsy showed lower values compared to normal children, especisly, the low T3 values were significant.

  12. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the...

  13. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  14. Do cerebral arteriovenous malformations increase in size?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelow, A D; Erfurth, A.; Grossart, K; MacPherson, P.

    1987-01-01

    Six patients are reported with cerebral arteriovenous malformations which have enlarged over follow up periods of from 4 to 20 years. The frequency of spontaneous enlargement is estimated to range from 0.2% to 2.8% per annum. This rate of enlargement should be considered when treatment options are reviewed in individual patients, and should be added to the risk of haemorrhage.

  15. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)

  16. Cerebral Palsy Among Term and Postterm Births

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The relation of risk of cerebral palsy (CP) with gestational age among term and postterm births was investigated by researchers at the University of Bergen, Norway, and the Epidemiology Branch, NIH, Durham, NC, using Norway’s national health and insurance registries.

  17. Management of hip posture in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, A M; Redden, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    Seating arrangements for cerebral palsy children with total body involvement are often unsatisfactory and can pose considerable problems for the multi-disciplinary team. Hip joints at risk of dislocation must be kept in an abducted position in order to minimize pain. A new wheelchair with a barrel-shaped cylindrical seat has been developed which improves the femoral head location and alleviates pain.

  18. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attenion was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients. (orig.)

  19. Neuronal messengers in the human cerebral circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbenkian, S; Uddman, R; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    neuronal regulation of cerebral blood flow. Although little is known about the physiological actions and inter-relationships among all these putative neurotransmitters, their presence within cerebrovascular nerve fibers will make it necessary to revise our view on the mechanisms of cerebrovascular...

  20. Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handedness of seventy-five persons without evidence of neurological disease, was assessed with a standardised test. An analysis of the CT scans of the same persons was performed to determine (1) presence and lateralisation of frontal and occipital 'petalia', (2) width of frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere, (3) direction of straight sinus deviation. Results suggest that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are independent variables. There were no significant differences between right-handers and non-right handers. Also there was no significant differences between strongly left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, nor were there differences between right-handers with or without family history of left-handedness. Irrespective of handedness, left occipital 'petalia' was more common than right (p<0.01), right frontal petalia was more common than left (p<0.01), and straight sinus deviation was more commonly toward the right. The study does not support the concept that cerebral 'symmetry' or 'reverse asymmetry' are associated with left-handedness or ambidexterity. The noted asymmetries are more likely to be direct correlates of cerebral language dominance, than of handedness. Outside forces acting on the bone may also contribute to the asymmetries. CT scan may be of value as a direct predictor of cerebral dominance. (author)

  1. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author).

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, K; Larsen, B; Skinhøj, E;

    1978-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in 13 aphasic patients with left hemisphere lesions, using the intracarotid xenon 133 injection method and a 254-detector gamma camera system. The rCBF was measured during rest and during various function tests, including a simple speech test. In...

  3. Rhino Cerebral Mucormycosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Parimalam Kumar; C Zohra Begum; Thirumaran, P; Manoharan, K

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem connective tissue disease. Patients with SLE develop cutaneous infections due to immune dysregulation and treatment with immunosuppressive agents. Deep fungal infections are rare in SLE but are important cause of morbidity. We report a case of successfully treated rhino cerebral mucormycosis (RCM) in a female patient with SLE.

  4. Angiografia cerebral trans-operatória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Raupp

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available The author recommends the use of angiography during operations for the treatment of cerebral angiomata, the procedure helping the location of fistulae with little dimensions and securing better surgical results. Seven cases of intracranial arteriovenous congenital fistulae are reported in which the neurosurgical procedure was facilitated by transoperatory angiography. There wern't technic difficulties in any occasion.

  5. Social integration of adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Hansen, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Social integration and independence is the ultimate goal of habilitation and social support for patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Having a partner and having children provide support for social integration of adults with or without a disability. We studied 416 participants with CP born between 1...

  6. The cerebral venous system and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Imray, Christopher H E

    2016-01-15

    Most hypobaric hypoxia studies have focused on oxygen delivery and therefore cerebral blood inflow. Few have studied venous outflow. However, the volume of blood entering and leaving the skull (∼700 ml/min) is considerably greater than cerebrospinal fluid production (0.35 ml/min) or edema formation rates and slight imbalances of in- and outflow have considerable effects on intracranial pressure. This dynamic phenomenon is not necessarily appreciated in the currently taught static "Monro-Kellie" doctrine, which forms the basis of the "Tight-Fit" hypothesis thought to underlie high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema. Investigating both sides of the cerebral circulation was an integral part of the 2007 Xtreme Everest Expedition. The results of the relevant studies performed as part of and subsequent to this expedition are reviewed here. The evidence from recent studies suggests a relative venous outflow insufficiency is an early step in the pathogenesis of high altitude headache. Translation of knowledge gained from high altitude studies is important. Many patients in a critical care environment develop hypoxemia akin to that of high altitude exposure. An inability to drain the hypoxemic induced increase in cerebral blood flow could be an underappreciated regulatory mechanism of intracranial pressure. PMID:26294747

  7. Computerized tomographic studies in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 200 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were analysed from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations, disease complications and etiological factors. CT scans of 135 cases (67.5%) were found to be abnormal and there were 14 (7%) borderline cases. The major abnormality found on CT scans was cerebral atrophy. Other important changes included focal or diffuse low density area in the brain tissue, congenital malformation, and cerebellar atrophy. From the clinical point of view, a large number of patients with spastic tetraplegia and spastic diplegia showed highly abnormal CT scans. On the other hand, in patients with spastic monoplegia, spastic paraplegia, and athetotic type, CT findings were normal or revealed only minor cerebral atrophy. Most children showing asymmetric clinical symptoms had corresponding asymmetric CT abnormalities which included ventricular enlargement, low density area in the brain tissue, and hemispherical volume. There was a significant correlation between the severity of physical impairment and the extent of CT abnormalities. Severely affected children had grossly abnormal CT scans such as hydranencephaly, polycystic change, and extensive cerebral atrophy. In the patients complicated with epilepsy, the incidence and severity of abnormal CT were higher than those of non-epileptic patients. Mentally retarded patients had variable enlargement of the subarachnoidal space depending on the severity of their mental retardation. Patients with suspected postnatal etiology also had high incidence of severe CT abnormality. CT scan is a valuable tool for evaluating patients with CP and in some cases, possible etiology of the disease may be discovered. (author)

  8. CEREBRAL PALSY, ITS INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRUICKSHANK, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS REVISED EDITION, ILLUSTRATED WITH 98 FIGURES AND TABLES, SOME ORIGINAL CHAPTERS HAVE BEEN EXPANDED, AND NEW CHAPTERS HAVE BEEN ADDED. CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS ARE LISTED, AND INCLUDE EDUCATORS, CLINICAL WORKERS, AND ADMINISTRATORS IN THE FIELD OF CEREBRAL PALSY. REFERENCES AND NOTES CONCLUDE EACH CHAPTER, AND SEVERAL CHAPTERS HAVE SECTIONS ON…

  9. Cerebral Palsy--A Continuing Battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullerud, Ruth A.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the changes in the treatment of and attitudes toward cerebral palsy in the last 30 years is presented. The author stresses the need for early diagnosis and evaluation, day care (especially respite care), counseling, transportation, special living arrangements, and integration of this population. (PHR)

  10. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  11. Dementia caused by radiogenic cerebral late necroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral damage caused by radiation continues to be a hazard in modern radiotherapy. Dementia may develop, among other diseases, due to bilateral late radionecroses of the diencephalon and of mediobasal temporal lobe areas, e.g. after radiotherapy of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  13. Cerebrovascular endothelin receptor upregulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a serious neurological disease and the third leading cause of death in the western world. In roughly 15 % of the cases, the cause is due to an intracranial haemorrhage, and the remaining 85 % represent ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of a cerebral artery...

  14. Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Casella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis, mainly venous, is a rare and well-recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe a 25-year-old Caucasian man affected by ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis with an episode of right middle cerebral arterial thrombosis resolved by intraarterial thrombolysis. We perform a brief review of the International Literature.

  15. Rare copy number variation in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Gai; Girirajan, Santhosh; Moreno-De-Luca, Andres; Gecz, Jozef; Shard, Chloe; Nguyen, Lam Son; Nicholl, Jillian; Gibson, Catherine; Haan, Eric; Eichler, Evan; Martin, Christa Lese; MacLennan, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established the role of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in several neurological disorders but the contribution of rare CNVs to cerebral palsy (CP) is not known. Fifty Caucasian families having children with CP were studied using two microarray designs. Potentially pathogenic, rare (

  16. Pharmacological treatment in Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Allori P; Pasquinelli A; Varrella A

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of Levo-Sulpiride, Trazodone and combined treatment in 46 subjects affected by pure and mixed forms of Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy. The results were assessed according to "Neuromotor Disorders Assessment Scale" (Papini et al, 1995, 1998; Allori et al 2006).

  17. Evaluation of ocular acupuncture on cerebral infarction with cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the immediate effect of ocular acupuncture on patients, an method of SPECT image of cerebral blood flow daily stress test was established. 10 patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction by CT or MRI were tested. They all received 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging at twice before and after ocular acupuncture. By means of image subtraction technique and semi-quantitative method of regional interesting area, the change of regional cerebral blood flow was observed between the two images. Under restful state perfusion of cerebral blood flow in 18 foci was low at the frontal lobe, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and temporal lobe. After ocular acupuncture, the perfusions were obviously increased in 16 foci among them and the reactivity of the frontal lobe and the cerebellum to ocular acupuncture was higher, the average improvement rate of which was 55.15% and 53.06% respectively, lower in the basal ganglia and temporal lobe, the average improvement rate was 31.79% and 36.67% respectively. 99Tcm-ECD SPECT cerebral perfusion image has some significant clinic value for evaluating the effect of ocular acupuncture to treating cerebral infarction. (authors)

  18. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  19. Signs of cerebral atrophy on single-photon emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C O; Meyerrose, G E; Sostre, S

    1994-05-01

    Cerebral atrophy often coexists with other brain disorders and by itself may alter the pattern of cerebral perfusion. If unrecognized, it may confound diagnoses based on brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). In this retrospective study, we describe and evaluate criteria for the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain SPET studies. The SPET scans of 11 patients with cerebral atrophy and ten controls were evaluated for the presence of a prominent interhemispheric fissure, presence of prominent cerebral sulci, separation of thalamic nuclei, and pronounced separation of caudate nuclei. The SPET studies were interpreted by two independent observers blind to the findings of magnetic resonance imaging, which provided the final diagnosis of cerebral atrophy. The combination of the four scintigraphic signs was accurate in the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy in 95% of the cases and had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%. PMID:8062851

  20. Cerebral hemometabolism: from isolated measurements to monitoring and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cruz

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented on historical and multivariate aspects of cerebral hemometabolism. This involves a full multivariate approach, from blood pressure to cerebral metabolism. From isolated measurements, to monitoring and management, a comprehensive overview of cerebral hemometabolism is addressed, from its inception to current days, up to a new concept, the cerebral hemodynamic reserve. A multivariate functional diagram is proposed, to summarize the multivariate interrelationships of cerebral hemometabolism. A generic proposition is mode for studies of truly normal cerebral hemometabolism in children, for subsequent clinical applications. Another proposition is made for multivariate cerebral hemometabolic monitoring, in a broad variety of circumstances of predominantly global changes in intracranial dynamics, both in animal and clinical research.

  1. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  2. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp

  3. Utility of the cerebral SPECT in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare cortical and subcortical cerebral perfusion in schizophrenics patients with normal controls, and analyze the relation to clinical patterns and neuroleptic treatment. Method: 18 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia under neuroleptic treatment (except 3 cases), evaluated with clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS). The control group included 5 subjects in good health. All subjects were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99 etilencisteinato (99mTc-ECD) as a tracer. Region of interest (ROI) were defined in cerebral cortex and thalamus-basal ganglia areas. The cortical cerebral blood flow was measured with a quantitative analysis, expressed as a ratio of regional tracer uptake to occipital cortex uptake. In basal ganglia and thalamus, regional blood flow was evaluated with a semiquantitative methodology, defining categories. Results: Schizophrenics patients showed a significant reduction of perfusion on a left anterior frontal cortex ('hipofrontality') and global decrease of perfusion on left hemisphere. The interhemispheric (left/right) ratio of perfusion was incremented respect control group. In thalamic-basal ganglia complex, a significant hypoperfusion was found in neuroleptic-free patients and control group. On the other hand, neuroleptic-treated patients revealed normal or increased regional blood flow in thalamus and basal ganglia. Only the clinical item 'thought disorder' had significant high correlation with perfusion on left structures (left anterior frontal, left lateral frontal, left temporo-parietal); the other items correlated with right structures. Conclusions: The findings suggest a pattern o left cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with an incremented interhemispheric ratio of cerebral blood flow. The pivotal role of thalamic and basal ganglia areas in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and neuroleptic action was reaffirmed; apparently, perfusion in thalamic-basal ganglia

  4. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  5. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of cerebral revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R; Tyler, J L; Mohr, G; Meyer, E; Diksic, M; Yamamoto, L; Taylor, L; Gauthier, S; Hakim, A

    1987-04-01

    Pre- and postoperative positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in six patients undergoing extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for the treatment of symptomatic extracranial carotid occlusion. The six patients were all men, aged 52 to 68 years. Their symptoms included transient ischemic attacks (five cases), amaurosis fugax (two cases), and completed stroke with good recovery (one case). Positron emission tomography was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and between 3 to 6 months postoperatively, using oxygen-15-labeled CO, O2, and CO2 and fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRGlu), and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured in both hemispheres. Preoperatively, compared to five elderly control subjects, patients had increased CBV, a decreased CBF/CBV ratio, and decreased CMRO2, indicating reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and depressed oxygen metabolism. The CBF was decreased in only one patient who had bilateral carotid occlusions; the OEF, CMRGlu, and CMRO2/CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratios were not significantly different from control measurements. All bypasses were patent and all patients were asymptomatic following surgery. Postoperative PET revealed decreased CBV and an increased CBF/CBV ratio, indicating improved hemodynamic function and oxygen hypometabolism. This was associated with increased CMRO2 in two patients in whom the postoperative OEF was also increased. The CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratio were increased in five patients. Changes in CBF and the CMRO2/CMRGlu ratio were variable. One patient with preoperative progressive mental deterioration, documented by serial neuropsychological testing and decreasing CBF and CMRO2, had improved postoperative CBF and CMRO2 concomitant with improved neuropsychological functioning. It is concluded that symptomatic carotid occlusion is associated with altered

  6. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  7. Tongue mobility in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In children with cerebral palsy speech is a big problem. Speech of these children is more or less understandable, depending on the degree of reduced mobility of articulatory organs. Reduced mobility is affected by inability to control facial grimacing and poor muscle strength when performing targeted movements. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility of tongue in patients with cerebral palsy. Methods. The study included a sample of 34 children - patients with cerebral palsy who had been treated in the Special Hospital for the Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Neurology in Belgrade. The patients were divided according to the determined diagnosis into two groups: Quadriparesis spastica (n = 11 and Morbus Little (n = 16. The children, aged 8-12 years, had preserved intelectual abilities, and all of them had preserved hearing. The study was conducted during the period from January to September 2009. The functional state of articulatory organs in both groups was tested by the C-test that examines the anatomic structure and mobility of the articulatory organs. Results. Our research showed that both groups of the patients had impaired functional state of the tongue - the most mobile articulatory organ. Also, the research showed that the functional state of the tongue was worse in children diagnosed with Quadriparesis spastica. A statistically significant correlation between the diagnosis and the functional state of the tongue, the tongue test performance and the retention of the tongue in a given position was found (r = 0.594, p < 0.005; r = 0.816, p < 0.01 and r = 0.738, p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion. A large percentage of children with cerebral palsy were not able to establish control over the position of articulatory organs, especially the tongue, and its retention in a given position, all of which affect the quality of speech.

  8. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaYang; XuNenggui; XuGuansun; ZhongPing; WangLianfa; ZhuShunli; ChenQuanzhu

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P<0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced by ischemia, NO and ET might participate in the modulation process of EA.

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杨; 许能贵; 许冠荪; 钟平; 王联发; 朱舜丽; 陈全珠

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P < 0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced bv ischemia. NO and ET might oarticioate in the modulation orocess of EA.

  10. Amylin: Localization, Effects on Cerebral Arteries and on Local Cerebral Blood Flow in the Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Edvinsson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylin and adrenomedullin are two peptides structurally related to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. We studied the occurrence of amylin in trigeminal ganglia and cerebral blood vessels of the cat with immunocytochemistry and evaluated the role of amylin and adrenomedullin in the cerebral circulation by in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. Immunocytochemistry revealed that numerous nerve cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion contained CGRP immunoreactivity (-ir; some of these also expressed amylin-ir but none adrenomedullin-ir. There were numerous nerve fibres surrounding cerebral blood vessels that contained CGRP-ir. Occasional fibres contained amylin-ir while we observed no adrenomedullin-ir in the vessel walls. With RT-PCR and Real-Time�PCR we revealed the presence of mRNA for calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLRL and receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs in cat cerebral arteries. In vitro studies revealed that amylin, adrenomedullin, and CGRP relaxed ring segments of the cat middle cerebral artery. CGRP and amylin caused concentration-dependent relaxations at low concentrations of PGF2a-precontracted segment (with or without endothelium whereas only at high concentration did adrenomedullin cause relaxation. CGRP8-37 blocked the CGRP and amylin induced relaxations in a parallel fashion. In vivo studies of amylin, adrenomedullin, and CGRP showed a brisk reproducible increase in local cerebral blood flow as examined using laser Doppler flowmetry applied to the cerebral cortex of the a-chloralose�anesthetized cat. The responses to amylin and CGRP were blocked by CGRP8-37. The studies suggest that there is a functional sub-set of amylin-containing trigeminal neurons which probably act via CGRP receptors.

  11. Pure dysarthria due to cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No large case series of pure dysarthria due to stroke has been reported. We investigated the anatomical lesions in patients with pure dysarthria by examining findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging. We reviewed the admission records of 835 consecutive patients who presented for treatment between April 2003 and March 2008. We selected the patients with pure dysarthria and investigated findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3-D MRA), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and carotid artery echography, as well as the prothrombin time-international ratio (PT-INR) and D-dimer measurement. A total of 20 patients had pure dysarthria (17 men, 3 women; frequency, 2.4%). Facial nerve paresis was noted in 8 patients and poor tongue movement in 7. Seven patients had more than 2 cerebrovascular risk factors for stroke. Twelve patients initially visited other departments; 6 initially presented to the otorhinolaryngology department. Brain MRI revealed that in 15 patients, left-side lesions had caused the pure dysarthria. The corresponding lesions were located in the internal capsule in 8 patients, in the cerebral cortex in 4, in the corona radiata in 4, in the putamen in 2, in the cerebral peduncle in 1, and in the pons in 1. Three-dimensional MRA showed marked stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in 1 patient. Sixteen patients had lacunar infarction, and cerebral emboli were implicated in the pathogenesis of infarction in 4 patients. Brain SPECT data showed significant hypoperfusion in the central and pre-central regions on the side of the infarct. Carotid artery echograms and MR imaging of lesions were not correlated. PT-INR and D-dimer were not associated with the clinical type of cerebral infarction. Although pure dysarthria is likely a rare condition, it should be considered in patients with cerebral infarction. Brain MRI revealed that the topographically

  12. Noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Wynne, Karon E.; Petrov, Yuriy; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Richardson, C. Joan; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral ischemia after birth and during labor is a major cause of death and severe complications such as cerebral palsy. In the USA alone, cerebral palsy results in permanent disability of 10,000 newborns per year and approximately 500,000 of the total population. Currently, no technology is capable of direct monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. This study proposes the use of an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral ischemia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral ischemia in newborns with normal weight (NBW), low birth-weight (LBW, 1500 - 2499 g) and very low birth-weight (VLBW, neonatal intensive care unit. We performed single and continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation. The data acquisition, processing and analysis software developed by our group provided real-time, absolute SSS blood oxygenation measurements. The SSS blood oxygenation ranged from 60% to 80%. Optoacoustic monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation provides valuable information because adequate cerebral oxygenation would suggest that no therapy was necessary; conversely, evidence of cerebral ischemia would prompt therapy to increase cerebral blood flow.

  13. EFFECTS OF RAPAMYCIN ON CEREBRAL OXYGEN SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION DURING REPERFUSION AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHI, O. Z.; BARSOUM, S.; VEGA-COTTO, N. M.; JACINTO, E.; LIU, X.; MELLENDER, S. J.; WEISS, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h with and without rapamycin (20 mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C14-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5 ± 0.8% control vs. 21.5 ± 0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia–reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. PMID:26742793

  14. Study of cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral infarction by 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was studied by the Xe-133 inhalation method in 49 patients with cerebral infarction in the unilateral hemisphere. They were classified into three groups by computed tomographic findings as follows: relatively large low density lesion including the cerebral cortex and subcortex (group I), relatively large low density lesion including the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia (group II), and small low density lesion including the subcortical white matter (group III). Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) in the affected hemisphere was markedly low in group I, moderately low in group II, and slightly low in group III. Several cases in groups I and II revealed remarkable changes of mCBF within one month after the onset. The mCBF in both hemispheres was lower in group I than in groups II and III within one week after the onset. Seven to 12 weeks later, mCBF was lower in the affected hemisphere than in the unaffected one in groups I and II: This was lower when compared with that in group III. There was almost no difference in mCBF between the affected and unaffected hemispheres in group III. Sequential changes of mCBF in both hemispheres were divided into 7 types in reevaluable 27 patients. Sequential changes of mCBF in both hemispheres of the patients with cerebral infarction were considered to be caused mainly by recanalization and hemorrhagic infarction. (J.P.N.)

  15. Cerebral angiographic findings in thromboangiitis obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young J.; Lee, Eun M.; Kim, Jong S. [University of Ulsan, Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, Song Pa, PO Pox 145, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Deok H. [University of Ulsan, Department of Neuroradiology, Asan Medical Center, Song Pa, PO Pox 145, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-12-01

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or ischemic stroke may complicate thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). However, there has been debate regarding the mechanism of ischemic stroke in TAO. We report the case of a patient with TAO who developed repeated TIAs. An angiogram showed multiple alternative areas of arterial occlusions in the distal segments of both middle cerebral arteries. Extensive collateral vessels around the occluded segment were also observed, which resembled the ''tree root'' or ''corkscrew'' vessels described in the peripheral arteries in TAO. Our patient illustrates that cerebral manifestations of TAO may occur with vascular changes that are identical with those encountered in the limb arteries in TAO. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Lund; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness......, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different...... levels of sleep into consideration, show that light sleep (stage II) is characterized by global levels of CBF and CMR only slightly reduced by 3-10% below the level associated with wakefulness, whereas CBF and CMR during deep sleep (stage III-IV) is dramatically reduced by 25-44%. Furthermore, recent...

  17. The Child with Cerebral Palsy and Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the result of an injury to the developing brain during the antenatal, perinatal or postnatal period. Clinical manifestation relate to the areas affected. Patients with CP often present for elective surgical proce-dures to correct various deformities. Anaesthetic concerns of anaesthesia are intraoperative hypothermia , and slow emergence. Suxamethonium does not cause hyperkalaemia in these patients, and a rapid sequence induction may be indicated. Temperature should be monitored and an effort made to keep the patient warm. Cerebral abnormalities may lead to slow awakening; the patient should remain intubated until fully awake and airway reflexes have returned. Pulmonary infection can complicate the postoperative course. Postoperative pain management and the prevention of muscle spasms are important and drugs as baclofen and botulinum toxin are discussed. Epidural analgesia is particu-larly valuable when major orthopaedic procedures are performed.

  18. [Cerebral fat embolism after closed leg injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiel, E; Fleyfel, M; Onimus, J; Godefroy, O; Leclerc, X; Adnet, P

    1997-01-01

    A 21-year-old man sustained a closed fracture of the leg from an industrial accident, without associated head trauma. The orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization by setting leg in plaster. Two hours after admission, the Glasgow coma scale score was 10. Four hours after admission he developed a coma (Glasgow coma scale score = 7) with repetitive seizures. No lesion was visible on cerebral CT scan. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Petechiae on the anterior chest wall and abdomen with bilateral mydriasis occurred. Thrombocytopenia with prothrombine time increase were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging, 27 hours after admission, showed high-intensity areas on T2 weighted views due to fat embolism. Retinal haemorrhages were observed. The bronchoalveolar lavage showing fat staining of tracheal aspirates confirmed the diagnosis of fat embolism. This case report emphasizes the possibility of predominant neurologic manifestations of a fat embolism and the diagnostic help of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:9750647

  19. Cerebral metastases--a therapeutic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Robert; Schiff, David

    2006-08-01

    Cerebral metastases remain a common complication among patients with cancer. Historically, whole-brain radiotherapy has remained the standard of care, with surgery being reserved for selected cases. Recent advances have changed our practice, however. In particular, stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a vital treatment modality for this disease. In addition, chemotherapy, including temozolomide, topoisomerase inhibitors and antimetabolites, and treatment sensitizers, such as efaproxiral and motexafin gadolinium, are actively being assessed in clinical trials, and are likely to play an increasing role in the management of cerebral metastases in the future. Nonetheless, many uncertainties remain, such as the optimal combination and timing of therapeutics. As the arsenal of therapeutics expands, it will be increasingly important to select appropriate patients for a particular treatment paradigm. Understanding the efficacy and toxicity of treatment is essential to this task. PMID:16932601

  20. Cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationship between cortical grey matter flow (CBF) and age, cerebrovascular risk factors and the severity of subcortical hypersignals (HS, hyperintensity score in MRI) in 47 asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HS was most strongly related to CBF, and that hematocrit, age and evidence of ischemic change detected in the electrocardiogram also appeared to be independent determinants of CBF. Both the severity and location of hypersignals were correlated with CBF. The most significant negative correlation observed was that between CBF and HS in the basal ganglia-thalamic region, where the degree of signal abnormality was modest. Decreased CBF in asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors may be related to microcirculatory disturbance associated with elevated hematocrit and an increase in the number of risk factors, and functional suppression of cerebral cortex due to the neuronal disconnection associated with subcortical lesions. In addition, impaired cerebral circulation may be related to MRI signal abnormalities. (author)

  1. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sensorium. Neuroimaging revealed features suggestive of vasogenic oedema. The second patient presented with monoplegia of the lower limb. Neuroimaging revealed perfusion deficit in anterior cerebral artery territory. Both patients were managed with dexamethasone and they improved dramatically. Clinical picture and neuroimaging closely resembled acute ischaemic stroke in both cases. Thrombolysis in these patients would have been disastrous. Recent travel to high altitude, young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors and features of raised ICP concomitantly directed the diagnosis to HACO. PMID:24671373

  2. Computed tomography in spastic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigthy-three children with spastic cerebral plays (CP) were examined with cranial CT. In 56 cases the CT findings were abnormal. The most frequent abnormality was atrophy, present in 44 patients. The frequency of pathologic CT increased with severity of the CP. Patients with CP of postnatal aetiology more often had abnormal CT than patients with other known causes. Pathologic CT findings were seen more often in patients with seizures than in patients without. Infarctions and hemiatrophy were much more frequent in patients with hemiplegia than in patients with other types of spastic CP. A special kind of central atrophy, called isolated atrophy around the cella media, is described. This condition was seen in 20% of cases, most often in hemi- and paraplegic patients. Early infarctions in the border areas between the vasular territories of the internal carotid and the posterior cerebral artery may be the reason for this kind of atrophy. (orig.)

  3. Computed tomography in spastic cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, H.; Taudorf, K.; Melchior, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    Eighty-three children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with cranial CT. In 56 cases the CT findings were abnormal. The most frequent abnormality was atrophy, present in 44 patients. The frequency of pathologic CT increased with severity of the CP. Patients with CP of postnatal aetiology more often had abnormal CT than patients with other known causes. Pathologic CT findings were seen more often in patients with seizures than in patients without. Infarctions and hemiatrophy were much more frequent in patients with hemiplegia than in patients with other types of spastic CP. A special kind of central atrophy, called isolated atrophy around the cella media, is described. This condition was seen in 20% of cases, most often in hemi- and paraplegic patients. Early infarctions in the border areas between the vascular territories of the internal carotid and the posterior cerebral artery may be the reason for this kind of atrophy.

  4. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy following Pleurectomy and Decortication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei or peritoneal mesothelioma, direct extension of disease through the hemidiaphragm may result in an isolated progression of tumor within the pleural space. We monitored the intrapleural and plasma levels of mitomycin C and doxorubicin by HPLC assay in order to determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of this intracavitary use of chemotherapy. Our results showed a persistent high concentration of intrapleural drug as compared to plasma concentrations. The increased exposure for mitomycin C was 96, and the increased exposure for doxorubicin was 241. When the clearance of chemotherapy from the thoracic cavity was compared to clearance from the abdomen and pelvis, there was a considerably more rapid clearance from the abdomen as compared to the thorax. The pharmacologic study of intrapleural chemotherapy in these patients provides a strong pharmacologic rationale for regional chemotherapy in this group of patients.

  6. Dynamic CT scan in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two dynamic CT studies were performed on 27 patients with cerebral infarction (11 to 75 years of age), and perfusion patterns of low density areas on plain CT were evaluated. The initial studies were performed 1.5 hours to 60 days after acute onset. The following results were obtained. 1) The perfusion pattern in the low density area on plain CT varies among patients at any periods after onset, ranging from absent perfusion pattern to hyperfusion pattern. No consisitent perfusion pattern was obtained at any given time after onset. 2) Repeat dynamic CT revealed that the perfusion pattern in the low density area changed with time variously. 3) The perfusion pattern or change of perfusion pattern did not correlate with outcome of the patient. 4) At an acute stage, when no abnormal findings were obtained on plain CT, dynamic CT revealed abnormal perfusion pattern, enabling early diagnosis of cerebral infarction and estimation of blood perfusion in the infarcted area. In determining the treatment for the cerebral infarction at an acute stage, it is important to know the condition of the blood perfusion in the infarcted area. For the patients in whom recanalization has already taken place, mannitol or steroid might be effective, providing protection against severe brain edema and hemorrhagic infarction. On the other hand, if recanalization has not taken place, revascularization therapy might be worth trying within 6 hours since the onset. It has been said that ischemic brain damage may not be reversed by the revascularization after 6 hours. Dynamic CT is safe, less invasive, convenient and very useful for early diagnosis of the cerebral infarction and determination of the treatment at the acute stage. (J.P.N.)

  7. Modeling human brain development with cerebral organoids

    OpenAIRE

    Muzio, Luca; Consalez, G. Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new three-dimensional culture system for the derivation of cerebral organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells provides developmental neurobiologists with the first example of a three-dimensional framework for the study of human brain development. This innovative approach permits the in vitro assembly of a human embryonic brain rudiment that recapitulates the developing human cerebrum. Organoids contain progenitor populations that develop to yield mature cor...

  8. Sympathetic hyperactivity syndrome following cerebral fat embolization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been no reports of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity syndrome (PSHS) associated with cerebral fat embolization. We describe the case of a young male who developed acute brain injury and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to significant fat embolization following a traumatic femur injury. Our patient demonstrated episodes of significant hypertension, tachycardia, fever and extensor posturing. Extensive evaluation lead to the diagnosis and appropriate ...

  9. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Devesa; Nerea Casteleiro; Cristina Rodicio; et al, ...

    2010-01-01

    Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompan...

  10. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was signif...

  11. Mapping of cerebral oxidative metabolism with MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Eric A.; Beesam, R. Shashank; Elliott, Mark A.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    Using a T1ρ MRI based indirect detection method, we demonstrate the detection of cerebral oxidative metabolism and its modulation by administration of the mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in a large animal model with minimum utilization of gas. The study was performed by inhalation in swine during imaging on clinical MRI scanners. Metabolic changes in swine were determined by two methods. First, in a series of animals, increased metabolism caused by DNP injection was m...

  12. Cancer mortality in cerebral palsy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Steven,; Brooks, Jordan; Strauss, David; Shumway, Sharon; Shavelle, Robert; Kush, Scott; Sasco, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to lifestyle, occupational, and environmental risk factors for cancer are undoubtedly different in cerebral palsy (CP) than in the general population, and these differences and others may result in a specific pattern of cancer mortality in CP. Objective: To study the cancer mortality of CP in California. Study group: 40,482 CP cases (contributing 357,928 person-years) among 210,155 persons having received annual evaluations from the California Department of Developmental Services ove...

  13. Cerebral Asymmetries: The View from the Inside

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Güntürkün

    2008-01-01

    The two brain hemispheres of humans and other animals differ in function. Although cerebral asymmetries are widespread within the animal kingdom and affect more or less all sensory and motor systems, their neuroscientific fundaments could only recently be studied in greater detail. Birds are probably the best model to study lateralization since the ontogenetic beginning, the neuroanatomical details and the asymmetrically organized cognitive architecture can easily be studied. Genetic mechani...

  14. Regional cerebral flows in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for assessing the natural history of cerebrovascular disease in patients with hypertension in order that the effects of controlling hypertension may be judged. By developing a quantitative noninvasive method for measuring regional cerebral flow and internal carotid appearance times it is hoped that drugs intended to inhibit the continued formation of atheroma and drugs intended to aid the dissolution of atheroma, may be objectively evaluated. (Auth.)

  15. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sens...

  16. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  17. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  18. EVALUATION OF NEUROIMAGING IN CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Hasanpour avanji

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveCerebral palsy (CP), a common static motor neurological disorder of childhood with wide spectrum of underlying etiologies, can be demonstrated with different neuro imaging techniques. We undertook this study to investigate the diagnosis of intracranial lesions in children with CP and its correlation between clinical deficits and neuroradiological findings.Materials and methodsIn this prospective hospital-based study, the data of 120 patients with CP, aged below 18 years, referring to...

  19. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  20. Foot Deformities in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    E Ameri; A. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: In patients with cerebral palsy (CP) the most common presentation is lower extremity deformity specially foot deformity. Inability to ambulation is the one of the most important disabilities, that dependent to the variety of factors such as severity of disease, kind of CP, etc. This study was aimed to assess prevalence of kinds of foot deformity in CP and communication between kind of CP and foot deformity and another hand inability to ambulation.Materials & Methods...

  1. Occupational therapy for children with cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Lambregts, B.L.M.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The object of our systematic review, therefore, was to determine whether OT interventions improve functional abilities and social participation in children with cerebral palsy. Criteria for considering Studies for this Review: Types of studies: Studies with one of the following designs will be entered in the review. 1) Randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT): An experiment in which investigators randomly allocate eligible people into treatment and control groups. Cross-over tri...

  2. Narrative ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Holck, Pernille; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD) children on a narrative task, in order to search for possible underlying causes to the problems in the CP group. The results of the BST for 10 childre...

  3. Birthweight specific trends in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Cooke, R W; Rosenbloom, L

    1990-01-01

    A register of infants with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the Mersey region from 1967-84 has been maintained using various sources of information. A total of 1056 patients are registered of whom 331 (31%) have hemiplegia or mixed hemiplegia, 236 (22%) have diplegias or mixed diplegia, and 369 (35%) have quadriplegia or mixed quadriplegia. The remainder have dyskinetic or dystonic forms except for seven, who are unclassified. There has been no significant change in the prevalence o...

  4. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  5. Sociopragmatic skills in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kenda, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Communication is one of the most important means that enables us life in society. My thesis is therefore dedicated to the use of language among people or pragmatics. I am mainly interested in special features in communication and pragmatics in children with cerebral palsy. In the theoretical introduction, I firstly presented the characteristics of communication and the process of language development of children in the early years of age. Special attention is paid to pragmatics, its deve...

  6. Gallium scanning in cerebral and cranial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with cranial or intracranial infections were studied with technetium and gallium brain scans. Seven of 18 lesions were noted with gallium and not with pertechnetate, while the reverse pattern was not seen. Brain abscesses were visualized with gallium but not with pertechnetate in two of five cases. Osteomyelitis of the skull and mastoiditis showed intense gallium uptake in all cases, while meningitis or cerebritis gave inconsistent results

  7. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait

    OpenAIRE

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  8. Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children wit...

  9. Epidemiology of Cerebral Palsy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Wichers, Marc Jan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChildren with cerebral palsy (CP) and their families often make strong demands on diagnostic, therapeutic, technical and social facilities. Prevalence estimates are needed to improve treatment and services. As recent Dutch data are not available, the present study aimed to assess the population prevalence of CP in the Netherlands. A representative Dutch area with 1.2 million inhabitants of which 172,000 were born between 1977 and 1988 was studied. To ascertain the children with CP...

  10. Visual Impairments in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the neurological developmental disorder mainly affecting motor abilities. Considering the high rate of associated impairments even the definition of CP is revised and changed. Visual impairment is one of the most common associated impairment. Unfortunately, it is often unrecognized and considered to be a normal consequence of motor problems. Sense of sight is most important for early child development, motivation, learning through imitation. It is, therefore, indispensa...

  11. Rehabilitation Outcomes of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Caglar, Nil Sayıner; Tugcu, Betul; Tonbaklar, Aysegul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the results of Bobath-based rehabilitation performed at a pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) inpatient clinic. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 28 children with CP who were inpatients at a pediatric service. Inclusion criteria were: being an inpatient of our hospital aged 2–12 with a diagnosis of CP; having one permanent primary caregiver; and the caregiver having no medical or psychotic problems. All of the patients received Bobath treatment for 1 hour per day,...

  12. Chronic conditions in adults with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, MD; Ryan, JM; Hurvitz, EA; E Mahmoudi

    2015-01-01

    Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) represent a growing population whose health status and healthcare needs are poorly understood.1 Mortality records reveal that death due to ischemic heart disease and cancer is higher among adults with CP;2 however, there have been no national surveillance efforts to track disease risk in this population. We examined estimates of chronic conditions in a population-representative sample of adults with CP.

  13. Kinematic Deviations In Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeux, Morgan; ARMAND, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    In gait analysis, a large portion of the work consists in finding the underlying causes of the abnormal movement observed during walking. The patient’s kinematics of walking is compared to that of typically developed children and the deviations are further analysed. Over the years, clinicians have observed multiple-joints kinematics deviations that were frequent in children with cerebral palsy and devised gait patterns in order to group patients and support management algorithms. However, the...

  14. Hip and Spine in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Persson-Bunke, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk of scoliosis, contractures including windswept hip deformity (WS), and hip dislocation. In 1994, a follow-up program and registry for children and adolescents with CP (CPUP) was initiated in Sweden to allow the early detection and prevention of hip dislocations and other musculoskeletal deformities. Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of scoliosis and WS in children with CP and to study the effect of CPUP. To e...

  15. Trends of Cerebral Palsy in Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeet Goel; Nisha Ojha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of etiological factor and clinical features of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Rajasthan. Five dissertations done in the Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics Ay., National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur with diagnosed case of spastic CP, from year 2010 to 2014 were included in the study. Age, sex, etiological factors, clinical classifications, and epidemiological characteristics as well as the problems associated with CP were analysed...

  16. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    CarlyneArnould; YannickBleyenheuft; Jean-LouisThonnard

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children wit...

  17. Hydrogen therapy: from mechanism to cerebral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-lin Liu; Kai Zhang; Gang Chen

    2016-01-01

    The medicinal value of hydrogen (H 2 ) was ignored prior to research illustrating that inhalation of 2% H 2 can significantly decrease the damage of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion caused by oxidative stress via selective elimination of hydroxyl freebase (OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOOˉ). Subsequently, there have been numerous experiments on H 2 . Most research and trials involving the mechanisms underlying H 2 therapy show the effects of antioxygenation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosi...

  18. Probability of walking in children with cerebral palsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckung, E.; Hagberg, G.; Uldall, P.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to describe walking ability in children with cerebral palsy from the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe common database through 21 years and to examine the association between walking ability and predicting factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anonymous data...... on 10042 children with cerebral palsy born between 1976 and 1996 were gathered from 14 European centers; 9012 patients were eligible for the analyses. RESULTS: Unaided walking as the primary way of walking at 5 years of age was reported for 54%, walking with assistive devices was reported for 16......: The collaboration Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe provides a powerful means of monitoring trends in cerebral palsy and its functional consequences. The proportion of nonwalking in children with cerebral palsy seems to be rather stable over years and across centers despite the changes that...

  19. Is longer sevoflurane preconditioning neuroprotective in permanent focal cerebral ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Caiwei; Sheng, Bo; Wang, Shurong; Liu, Jin

    2013-08-15

    Sevoflurane preconditioning has neuroprotective effects in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. However, its influence on permanent cerebral ischemia remains unclear. In the present study, the rats were exposed to sevoflurane for 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes, followed by induction of permanent cerebral ischemia. Results demonstrated that 30- and 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct volume at 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, and 60-minute lurane preconditioning additionally reduced the number of TUNEL- and caspase-3-positive cells in the ischemic penumbra. However, 120-minute sevoflurane preconditioning did not show evident neuroprotective effects. Moreover, 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly attenuated neurological deficits and infarct volume in rats at 4 days after cerebral ischemia. These findings indicated that 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning can induce the best neuroprotective effects in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia through the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:25206521

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Devesa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children.Keywords: growth hormone, IGF-I, cerebral palsy, short stature

  2. Complications of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrù, Emanuele, E-mail: surgeon.ema@gmail.com [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Roccatagliata, Luca, E-mail: lroccatagliata@neurologia.unige.it [Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital and IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, Genoa 16132 (Italy); Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa (Italy); Cester, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.cester@sanita.padova.it [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Causin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.causin@sanita.padova.it [Neuroradiology Department, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua 35128 (Italy); Castellan, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.castellan@hsanmartino.it [Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital and IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, Genoa 16132 (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    The number of neuroendovascular treatments of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms has increased substantially in the last two decades. Complications of endovascular treatments of cerebral aneurysms are rare but can potentially lead to acute worsening of the neurological status, to new neurological deficits or death. Some of the possible complications, such as vascular access site complications or systemic side effects associated with contrast medium (e.g. contrast medium allergy, contrast induced nephropathy) can also be encountered in diagnostic angiography. The most common complications of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms are related to acute thromboembolic events and perforation of the aneurysm. Overall, the reported rate of thromboembolic complications ranges between 4.7% and 12.5% while the rate of intraprocedural rupture of cerebral aneurysms is about 0.7% in patients with unruptured aneurysms and about 4.1% in patients with previously ruptured aneurysms. Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications may occur during different phases of endovascular procedures and are related to different technical, clinical and anatomic reasons. A thorough knowledge of the different aspects of these complications can reduce the risk of their occurrence and minimize their clinical sequelae. A deep understanding of complications and of their management is thus part of the best standard of care.

  3. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid [1-14C] octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions

  4. Cocaine Constrictor Mechanisms of the Cerebral Vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Robert M; Yoon, SeongHun; Zuccarello, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Cocaine constriction of the cerebral vasculature is thought to contribute to the ischemia associated with cocaine use. However, the mechanisms whereby cocaine elicits relevant vasoconstriction remain elusive. Indeed, proposed intra- and intercellular mechanisms based on over 3 decades of ex vivo vascular studies are, for the most part, of questionable relevancy due to the generally low contractile efficacy of cocaine combined with the use of nonresistance-type vessels. Furthermore, the significance attached to mechanisms derived from in vivo animal studies may be limited by the inability to demonstrate cocaine-induced decreased cerebral blood flow, as observed in (awake) humans. Despite these apparent limitations, we surmise that the vasoconstriction relevant to cocaine-induced ischemia is elicited by inhibition of dilator and activation of constrictor pathways because of cocaine action on the neurovascular unit (neuron, astrocyte, and vessel) and on vessels outside the unit. Furthermore, previous cocaine exposure, that is, conditions present in human subjects, downregulates and sensitizes these dilator and constrictor pathways, respectively, thereby enhancing constriction to acute cocaine. Identification of specific intra- and intercellular mechanisms requires investigations in the isolated microvasculature and the neurovascular unit from species chronically exposed to cocaine and in which cocaine decreases cerebral blood flow. PMID:26771152

  5. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (Pvasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  6. Cerebral Ischemic Preconditioning: the Road So Far….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushara Vijayakumar, N; Sangwan, Amit; Sharma, Bhargy; Majid, Arshad; Rajanikant, G K

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral preconditioning constitutes the brain's adaptation to lethal ischemia when first exposed to mild doses of a subtoxic stressor. The phenomenon of preconditioning has been largely studied in the heart, and data from in vivo and in vitro models from past 2-3 decades have provided sufficient evidence that similar machinery exists in the brain as well. Since preconditioning results in a transient protective phenotype labeled as ischemic tolerance, it can open many doors in the medical warfare against stroke, a debilitating cerebrovascular disorder that kills or cripples thousands of people worldwide every year. Preconditioning can be induced by a variety of stimuli from hypoxia to pharmacological anesthetics, and each, in turn, induces tolerance by activating a multitude of proteins, enzymes, receptors, transcription factors, and other biomolecules eventually leading to genomic reprogramming. The intracellular signaling pathways and molecular cascades behind preconditioning are extensively being investigated, and several first-rate papers have come out in the last few years centered on the topic of cerebral ischemic tolerance. However, translating the experimental knowledge into the clinical scaffold still evades practicality and faces several challenges. Of the various preconditioning strategies, remote ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning appears to be more clinically relevant for the management of ischemic stroke. In this review, we discuss current developments in the field of cerebral preconditioning and then examine the potential of various preconditioning agents to confer neuroprotection in the brain. PMID:26081149

  7. Hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis cerebral y SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. garretto

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Se observan complicaciones neurológicas en 40% de enfermos con SIDA. De estos, en 10% puede ser la manifestation inicial de la enfermedad. En otro 11% pueden aparecer trastornos del movimiento. Comunicamos el primer caso de hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis cerebral y SIDA en nuestro pais. Hombre de 26 anos, con diagnostico de SIDA y toxoplasmosis cerebral. Habia comenzado con crisis motoras simples de hemicuerpo izquierdo, con generalization secundaria y luego perdida de fuerza progresiva en dicho hemicuerpo. La RMN de cérebro mostro una lesion frontal derecha y otra temporo-occipital izquierda, con gran edema perilesional y efecto de masa. Las serologias para HIV y toxoplasmosis fueron positivas. Comenzo tratamiento con sulfadiazina y pirimetamina. Al duodecimo dia aparecieron movimientos involuntários dei pie izquierdo, coreicos, que se extendieron mas tarde a todo ese miembro inferior y luego al hemicuerpo. Nueva RMN de cérebro mostro disminucion dei edema y efecto de masa de las lesiones. Sin embargo, se observo una nueva lesion a nivel peduncular derecho. Movimientos involuntarios en pacientes con toxoplasmosis cerebral comenzaron a describirse recientemente solo en pacientes con SIDA. El presente seria el decimotercer caso de la literatura mundial y el primero en nuestro pais de hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis y SIDA.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in patients with endogenous depression by the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. These 32 patients, who were divided into 10 unmedicated group and 22 medicated group, were reexamined when the depressed patients reverted to a euthymic state (remission). The value of rCBF was assessed by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in the cerebral regions of interests (ROIs) to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The depressive patients showed a decrease in rCBF all over the cerebral regions and, especially, the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere. These changes turned toward normal in a remitted state following treatments, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between the medicated and unmedicated patients. There was a significantly negative correlation between the severity of depressive symptoms and the mean rCBF in a total of patients with depression. These results suggest that psychiatric symptoms in the depressive patients might be related to the left hemispheric dysfunction. (author)

  9. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  10. Aphasia following anterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have report two cases of aphasia that had infarcts in the distribution of the left or right anterior cerebral artery, as confirmed by computed tomography. Case 1 is a right-handed, 65-year-old man in whom computerized tomographic scanning revealed an infarction of the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery after the clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The standard language test of aphasia (SLTA) revealed non-fluent aphasia with dysarthria, good comprehension, almost normal repetition with good articulation, and a defectiveness in writing. This syndrome was considered an instance of transcortical motor aphasia. Although three years had passed from the onset, his aphasia did not show any improvement. Case 2 is a 37-year-old man who is right-handed but who can use his left hand as well. He was admitted because of subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior communicating aneurysm. Because of postoperative spasm, an infarction in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery developed. He was totally unable to express himself vocally, but he could use written language quite well to express his ideas and had a good comprehension of spoken language. This clinical picture was considered that of an aphemia. After several weeks, his vocalization returned, but the initial output was still hypophonic. (J.P.N.)

  11. Gene expression profiling in the human middle cerebral artery after cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, P; Edvinsson, L

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the gene expression in human middle cerebral artery (MCA) after ischemia. Ischemic stroke affects the perfusion in the affected area and experimental cerebral ischemia results in upregulation of vasopressor receptors in the MCA leading to the ischemic area. We obtained human...... MCA samples distributing to the ischemic area, 7-10 days post-stroke. The gene expression was examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray, proteins were studied with immunohistochemistry. We investigated genes previously shown to be upregulated in animal models of cerebral...... ischemia (e.g. ET(A), ET(B), AT1, AT2, and 5-HT(2A/1B/1D)). Their mRNA expression was increased compared with controls, consistent with findings in experimental stroke. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of the receptors localized on the smooth muscle cells. The gene expression was profiled with...

  12. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T; Schmidt, J F; Secher, N H; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Holm, S; Lassen, N A

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions....... To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow...... velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise...

  13. Pentoxifylline as an adjunct therapy in children with cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kokwaro Gilbert; Kivaya Esther; Olola Christopher HO; Wamola Betty; Köhler Carsten; Lell Bertrand; Wypij David; Mithwani Sadik; Taylor Terrie E; Kremsner Peter G; Newton Charles RJC

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pentoxifylline (PTX) affects many processes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria and it has been shown to reduce the duration of coma in children with cerebral malaria. This pilot study was performed to assess pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of PTX in African children with cerebral malaria. Methods Ten children admitted to the high dependency unit of the Kilifi District Hospital in Kenya with cerebral malaria (Blantyre coma score of 2 or less) re...

  14. Effect of minocycline on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury★

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yuanyin; Xu, Lijuan; Yin, Jinbao; Zhong, Zhichao; Fan, Hongling; LI, XI; Chang, Quanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Minocylcine, a tetracycline derivate, has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. In this study, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method, and minocycline was immediately injected intraperitoneally after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (22.5 mg/kg, initially 45 mg/kg) at a 12-hour interval. Results showed that after minocycline treatment, the volume of cerebral infarction was significantly reduced, the number ...

  15. A case of cerebral malaria and dengue concurrent infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anwar Alam; Md Dm

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria and dengue are the common infections which cause higher mortality and morbidities in every part of the world especially in India. Concurrent infection of cerebral malaria and dengue is rare entity due to different habitat of vectors and it was reported rarely from Southeast Asia. In this case report, the authors reported a case of concurrent cerebral malaria and dengue which was recovered after eight days of admission with increase in morbidity.

  16. Optic atrophy and cerebral infarcts caused by methanol intoxication: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the MRI findings of cerebral and optic pathway damage in the acute and subacute stages of methanol intoxication. In the acute stage, CT and MRI showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrosis of the corpus striatum and infarcts in the anterior and middle cerebral arterial territories. MRI in the subacute stage demonstrated atrophy of the optic chiasm and prechiasmatic optic nerves in addition to the cerebral infarcts. The patient survived, with total blindness. (orig.)

  17. PET Quantification of Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Small Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Temma; Kazuhiro Koshino; Tetsuaki Moriguchi; Jun-ichiro Enmi; Hidehiro Iida

    2014-01-01

    Understanding cerebral oxygen metabolism is of great importance in both clinical diagnosis and animal experiments because oxygen is a fundamental source of brain energy and supports brain functional activities. Since small animals such as rats are widely used to study various diseases including cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases, the development of a noninvasive in vivo measurement method of cerebral oxygen metabolic parameters such as oxygen extractio...

  18. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies

    OpenAIRE

    Byju, N.; James Jose; Saifudheen, K; V Abdul Gafoor; P Jithendranath

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a well-recognized entity, but its clinical presentation is varied and often mimics many neurological disorders, making it a diagnostic challenge. Cerebral venous thrombosis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, which may evolve suddenly or over weeks. It mimics many neurological conditions such as meningitis, encephalopathy, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and stroke. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies, ...

  19. Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Levitt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms.

  20. Loop Modeling Forward and Feedback Analysis in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kiran Kumar; Shashi.B.Mehta; Manjunath Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (CAVM) hemodynamic in disease condition results changes in the flow and pressure level in blood vessels. Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (CAVM) is an abnormal shunting of vessels between arteries and veins. It is one of the common Brain disorder. In general, the blood flows of cerebral region are from arteries to veins through capillary bed. This paper is focus on the creation of a new electrical model for spiral loop structures that will simulate the p...

  1. Regulation of the cerebral circulation: bedside assessment and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Joseph; Budohoski, Karol P; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of the cerebral circulation relies on the complex interplay between cardiovascular, respiratory, and neural physiology. In health, these physiologic systems act to maintain an adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) through modulation of hydrodynamic parameters; the resistance of cerebral vessels, and the arterial, intracranial, and venous pressures. In critical illness, however, one or more of these parameters can be compromised, raising the possibility of disturbed CBF regulation and ...

  2. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qadir; Hina Kanwal

    2015-01-01

    A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular diseas...

  3. Accessibility of mental health care for adults with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlaja, Kimmo; Päivärinta, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the accessibility in mental health care from the point of view of an adult with cerebral palsy. The theoretical framework of this thesis is constructed from the related literature and previous studies closely linked to the topic. Research was done to clarify the concepts of disability, cerebral palsy, and mental health. The research showed cerebral palsy as a multidimensional physical disability which may include different types of accompanying im...

  4. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B;

    2011-01-01

    reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  5. Hypereosinophilia with Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarcts and Focal Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/μL and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia

  6. Hypereosinophilia with Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarcts and Focal Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Hyun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/{mu}L and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia.

  7. Cerebral Blood Flow and Autoregulation after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Udomphorn, Yuthana; Armstead, William M.; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a global health concern and is the leading cause of traumatic morbidity and mortality in children. Despite a lower overall mortality than in adult traumatic brain injury, the cost to society from the sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury is very high. Predictors of poor outcome after traumatic brain injury include altered systemic and cerebral physiology, including altered cerebral hemodynamics. Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired following traumatic bra...

  8. Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Hering-Hanit, R; Achiron, R.; Lipitz, S; Achiron, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Slight morphological asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres has been observed in fetal and newborn brains. In adults, sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry have also been reported.
OBJECTIVE—To establish whether cerebral hemisphere asymmetry correlates with sex in fetuses.
METHODS—Left-right cerebral hemisphere asymmetry, and the correlation with sex, were studied in 51 male and 51 female fetuses of 20-22 weeks gestation, using diagnostic ultrasound scanning....

  9. Familial Recurrence of Cerebral Palsy with Multiple Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence P. Richer; Dower, Nancy A.; Norma Leonard; Chan, Alicia K. J.; Robertson, Charlene M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The recurrence of cerebral palsy in the same family is uncommon. We, however, report on two families with two or more affected siblings. In both families, numerous potential risk factors were identified including environmental, obstetric, and possible maternal effects. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors may lead to the increased risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy in families. Intrinsic and maternal risk factors should be investigated in all cases of cerebral palsy to properly counsel...

  10. Isquemia cerebral transitoria y riesgo de infarto cerebral isquémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Rosales-Bravo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad vascular cerebral es la principal causa de hospitalización neurológica en el mundo. Costa Rica no es la excepción; en nuestros hospitales cada día es más frecuente el número de pacientes que ingresan con infartos cerebrales isquémicos. Esta común enfermedad obedece a la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias, tabaquismo y la alta expectativa de vida de los costarricenses, todos considerados factores de riesgo. Aproximadamente un 80% de los infartos cerebrales son isquémicos secundarios a la oclusión arterial aguda de un territorio vascular específico; el restante 20% corresponde a la variante hemorrágica. Las secuelas neurológicas secundarias a esta entidad son la principal causa de discapacidad crónica en los pacientes y conllevan una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque muchos sufren el infarto cerebral isquémico en forma aguda, otro grupo de pacientes experimenta uno o varios episodios previos de isquemia cerebral transitoria, lo cual los pone en riesgo de sufrir un infarto cerebral isquémico durante un periodo corto, es decir, son pacientes vulnerables. Esta revisión pretende actualizar los conocimientos médicos, especialmente para aquellos que trabajan en la atención primaria y en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarias, que reconozcan a este grupo de pacientes y les brinden la atención médica necesaria para de prevenir un infarto cerebral isquémico. La isquemia cerebral transitoria debe ser considerada como una emergencia neurológica.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Møller, Kirsten;

    2000-01-01

    The absence of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) implies that changes in arterial pressure directly influence cerebral perfusion. It is assumed that dilatation of cerebral arterioles is responsible for the impaired autoregulation. Recently, fronta...

  12. Application of DWI and DTI in diagnosis of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze and evaluate the applications of diffusion tensor imaging(DTI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in cerebral infarction. Methods: 84 cases with different phases cerebral infarction (6 cases in super-acute, 30 cases in acute, 26 cases in sub-acute and 22 cases in chronic phase) were performed by routine MRI, DWI and DTI scan, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and the signal changes of DWI of the leision and the conlateral side were calculated and compared; The relationships among DWI, FA and ADC in different phases of cerebral infarction were analyzed. Results: The leisions of super-acute and acute cerebral infarction showed obviously high signal on DWI images, and low signal in chronic cerebral infarction. The mean relative ADC (rADC) values of sub-acute and chronic cerebral infarction were higher than those of super-acute and acute cerebral infarction (P<0.05). The FA values in 45 cases with different phases cerebral infarction (4 cases in super-acute, 16 cases in acute, 14 cases in sub-acute and 11 cases in chronic phase) were all lower than those in conlateral regions (P<0.05). Conclusion: DWI and DTI can detect superacute and acute lesions, the combination of DWI and conventional MRI can differentiate the phases of cerebral infarction. (authors)

  13. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    ultrasonography. RANDOMISATION: Allocation sequence 1:1 with block sizes 4 and 6 in random order concealed for the investigators. The allocation was stratified for gestational age (<26 weeks or ≥ 26 weeks). BLINDING: Cerebral oxygenation measurements were blinded in the control group. All outcome assessors were......OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...... infants using a dedicated treatment guideline in combination with cerebral NIRS monitoring.Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01590316....

  14. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children; Achados de imagem e perfusao arterial cerebral em acidente vascular cerebral isquemico devido a arteriopatia transitoria em crianca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves, E-mail: alcinojr@uol.com.br [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza [Neuropediatria, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy. (author)

  15. Study on plasma homocysteine (HCY) levels in patients with cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the plasma levels of HCY, folate and vitamin B12 and the development of cerebrovascular accidents (infarction and hemorrhage). Methods: Plasma HCY concentrations (with fluorescence polarization immunoassay FPIA) and folate, VitB12 contents (with immunofluorescence technique) were measured in 150 patients with cerebral infarction, 171 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (all patients confirmed with CT/MRI) and 96 controls. Results: Plasma HCY concentrations were significantly higher (P12 contents were significantly lower (P12 concentrations were critically involved in the development and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular accidents. (authors)

  16. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  17. The accessible cerebral vascular proteome in a mouse model of cerebral β-amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesli, Christoph; Fugmann, Tim; Borgia, Beatrice; Schliemann, Christoph; Neri, Dario; Jucker, Mathias

    2011-04-01

    Assessing protein changes in the cerebral vasculature of brain disorders may increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis and facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. By combining perfusion of mice with a charged reactive biotin derivative and subsequent quantification of the biotinylated proteins, the proteome accessible from the vasculature in an APPPS1 transgenic mouse model of cerebral β-amyloidosis was identified and compared to that in non-transgenic control mice. Our results provide proof-of-concept of this technology for the identification of new targets for antibody-based therapy or pharmacodelivery, and for neuroimaging in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21262399

  18. Cerebral radionuclide tomography using 123I-isopropyl-amphetamine in cerebral ischaemic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients with previous cerebral ischaemic accident were explored by both computerized tomography (CT) and radionuclide tomography after injection of 123I-labeled N-isopropyl-iodo-amphetamine. All lesions that were visible at CT were also visible at radionuclide tomography. However, in 7 patients with normal CT results the latter method showed areas of cerebral activity anatomically correlated with neurological signs or vascular lesions. Cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 50% of established lesions in the carotid territory. Radionuclide tomography therefore appears as a very sensitive method to be used in ischaemic pathology with transient or regressive accidents

  19. Aspergilose cerebral em paciente imunocompetente Cerebral Aspergillus abscess in immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Pianetti Filho; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Alexandre Varela Giannetti; Rogério Darwich

    2005-01-01

    Descrevemos um caso raro de aspergilose cerebral, como complicação de cirurgia para aneurisma cerebral, em paciente imunocompetente, e com sucesso no tratamento. A paciente, de 40 anos, havia sido submetida a craniotomia para clipagem de aneurisma da artéria pericalosa. Após cinco meses, no sitio cirúrgico, surgiram múltiplos abscessos por Aspergillus sp. Foram necessárias duas craniotomias para a retirada da massa fúngica e uso de anfotericina B. Após 14 anos de acompanhamento, a evolução mo...

  20. Hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebral espontâneo: aspectos à tomografia computadorizada Spontaneous cerebral intraparenchymatous hematoma: computed tomography findings

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Monteiro Soares; Antonio Carlos Pires Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar os aspectos mais freqüentes do hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebral espontâneo observados na tomografia computadorizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, os exames de tomografia computadorizada de 250 pacientes com hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebral espontâneo, provenientes de três diferentes hospitais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. RESULTADOS: O hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebral profundo foi o de maior incidência, equivalendo a 54,4% (136...

  1. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N;

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebr...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P <0.05). Thus, during both cycling and static handgrip, a cholinergic receptor mechanism is important for the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  2. Parálisis cerebral: correlación entre aminoacidograma y cartografía cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Lezamiz Aróstegui, Itziar

    2012-01-01

    Se investiga la existencia de correlación entre las alteraciones de la nutrición cerebral estudiada con el aminoacidograma y las alteraciones de la cartografía cerebral, en una muestra de 7 pacientes con parálisis cerebral. Se hace aminoacidograma y cartografía cerebral de toda la muestra y estudio comparativo de resultados. Los datos resultantes de dichas pruebas confirman la correlación entre los resultados de las alteraciones cartográficas y los de las alteraciones del aminoacidograma en ...

  3. A rat model of reproducible cerebral infarction using thrombotic blood clot emboli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, K.; Sereghy, T.; Boysen, G.; Pedersen, H.; Høyer, S.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat......Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat...

  4. Association of ADAMTS13 polymorphism with cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraisin Sirima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs to brain microvascular endothelium has been shown to contribute to the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. Recent studies reported increased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF and reduced activity of VWF-cleaving protease, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13, in patients with cerebral malaria. Methods Association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ADAMTS13 gene with cerebral malaria was examined in 708 Thai patients with P. falciparum malaria. Results Among six SNPs, the derived allele of a SNP located in intron 28, rs4962153-A, was significantly associated with protection against cerebral malaria when 115 cerebral malaria patients were compared with 367 mild malaria patients (Fisher's exact P-value = 0.0057; OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.096-0.76. Significant association was also detected between 115 cerebral malaria and 593 non-cerebral malaria (226 non-cerebral severe malaria and 367 mild malaria patients (Fisher's exact P-value = 0.012; OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.83. Conclusions Excessive adhesion of PRBCs to the platelet-decorated ultra-large VWF (ULVWF appears to enhance the sequestration of PRBCs to cerebral microvascular endothelium. The genetic association observed in the present study implies that the regulation of platelet-decorated ULVWF strings by ADAMTS13 may play a role in the development of cerebral malaria.

  5. Aspergilose cerebral em paciente imunocompetente Cerebral Aspergillus abscess in immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pianetti Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso raro de aspergilose cerebral, como complicação de cirurgia para aneurisma cerebral, em paciente imunocompetente, e com sucesso no tratamento. A paciente, de 40 anos, havia sido submetida a craniotomia para clipagem de aneurisma da artéria pericalosa. Após cinco meses, no sitio cirúrgico, surgiram múltiplos abscessos por Aspergillus sp. Foram necessárias duas craniotomias para a retirada da massa fúngica e uso de anfotericina B. Após 14 anos de acompanhamento, a evolução mostra resolução da aspergilose, sem seqüela. O tratamento do abscesso cerebral por Aspergilus exige acompanhamento clínico contínuo, repetidas drenagens cirúrgicas intracranianas e o uso de anfotericina B no tratamento medicamentoso.We report an unusual case of brain aspergillosis with multiple recurrent abscess in a 40 years-old immunocompetent woman, with good therapeutical outcome. The patient presented a subaracnoid hemorhage caused by a ruptured pericalosal artery aneurysm and was submitted to a craniotomy for aneurysm surgery. Five months later, she developed multiple Aspergillus cerebral abscess. Two craniotomies and amphotericin B became necessary during treatment. Fourteen years later, she is asymptomatic. Treatment of brain aspergillosis abscess implied the combination of both surgical and drug therapy with amphotericin B.

  6. Paralisia cerebral, novas perspectivas terapêuticas Cerebral palsy, new therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newra Tellechea Rotta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a revisão da paralisia cerebral tem como objetivo oferecer ao pediatra informações atualizadas sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento. Fontes dos dados: foram utilizados dados de revisão bibliográfica não sistematizada e da experiência no atendimento dos pacientes da Unidade de Neurologia do Serviço de Pediatria do HCPA-UFRGS. Síntese dos dados: o diagnóstico e tratamento da paralisia cerebral é multidisciplinar. Ao lado do sintoma principal motor, estão os sintomas associados que requerem igual atenção. Os exames de neuroimagem são importantes para melhor localizar a lesão, e mostrar sua extensão e características. O EEG auxilia no diagnóstico das epilepsias associadas. O tratamento principal é fisioterápico, auxiliado pelo tratamento da espasticidade, com antiespásticos orais, ou com toxina botulínica injetável. O tratamento de epilepsia secundária varia de acordo com o tipo de crise. Conclusões: o pediatra é o primeiro médico a entrar em contato com a criança com paralisia cerebral, e deve estar apto para reconhecer precocemente os desvios do desenvolvimento, orientar o manejo e, dentro das possibilidades e necessidades, encaminhar ao especialista.Objective: to provide pediatrician with updated information about diagnoses and treatment of cerebral palsy. This articles aims at supplying pediatricians with tools that will help them diagnose and treat cerebral palsy. Sources: non-systematic review of literature combined with personal experience at the Neurology Unit of Pediatrics Service of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Summary of the findings: the cerebral palsy diagnosis and treatment are based on multidisciplinary clinical exam, EEG, CT and MR. Conclusions: pediatricians are the first physician that see the patient with cerebral palsy. Thus, they should be able to diagnose an treat it.

  7. Positron emission tomography and cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of new methods of labelling with short lived radioisotopes and of visualisation 'in vivo' of these labelled molecules by emission tomography, provide the possibility of studying brain metabolism at different levels. Two examples will illustrate the possibilities of this methodology. Cerebral metabolism of methionine-11C in phenylketonutic patients: The cerebral uptake of methionine was measured in 24 PKU children aged 1 to 40 months on a low protein diet. Ten of them were examined twice at intervals of several months. Stopping the diet for one week leads to an increase in blood phenylalanine and to a significant important decrease in brain uptake of labelled methionine. Futhermore, for children under treatment having a low phenylalanine blood concentration, brain uptake of methionine decreases with age between 1 and 40 months. These results suggest that the treatment of this disease should be started as soon as possible after birth. Cerebral metabolism of psychoactive drugs: The study of the brain distribution and kinetics of psychoactive drugs may help in understanding their mode of action. Chlorpromazine- 11C was administered i.v. to schyzophrenic patients not previously treated with neuroleptics. In all patients the brain uptake of the drug was high and rapid, and was localized mainly in the grey matter, probably in proportion to the blood flow. Non-specific binding of this drug to brain proteins prevented visualization of specific binding to dopaminergic or αnor-adrenergic receptors. Specific receptor binding of benzodiazepines was however visualized in the brain of baboons after injection of 11C-flunitrazepam (specific activity = 600 Ci/μmole) and subsequent displacement of this radioactive ligand by a pharmacological dose of Lorazepam

  8. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis; Bildgebung zerebraler Vaskulitiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengenroth, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Luebeck (Germany); Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Saam, T. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Haehnel, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [German] Die zerebrale Vaskulitis kann viele Ursachen haben. Daher ist die klinische und radiologische Diagnose schwierig, auch weil es etliche vaskulitistypische Symptome und MR-Befunde bei anderen Erkrankungen gibt. Die ZNS-Vaskulitis kann zahlreiche andere neurologische Erkrankungen imitieren, die unterschiedlicher Therapie beduerfen. MRT und MR-Angiographie (MRA) sind die Verfahren der Wahl, mit denen die radiologische Diagnostik begonnen werden sollte, um den Parenchymschaden und den Gefaessbefall zu beurteilen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann eine digitale Subtraktionsangiographie (DSA) ergaenzt werden, um auch mittelgrosse Gefaesse beurteilen zu koennen. Der Befall kleiner Gefaesse kann nur bioptisch nachgewiesen werden. In der folgenden Uebersicht stellen wir das diagnostische Herangehen bei zerebraler Vaskulitis vor, praesentieren zahlreiche Befunde und diskutieren die wichtigsten radiologischen Differenzialdiagnosen. (orig.)

  9. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome After Calvarial Remodeling in Craniosynostosis

    OpenAIRE

    Byeon, Jun-Hee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2005-01-01

    Hyponatremia and increased urine output after calvarial remodeling have been noted in pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. If not treated properly, patients develop hypoosmotic conditions that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and collapsed circulation. Postoperative hyponatremia after central nervous system surgery is considered as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Recently, however, cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) ins...

  10. Cerebritis due to Listeria monocytogeneses: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infections by Listeria monocytogenes are uncommon, with cerebritis being even rarer. We present three cases of cerebritis which occurred during an outbreak of listeriosis. The CT and MR findings at diagnosis and during follow-up are described. Predominant deep white matter lesions with nodular and ring enhancement were seen. The MR yielded a higher resolution of the lesions than CT. (orig.)

  11. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rangappa Pradeep; Uhde Britta; Byard Roger; Wurm Alex; Thomas Peter

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 ) she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  12. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangappa Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  13. Massive cerebral infarction as a feature of pituitary apoplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lath R

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pituitary apoplexy is reported who, in addition to the clinical features of apoplexy, developed a cerebral infarct secondary to compression of the internal carotid artery. The mechanisms of a cerebral infarct associated with pituitary apoplexy are discussed.

  14. Migraine pain associated with middle cerebral artery dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg;

    1991-01-01

    The combination of measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by transcranial doppler sonography was used to investigate cerebrovascular involvement in migraine. Ten migraine patients with unilateral headache were studied during an...

  15. Quality of Arithmetic Education for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…

  16. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  17. Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linkis, P; Jørgensen, L G; Olesen, H L;

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity. J. Appl. Physiol. 78(1): 12-16, 1995.--Anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral artery mean flow velocities (Vmean) and pulsatility indexes were determined using transcranial Doppler in 14 subjects during dynamic exercise afte...

  18. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  19. Cerebral autoregulation in pregnancies complicated by diabetes and overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of diabetes and obesity on cerebral autoregulation in pregnancy. Methods: Cerebral autoregulation was evaluated in women with gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or overweight (body mass index >= 25kgm(-2)) and compared to a cohort

  20. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Strauss, Gitte I; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    .0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral...

  1. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  2. Cerebral abscesses among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Tørring, P M; Nissen, H;

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), which due to paradoxical embolization may cause cerebral abscess.......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), which due to paradoxical embolization may cause cerebral abscess....

  3. Cerebral tuberculoma:critical review of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Agrawal; Sameer Singhal; SRJoharapurkar; SJVagha; Bhushan Wani

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis can have protean manifestations.We review the clinical and radiological findings in two cases of cerebral tuberculoma in immuoncompetent patients.These two cases represent the spectrum of variations of clinical and radiological features of cerebral tuberculoma and highlight the controver-sies in the approach to diagnosis and management.

  4. The Effect of Neuraxial Anesthesia on Maternal Cerebral Hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ineke R.; van Veen, Teelkien R.; Mears, Scott L.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Haeri, Sina; Belfort, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neuraxial anesthesia is known to reduce sympathetic tone and mean arterial pressure. Effects on cerebral hemodynamics in pregnancy are not well known. We hypothesize that cerebral hemodynamic parameters will change with respect to baseline following regional analgesia/anesthesia. Study Des

  5. Cerebritis due to Listeria monocytogeneses: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladro, Y. [Dept. of Neurology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ponce, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Santullano, V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Angel-Moreno, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hospital Insular, Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Angel Santana, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1996-04-01

    Infections by Listeria monocytogenes are uncommon, with cerebritis being even rarer. We present three cases of cerebritis which occurred during an outbreak of listeriosis. The CT and MR findings at diagnosis and during follow-up are described. Predominant deep white matter lesions with nodular and ring enhancement were seen. The MR yielded a higher resolution of the lesions than CT. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral blood flow measurements using electron beam computed tomography (EBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In close collaboration with the participants of the TEMPUS-Project Nr. 11117 a new technical and theoretical approach was developed to estimate cerebral blood flow using i.v. applied contrast agent and evaluating the cerebral time density curves using EBT as imaging method. This new approach and first clinical results are described. (author)

  7. Rendimientos cognitivos en pacientes con aneurisma cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Zapata, Ana

    2015-01-01

    [ES] La mortalidad y morbilidad entre los pacientes que han tenido una hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática son elevadas. Así mismo, los déficits cognitivos a largo plazo asociados a la hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática han sido descritos y afectan principalmente a funciones cognitivas como la memoria, la atención, la percepción, las praxias visoespaciales y la función ejecutiva. El tratamiento quirúrgico mediante craneotomía y clipaje del aneurisma cerebral era la única estrategia ...

  8. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T;

    2005-01-01

    information was obtained from Denmark's unique registries. Of the participants with CP, 33% vs 77% of controls, had education beyond lower secondary school (i.e. after age 15-16y), 29% were competitively employed (vs 82% of controls), 5% were studying, and 5% had specially created jobs. Excluding participants......Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions

  10. REHABILITATION OF PERSONS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa CICEVSKA-JOVANOVA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The persons with cerebral palsy with motoric impairments as a primary demmages, they have other following disables: visual impairments, hearing impairments, speech disables and very often they have intellectual difficulties.This persons in school have problems with writing, they couldn’t oriented in the books, they have difficulties with manipulation with school’s supplies and didactic materials, they couldn’t follow the order of the words in the line during the reading and the writing and etc.Using the exercises of psycho-motor reeducation, all before mentioned difficulties and problems can be mitigate or disappear.

  11. Cerebral blood flow tomography with xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured tomographically by inhalation of Xenon-133. The calculation is based on taking a sequence of tomograms during the wash-in and wash-out phase of the tracer. Due to the dynamic nature of the process, a highly sensitive and fast moving single photon emission...... other tracers for CBF tomography using SPECT is summarized with emphasis on the 99mTc chelates that freely pass the intact blood-brain barrier. The highly sensitive brain-dedicated SPECT systems described are a prerequisite for achieving high resolution tomograms with such tracers....

  12. Venous Cerebral Thrombosis. Mechanical and Chemical Thrombolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, A.; C. Ribeiro; Marques, C.; Reis, J.

    2003-01-01

    A trombose venosa cerebral é uma entidade ainda não completamente compreendida no que se refere à sua fisiopatologia, história natural e prognóstico. A abordagem terapêutica não é consensual, preconizando-se contudo o uso de anticoagulantes associados ou não à trombólise. Os autores reportam a repermeabilização com sucesso dos seios venosos durais após trombólise mecânica e quimica (rt-PA).

  13. Improving care for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Colin

    2008-09-01

    A report about the health care of people with learning disability published by a UK charity concluded that this group was discriminated against and that healthcare professionals had a poor understanding of their needs. A case report of a young person with cerebral palsy is used here to demonstrate good practice in the care of children with learning disabilities. The careful development over time of individualised solutions makes a difference to the quality of life for children and families. Improved understanding through education as well as collaborative working and family participation will help ensure that children and young people receive the range of services they require. PMID:18808052

  14. Cerebral air embolism after pleural streptokinase instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Thorsten; Siekmann, Ullrich; Kopp, Rüdger

    2013-12-01

    Iatrogenic pulmonary barotrauma and cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) may complicate a variety of medical procedures, such as certain types of surgery, drug administration through thoracic drainage, pneumoperitoneum, cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment following the guidelines for CAGE in diving is the treatment of choice. Pleural streptokinase instillation is a common treatment for parapneumonic pleural effusion and may lead to CAGE. We present such a complication in a 79-year-old woman with a left-sided empyema. Neurological recovery was reasonable, but a left hemiparesis persisted. Prompt treatment of CAGE is necessary to avoid permanent injury and severe disability. PMID:24510333

  15. Histopathologically verified cerebral CT findings in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer tomographic and histopathological findings in 55 patients who died of the complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were reviewed retrospectively. In 23 patients (42%) an increased space of the internal or external cerebral spinal fluid was diagnosed. 20 patients (36%) had focal lesions. We differentiated between single, multiple and ring-shaped lesions with contrast enhancement and hypodense lesions. In 12 cases (22%) no CT abnormalities were found. Focal lesions proved to be secondary to toxoplasmosis in 85%. Single lesions were never caused by toxoplasmosis. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.)

  17. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra

  18. Gait stability in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as children with CP. In doing so, we tested the FPE’s sensitivity to the assumptions needed to calculate this measure, as well as the ability of the FPE to de...

  19. EVALUATION OF NEUROIMAGING IN CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasanpour avanji

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCerebral palsy (CP, a common static motor neurological disorder of childhood with wide spectrum of underlying etiologies, can be demonstrated with different neuro imaging techniques. We undertook this study to investigate the diagnosis of intracranial lesions in children with CP and its correlation between clinical deficits and neuroradiological findings.Materials and methodsIn this prospective hospital-based study, the data of 120 patients with CP, aged below 18 years, referring to the neurology clinic of the Ali Asghar Pediatric hospital in Tehran was studied; data on their cranial neuroimaging findings was analyzed any possible association(s between the gestational ages, prenatal history and neurological deficits were investigated.ResultsOf the 120 patients, 72 (60% were male; 75% were aged below 7 years.Common predisposing factors were prenatal asphyxia, LBW, prematurity and toxemia of pregnancy. Of the 120 cases, 90%(107 had spastic CP, with the quadriplegic type being the most common (54%, followed by spastic paraplegia (21%; twenty-four patients (20% had significant Preventricular Leucomalacia (PVL, a finding more common among those born pre-term.Sixteen patients had hemiplegic CP, 14 of whom showed unilateral lesions on brain MRI imaging. Ten (8% had extra pyramidal CP, a condition more common among term born infants, while six of the 10(72% showed significant abnormalities on the basal ganglia. Cerebral atrophy was seen in 60 (50% of patients and PVL in 20%; encephalomalacia, gliosis, middle cerebral artery infarcts, PVL and gliosis indicated hypoxia as a risk factor for CP. Extent of MRI lesions correlated with the severity of neurological deficits in CP lesions, which were more extensive in Quadriplegics and double hemiplegics rather than paraplegics, and among those delivered preterm as compared to those born at term.ConclusionRadiological findings were found to be closely related to the type of CP and the neurological

  20. Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kurt; Kemal Türkyılmaz; Adem Gül

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disease which is seen in early childhood, i.e. in the first two years of life. It is a non-progressive disorder resulting from a defect or lesion in the immature brain and thus leading to posture and movement disorders. The reason for facing high rates of ophthalmologic problems in CP cases is that visual functions are covered in a large area in the brain. While vision defect in the normal population ranges from 4 to 5%, this rate in children with CP ...