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Sample records for cerebral cortical folding

  1. Chemically based mathematical model for development of cerebral cortical folding patterns.

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    Deborah A Striegel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism for cortical folding pattern formation is not fully understood. Current models represent scenarios that describe pattern formation through local interactions, and one recent model is the intermediate progenitor model. The intermediate progenitor (IP model describes a local chemically driven scenario, where an increase in intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone correlates to gyral formation. Here we present a mathematical model that uses features of the IP model and further captures global characteristics of cortical pattern formation. A prolate spheroidal surface is used to approximate the ventricular zone. Prolate spheroidal harmonics are applied to a Turing reaction-diffusion system, providing a chemically based framework for cortical folding. Our model reveals a direct correlation between pattern formation and the size and shape of the lateral ventricle. Additionally, placement and directionality of sulci and the relationship between domain scaling and cortical pattern elaboration are explained. The significance of this model is that it elucidates the consistency of cortical patterns among individuals within a species and addresses inter-species variability based on global characteristics and provides a critical piece to the puzzle of cortical pattern formation.

  2. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

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    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  3. Cortical folding and the potential for prognostic neuroimaging in schizophrenia.

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    Guo, Shuixia; Iwabuchi, Sarina; Balain, Vijender; Feng, Jianfeng; Liddle, Peter; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2015-11-01

    In 41 patients with schizophrenia, we used neuroanatomical information derived from structural imaging to identify patients with more severe illness, characterised by high symptom burden, low processing speed, high degree of illness persistence and lower social and occupational functional capacity. Cortical folding, but not thickness or volume, showed a high discriminatory ability in correctly identifying patients with more severe illness. PMID:26206860

  4. Effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoli Xia; Baoling Sun; Mingfeng Yang; Dongmei Hu; Tong Zhao; Jingzhong Niu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that although brain does not contain lining endothelial lymphatic vessel,it has lymphatic drain.Anterior lymphatic vessel in brain tissue plays a key role in introducing brain interstitial fluid to lymphatic system;however,the significance of lymphatic drain and the affect on cerebral edema remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cerebral morphology and cortical evoked potential in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Institute of Cerebral Microcirulation of Taishan Medical College and Department of Neurology of Affiliated Hospital.MATERIALS:A total of 63 healthy adult male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were selected in this study.Forty-seven rats were used for the morphological observation induced by lymphatic drain and randomly divided into three groups:general observation group(n=12),light microscopic observation group(n=21)and electronic microscopic observation group(n=14).The rats in each group were divided into cerebral lymphatic block subgroup and sham-operation control subgroup.Sixteen rats were divided into cerebral the effect of cerebral lymphatic block on cortical evoked potential,in which the animals were randomly divided into sham-operation group(n=6)and cerebral lymphatic block group(n=10).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Institute of Cerebral Microcirculation of Taishan Medical College from January to August 2003.Rats in cerebral lymphatic block group were anesthetized and separated bilateral superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes under sterile condition. Superior and inferior boarders of lymph nodes were ligated the inputting and outputting channels, respectively, and then lymph node was removed so as to establish cerebral lymphatic drain disorder models. Rats in sham-operation control group were not ligated the lymphatic vessel and removed lymph nodes.and other operations were as the same as those in cerebral lymphatic block group

  5. Assessing cortical cerebral microinfarcts on high resolution MR images

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    van Veluw, Susanne J.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Luijten, Peter R.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microinfarcts are frequent findings in the post-mortem human brain, and are related to cognitive decline and dementia. Due to their small sizes it is challenging to study them on clinical MRI scans. It was recently demonstrated that cortical microinfarcts can be depicted with MRI scanners u

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E;

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were...

  7. Emerging roles of Axin in cerebral cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eYe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the cerebral cortex depends on the appropriate production and positioning of neurons, establishment of axon–dendrite polarity, and formation of proper neuronal connectivity. Deficits in any of these processes greatly impair neural functions and are associated with various human neurodevelopmental disorders including microcephaly, cortical heterotopias, and autism. The application of in vivo manipulation techniques such as in utero electroporation has resulted in significant advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neural development in vivo. Axin is a scaffold protein that regulates neuronal differentiation and morphogenesis in vitro. Recent studies provide novel insights into the emerging roles of Axin in gene expression and cytoskeletal regulation during neurogenesis, neuronal polarization, and axon formation. This review summarizes current knowledge on Axin as a key molecular controller of cerebral cortical development.

  8. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases cerebral cortical width index and neurogenesis following ischemic stroke☆

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    Wen, Zhongmin; Wang, Peiji

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral cortical expansion index refers to the ratio between left and right cortex width and is recognized as an indicator for cortical hyperplasia. Cerebral ischemia was established in CB-17 mice in the present study, and the mice were subsequently treated with recombinant human erythropoietin via subcutaneous injection. Results demonstrated that cerebral cortical width index significantly increased. Immunofluorescence detection showed that the number of nuclear antigen antibody/5-bromo...

  9. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

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    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  10. Cerebral cartography--a method for visualizing cortical structures.

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    Holländer, I

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for visualizing the human cortex on one planar map. The data are taken from a 3D MRI study. Ray tracing with non-parallel rays is used to project the cortical relief onto a non-planar projection surface, which is in turn mapped onto the plane by cartographical projection. Two modifications of the method are proposed: the spherical mapping uses a sphere as the projection surface; the model-based mapping uses an analytically defined model of the scalp to generate the normal vectors. The cerebral cartography can be used for example for producing anatomical reference maps on which EEG measurement data can be superimposed.

  11. Response of Quiescent Cerebral Cortical Astrocytes to Nanofibrillar Scaffold Properties

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    Ayres, Virginia; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Xie, Kan; Ahmed, Ijaz; Shreiber, David I.

    2013-03-01

    We present results of an investigation to examine the hypothesis that the extracellular environment can trigger specific signaling cascades with morphological consequences. Differences in the morphological responses of quiescent cerebral cortical astrocytes cultured on the nanofibrillar matrices versus poly-L-lysine functionalized glass and Aclar, and unfunctionalized Aclar surfaces were demonstrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and phalloidin staining of F-actin. The differences and similarities of the morphological responses were consistent with differences and similarities of the surface polarity and surface roughness of the four surfaces investigated in this work, characterized using contact angle and AFM measurements. The three-dimensional capability of AFM was also used to identify differences in cell spreading. An initial quantitative immunolabeling study further identified significant differences in the activation of the Rho GTPases: Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA, which are upstream regulators of the observed morphological responses: filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fiber formation. The results support the hypothesis that the extracellular environment can trigger preferential activation of members of the Rho GTPase family with demonstrable morphological consequences for cerebral cortical astrocytes. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  12. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

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    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  13. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases cerebral cortical width index and neurogenesis following ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongmin Wen; Peiji Wang

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral cortical expansion index refers to the ratio between left and right cortex width and is recognized as an indicator for cortical hyperplasia. Cerebral ischemia was established in CB-17 mice in the present study, and the mice were subsequently treated with recombinant human erythropoietin via subcutaneous injection. Results demonstrated that cerebral cortical width index significantly increased. Immunofluorescence detection showed that the number of nuclear antigen antibody/5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells at the infarction edge significantly increased. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between neurological scores and cortical width indices in rats following ischemic stroke. These experimental findings suggested that recombinant human erythropoietin promoted cerebral cortical hyperplasia, increased cortical neurogenesis, and enhanced functional recovery following ischemic stroke.

  14. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  15. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

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    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  16. Surgical Revascularization Reverses Cerebral Cortical Thinning in Patients With Severe Cerebrovascular Steno-Occlusive Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, Jorn; MacLean, David B.; Fisher, Joseph A.; Han, Jay S.; Mandell, Daniel M.; Conklin, John; Poublanc, Julien; Crawley, Adrian P.; Regli, Luca; Mikulis, David J.; Tymianski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Chronic deficiencies in regional blood flow lead to cerebral cortical thinning without evidence of gross tissue loss at the same time as potentially negatively impacting on neurological and cognitive performance. This is most pronounced in patients with severe occlusive cerebr

  17. Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL

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    Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP HP, INSERM, UMR 740, Dept Neurol, Lariboisiere (France); Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [Univ Paris 07, F-75221 Paris 05 (France); Porcher, R. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Dept Biostat, St Louis (France); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Clin Trials Unit, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA (United States); O' Sullivan, M.; Dichgans, M. [Univ Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Dept Neurol, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Guichard, J.P. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Dept Neuroradiol, Lariboisiere (France)

    2008-07-01

    Brain atrophy represents a key marker of disease progression in cerebrovascular disorders. The 3D changes of cortex morphology occurring during the course of small vessel diseases of the brain (SVDB) remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the changes affecting depth and surface area of cortical sulci and their clinical and radiological correlates in a cohort of patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriolopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic SVDB. Data were obtained from a series of 69 CADASIL patients. Validated methods were used to determine depth and surface area of four cortical sulci. The ratio of brain to intracranial cavity volumes (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF), volume of lacunar lesions (LL) and of white matter hyper-intensities, number of cerebral micro-haemorrhages, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient were also measured. Association between depth and surface area of the cortical sulci and BPF, clinical status and subcortical MRI lesions were tested. Depth and surface area of cortical sulci obtained in 54 patients were strongly correlated with both cognitive score and disability scales. Depth was related to the extent of subcortical lesions, surface area was related only to age. In additional analyses, the depth of the cingular sulcus was independently associated with the volume of LL (P 0.001), and that of the superior frontal sulcus with the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (P 0.003). In CADASIL, important morphological changes of cortical sulci occur in association with clinical worsening,extension of subcortical tissue damage and progression of global cerebral atrophy. These results suggest that the examination of cortical morphology may be of high clinical relevance in SVDB. (authors)

  18. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuelin; Qiu Shudong; Zhang Pengbo; Shi Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative response and time course of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral cortical concis in the adult rats. Methods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cumulative BrdU labeling was employed to detect the proliferating cells. At 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after cerebral cortical concis, the rats were killed for BrdU immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in the injured ipsilateral SVZ. Results Little BrdU immunoreactivity cells was present in SVZ of the control rats from day 7 to day 21 after sham operation. The number of BrdU immunoreactivity cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ increased at day 1 and peaked at day 7 after cerebral cortical concis. Conclusion After cerebral cortical concis of the adult rats, neural stem/progenitor cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ markedly proliferated with a peak at day 7. This finding may be important for manipulating SVZ cells to promote the recovery from cerebral cortical concis.

  19. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

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    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  20. Effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shengXUE; Bu-weiYU; Ze-jianWANG; Hong-zhuanCHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incu-bated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD(P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited thedecrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400μmol/L) partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION; Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  1. Nerve transfer helps repair brachial plexus injury by increasing cerebral cortical plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guixin Sun; Zuopei Wu; Xinhong Wang; Xiaoxiao Tan; Yudong Gu

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of brachial plexus injury, nerves that are functionally less important are trans-ferred onto the distal ends of damaged crucial nerves to help recover neuromuscular function in the target region. For example, intercostal nerves are transferred onto axillary nerves, and accessory nerves are transferred onto suprascapular nerves, the phrenic nerve is transferred onto the musculocutaneous nerves, and the contralateral C7 nerve is transferred onto the median or radial nerves. Nerve transfer has become a major method for reconstructing the brachial plexus after avulsion injury. Many experiments have shown that nerve transfers for treatment of brachi-al plexus injury can help reconstruct cerebral cortical function and increase cortical plasticity. In this review article, we summarize the recent progress in the use of diverse nerve transfer methods for the repair of brachial plexus injury, and we discuss the impact of nerve transfer on cerebral cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury.

  2. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B;

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...

  3. Emergence of Small-World and Limitations to Its Maximization in a Macaque Cerebral Cortical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-Bai; LIAO Meng-Jie; CHEN Qi-Cai

    2011-01-01

    @@ We study both the emergence of small-world topology in a macaque cerebral cortical network and the limitations to maximization of small-worldness.The results show that the maximization of neural complexity leads to a small-world topology, but it also limits the maximization of small-worldness.It is suggested that the modular organization that corresponds to different functions may be a limitation.Additionally, the need for strong resilience against attacks may be another limitation.%We study both the emergence of small-world topology in a macaque cerebral cortical network and the limitations to maximization of small-worldness. The results show that the maximization of neural complexity leads to a small-world topology, but it also limits the maximization of small-worldness. It is suggested that the modular organization that corresponds to different functions may be a limitation. Additionally, the need for strong resilience against attacks may be another limitation.

  4. Delayed cerebral infarction due to stent folding deformation following carotid artery stenting

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    Seo, Kwon Duk; Lee, Kyung Yul; Suh, Sang Hyun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report a case of delayed cerebral infarction due to stent longitudinal folding deformation following carotid artery stenting using a self-expandable stent with an open-cell design. The stented segment of the left common carotid artery was divided into two different lumens by this folding deformation, and the separated lumens became restricted with in-stent thrombosis. Although no established method of managing this rare complication exists, a conservative approach was taken with administration of anticoagulant and dual antiplatelet therapy. No neurological symptoms were observed during several months of clinical follow-up after discharge.

  5. Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yu, Guoqiang; Furuya, Daisuke; Greenberg, Joel; Yodh, Arjun; Durduran, Turgut

    2006-02-01

    Diffuse optical correlation methods were adapted for three-dimensional (3D) tomography of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in small animal models. The image reconstruction was optimized using a noise model for diffuse correlation tomography which enabled better data selection and regularization. The tomographic approach was demonstrated with simulated data and during in-vivo cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rat brain. Three-dimensional images of CBF were obtained through intact skull in tissues(~4mm) deep below the cortex.

  6. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

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    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Intraoperative imaging of cortical cerebral perfusion by time-resolved thermography and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Sobottka, Stephan B.; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to cortical perfusion imaging is demonstrated using high-sensitivity thermography in conjunction with multivariate statistical data analysis. Local temperature changes caused by a cold bolus are imaged and transferred to a false color image. A cold bolus of 10 ml saline at ice temperature is injected systemically via a central venous access. During the injection, a sequence of 735 thermographic images are recorded within 2 min. The recorded data cube is subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA) to select slight changes of the cortical temperature caused by the cold bolus. PCA reveals that 11 s after injection the temperature of blood vessels is shortly decreased followed by an increase to the temperature before the cold bolus is injected. We demonstrate the potential of intraoperative thermography in combination with multivariate data analysis to image cortical cerebral perfusion without any markers. We provide the first in vivo application of multivariate thermographic imaging.

  8. Simultaneous imaging of intrinsic optical signals and cerebral vessel responses during cortical spreading depression in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Shangbin; Luo, Weihua; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an important disease model for migraine and cerebral ischemia. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of the intrinsic optical signals (IOS) at 570 nm and the cerebral blood vessel responses during CSD simultaneously by optical reflectance imaging in vivo. The CSD were induced by pinprick in 10 α-chloralose/urethane anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. A four-phasic IOS response was observed at pial arteries and parenchymal sites in all experimental animals and an initial slight pial arteries dilation (21.5%+/-13.6%) and constriction (-4.2%+/-3.5%) precedes the dramatic dilation (69.2%+/-26.1%) of pial arterioles was recorded. Our experimental results show a high correlation (r = 0.89+/-0.025) between the IOS response and the diameter changes of the cerebral blood vessels during CSD in rats.

  9. Immunocompetent young man with cerebral abscess and cortical venous infarction mimicking cerebritis caused by Gemella morbillorum

    OpenAIRE

    Milnik, Annette; Gazis, Angelos; Tammer, Ina; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum is an anaerobic gram-positive diplococcus and in most cases a harmless commensal, which occasionally causes infections in the central nervous system. We report on an immunocompetent young man with focal neurological symptoms and cephalgia caused by a cerebral abscess. Although successful treatment was done with neurosurgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, he suffered from a venous infarction 5 weeks after first diagnosis, which mimicked cerebritis as an early stage o...

  10. Automatic localization of cerebral cortical malformations using fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A.; Arrigoni, F.; Romaniello, R.; Triulzi, F. M.; Peruzzo, D.; Bertoldo, A.

    2016-08-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) encompass a variety of brain disorders affecting the normal development and organization of the brain cortex. The relatively low incidence and the extreme heterogeneity of these disorders hamper the application of classical group level approaches for the detection of lesions. Here, we present a geometrical descriptor for a voxel level analysis based on fractal geometry, then define two similarity measures to detect the lesions at single subject level. The pipeline was applied to 15 normal children and nine pediatric patients affected by MCDs following two criteria, maximum accuracy (WACC) and minimization of false positives (FPR), and proved that our lesion detection algorithm is able to detect and locate abnormalities of the brain cortex with high specificity (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  96%), sensitivity (WACC  =  83%, FPR  =  63%) and accuracy (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  90%). The combination of global and local features proves to be effective, making the algorithm suitable for the detection of both focal and diffused malformations. Compared to other existing algorithms, this method shows higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  11. In Utero Electroporation: Assay System for Migration of Cerebral Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori

    During the development of the cerebral cortex, the majority of cortical neurons are generated in the ventricular zone (VZ) facing the lateral ventricle and then migrate toward the pial surface to form the highly organized 6-layered cerebral cortex. Detailed profiles of these processes and their molecular mechanisms had been largely unknown because of the absence of an efficient assay system. The in vivo electroporation system was initially devised for use within chick embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999; Itasaki et al., 1999; Momose et al., 1999; Muramatsu et al., 1997), and we and other groups have used that system as a basis for developing an in utero electroporation system, which allows plasmid DNA to be introduced into cortical progenitor cells in developing mouse embryos in the uterus (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001; Takahashi et al., 2002). In utero electroporation of other sites in the brain, including the hippocampus (Navarro-Quiroga et al., 2007), cerebral basal ganglia (Borrell et al., 2005; Nakahira et al., 2006), cortical hem (Takiguchi-Hayashi et al., 2004), and dorsal thalamus (Bonnin et al., 2007), has recently been reported. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) enables the entire processes of migration and layer formation to be visualized (Ajioka and Nakajima, 2005; Sasaki et al., 2008; Tabata and Nakajima, 2002, 2003), and the role of any gene involved in these processes can be easily assessed by overexpressing the proteins or their mutants (Ohshima et al., 2007), or by knocking down the genes by the RNA interference technique (Bai et al., 2003). Furthermore, the Tet-On/Off system and/or other plasmid- vector-based technologies will expand the potential of the analyses. In this section we review the principles and methods of gene transfer into the cortical wall of mouse embryos by means of the in utero electroporation system.

  12. How to measure cortical folding from MR images: a step-by-step tutorial to compute local gyrification index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Marie; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Schmansky, Nick; Fischl, Bruce; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Cortical folding (gyrification) is determined during the first months of life, so that adverse events occurring during this period leave traces that will be identifiable at any age. As recently reviewed by Mangin and colleagues(2), several methods exist to quantify different characteristics of gyrification. For instance, sulcal morphometry can be used to measure shape descriptors such as the depth, length or indices of inter-hemispheric asymmetry(3). These geometrical properties have the advantage of being easy to interpret. However, sulcal morphometry tightly relies on the accurate identification of a given set of sulci and hence provides a fragmented description of gyrification. A more fine-grained quantification of gyrification can be achieved with curvature-based measurements, where smoothed absolute mean curvature is typically computed at thousands of points over the cortical surface(4). The curvature is however not straightforward to comprehend, as it remains unclear if there is any direct relationship between the curvedness and a biologically meaningful correlate such as cortical volume or surface. To address the diverse issues raised by the measurement of cortical folding, we previously developed an algorithm to quantify local gyrification with an exquisite spatial resolution and of simple interpretation. Our method is inspired of the Gyrification Index(5), a method originally used in comparative neuroanatomy to evaluate the cortical folding differences across species. In our implementation, which we name local Gyrification Index (lGI(1)), we measure the amount of cortex buried within the sulcal folds as compared with the amount of visible cortex in circular regions of interest. Given that the cortex grows primarily through radial expansion(6), our method was specifically designed to identify early defects of cortical development. In this article, we detail the computation of local Gyrification Index, which is now freely distributed as a part of the Free

  13. CT and MRI findings of cerebral ischemic lesions in the cortical and perforating arterial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Masakuni; Udaka, Fukashi; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kodama, Mitsuo; Urushidani, Makoto; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Taku [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It is clinically useful to divide the location of infarction into the cortical and perforating arterial system. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now make the point of infarction a simple and useful task in daily practice. The diagnostic modality has also demonstrated that risk factors and clinical manifestations are different for infarction in the cortical as opposed to the perforating system. In this paper, we present various aspects of images of cerebral ischemia according to CT and/or MRI findings. With the advance of imaging mechanics, diagnostic capability of CT or/and MRI for cerebral infarction has markedly been improved. We must consider these points on evaluating the previously reported results. In addition, we always consider the pathological background of these image-findings for the precise interpretation of their clinical significance. In some instances, dynamic study such as PET or SPECT is needed for real interpretations of CT and/or MRI images. We paid special reference to lacunar stroke and striatocapsular infarct. In addition, `branch atheromatous disease (Caplan)` was considered, in particular, for their specific clinical significances. Large striatocapsular infarcts frequently show cortical signs and symptoms such as aphasia or agnosia in spite of their subcortical localization. These facts, although have previously been known, should be re-considered for their pathoanatomical mechanism. (author).

  14. Neuropeptide Y protects cerebral cortical neurons by regulating microglial immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijun Li; Changzheng Dong; Wenling Li; Wei Bu; Jiang Wu; Wenqing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y has been shown to inhibit the immunological activity of reactive microglia in the rat cerebral cortex, to reduce N-methyl-D-aspartate current (INMDA) in cortical neurons, and protect neurons. In this study, after primary cultured microglia from the cerebral cortex of rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the cell culture medium increased, and mRNA expression of these cytokines also increased. After primary cultured cortical neurons were incubated with the lipopolysaccharide-treated microg-lial conditioned medium, peak INMDA in neurons increased. These effects of lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by neuropeptide Y. After addition of the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antago-nist BIBP3226, the effects of neuropeptide Y completely disappeared. These results suggest that neuropeptide Y prevents excessive production of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α by inhibiting microglial reactivity. This reduces INMDA in rat cortical neurons, preventing excitotoxic-ity, thereby protecting neurons.

  15. An automated pipeline for cortical surface generation and registration of the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Ibanez, Luis; Gelas, Arnaud; Yeo, B. T. Thomas; Niethammer, Marc; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

    2011-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex is one of the most complicated structures in the body. It has a highly convoluted structure with much of the cortical sheet buried in sulci. Based on cytoarchitectural and functional imaging studies, it is possible to segment the cerebral cortex into several subregions. While it is only possible to differentiate the true anatomical subregions based on cytoarchitecture, the surface morphometry aligns closely with the underlying cytoarchitecture and provides features that allow the surface of the cortex to be parcellated based on the sulcal and gyral patterns that are readily visible on the MR images. We have developed a fully automated pipeline for the generation and registration of cortical surfaces in the spherical domain. The pipeline initiates with the BRAINS AutoWorkup pipeline. Subsequently, topology correction and surface generation is performed to generate a genus zero surface and mapped to a sphere. Several surface features are then calculated to drive the registration between the atlas surface and other datasets. A spherical diffeomorphic demons algorithm is used to co-register an atlas surface onto a subject surface. A lobar based atlas of the cerebral cortex was created from a manual parcellation of the cortex. The atlas surface was then co-registered to five additional subjects using a spherical diffeomorphic demons algorithm. The labels from the atlas surface were warped on the subject surface and compared to the manual raters. The average Dice overlap index was 0.89 across all regions.

  16. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Willems, Roel M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Hoogman, Martine; Hagoort, Peter; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent toward one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or left-handed, and they show an elevated rate of reductions or reversals of some cerebral functional asymmetries compared to right-handers. Brain anatomical correlates of left-handedness have also been suggested. However, the relationships of left-handedness to brain structure and function remain far from clear. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of cortical surface area differences between 106 left-handed subjects and 1960 right-handed subjects, measured using an automated method of regional parcellation (FreeSurfer, Destrieux atlas). This is the largest study sample that has so far been used in relation to this issue. No individual cortical region showed an association with left-handedness that survived statistical correction for multiple testing, although there was a nominally significant association with the surface area of a previously implicated region: the left precentral sulcus. Identifying brain structural correlates of handedness may prove useful for genetic studies of cerebral asymmetries, as well as providing new avenues for the study of relations between handedness, cerebral lateralization and cognition. PMID:24734025

  17. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio eGuadalupe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent towards one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or left-handed, and they show an elevated rate of reductions or reversals of some cerebral functional asymmetries compared to right-handers. Brain anatomical correlates of left-handedness have also been suggested. However, the relationships of left-handedness to brain structure and function remain far from clear. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of cortical surface area differences between 106 left-handed subjects and 1960 right-handed subjects, measured using an automated method of regional parcellation (FreeSurfer, Destrieux atlas. This is the largest study sample that has so far been used in relation to this issue. No individual cortical region showed an association with left-handedness that survived statistical correction for multiple testing, although there was a nominally significant association with the surface area of a previously implicated region: the left precentral sulcus. Identifying brain structural correlates of handedness may prove useful for genetic studies of cerebral asymmetries, as well as providing new avenues for the study of relations between handedness, cerebral lateralization and cognition.

  18. Cortical thickness, surface area, and folding alterations in male youths with conduct disorder and varying levels of callous–unemotional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Fairchild

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the social cognitive impairments displayed by youths with CD, whereas reduced OFC SA may lead to impairments in emotion regulation and reward processing in youths with CD. The increased cortical folding observed in the insula may reflect a maturational delay in this region and could mediate the link between CU traits and empathy deficits. Altered cortical folding was observed in childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of CD.

  19. Immunocompetent young man with cerebral abscess and cortical venous infarction mimicking cerebritis caused by Gemella morbillorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnik, Annette; Gazis, Angelos; Tammer, Ina; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum is an anaerobic gram-positive diplococcus and in most cases a harmless commensal, which occasionally causes infections in the central nervous system. We report on an immunocompetent young man with focal neurological symptoms and cephalgia caused by a cerebral abscess. Although successful treatment was done with neurosurgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, he suffered from a venous infarction 5 weeks after first diagnosis, which mimicked cerebritis as an early stage of relapsing abscess. Imaging and investigation of cerebrospinal fluid was necessary for sufficient differential diagnosis and antibiotic therapy could be stopped after altogether 8 weeks of treatment. In summary, G morbillorum causes not only biphasic infections, but also can be accompanied by infarction in the central nervous system despite sufficient antibiotic therapy. PMID:23355562

  20. Effects of Cortical Spreading Depression on Synaptic Activity, Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard

    2010-01-01

    As the title of this thesis indicates I have during my PhD studied the effects of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on synaptic activity, blood flow and oxygen consumption in rat cerebral cortex. This was performed in vivo using an open cranial window approach in anesthetized rats. I applied...... Laser-Doppler Flowmetry for measurements of cerebral blood flow, glass microelectrodes for recording of synaptic activity – local field potentials – and ongoing cortical electrical activity and a Clark type electrode for measurements of tissue partial pressure of oxygen (tpO2). Offline calculations...... of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were performed using a compartment model as described Gjedde1. In the first study we characterized the frequency dependency of evoked responses of the transcallosal fiber network (TC) in the somatosensory cortex concerning: synaptic activity, cerebral blood flow...

  1. Optical coherence tomography reveals in vivo cortical structures of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yi-rong; Guo, Zhou-yi; Shu, So-yun; Bao, Xin-min

    2008-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique which uses light to directly image living tissue. we investigate the potential use of OCT for structural imaging of the ischemia injury mammalian cerebral cortex. And we examine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats in vivo using OCT. In particular, we show that OCT can perform in vivo detection of cortex and differentiate normal and abnormal cortical anatomy. This OCT system in this study provided an axial resolution of 10~15μ m, the transverse resolution of the system is about 25 μm. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of cortical of adult rats in response to cerebral ischemia injury.We conclude that OCT represents an exciting new approach to visualize, in real-time, pathological changes in the cerebral cortex structures and may offer a new tool for Possible neuroscience clinical applications.

  2. Ultrastructure of focal cerebral cortex tissue from rats with focal cortical dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Developing a model of focal cortical dysplasia in microgyrus and observing the ultrastructure of focal tissue is of important significance for analyzing the pathology of cortical developmental disorder and the factors of structural changes. OBJECTIVE:This study was to observe the pathological characteristics of focal tissue around the microgyrus of rats with cortical developmental disorder using an electron microscope,so as to analyze the causes associated with cerebral cortical developmental disorder. DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was carried out in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology,Room for Electron Microscope of Chongqing Medical University,and Laboratory Animal Center,Research Institute of Surgery,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2004 and August 2006.Eighteen healthy newborn male Wistar rats,weighing 3.0 - 6.0 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA,were involved in this study.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Probes (Chongqing Wire & Cable Factory,China) were made of copper core wire with diameter of 1 mm.METHODS:The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 in each:normal control group,liquid nitrogen injured group and sham-operation group.①In the liquid nitrogen injured group,a blunt probe frozen by liquid nitrogen was placed on fronto-parietal crinial bone of rats for 8 s.A 3 - 5 cm of microgyrus was induced in the unilateral cerebral sensory cortical area.In the sham-operation group,probe was placed at the room temperature.In the normal control group,rats were untouched.② The conscious state and electrical activity of brain of rats in each group were observed.③ 2-3 mm thickness of hippocampal tissue with coronary section was taken

  3. Monoclonal antibody identification of subpopulations of cerebral cortical neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal degeneration is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the paucity of molecular markers available for the identification of neuronal subtypes, the specificity of neuronal loss within the cerebral cortex has been difficult to evaluate. With a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied to central nervous system tissues from AD patients, the authors have immunocytochemically identified a population of vulnerable cortical neurons; a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons is recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 in the hippocampus and neocortex, and clusters of multipolar neurons in the entorhinal cortex reactive with mAb 44.1 show selective degeneration. Closely adjacent stellate-like neurons in these regions, identified by mAb 6A2, show striking preservation in AD. The neurons recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 do not comprise a single known neurotransmitter system. mAb 3A4 identifies a phosphorylated antigen that is undetectable in normal brain but accumulates early in the course of AD in somas of vulnerable neurons. Antigen 3A4 is distinct from material reactive with thioflavin S or antibody generated against paired helical filaments. Initially, antigen 3A4 is localized to neurons in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, later in the association neocortex, and, ultimately in cases of long duration, in primary sensory cortical regions. mAb 3F12 recognizes multiple bands of immunoblots of homogenates of normal and AD cortical tissues, whereas mAb 3A4 does not bind to immunoblots containing neurofilament proteins or brain homogenates from AD patients. Ultrastructurally, antigen 3A4 is localized to paired-helical filaments. Using these mAbs, further molecular characterization of the affected cortical neurons is now possible

  4. Analysing coupling architecture in the cortical EEG of a patient with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Maksim V.; Baas, C. Marjolein; van Rijn, Clementina M.; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of coupling presence and direction between cortical areas from the EEG is a popular approach in neuroscience. Granger causality method is promising for this task, since it allows to operate with short time series and to detect nonlinear coupling or coupling between nonlinear systems. In this study EEG multichannel data from adolescent children, suffering from unilateral cerebral palsy were investigated. Signals, obtained in rest and during motor activity of affected and less affected hand, were analysed. The changes in inter-hemispheric and intra-hemispheric interactions were studied over time with an interval of two months. The obtained results of coupling were tested for significance using surrogate times series. In the present proceeding paper we report the data of one patient. The modified nonlinear Granger causality is indeed able to reveal couplings within the human brain.

  5. EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GLUTAMATE-INDUCED EXCITOTOXICITY ON CULTURED CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To research the effect of melatonin against glutamate excitotoxicity. Methods The model of glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage was built up in rat cerebral cortical cell culture. The effect of mela- tonin against excitotoxic injury was observed by determining the leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) from neurons. Results The leakage rate of LDH wasn't decreased markedly when cultures were exposed to melatonin be- fore, during or 6 h after glutamate treatment. The leakage rate of LDH was decreased significantly when melatonin was administered 0 h, 2 h or 4 h after the cultures were exposed to glutamate. The inhibitory function of melatonin on LDH leakage was most effective at 2 h and 4 h. Conclusion Melatonin has protective effects on neurons damaged by glutamate in a certain time limit.

  6. Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cerebral cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, M; Wu, F; Torre, E; Cuellar-Giraldo, D; Jia, D; Cheng, L

    2016-04-01

    The release of the serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons plays a central role in the development of synaptic plasticity, adaptation to metabolic stress and neuronal survival. Our earlier studies indicate that by inducing the recruitment of the cytoskeletal protein βII-spectrin and voltage-gated calcium channels to the active zone, tPA promotes Ca(2+)-dependent translocation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the synaptic release site where they release their load of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate whether this effect leads to depletion of SVs in the presynaptic terminal. Our data indicate that tPA promotes SV endocytosis via a mechanism that does not require the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. Instead, we show that tPA induces calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation, which is followed by dynamin I-induced recruitment of the actin-binding protein profilin II to the presynaptic membrane, and profilin II-induced F-actin formation. We report that this tPA-induced sequence of events leads to the association of newly formed SVs with F-actin clusters in the endocytic zone. In summary, the data presented here indicate that following the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters tPA activates the mechanism whereby SVs are retrieved from the presynaptic membrane and endocytosed to replenish the pool of vesicles available for a new cycle of exocytosis. Together, these results indicate that in murine cerebral cortical neurons tPA plays a central role coupling SVs exocytosis and endocytosis. PMID:26820595

  7. HIV-Associated Distal Neuropathic Pain is Associated with Smaller Total Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, John R.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Vaida, Florin; Wang, Dongzhe; Franklin, Donald R.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Sanders, Chelsea; McCutchan, J. Allen; Archibald, Sarah L.; Miller, David J.; Kesidis, George; Cushman, Clint; Kim, Sung Min; Abramson, Ian; Taylor, Michael J.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Julaton, Michelle D.; Notestine, Randy J.; Corkran, Stephanie; Cherner, Mariana; Duarte, Nichole A.; Alexander, Terry; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Simpson, David M.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Morgello, Susan; Brown, Greg; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Jernigan, Terry L.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients. The clinical expression of HIV neuropathy is highly variable: many individuals report few symptoms, but about half report distal neuropathic pain (DNP), making it one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage, making it unclear why some patients do, and others do not, report pain. To better understand central nervous system contributions to HIV DNP, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes in 241 HIV-infected participants from an observational multi-site cohort study at five US sites (CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER). The association between DNP and the structural imaging outcomes was investigated using both linear and nonlinear (Gaussian Kernel support vector) multivariable regression, controlling for key demographic and clinical variables. Severity of DNP symptoms was correlated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volume (R = −0.24; p = 0.004). Understanding the mechanisms for this association between smaller total cortical volumes and DNP may provide insight into HIV DNP chronicity and treatment-resistance. PMID:24549970

  8. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  9. Mapping synaptic pathology within cerebral cortical circuits in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sweet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by impairments of synaptic machinery within cerebral cortical circuits. Efforts to localize these alterations in brain tissue from subjects with schizophrenia have frequently been limited to the quantification of structures that are non-selectively identified (e.g. dendritic spines labeled in Golgi preparations, axon boutons labeled with synaptophysin, or to quantification of proteins using methods unable to resolve relevant cellular compartments. Multiple label fluorescence confocal microscopy represents a means to circumvent many of these limitations, by concurrently extracting information regarding the number, morphology, and relative protein content of synaptic structures. An important adaptation required for studies of human disease is coupling this approach to stereologic methods for systematic random sampling of relevant brain regions. In this review article we consider the application of multiple label fluorescence confocal microscopy to the mapping of synaptic alterations in subjects with schizophrenia and describe the application of a novel, readily automated, iterative intensity/morphological segmentation algorithm for the extraction of information regarding synaptic structure number, size, and relative protein level from tissue sections obtained using unbiased stereological principles of sampling. In this context, we provide examples of the examination of pre- and post-synaptic structures within excitatory and inhibitory circuits of the cerebral cortex.

  10. Apoptosis is not an invariable component of in vitro models of cortical cerebral ischaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Alexander JONES; Gillian Ruth MAY; Joyce Ann MCLUCKIE; Akinori IWASHITA; John SHARKEY

    2004-01-01

    Characterising the mechanisms of cell death following focal cerebral ischaemia has been hampered by a lack of an in vitro assay emulating both the apoptotic and necrotic features observed in vivo. The present study systematically characterised oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) in primary rat cortical neurones to establish a reproducible model with components of both cell-death endpoints. OGD induced a time-dependent reduction in cell viability, with 80% cell death occurring 24 h after 3 h exposure to 0% O2 and 0.5 mM glucose. Indicative of a necrotic component to OGDinduced cell death, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition with MK-801 attenuated neuronal loss by 60%.The lack of protection by the caspase inhibitors DEVD-CHO and z-VAD-fmk suggested that under these conditions neurones did not die by an apoptotic mechanism. Moderating the severity of the insult by decreasing OGD exposure to 60 min did not reduce the amount of necrosis, but did induce a small degree of apoptosis (a slight reduction in cell death was observed in the presence of 10 μtM DEVD-CHO). In separate experiments purported to enhance the apoptotic component, cells were gradually deprived of O2, exposed to 4% O2 (as opposed to 0%) during the OGD period, or maintained in serum-containing media throughout. While NMDA receptor antagonism significantly reduced cortical cell death under all conditions, a caspase-inhibitor sensitive component of cell death was not uncovered. These studies suggest that OGD of cultured cortical cells models the excitotoxic, but not the apoptotic component of cell death observed in vivo.

  11. Acetylcholine modulates transient outward potassium channel in acutely isolated cerebral cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanwei Cui; Tao Sun; Lihui Qu; Yurong Li; Haixia Wen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The neuronal transient outward potassium channel has been shown to be highly associated with acetylcholine.However,the influence of acetylcholine on the transient outward potassium current in cerebral cortical neurons remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE:To investigate acetylcholine modulation on transient outward potassium current in rat parietal cortical neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A neuroelectrophysiology study was performed at the Department of Physiology,Harbin Medical University between January 2005 and January 2006.MATERIALS:Wistar rats were provided by the Animal Research Center,the Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University;PC-IIC patch-clamp amplifier and IBBClamp data collection analysis system were provided by Huazhong University for Science and Technology,Wuhan,China;PP-83 microelectrode puller was purchased from Narrishage,Japan.METHODS:The parietal somatosensory cortical neurons were acutely dissociated,and the modulation of acetylcholine (0.1,1,10,100 μmol/L) on transient outward potassium channel was recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Influence of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current,potassium channel activation,and inactivation.RESULTS:The inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current was dose- and voltage-dependent (P<0.01).Acetylcholine was found to significantly affect the activation process of transient outward potassium current,i.e.,the activation curve of transient outward potassium current was left-shifted,while the inactivation curve was shifted to hyperpolarization.Acetylcholine significantly prolonged the time constant of recovery from inactivation of transient outward potassium current (P<0.01).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that acetylcholine inhibits transient outward potassium current by regulating activation and inactivation processes of the transient outward potassium channel.

  12. Ultrastructural changes of rat cortical neurons following ligustrazine intervention for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhang; Jianfeng Dong; Qiuzhen Zhao; Wen Song; Aihua Bo

    2008-01-01

    low-dose group and ligustrazine high-dose group received ligustrazine injections, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Samples were collected at the same time as the model group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations of the neuronal ultrastructure and main organelles were ob-served by electron microscopy.RESULTS: Forty Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. Plentiful ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum existed in the cytoplasm of cortical neurons in the normal group. Edema existed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons in the model group. The cell membrane was damaged, resulting in the external erup-tion of certain cellular organelles. In the low-dose ligustrazine group, neuronal swelling was decreased in the cytoplasm, whereas cellular organelles were relatively increased. However, the mitochondria remained swollen. The double layer structure disappeared in parts of the mitochondrial membrane. The caryotheca was still broken, and neuronal damage was significantly decreased in the high-dose ligustrazine group. In ad-dition, cytoplasmic swelling was reduced andmost part of caryotheca was complete. Fragmentation of the cellular membrane was not detected. Mitochondrial cristae and the lysosome could also be detected. The number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes was increased, and the structure of great part of caryotheca was clear. In addition, the number of nuclear pore was increased. However, the nuclear hetero-chromatin was relatively reduced.CONCLUSION: In the rat, the protective effects of ligustrazine were significant on neuronal membrane structures and main organelles after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. There was a dose-dependent effect be-tween neuronal changes and Ligustrazine.

  13. ASPM and the evolution of cerebral cortical size in a community of New World monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles and capuchins (genus Cebus. The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d(N/d(S on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by d(N/d(S ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively. Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size.

  14. Children with cerebral palsy have uncharacteristic somatosensory cortical oscillations after stimulation of the hand mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M J; Becker, K M; Heinrichs-Graham, E; Wilson, T W

    2015-10-01

    Numerous clinical investigations have reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) have tactile discrimination deficits that likely limit their ability to plan and manipulate objects. Despite this clinical awareness, we still have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurological basis for these tactile discrimination deficits. Previously, we have shown that children with CP have aberrant theta-alpha (4-14 Hz) oscillations in the somatosensory cortices following tactile stimulation of the foot. In this investigation, we evaluated if these aberrant theta-alpha oscillations also extend to the hand. Magnetoencephalography was used to evaluate event-related changes in the theta-alpha and beta (18-34 Hz) somatosensory cortical oscillations in groups of children with CP and typically developing (TD) children following tactile stimulation of their hands. Our results showed that the somatosensory theta-alpha oscillations were relatively intact in children with CP, which is in contrast to our previous results for foot tactile stimulations. We suspect that these inter-study differences may be related to the higher probability that the neural tracts serving the lower extremities are damaged in children with CP, compared to those serving the upper extremities. This inference is plausible since the participating children with CP had Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels between I and II. In contrast to the theta-alpha results, children with CP did exhibit a sharp increase in beta activity during the same time period, which was not observed in TD children. This suggests that children with CP still have deficits in the computational aspect of somatosensory processing.

  15. Sanguinate's effect on pial arterioles in healthy rats and cerebral oxygen tension after controlled cortical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullah, Saad H; Abutarboush, Rania; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Saha, Biswajit K; Haque, Ashraful; Walker, Peter B; Auker, Charles R; Arnaud, Francoise G; McCarron, Richard M; Scultetus, Anke H

    2016-09-01

    Sanguinate, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated carboxyhemoglobin, was investigated for cerebral vasoactivity in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 1) and for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) - traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Study 2). In both studies ketamine-acepromazine anesthetized rats were ventilated with 40% O2. In Study 1, a cranial window was used to measure the diameters of medium - (50-100μm) and small-sized (volume-matched Hextend, or normal saline. In Study 2, PbtO2 was measured using a phosphorescence quenching method before TBI, 15min after TBI (T15) and then every 10min thereafter for 155min. At T15, rats received either 8mL/kg IV Sanguinate (40mL/kg/h) or no treatment (saline, 4mL/kg/h). Results showed: 1) in healthy rats, percentage changes in pial arteriole diameter were the same among the groups, 2) in TBI rats, PbtO2 decreased from 36.5±3.9mmHg to 19.8±3.0mmHg at T15 in both groups after TBI and did not recover in either group for the rest of the study, and 3) MAP increased 16±4mmHg and 36±5mmHg after Sanguinate in healthy and TBI rats, respectively, while MAP was unchanged in control groups. In conclusion, Sanguinate did not cause vasoconstriction in the cerebral pial arterioles of healthy rats but it also did not acutely increase PbtO2 when administered after TBI. Sanguinate was associated with an increase in MAP in both studies. PMID:27287870

  16. CT and MR Studies of Giant Dermoid Cyst Associated to Fat Dissemination at the Cortical and Cisternal Cerebral Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Amore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on CT and MR studies of adult patient with giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa associated with micro- and macroaccumulations with density and signal like “fat” at the level of the cortical and cisternal cerebral spaces. This condition is compatible with previous asymptomatic ruptured dermoid cyst. Histological findings confirm the hypothesis formulated using the imaging. We also integrate elements of differential diagnosis by another giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa.

  17. Widespread cortical morphologic changes in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: evidence from structural MRI.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ronan, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Atypical morphology of the surface of the cerebral cortex may be related to abnormal cortical folding (gyrification) and therefore may indicate underlying malformations of cortical development (MCDs). Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based analysis, we examined cortical morphology in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME).

  18. Computational model of cerebral blood flow redistribution during cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Y.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades modelling studies on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine waves successfully contributed to formation of modern view on these fundamental phenomena of brain physiology. However, due to the extreme complexity of object under study (brain cortex) and the diversity of involved physiological pathways, the development of new mathematical models of CSD is still a very relevant and challenging research problem. In our study we follow the functional modelling approach aimed to map the action of known physiological pathways to the specific nonlinear mechanisms that govern formation and evolution of CSD wave patterns. Specifically, we address the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) redistribution that is caused by excessive neuronal activity by means of neurovascular coupling and mediates a spatial pattern of oxygen and glucose delivery. This in turn changes the local metabolic status of neural tissue. To build the model we simplify the web of known cell-to-cell interactions within a neurovascular unit by selecting the most relevant ones, such as local neuron-induced elevation of extracellular potassium concentration and biphasic response of arteriole radius. We propose the lumped description of distance-dependent hemodynamic coupling that fits the most recent experimental findings.

  19. Molecular pathways underlying projection neuron production and migration during cerebral cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eOhtaka-Maruyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex originate from the radial glia (RG progenitors in the ventricular zone (VZ. During corticogenesis, neuroblasts migrate toward the pial surface using two different migration modes. One is multipolar (MP migration with random directional movement, and the other is locomotion, which is a unidirectional movement guided by the RG fiber. After reaching their final destination, the neurons finalize their migration by terminal translocation, which is followed by maturation via dendrite extension to initiate synaptogenesis and thereby complete neural circuit formation. This switching of migration modes during cortical development is unique in mammals, which suggests that the RG-guided locomotion mode may contribute to the evolution of the mammalian neocortical 6-layer structure. Many factors have been reported to be involved in the regulation of this radial neuronal migration process. In general, the radial migration can be largely divided into four steps; (1 maintenance and departure from the VZ of neural progenitor cells, (2 MP migration and transition to bipolar cells, (3 RG-guided locomotion, and (4 terminal translocation and dendrite maturation. Among these, many different gene mutations or knockdown effects have resulted in failure of the MP to bipolar transition (step 2, suggesting that it is a critical step, particularly in radial migration. Moreover, this transition occurs at the subplate layer. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying each of these steps. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary aspects of neuronal migration in corticogenesis.

  20. The hominoid-specific gene TBC1D3 promotes generation of basal neural progenitors and induces cortical folding in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiang-Chun; Hou, Qiong-Qiong; Sheng, Ai-Li; Wu, Kong-Yan; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Ying; Wen, Tieqiao; Yang, Zhengang; Wang, Xiaoqun; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Cortical expansion and folding are often linked to the evolution of higher intelligence, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cortical folding remain poorly understood. The hominoid-specific gene TBC1D3 undergoes segmental duplications during hominoid evolution, but its role in brain development has not been explored. Here, we found that expression of TBC1D3 in ventricular cortical progenitors of mice via in utero electroporation caused delamination of ventricular radial glia cells (vRGs) and promoted generation of self-renewing basal progenitors with typical morphology of outer radial glia (oRG), which are most abundant in primates. Furthermore, down-regulation of TBC1D3 in cultured human brain slices decreased generation of oRGs. Interestingly, localized oRG proliferation resulting from either in utero electroporation or transgenic expression of TBC1D3, was often found to underlie cortical regions exhibiting folding. Thus, we have identified a hominoid gene that is required for oRG generation in regulating the cortical expansion and folding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18197.001 PMID:27504805

  1. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  2. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  3. Cortical somatosensory reorganization in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS ePAPADELIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral palsy (CP is among the most common causes of physical disability in early childhood, we know little about the functional and structural changes of this disorder in the developing brain. Here, we investigated with three different neuroimaging modalities (magnetoencephalography (MEG, diffusion tension imaging (DTI, and resting state fMRI whether spastic CP is associated with functional and anatomical abnormalities in the sensorimotor network. Ten children participated in the study: four with diplegic CP (DCP, three with hemiplegic CP (HCP, and three typically-developing (TD children. Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs were recorded in response to pneumatic stimuli applied to digits D1, D3, and D5 of both hands. Several parameters of water diffusion were calculated from DTI between the thalamus and the precentral and postcentral gyri in both hemispheres. The sensorimotor resting state networks (RSNs were examined by using an independent component analysis method. Tactile stimulation of the fingers elicited the first prominent cortical response at ~50 ms, in all except one child, localized over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. In five CP children, abnormal somatotopic organization was observed in the affected (or more affected hemisphere. Euclidean distances were markedly different between the two hemispheres in the HCP children, and between DCP and TD children for both hemispheres. DTI analysis revealed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased apparent diffusion coefficient for the thalamocortical pathways in the more affected compared to less affected hemisphere in CP children. Rs-fMRI results indicated absent and/or abnormal sensorimotor RSNs for children with HCP and DCP consistent with the severity and location of their lesions. Our findings suggest an abnormal somatosensory processing mechanism in the sensorimotor network of children with CP possibly as a result of diminished thalamocortical projections.

  4. Effects of acupoint versus non-acupoint electroacupuncture on cerebral cortical neuronal Bcl-2,Bax and caspase-3 expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Junming Fan; Yongshu Dong; Xia Huang; Hongxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture by acupoint selection can inhibit cerebral cortical neuronal apoptosis following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To validate the effects of electroacupuncture by acupoint selection on the expression level of cortical neuronal anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and the apoptotic executive protein, caspase-3, in rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized grouping, neural cell and molecular biology animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Laboratory Animal Center of Henan Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine between November 2006 and May 2007.MATERIALS: Atotal of 40 healthy male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and evenly divided into four groups: sham-operated, model, electroacupuncture and non-acupoint control. G6895 electro-acupuncture instruments were purchased from Shanghai Huayi Instrument Factory, China. Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax kits were provided by Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in the model, electroacupuncture and non-acupoint groups. In the electroacupuncture group, the acupoints Jianyu (LI15), Waiguan (SJ5), Biguan (ST31), and Zusanli (ST36) were given electroacupuncture. In the non-acupoint control group, at each time point (immediately after ischemia and after reperfusion, or 2 hours after reperfusion), electroacupuncture was performed at the midpoints of Tianquan (PC2)-Quze (PC 3) line, Quze (PC 3)-Ximen (PC4) line, Zuwuli (LRlO)-Yinbao (LRg) line, and Xiguan (LR7)-Zhongdu (LR6) line. Electroacupuncture parameters were set with a continuous wave with a frequency of 10 Hz, wave width 0.6 ms, voltage 1.5-3.0 V, and a duration of 10 minutes. The sham-operated and model groups received only animal fixation without electroacupuncture procedure.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five rats were selected from

  5. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  6. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  7. An evo-devo approach to thyroid hormones in cerebral and cerebellar cortical development: Etiological implications for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere eBerbel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphological alterations of cortical lamination observed in mouse models of developmental hypothyroidism prompted the recognition that these experimental changes resembled the brain lesions of children with autism; this led to recent studies showing that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency increases fourfold the risk of ASD, offering for the first time the possibility of prevention of some forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. For ethical reasons, the role of thyroid hormones on brain development is currently studied using animal models, usually mice and rats. Although mammals have in common many basic developmental principles regulating brain development, as well as fundamental basic mechanisms that are controlled by similar metabolic pathway activated genes, there are also important differences. For instance, the rodent cerebral cortex is basically a primary cortex, whereas the primary sensory areas in humans account for a very small surface in the cerebral cortex when compared to the associative and frontal areas that are more extensive. Associative and frontal areas in humans are involved in many neurological disorders, including ASD, attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD and dyslexia, among others. Therefore, an evo-devo approach to neocortical evolution among species is fundamental to understand not only the role of thyroid hormones and environmental thyroid disruptors on evolution, development and organization of the cerebral cortex in mammals, but also their role in neurological diseases associated to thyroid dysfunction.

  8. Electro-cortical signs of early neuronal damage following transient global cerebral ischemia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Zagrean, Ana-Maria; Avramescu, S;

    2004-01-01

    During recovery after a transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI), rat electrocorticogram (ECoG) shows epochs of synchronized activity (SA) alternating with epochs of low amplitude background activity (BA). The aim of this study was to compare the changes in these electrical activities during a 30...... did not change during reperfusion. Our data indicate that following cerebral ischemia the recovery of SA can take place independently of BA. The lack of recovery in BA may indicate early subcortical neuronal damage....

  9. Recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and differential expression of cerebral cortical proteins in the subacute stage of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua Liu; Jing Dong; Lei Lu; Ying Sha; Lei Song; Qun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor(hG-CSF)has been shown to protect the nervous system after brain ischemia.However,the neuroprotective mechanism of hG-CSF remains unclear.The present study established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and subcutaneously injected recombinant hG-CSF after reperfusion for 2 hours.Cerebral cortical protein was extracted following 14 days of reperfusion and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis.In brain ischemic rats,56 different protein spots were screened,including 17 that were upregulated and 17 that were downregulated,compared with the sham-surgery group.Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry was used to determine peptide mass fingerprinting.Following a National Center for Biotechnology Information database search and confirmation with the Swiss-Prot database,19 spots were identified as known proteins.Following hG-CSF treatment,35 different protein spots were found,including 16 that were downregulated and 19 that were upregulated.Six were known proteins,including dihydropyrimidinase-associated protein 2,glial fibrillary acidic protein,endomucin,Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor,Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor and guanine-nucleotide-binding protein.Results indicate that hG-CSF is involved in neuroprotection after brain ischemia,possibly by regulating the expression of various neural regeneration-associated proteins at the subacute stage.

  10. Regulation of Cerebral Cortical Size and Neuron Number by Fibroblast Growth Factors: Implications for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Smith, Karen Muller; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    Increased brain size is common in children with autism spectrum disorders. Here we propose that an increased number of cortical excitatory neurons may underlie the increased brain volume, minicolumn pathology and excessive network excitability, leading to sensory hyper-reactivity and seizures, which are often found in autism. We suggest that…

  11. Pathological features of cerebral cortical capillaries are doubled in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, E; De Jong, GI; de Vos, RAI; Steur, ENHJ; Luiten, PGM

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral capillaries represent a major interface between the general circulation and the central nervous system and are responsible for sufficient and selective nutrient transport to the brain. Structural damage or dysfunctioning carrier systems of such an active barrier leads to compromised nutrien

  12. Point application with Angong Niuhuang sticker protects hippocampal and cortical neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-shu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angong Niuhuang pill, a Chinese materia medica preparation, can improve neurological functions after acute ischemic stroke. Because of its inconvenient application and toxic components (Cinnabaris and Realgar, we used transdermal enhancers to deliver Angong Niuhuang pill by modern technology, which expanded the safe dose range and clinical indications. In this study, Angong Niuhuang stickers administered at different point application doses (1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 g/kg were administered to the Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4 of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe neuronal damage of the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. The middle- and high-dose point application of Angong Niuhuang stickers attenuated neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region, and improved the memory of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia with an efficacy similar to interventions by electroacupuncture at Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4. Our experimental findings indicate that point application with Angong Niuhuang stickers can improve cognitive function after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats and is neuroprotective with an equivalent efficacy to acupuncture.

  13. Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Christina; Duricki, Denise A; Roy, Lisa A; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet's equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments. PMID:26967269

  14. Differences in cerebral cortical anatomy of left- and right-handers

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio eGuadalupe; Willems, Roel M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alejandro eArias Vasquez; Martine eHoogman; Peter eHagoort; Guillén eFernández; Jan eBuitelaar; Barbara eFranke; Simon Edward Fisher; Clyde eFrancks

    2014-01-01

    The left and right sides of the human brain are specialized for different kinds of information processing, and much of our cognition is lateralized to an extent towards one side or the other. Handedness is a reflection of nervous system lateralization. Roughly ten percent of people are mixed- or left-handed, and they show an elevated rate of reductions or reversals of some cerebral functional asymmetries compared to right-handers. Brain anatomical correlates of left-handedness have also been ...

  15. Cerebral cortical astroglia from the trisomy 16 mouse, a model for Down syndrome, produce neuronal cholinergic deficits in cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, P. G.; Fitzgerald, S.; Rapoport, S I; Neale, E A; Galdzicki, Z; Dunlap, V.; Bowers, L; v. Agoston, D.

    1997-01-01

    Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is associated with a high incidence of Alzheimer disease and with deficits in cholinergic function in humans. We used the trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse model for Down syndrome to identify the cellular basis for the cholinergic dysfunction. Cholinergic neurons and cerebral cortical astroglia, obtained separately from Ts16 mouse fetuses and their euploid littermates, were cultured in various combinations. Choline acetyltransferase activity and cholinergic neuron number were...

  16. Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentopf, Christian M; Koppelstaetter, Florian; Haala, Ilka Anna; Haid, Veronika; Rhomberg, Paul; Ischebeck, Anja; Buchberger, Waltraud; Felber, Stephan; Schlager, Andreas; Golaszewski, Stefan M

    2005-09-01

    As recent studies demonstrated, acupuncture can elicit activity in specific brain areas. This study aims to explore further the central effect using laser acupuncture. We investigated the cerebral effects of laser acupuncture at both acupoints GB43 with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As a control condition the laser was mounted at the same acupoints but without application of laser stimulation. The group results showed significant brain activations within the thalamus, nucleus subthalamicus, nucleus ruber, the brainstem, and the Brodmann areas 40 and 22 for the acupuncture condition. No significant brain activations were observed within the placebo condition. The activations we observed were laser acupuncture-specific and predominantly ipsilateral. This supports the assumption that acupuncture is mediated by meridians, since meridians do not cross to the other side. Furthermore, we could show that laser acupuncture allows one to design a pure placebo condition. PMID:15990948

  17. Frontoparietal cortical atrophy with gliosis in the gray matter of cerebral cortex: case report Atrofia cortical frontoparietal com gliose na substância cinzenta do córtex cerebral: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    2002-06-01

    região periventricular, centro semi-oval bilateral, e alta hiperintensidade de sinal na região da cápsula interna esquerda, além de leve atrofia bilateral nos lobos frontoparietais. Tomografia cerebral por emissão de fóton único revelou hipoperfusão de intensidade moderada nos lobos frontais e severa nos parietais, especialmente à esquerda. Os achados de necrópsia evidenciaram atrofia cortical, sendo severa nos lobos frontais, moderada nos parietais e leve no terço posterior dos temporais. Havia também leve atrofia no neostriado. Do ponto de vista histopatológico, existia na camada cortical severa perda neuronal com intensa gliose gemioscítica e grau variável de status spongiosus. As colorações por hematoxilina-eosina e Bielschowsky não revelaram células baloniformes (células de Pick e corpúsculos argirofílicos (corpos de Pick, degeneração neurofibrilar ou placa senil. As reações imuno-histoquímicas foram negativas para anti-ubiquitina, anti-tau, anti-beta amilóide e proteína anti-prion.

  18. Cellullar insights into cerebral cortical development: focusing on the locomotion mode of neuronal migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eKawauchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain consists of numerous compartments that are closely connected with each other via neural networks, comprising the basis of higher order brain functions. The highly specialized structure originates from simple pseudostratified neuroepithelium-derived neural progenitors located near the ventricle. A long journey by neurons from the ventricular side is essential for the formation of a sophisticated brain structure, including a mammalian-specific six-layered cerebral cortex. Neuronal migration consists of several contiguous steps, but the locomotion mode comprises a large part of the migration. The locomoting neurons exhibit unique features; a radial glial fiber-dependent migration requiring the endocytic recycling of N-cadherin and a neuron-specific migration mode with dilation/swelling formation that requires the actin and microtubule organization possibly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5, Dcx, p27kip1, Rac1 and POSH. Here I will introduce the roles of various cellular events, such as cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion and membrane trafficking, in the regulation of the neuronal migration, with particular focus on the locomotion mode.

  19. Gender and the use of hormonal contraception in women are not associated with cerebral cortical 5-HT 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, V G; Erritzoe, D; Madsen, J;

    2009-01-01

    Gender influences brain function including serotonergic neurotransmission, which may play a role in the well-known gender variations in vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Even though hormonal replacement therapy in menopause is associated with globally increased cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor...... binding it is not clear if gender or use of hormonal contraception exhibits associations with 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. We found no significant effect of gender on cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (P=0.15, n=132). When adjusting for the personality trait neuroticism, known to be positively correlated...... to frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and to be more pronounced in women, again, the effect of gender was not significant (P=0.42, n=127). Also, the use of hormonal contraception (n=14) within the group of pre-menopausal women (total n=29) was not associated with cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (P=0...

  20. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  1. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  2. Temporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow, cortical damage, apoptosis, astrocyte-vasculature interaction and astrogliosis in the pericontusional region after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eVillapol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI results in a loss of brain tissue at the moment of impact in the cerebral cortex. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of molecular signals with dramatic consequences for the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The mechanisms behind the progression of tissue loss remain under investigation. In this study, we analyzed the spatial-temporal profile of blood flow, apoptotic and astrocytic-vascular events in the cortical regions around the impact site at time points ranging from 5 hours to 2 months after TBI. We performed a mild-moderate controlled cortical impact injury in young adult mice and analyzed the glial and vascular response to injury. We observed a dramatic decrease in perilesional cerebral blood flow (CBF immediately following the cortical impact that lasted until days later. CBF finally returned to baseline levels by 30 days post-injury (dpi. The initial impact also resulted in an immediate loss of tissue and cavity formation that gradually increased in size until 3 dpi. An increase in dying cells localized in the pericontusional region and a robust astrogliosis were also observed at 3 dpi. A strong vasculature interaction with astrocytes was established at 7 dpi. Glial scar formation began at 7 dpi and seemed to be compact by 60 dpi. Altogether, these results suggest that TBI results in a progression from acute neurodegeneration that precedes astrocytic activation, reformation of the neurovascular unit to glial scar formation. Understanding the multiple processes occurring after TBI is critical to the ability to develop neuroprotective therapeutics to ameliorate the short and long-term consequences of brain injury.

  3. A compact and realistic cerebral cortical layout derived from prewhitened resting-state fMRI time series: Cherniak's adjacency rule, size law, and metamodule grouping upheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott M; Christova, Peka; Jerde, Trenton A; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2012-01-01

    We used hierarchical tree clustering to derive a functional organizational chart of 52 human cortical areas (26 per hemisphere) from zero-lag correlations calculated between single-voxel, prewhitened, resting-state BOLD fMRI time series in 18 subjects. No special "resting-state networks" were identified. There were four major features in the resulting tree (dendrogram). First, there was a strong clustering of homotopic, left-right hemispheric areas. Second, cortical areas were concatenated in multiple, partially overlapping clusters. Third, the arrangement of the areas revealed a layout that closely resembled the actual layout of the cerebral cortex, namely an orderly progression from anterior to posterior. And fourth, the layout of the cortical areas in the tree conformed to principles of efficient, compact layout of components proposed by Cherniak. Since the tree was derived on the basis of the strength of neural correlations, these results document an orderly relation between functional interactions and layout, i.e., between structure and function.

  4. Effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in in vitro cultured cerebral cortical neurons from neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhu Hu; Jin Zhang; Ning Tang; Zhu Wen; Rongqing Nie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiocerebrovascular diseases induced cerebral circulation insufficiency and senile vascular dementia can result in ischemic/hypoxic apoptosis of central neurons, which we should pay more attention to and prevent and treat as early as possible. Traditional Chinese medicine possesses the unique advantage in this field. Polygonatum, a Chinese herb for invigorating qi, may play a role against the hypoxic apoptosis of brain neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro.DESIGN: A comparative experiment.SETTING: Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine from November 2003 to April 2005.Totally 218 Wistar rats (male or female) of clean degree within 24 hours after birth were purchased from the animal center of Jiangxi Medical College (certification number was 021-97-03).METHODS: ① Preparation of cerebral cortical neurons of rats: The cerebral cortical tissues were isolated from the Wistar rats within 24 hours after birth, and prepared to single cell suspension, and the cerebral cortical neurons of neonatal rats were in vitro cultured in serum free medium with Neurobasal plus B27Supplement. ② Observation on the non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons: After the neurons were cultured for 4 days, polygonatum polysaccharide of different dosages (1-20 g/L) was added for continuous culture for 48 hours, the toxicity and non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons were observed and detected with trypan blue staining. ③ Grouping: After hypoxia/reoxygenation,the cultured neurons were divided into normal control group, positive apoptotic group and polygonatum

  5. Brain functional near infrared spectroscopy in human infants : cerebral cortical haemodynamics coupled to neuronal activation in response to sensory stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartocci, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of cortical activation in the neonatal brain is crucial in the study of brain development, as it provides precious information for how the newborn infant processes external or internal stimuli. Thus far functional studies of neonates aimed to assess cortical responses to certain external stimuli are very few, due to the lack of suitable techniques to monitor brain activity of the newborn. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been found to be suitable for func...

  6. Effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in in vitro cultured cerebral cortical neurons from neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhu Hu; Jin Zhang; Ning Tang; Zhu Wen; Rongqing Nie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiocerebrovascular diseases induced cerebral circulation insufficiency and senile vascular dementia can result in ischemic/hypoxic apoptosis of central neurons, which we should pay more attention to and prevent and treat as early as possible. Traditional Chinese medicine possesses the unique advantage in this field. Polygonatum, a Chinese herb for invigorating qi, may play a role against the hypoxic apoptosis of brain neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of polygonatum polysaccharide on hypoxia-induced apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro.DESIGN: A comparative experiment.SETTING: Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Provincial Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine from November 2003 to April 2005.Totally 218 Wistar rats (male or female) of clean degree within 24 hours after birth were purchased from the animal center of Jiangxi Medical College (certification number was 021-97-03).METHODS: ① Preparation of cerebral cortical neurons of rats: The cerebral cortical tissues were isolated from the Wistar rats within 24 hours after birth, and prepared to single cell suspension, and the cerebral cortical neurons of neonatal rats were in vitro cultured in serum free medium with Neurobasal plus B27Supplement. ② Observation on the non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons: After the neurons were cultured for 4 days, polygonatum polysaccharide of different dosages (1-20 g/L) was added for continuous culture for 48 hours, the toxicity and non-toxic dosage of polygonatum polysaccharide on neurons were observed and detected with trypan blue staining. ③ Grouping: After hypoxia/reoxygenation,the cultured neurons were divided into normal control group, positive apoptotic group and polygonatum

  7. Topography of Cortical Microbleeds in Alzheimer's Disease with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reuck, J; Auger, F; Durieux, N; Deramecourt, V; Cordonnier, C; Pasquier, F; Maurage, C A; Leys, D; Bordet, R

    2015-11-01

    Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer's brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

  8. An evo-devo approach to thyroid hormones in cerebral and cerebellar cortical development: Etiological implications for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Pere eBerbel; Daniela eNavarro; Gustavo C. Román

    2014-01-01

    The morphological alterations of cortical lamination observed in mouse models of developmental hypothyroidism prompted the recognition that these experimental changes resembled the brain lesions of children with autism; this led to recent studies showing that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency increases fourfold the risk of ASD, offering for the first time the possibility of prevention of some forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For ethical reasons, the role of thyroid hormones on brai...

  9. GENSAT BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines to study the functional organization of cerebral cortical and basal ganglia circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Gerfen, Charles R.; Paletzki, Ronald; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Recent development of molecular genetic techniques are rapidly advancing understanding of the functional role of brain circuits in behavior. Critical to this approach is the ability to target specific neuron populations and circuits. The collection of over 250 BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines produced by the GENSAT project provides a resource for such studies. Here we provide characterization of GENSAT BAC-Cre driver lines with expression in specific neuroanatomical pathways within the cerebr...

  10. Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA α4 Receptors by Ethanol-Induced Protein Kinase A, but Not Protein Kinase C Activation in Cultured Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephen L; Bohnsack, J Peyton; Patel, Vraj; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol produces changes in GABAA receptor trafficking and function that contribute to ethanol dependence symptomatology. Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAA-R) mediate inhibitory tonic current and are of particular interest because they are potentiated by physiologically relevant doses of ethanol. Here, we isolate GABAA α4δ receptors by western blotting in subsynaptic fractions to investigate protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) modulation of ethanol-induced receptor trafficking, while extrasynaptic receptor function is determined by measurement of tonic inhibition and responses evoked by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP). Rat cerebral cortical neurons were grown for 18 days in vitro and exposed to ethanol and/or PKA/PKC modulators. Ethanol exposure (1 hour) did not alter GABAA α4 receptor abundance, but it increased tonic current amplitude, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting PKA, but not PKC. Direct activation of PKA, but not PKC, increased the abundance and tonic current of extrasynaptic α4δ receptors. In contrast, prolonged ethanol exposure (4 hours) reduced α4δ receptor abundance as well as tonic current, and this effect was also PKA dependent. Finally, PKC activation by ethanol or phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) had no effect on extrasynaptic α4δ subunit abundance or activity. We conclude that ethanol alters extrasynaptic α4δ receptor function and expression in cortical neurons in a PKA-dependent manner, but ethanol activation of PKC does not influence these receptors. These results could have clinical relevance for therapeutic strategies to restore normal GABAergic functioning for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  11. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  12. A Computational Growth Model for Measuring Dynamic Cortical Development in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili

    2012-01-01

    Human cerebral cortex develops extremely fast in the first year of life. Quantitative measurement of cortical development during this early stage plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural and high-level functional development. This paper presents a computational growth model to simulate the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex from birth to 1 year old by modeling the cerebral cortex as a deformable elastoplasticity surface driven via a growth model. To achieve a high accuracy, a guidance model is also incorporated to estimate the growth parameters and cortical shapes at later developmental stages. The proposed growth model has been applied to 10 healthy subjects with longitudinal brain MR images acquired at every 3 months from birth to 1 year old. The experimental results show that our proposed method can capture the dynamic developmental process of the cortex, with the average surface distance error smaller than 0.6 mm compared with the ground truth surfaces, and the results also show that 1) the curvedness and sharpness decrease from 2 weeks to 12 months and 2) the frontal lobe shows rapidly increasing cortical folding during this period, with relatively slower increase of the cortical folding in the occipital and parietal lobes. PMID:22047969

  13. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  14. Clinical analysis and review of the literature of cortical blindness after cerebral angiography%脑血管介入诊疗术后致皮质盲的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建涛; 孙学东; 李生; 肖玉良; 王君

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the pathogeny of the cortical blindness caused by cerebral angiography. Methods:The analysis was made of the clinical data of the 4 case of postoperative cortical blindness from 5965 cases of the cerebral angi-ography during from January 2008 to December 2014. Results:No pathologies were found,and cranial computed tomo-graphy showed no intracranial infarcts and hemorrhage in the ophthalmologic and neurologic examination. Treatment includ-ed the alleviation of vasospasm,improvement of cerebral perfusion pressure,stable blood brain barrier and neural nutrition, improvement of cerebral metabolism,free radical scavenging and psychological counseling symptomatic treatment. Four pa-tients with cortical blindness were recovered in 11 days. There were related complications in the 3 follow-up months. Con-clusion:The cortical blindness,caused by cerebral angiography,is a rare complication,and most patients can be cured.%目的:讨论血管造影和/或介入治疗术后皮质盲的病因、诊断、治疗和预防措施。方法回顾性分析我科5965例脑血管介入诊疗患者中,以皮质盲为主要表现的4例患者的病史、检查过程、术后症状表现、治疗方法、相关辅助检查资料、治疗结果。结果患者神经眼科检查未见异常,颅脑CT均未见明显颅内埂塞和出血表现。经过扩容、缓解血管痉挛、改善脑灌注压、稳定血脑屏障、神经营养、改善脑代谢、清除自由基以及心理疏导等对症治疗,4例患者皮质盲在11天内完全恢复,随访3个月未见相关并发症。结论数字减影血管造影术( DSA)术后皮质盲是少见并发症,但经过对症处理,多数预后良好;工作中应提高认识,降低发生率。

  15. Long-term sensory stimulation therapy improves hand function and restores cortical responsiveness in patients with chronic cerebral lesions. Three single case studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph eKattenstroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of sensorimotor impairment resulting from cerebral lesion (CL utilizes task specific training and massed practice to drive reorganization and sensorimotor improvement due to induction of neuroplasticity mechanisms. Loss of sensory abilities often complicates recovery, and thus the individual’s ability to use the affected body part for functional tasks. Therefore, the development of additional and alternative approaches that supplement, enhance, or even replace conventional training procedures would be advantageous. Repetitive sensory stimulation protocols (rSS have been shown to evoke sensorimotor improvements of the affected limb in patients with chronic stroke. However, the possible impact of long-term rSS on sensorimotor performance of patients with CL, where the incident dated back many years remains unclear. The particular advantage of rSS is its passive nature, which does not require active participation of the subjects. Therefore, rSS can be applied parallel to other occupations, making the intervention easier to implement and more acceptable to the individual. Here we report the effects of applying rSS for 8, 36 and 76 weeks on the paretic hand of 3 long-term patients with different types of CL. Different behavioral tests were used to assess sensory and/or sensorimotor performance of the upper extremities prior, after, and during the intervention. In one patient, the impact of long-term rSS on restoration of cortical activation was investigated by recording somatosensory evoked potentials. After long-term rSS all three patients showed considerable improvements of their sensory and motor abilities. In addition, almost normal evoked potentials could be recorded after rSS in one patient. Our data show that long-term rSS applied to patients with chronic CL can improve tactile and sensorimotor functions, which, however, developed in some cases only after many weeks of stimulation, and continued to further improve on a time

  16. The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, since prior analyses were focused on examining gray matter or cortical thickness, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain’s surface. Cortical folding occurs early in development and might be linked to behavioral traits. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues with respect to the underlying anatomical correlates of meditation. This study examined cortical gyrification in a large sample (n=100 of meditators and controls, carefully matched for sex and age. Cortical gyrification was established via calculating mean curvature across thousands of vertices on individual cortical surface models. Pronounced group differences indicating larger gyrification in meditators were evident within the left precentral gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cuneus, as well as left and right anterior dorsal insula (the latter representing the global significance maximum. Although the exact functional implications of larger cortical gyrification remain to be established, these findings suggest the insula to be a key structure involved in aspects of meditation. For example, variations in insular complexity could affect the regulation of well-known distractions in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover, given that meditators are masters in introspection, awareness, and emotional control, increased insular gyrification may reflect an ideal integration of autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, further research is necessary determine the relative contribution of nature and nurture to links between cortical gyrification and meditation.

  17. How does the cortex get its folds? The role of tension-based morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, David

    The cerebral cortex is a sheet-like structure that is convoluted to varying degrees in different species and, for human cortex, shows remarkable variability across individuals - even in identical twins. This talk will discuss key biological events and physical forces involved in how the cortex gets its folds. The early stages of cortical morphogenesis are established by exquisitely regulated patterns of cellular proliferation and migration that place the right numbers of cells in an appropriate starting configuration. A major focus will be on the proposed role of mechanical tension in the next stages of morphogenesis. Does tension along apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells help make the cortex a sheet? Does tension along long-distance axons cause the cortex to fold? These are attractive but controversial ideas. I will suggest ways in which physicists can contribute critical models and analyses that may help distinguish the relative contributions of several mechanisms (differential proliferation, buckling of the cortical sheet, and tension-based cortical folding). Physicists can also help in evaluating the degree to which cortical circuits reflect principles of compact wiring and the putative role of tension-based morphogenesis in wiring length minimization.

  18. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  19. Electroacupuncture effects on cortical neurons, as well as Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signal transduction pathway, in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Liu; Nenggui Xu; Wei Yi; Kangbai Huang

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a model of focal cerebral ischemia through heat-coagulation induced occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Following electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14), or intracerebroventricular infusion of AG490, a Janus kinase 2 phosphorylation inhibitor, the amount of necrotic or degenerated neurons in the ischemic cerebral cortex decreased, neuronal swelling was ameliorated, and expression of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 decreased. Results confirmed that electroacupuncture promoted neuronal repair in the cerebral cortex by reducing expression of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, as well as weakening the phosphorylated activation, thereby blocking abnormal activation of the Janus kinase 2- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signal transduction pathway.

  20. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on hippocampal and parietal cortical neuronal cAMP-response element-binding protein expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Qu; Xuesong Xing; Jin Zang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is a key modulator of various signaling pathways. CREB activation initiates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal survival. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on cerebral neuronal CREB expression following ischemia/reperfusion injury. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical detection experiment was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Shenyang Medical College, between October 2006 and April 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 60 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated (n=12), ischemia/reperfusion (n=24), and bFGF-treated (n=24). Rabbit anti-rat CREB (1: 100) and biotin labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG were purchased from the Wuhan Boster Company, China. MetaMorph-evolution MPS. 0-BX51 microscopy imaging system was provided by China Medical University, China. METHODS: Rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were developed using the suture method for right middle cerebral artery occlusion. Two-hour ischemia was followed by reperfusion. Rats from the bFGF-treated and ischemia/reperfusion groups were intraperitoneally administered endogenous bFGF (500 IU/mL, 2 000 IU/kg) or an equal amount of physiological saline. Rats from the sham-operated group underwent a similar surgical procedure, without induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury and drug administration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 48-hour reperfusion, hippocampal and parietal cortical neuronal CREB expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the absorbance of hippocampal CREB-positive products was determined using MetaMorph-evolutionMP5.0-BX51 microscopy imaging system. RESULTS: The sham-operated group exhibited noticeable CREB expression in hippocampal and parietal cortical neurons. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, the CREB expression was discrete and neurons were poorly arranged. The bFGF-treated group

  1. Effects of ketamine,midazolam,thiopental,and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices%氯胺酮,咪唑安定,硫喷妥钠和异丙酚对大鼠皮层脑片缺血性损伤的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛庆生; 于布为; 王泽剑; 陈红专

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incubated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD (P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400 μmol/L)partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  2. The extracellular matrix, p53 and estrogen compete to regulate cell-surface Fas/Apo-1 suicide receptor expression in proliferating embryonic cerebral cortical precursors, and reciprocally, Fas-ligand modifies estrogen control of cell-cycle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Joseph M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is important for normal cerebral cortical development. We previously showed that the Fas suicide receptor was expressed within the developing cerebral cortex, and that in vitro Fas activation resulted in caspase-dependent death. Alterations in cell-surface Fas expression may significantly influence cortical development. Therefore, in the following studies, we sought to identify developmentally relevant cell biological processes that regulate cell-surface Fas expression and reciprocal consequences of Fas receptor activation. Results Flow-cytometric analyses identified two distinct neural sub-populations that expressed Fas on their cell surface at high (FasHi or moderate (FasMod levels. The anti-apoptotic protein FLIP further delineated a subset of Fas-expressing cells with potential apoptosis-resistance. FasMod precursors were mainly in G0, while FasHi precursors were largely apoptotic. However, birth-date analysis indicated that neuroblasts express the highest levels of cell-surface Fas at the end of S-phase, or after their final round of mitosis, suggesting that Fas expression is induced at cell cycle checkpoints or during interkinetic nuclear movements. FasHi expression was associated with loss of cell-matrix adhesion and anoikis. Activation of the transcription factor p53 was associated with induction of Fas expression, while the gonadal hormone estrogen antagonistically suppressed cell-surface Fas expression. Estrogen also induced entry into S-phase and decreased the number of Fas-expressing neuroblasts that were apoptotic. Concurrent exposure to estrogen and to soluble Fas-ligand (sFasL suppressed p21/waf-1 and PCNA. In contrast, estrogen and sFasL, individually and together, induced cyclin-A expression, suggesting activation of compensatory survival mechanisms. Conclusions Embryonic cortical neuronal precursors are intrinsically heterogeneous with respect to Fas suicide-sensitivity. Competing intrinsic (p53

  3. Cortical surface segmentation and mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Duygu; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Han, Xiao; Tao, Xiaodong; Xu, Chenyang; Resnick, Susan M.; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation and mapping of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance (MR) images plays an important role in neuro-science and medicine. This paper describes a comprehensive approach for cortical reconstruction, flattening, and sulcal segmentation. Robustness to imaging artifacts and anatomical consistency are key achievements in an overall approach that is nearly fully automatic and computationally fast. Results demonstrating the application of this approach to a study of cortical th...

  4. Focal and Generalized Patterns of Cerebral Cortical Veins Due to Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus or Prolonged Seizure Episode after Convulsive Status Epilepticus – A MRI Study Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar; Krestel, Heinz; Springer, Elisabeth; Huber, Adrian; Weisstanner, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Gralla, Jan; Wiest, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions. We hypothesized that SWI-related oxygenation patterns reflect ictal or postictal patterns that resemble SE or sequelae of seizures. Results Sixteen patients were examined during nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as confirmed by EEG, a further ten patients suffered from witnessed and prolonged seizure episode ahead of imaging without initial EEG. MRI patterns of 15 of the 26 patients revealed generalized hyperoxygenation by SWI in keeping with either global or multifocal cortical hyperperfusion. Eight patients revealed a focal hyperoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF increase and three patients showed a focal deoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF decrease. Conclusions SWI-related hyper- and deoxygenation patterns resemble ictal and postictal CBF changes within a range from globally increased to focally decreased perfusion. In all 26 patients the SWI patterns were in keeping with ictal hyperperfusion (hyperoxygenation patterns) or postictal hypoperfusion (deoxygenation patterns) respectively. A new finding of this study is that cortical venous patterns in SWI can be not only focally, but globally attenuated. SWI may thus be considered as an alternative contrast-free MR sequence to identify perfusion changes related to ictal or postictal conditions. PMID:27486662

  5. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Friberg, L

    1985-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the...

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 derived peptide, EEIIMD, diminishes cortical infarct but fails to improve neurological function in aged rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Zhenjun; Li, Xinlan; Kelly, Kimberly A.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Age is a primary risk factor in stroke that is often overlooked in animal studies. We contend that using aged animals yields insight into aspects of stroke injury and recovery that are masked, or not elicited, in younger animals. In this study, we examined effects of co-administration of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 derived peptide, EEIIMD, with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on infarct volume and functional outcome in aged rats following a transient middle cerebral artery occ...

  7. The magnitude of the somatosensory cortical activity is related to the mobility and strength impairments seen in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Max J.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Becker, Katherine M.; Wilson, Tony W.

    2015-01-01

    The noted disruption of thalamocortical connections and abnormalities in tactile sensory function has resulted in a new definition of cerebral palsy (CP) that recognizes the sensorimotor integration process as central to the motor impairments seen in these children. Despite this updated definition, the connection between a child's motor impairments and somatosensory processing remains almost entirely unknown. In this investigation, we explored the relationship between the magnitude of neural ...

  8. 小鼠大脑皮质神经元电穿孔转染条件的优化%Optimization of electroporation parameters for cerebral cortical neurons of mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹从清; 黄静; 魏燕燕; 陈晶; 李云庆; 武胜昔

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the electroporation parameters in primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons of mouse. Methods: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression plasmid shNC was transferred into cortical neurons using different electroporation voltages and impulse times. Expression of GFP was observed after twenty-four hours of transfection and the electroporation efficiencies were analyzed to determine the optimal electroporation conditions. Results: The highest electroporation transfection rate was achieved under the conditions of voltage 200 v, pulse time 25 ms or voltage 250 v, pulse time 15 ms for the mouse cortical neurons. The transfection rate was (31. 15 ± 1.89)% and(29. 10 ±1.93 ) % respectively. Conclusion: Electroporation is a highly efficient gene transfection method. Optimized electroporation parameters can improve the electroporation efficiency of the mouse cortical neurons.%目的:以原代培养的小鼠大脑皮质神经元为研究工具,优化电穿孔转染条件.方法:通过设置不同的电压和脉冲时间组合等电转染条件,将表达绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)的shNC质粒导入小鼠大脑皮质神经元,24 h后观察并比较神经元的转染效率,确定最佳电转染条件.结果:200 v电压,25 ms,脉冲时间或250 v电压,15 ms脉冲时间的转染条件下,小鼠大脑皮质神经元可获得较好的转染效率,分别为(31.15±1.89)%和(29.10±1.93)%.结论:电穿孔转染是一种高效的基因转染方法,通过条件的优化,可以提高小鼠大脑皮质神经元的电转染效率.

  9. A new method to measure cortical growth in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Andrew K; Chang, Yulin V; Grimm, Cindy M; Phan, Ly; Taber, Larry A; Bayly, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Folding of the cerebral cortex is a critical phase of brain development in higher mammals but the biomechanics of folding remain incompletely understood. During folding, the growth of the cortical surface is heterogeneous and anisotropic. We developed and applied a new technique to measure spatial and directional variations in surface growth from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of a single animal or human subject. MRI provides high resolution 3D image volumes of the brain at different stages of development. Surface representations of the cerebral cortex are obtained by segmentation of these volumes. Estimation of local surface growth between two times requires establishment of a point-to-point correspondence ("registration") between surfaces measured at those times. Here we present a novel approach for the registration of two surfaces in which an energy function is minimized by solving a partial differential equation on a spherical surface. The energy function includes a strain-energy term due to distortion and an "error energy" term due to mismatch between surface features. This algorithm, implemented with the finite element method, brings surface features into approximate alignment while minimizing deformation in regions without explicit matching criteria. The method was validated by application to three simulated test cases and applied to characterize growth of the ferret cortex during folding. Cortical surfaces were created from MRI data acquired in vivo at 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of life. Deformation gradient and Lagrangian strain tensors describe the kinematics of growth over this interval. These quantitative results illuminate the spatial, temporal, and directional patterns of growth during cortical folding. PMID:20887014

  10. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore and afrotherian brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share nonneuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are however distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  11. Effect of vitamin E on cerebral cortical oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression induced by hypoxia and exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; El Samanoudy, A Z

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the proliferation of neurons, and its expression increases significantly with exercise. We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (swimming) and sustained hypoxia on cortical BDNF expression in both the presence and absence of vitamin E. Sixty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups; a normoxic group and a hypoxic group. Both groups were equally subdivided into four subgroups: sedentary, sedentary with vitamin E, chronic exercise either with or without vitamin E supplementation. Arterial PO(2), and the levels of cortical malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (reduced glutathione GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and vitamin E) and BDNF gene expression were investigated. Hypoxia significantly increased MDA production and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants compared to control rats. Chronic exercise in hypoxic and normoxic rats increased MDA level and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants. Providing vitamin E supplementation to the hypoxic and normoxic rats significantly reduced MDA and BDNF gene expression and increased antioxidants. We conclude that sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise increased BDNF gene expression and induced oxidative stress. Moreover, vitamin E attenuated the oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression in sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise which confirms the oxidative stress-induced stimulation of BDNF gene expression. PMID:25903950

  12. Human Auditory and Adjacent Nonauditory Cerebral Cortices Are Hypermetabolic in Tinnitus as Measured by Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is the phantom perception of sound in the absence of an acoustic stimulus. To date, the purported neural correlates of tinnitus from animal models have not been adequately characterized with translational technology in the human brain. The aim of the present study was to measure changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration from regions of interest (ROI; auditory cortex) and non-ROI (adjacent nonauditory cortices) during auditory stimulation and silence in participants with subjective tinnitus appreciated equally in both ears and in nontinnitus controls using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Control and tinnitus participants with normal/near-normal hearing were tested during a passive auditory task. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over ROI and non-ROI under episodic periods of auditory stimulation with 750 or 8000 Hz tones, broadband noise, and silence. During periods of silence, tinnitus participants maintained increased hemodynamic responses in ROI, while a significant deactivation was seen in controls. Interestingly, non-ROI activity was also increased in the tinnitus group as compared to controls during silence. The present results demonstrate that both auditory and select nonauditory cortices have elevated hemodynamic activity in participants with tinnitus in the absence of an external auditory stimulus, a finding that may reflect basic science neural correlates of tinnitus that ultimately contribute to phantom sound perception.

  13. Human Auditory and Adjacent Nonauditory Cerebral Cortices Are Hypermetabolic in Tinnitus as Measured by Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the phantom perception of sound in the absence of an acoustic stimulus. To date, the purported neural correlates of tinnitus from animal models have not been adequately characterized with translational technology in the human brain. The aim of the present study was to measure changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration from regions of interest (ROI; auditory cortex and non-ROI (adjacent nonauditory cortices during auditory stimulation and silence in participants with subjective tinnitus appreciated equally in both ears and in nontinnitus controls using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Control and tinnitus participants with normal/near-normal hearing were tested during a passive auditory task. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over ROI and non-ROI under episodic periods of auditory stimulation with 750 or 8000 Hz tones, broadband noise, and silence. During periods of silence, tinnitus participants maintained increased hemodynamic responses in ROI, while a significant deactivation was seen in controls. Interestingly, non-ROI activity was also increased in the tinnitus group as compared to controls during silence. The present results demonstrate that both auditory and select nonauditory cortices have elevated hemodynamic activity in participants with tinnitus in the absence of an external auditory stimulus, a finding that may reflect basic science neural correlates of tinnitus that ultimately contribute to phantom sound perception.

  14. Cerebral blood flow in posterior cortical nodes of the default mode network decreases with task engagement but remains higher than in most brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic "default mode network" and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion.

  15. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  17. 双环己酮草酰二腙诱导的精神分裂症样小鼠大脑皮质体积及有髓神经纤维的体视学观测%Stereological observation of cerebral cortex volume and myelinated fibers in cerebral cortices of cuprizone-induced schizophrenia-like mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭超; 程国华; 王芸; 李永德; 陈林; 卢伟; 孔吉明; 肖岚; 唐勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨双环己酮草酰二腙(cuprizone,CPZ)诱导的精神分裂症样小鼠大脑皮质体积及其内有髓神经纤维的改变.方法 将6周龄的雄性C57BL/6小鼠分为CPZ组和对照组,CPZ组小鼠用含0.2% CPZ混合饲料饲育,对照组小鼠用标准的实验室饲料饲育.6周后进行行为学实验以证实精神分裂症样动物模型造模成功.然后运用透射电镜技术和体视学方法对小鼠大脑皮质体积和大脑皮质内有髓神经纤维进行定量研究.结果 行为学实验中CPZ组小鼠出现精神分裂症样表现,体视学定量研究中CPZ组与对照组小鼠相比大脑皮质总体积没有显著性改变(P>0.05).与对照组小鼠相比,CPZ组小鼠大脑皮质有髓神经纤维长度密度和总长度分别显著性降低了64.3%和68.9% (P <0.01),有髓神经纤维平均直径显著性增加了17.8% (P <0.01).直径为0.2~<0.4 μm、0.4~<0.6 μm和0.6~ <0.8 μm的大脑皮质有髓神经纤维总长度与对照组小鼠相比分别显著性减少了4.317、3.313 km和0.940 km(P <0.01),CPZ组小鼠其他直径段大脑皮质有髓神经纤维总长度与对照组小鼠相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 CPZ组小鼠存在大脑皮质有髓神经纤维总长度的降低和平均直径的增加,有髓神经纤维总长度的降低主要是由小直径纤维丢失造成的.%Objective To investigate the changes of cerebral cortex volume and myelinated fibers in the cerebral cortices of cuprizone ( CPZ) -induced schizophrenia-like mice. Methods Six-week old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into a CPZ group arid a control group. The mice in the CPZ group were fed with mixed standard rodent chow containing 0. 2% CPZ, while those in the control group were fed with standard lab chow. After six weeks, behavioral tests were performed to confirm the success of schizophrenia-like animal model. Then the cerebral cortex volume and myelinated fibers in the cerebral cortices were

  18. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian eBudd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  19. The origin of cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Parnavelas J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex comprise two broad classes: pyramidal neurons, which project to distant targets, and the inhibitory nonpyramidal cells, the cortical interneurons. Pyramidal neurons are generated in the germinal ventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and migrate along the processes of radial glial cells to their positions in the developing cortex in an `inside-out' sequence. The GABA-containing nonpyramidal cells originate for the most part in the gangli...

  20. Modelling Human Cortical Network in Real Brain Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-Bai; FENG Hong-Bo; TANG Yi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Highly specific structural organization is of great significance in the topology of cortical networks.We introduce a human cortical network model.taking the specific cortical structure into account,in which nodes are brain sites placed in the actual positions of cerebral cortex and the establishment of edges depends on the spatial path length rather than the linear distance.The resulting network exhibits the essential features of cortical connectivity,properties of small-world networks and multiple clusters structure.Additionally.assortative mixing is also found in this roodel.All of these findings may be attributed to the spedtic cortical architecture.

  1. Assessment of quantitative cortical biomarkers in the developing brain of preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Pearlman, Paul C.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2013-02-01

    The cerebral cortex rapidly develops its folding during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In preterm birth, this growth might be disrupted and influence neurodevelopment. The aim of this work is to extract quantitative biomarkers describing the cortex and evaluate them on a set of preterm infants without brain pathology. For this study, a set of 19 preterm - but otherwise healthy - infants scanned coronally with 3T MRI at the postmenstrual age of 30 weeks were selected. In ten patients (test set), the gray and white matter were manually annotated by an expert on the T2-weighted scans. Manual segmentations were used to extract cortical volume, surface area, thickness, and curvature using voxel-based methods. To compute these biomarkers per region in every patient, a template brain image has been generated by iterative registration and averaging of the scans of the remaining nine patients. This template has been manually divided in eight regions, and is transformed to every test image using elastic registration. In the results, gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface area appear symmetric between hemispheres, but small regional differences are visible. Cortical thickness seems slightly higher in the right parietal lobe than in other regions. The parietal lobes exhibit a higher global curvature, indicating more complex folding compared to other regions. The proposed approach can potentially - together with an automatic segmentation algorithm - be applied as a tool to assist in early diagnosis of abnormalities and prediction of the development of the cognitive abilities of these children.

  2. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  3. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. PMID:26813679

  4. Cerebral hemodynamics in aging : the interplay between blood pressure, cerebral perfusion, and dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in measurement techniques have made it possible to study dynamic changes in brain blood flow. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures changes in cerebral blood flow-velocity in the larger cerebral arteries (e.g. the middle cerebral artery). Near infrared spectroscopy records changes in brain cortical tissue concentrations of hemoglobin. These techniques are non-invasive, and can be performed with the subject in supine, sitting or standing position. Together with photoplethysmog...

  5. The effect of the large cerebral cortical tubers on seizure outcomes in tuber sclerosis com-plex patients%颅内皮层大结节对结节性硬化症患者癫癎预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李花; 潘速跃; 胡湘蜀; 费凌霞; 郭强; 张玮; 张佩琪; 钟水生; 沈鼎烈; 周锦华

    2015-01-01

    目的:明确颅内皮层大结节对结节性硬化症(T SC )患者癫�发作及其预后的影响。方法:通过对颅内皮层结节的测量寻找颅内皮层大结节,定义为在皮层结节长宽高3个平面中,至少有2个平面的直径≥3 cm。观察颅内皮层大结节对T SC患者癫�发作及其预后的影响。结果:本研究共入组89例伴有癫�发作的T SC患者,其中男性53例,女性36例,癫�发病年龄最小为出生后1个月,最大为28岁。通过测量皮层结节发现36例(40%)患者符合本研究定义的皮层大结节。经统计学分析发现皮层大结节与痉挛发作史( P=0.022)、多种发作类型( P=0.014)、智力低下( P=0.024)及难治性癫�( P=0.041)等方面差异有统计学意义。结论:颅内皮层大结节的患者容易出现痉挛发作及多种发作类型,患者更易出现智力低下和难治性癫�,因此对于存在皮层大结节的患者需考虑早期手术治疗。%Objective:To study the effect of the large cerebral cortical tubers on seizure outcomes in patients with tuber sclerosis complex(TSC) .Methods:The diameters of at least two planes of the tuber dimention on MR were found to be ≥3 cm through the measurement of the large cerebral cortical tubers in patients with TSC .The study was aimed at observing the effect of the large cerebral cortical tubers on seizure outcomes .Results:89 patients with definite epileptic TSC were inrolved in the study ,53 male and 36 female .The onset age of seizure ranged from 1 month to 28 years .36 patients (40% ) had large cere‐bral cortical tubers according to the examination .There were statistically significant relation between the large cortical tubers and a history of infantile spasms(P=0 .022) ,multiple seizure types(P=0 .014) ,cog‐nitive impairment (P=0 .024) and refractory epilepsy(P= 0 .041) .Conclusion:The patients with large cortical tubers are found to

  6. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  7. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  8. Spatiotemporal SERT expression in cortical map development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoning; Petit, Emilie I; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2016-09-01

    The cerebral cortex is organized into morphologically distinct areas that provide biological frameworks underlying perception, cognition, and behavior. Profiling mouse and human cortical transcriptomes have revealed temporal-specific differential gene expression modules in distinct neocortical areas during cortical map establishment. However, the biological roles of spatiotemporal gene expression in cortical patterning and how cortical topographic gene expression is regulated are largely unknown. Here, we characterize temporal- and spatial-defined expression of serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) in glutamatergic neurons during sensory map development in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in glutamatergic thalamic neurons projecting to sensory cortices and in pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) during the period that lays down the basic functional neural circuits. We previously identified that knockout of SERT in the thalamic neurons blocks 5-HT uptake by their thalamocortical axons, resulting in excessive 5-HT signaling that impairs sensory map architecture. In contrast, here we show that selective SERT knockout in the PFC and HPC neurons does not perturb sensory map patterning. These data suggest that transient SERT expression in specific glutamatergic neurons provides area-specific instructions for cortical map patterning. Hence, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this SERT function could illuminate the fundamental genetic programming of cortex-specific maps and biological roles of temporal-specific cortical topographic gene expression in normal development and mental disorders. PMID:27282696

  9. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  10. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, Tuomas

    The convolutions of the human brain are a symbol of its functional complexity. But how does the outer surface of the brain, the layered cortex of neuronal gray matter get its folds? In this talk, we ask to which extent folding of the brain can be explained as a purely mechanical consequence of unpatterned growth of the cortical layer relative to the sublayers. Modeling the growing brain as a soft layered solid leads to elastic instabilities and the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri consistent with observations across species in both normal and pathological situations. Furthermore, we apply initial geometries obtained from fetal brain MRI to address the question of how the brain geometry and folding patterns may be coupled via mechanics.

  11. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  12. Imaging characteristics of two patients with isolated cortical venous thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunchang Han; Hui Zhang; Guoguang Fan; Baohai Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Over the past twenty years, improvements in neuroimaging have greatly improved the ability to diagnose cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, as well as isolated cortical venous thrombosis. Neuroimaging allows for variations to be detected in the cortical vein and venous sinus. Diagnosis of thromboses in the venous system should not depend entirely on angiography of undeveloped veins or venous sinus. Currently, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography is the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, rather than digital subtraction angiography. This article summarizes clinical manifestations, results from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of isolated cortical venous thrombosis, analyzed relevant literature, and discussed the clinical and imaging characteristics of isolated cortical venous thromboses.

  13. Cortical spreading depression impairs oxygen delivery and metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzawa, Izumi; Sakadžić, Sava; Vivek J Srinivasan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Boas, David A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with severe hypoperfusion in mice. Using minimally invasive multimodal optical imaging, we show that severe flow reductions during and after spreading depression are associated with a steep decline in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Concurrent severe hemoglobin desaturation suggests that the oxygen metabolism becomes at least in part supply limited, and the decrease in cortical blood volume implicates vasoconstriction as the mechanism. In s...

  14. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Menary (Kyle); P.F. Collins (Paul); J.N. Porter (James); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); E.A. Olson (Elizabeth); V. Kumar (Vipin); D. Steinbach; K.O. Lim (Kelvin); M. Luciana (Monica)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throug

  15. The impact of anesthetics and hyperoxia on cortical spreading depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Chiho; Nozari, Ala; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a transient neuronal and glial depolarization that propagates slowly across the cerebral cortex, is the putative electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura. It negatively impacts tissue injury during stroke, cerebral contusion and intracranial hemorrhage. Susceptibility to CSD has been assessed in several experimental animal models in vivo, such as after topical KCl application or cathodal stimulation. Various combinations of anesthetics and ambie...

  16. Selective value of computed tomography of the brain in Cerebritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylis, N.B.; Altman, R.D.; Ostrov, S.; Quencer, R. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). School of Medicine)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and steroid effects on the brain were measured by computed tomography (CT). Of 14 patients with SLE cerebritis, 10 (71%) had marked cortical atrophy and 4 (29%) minimal atrophy. None were normal by CT. Controls included 22 patients with SLE without cerebritis receiving cortiocosteroids; this group had normal CT scans in 16 (73%) and minimal cortical atrophy in the remaining 6 (27%). Follow-up CT on 5 patients with cerebritis was unchanged. CT of the brain is a minimally invasive technique for documenting SLE cerebritis. CT may also help differentiate cerebritis from the neuropsychiatric side effects of corticosteroids.

  17. The selective value of computed tomography of the brain in Cerebritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and steroid effects on the brain were measured by computed tomography (CT). Of 14 patients with SLE cerebritis, 10 (71%) had marked cortical atrophy and 4 (29%) minimal atrophy. None were normal by CT. Controls included 22 patients with SLE without cerebritis receiving cortiocosteroids; this group had normal CT scans in 16 (73%) and minimal cortical atrophy in the remaining 6 (27%). Follow-up CT on 5 patients with cerebritis was unchanged. CT of the brain is a minimally invasive technique for documenting SLE cerebritis. CT may also help differentiate cerebritis from the neuropsychiatric side effects of corticosteroids

  18. Apraxia in deep cerebral lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Agostoni, E; Coletti, A.; G. Orlando; Tredici, G

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 50 patients with cerebrovascular lesions (demonstrated with CT scan), seven patients had lesions located in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. All these seven patients were apractic. Ideomotor apraxia was present in all patients; five also had constructional apraxia, and one had bucco-facial apraxia. None of the patients had utilisation apraxia. These observations indicated that apraxia is not only a "high cerebral (cortical) function", but may depend also on the integrity of s...

  19. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  20. Bilateral Cerebellar Cortical Dysplasia without Other Malformations: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Seok; Ahn Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Jin; Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Recent advances in MRI have revealed congenital brain malformations and subtle developmental abnormalities of the cerebral and cerebellar cortical architecture. Typical cerebellar cortical dysplasia as a newly categorized cerebellar malformation, has been seen in patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Cerebellar cortical dysplasia occurs at the embryonic stage and is often observed in healthy newborns. It is also incidentally and initially detected in adults without symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, cerebellar dysplasia without any related disorders is very rare. We describe the MRI findings in one patient with disorganized foliation of both cerebellar hemispheres without a related disorder or syndrome

  1. 脑血流低灌注老龄大鼠中脑皮质血流的改变与血清总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白的动态变化%Dynamic changes of cortical blood flow and serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in brains of aging rat during cerebral hypoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林辉; 田茗源; 滕志朋; 王晨; 李昱

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过建立脑血流低灌注模型,观察老龄大鼠脑血流的变化以及在脑血流低灌注下血清中总胆固醇(Total cholesterol,TC)和高密度脂蛋白(High density lipoprotein,HDL)的动态变化.方法:采用持久性双侧颈总动脉结扎法(2Vo)致老龄大鼠脑血流灌注不足,测定术后7、14、21、28d大鼠脑皮质血流;检测、比较术后不同时间段大鼠血清中TC和HDL浓度差异.结果:术后第14天大鼠脑颞区血流出现明显减少;术后21、28d大鼠脑局部皮质血管有再生侧支形成,大鼠脑颞区血流仍未恢复;术后第14天血清中HDL、TC含量明显高于假手术组(P<0.05),随着缺血时间延长,又逐渐降低.结论:血清TC和HDL浓度在脑缺血灌注不足的不同时间段经历了先增强后减弱的动态变化,提示脑血流低灌注老龄大鼠因大脑血流灌注不足可出现体内胆固醇代谢失衡并出现应激调节现象.%Objective: To investigate the change of cortical blood flow and the dynamic changes of serum total cholesterol(TC ) and high density lipoprotein(HDL) in brains of aging rat during cerebral ischemic injury. Methods:The model of aging rats with cerebral hy-poperfusion was successfully constructed by persistent bilateral common carotid artery ligation(2V0). The cortical blood flow and the concentration of serum TC and HDL at different time points were determined and compared. Results: Compared with the sham-operated group,the temporal blood flow was significantly decreased in 14 d group. But the collateral vessels were gradually regenerated and formed in local brain,while the temporal blood flow was restored in 21 d and 28 d group. The concentration of HDL and TC was significantly higher in 14 d group than in the sham-operated group (P<0.05), and both of them were decreased with the extention of ischemia time. Conclusions:The serum TC and HDL concentration undergo dynamic changes-increasing first and then decreasing during the process

  2. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa 5-15% das formas extrapulmonares e é reconhecida como de alta letalidade. Apresentação tumoral como a relatada é rara, particularmente em imunocompetentes. Quando tratada, pode ter bom prognóstico e deve entrar sempre no diagnóstico diferencial de massas cerebrais.It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

  3. Different cortical areas in man in organization of voluntary movements in extrapersonal space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Skinhøj, E; Lassen, N A;

    1980-01-01

    1. This paper reports regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements in 254 cortical regions with 133Xe injected into the internal carotid artery in 19 patients, none of whom had any major neurological defect. The purpose was to demonstrate the pattern of cortical activity, as revealed by rCBF ...... desynchronization of the EEG during mental work....

  4. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  5. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases.

  6. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cerebral Palsy: Keith's Story Physical Therapy I Have Cerebral Palsy. Can I Babysit? Body Image and Self-Esteem Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  8. Prefrontal cortical minicolumn: from executive control to disrupted cognitive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Opris, Ioan; Manuel F. Casanova

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of higher cognitive functions stems from the modular architecture of cerebral cortex. Opris and Casanova review evidence from anatomical, electrophysiological and pathological perspectives on the role of cortical minicolumns in normal and disrupted cognitive processing. Inter-laminar microcircuits are required for the processing of executive control signals.

  9. Cortical Reorganization of Language Functioning Following Perinatal Left MCA Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…

  10. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    OpenAIRE

    Seiji eIshii; Kazue eHashimoto-Torii

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized ani...

  11. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  12. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L

    2015-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain - the cerebral cortex - has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highl...

  13. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  14. Cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  15. STIS MAMA Fold Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The performance of MAMA microchannel plates can be monitored using a MAMA fold distribution procedure. The fold distribution provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of change in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the STIS MAMA Fold Distribution, Proposal 13149, as Cycle 20.

  16. [Macro- and microscopic systematization of cerebral cortex malformations in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, A P; Milovanova, O A

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in pediatric pathologicoanatomic practice the complete systematization of cerebral cortex malformations is represented. Organ, macroscopic forms: microencephaly, macroencephaly, micropolygyria, pachygyria, schizencephaly, porencephaly, lissencephaly. Histic microdysgenesis of cortex: type I includes isolated abnormalities such as radial (IA) and tangential (I B) subtypes of cortical dislamination; type II includes sublocal cortical dislamination with immature dysmorphic neurons (II A) and balloon cells (II B); type III are the combination focal cortical dysplasia with tuberous sclerosis of the hippocampus (III A), tumors (III B) and malformations of vessels, traumatic and hypoxic disorders (III C). Band heterotopias. Subependimal nodular heterotopias. Tuberous sclerosis. Cellular typification of cortical dysplasia: immature neurons and balloon cells.

  17. Cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the veins ( deep vein thrombosis ) Lung infections (pneumonia) Malnutrition When to Contact a Medical Professional Cerebral hypoxia ... References Bernat JL. Coma, vegetative state, and brain death. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  18. Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neocorticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species – an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be flawed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of 4 different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora, Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble.

  19. Folding by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul; Damasceno, Pablo; Glotzer, Sharon

    2014-03-01

    A form of self-assembly, ``self-folding'' presents an alternative approach to the creation of reconfigurable, responsive materials with applications ranging from robotics to drug design. However, the complexity of interactions present in biological and engineered systems that undergo folding makes it challenging to isolate the main factors controlling their assembly and dis-assembly. Here we use computer simulations of simple, minimalistic self-foldable structures and investigate their stochastic folding process. By dynamically accessing all the states that lead to, or inhibit, successful folding, we show that the mechanisms by which general stochastic systems can achieve their ``native'' structures can be identified and used to design rules for optimized folding propensity. Research supported by the National Science Foundation, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation Award # EFRI-1240264.

  20. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  1. Activation of cerebral sodium-glucose transporter type 1 function mediated by post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Ogihara, S; Harada, S; Tokuyama, S

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of post-ischemic hyperglycemia plays an important role in suppressing neuronal damage in therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia. We previously reported that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) was involved in the post-ischemic hyperglycemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Cortical SGLT-1, one of the cerebral SGLT isoforms, is dramatically increased by focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the involvement of cerebral SGLT-1 in the development of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. It was previously reported that activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SGLT-1 expression. Moreover, ischemic stress-induced activation of AMPK exacerbates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, we directly confirmed the relationship between cerebral SGLT-1 and cerebral AMPK activation using in vitro primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. An in vivo mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The development of infarct volume and behavioral abnormalities on day 3 after MCAO were ameliorated in cerebral SGLT-1 knock down mice. Cortical and striatal SGLT-1 expression levels were significantly increased at 12h after MCAO. Immunofluorescence revealed that SGLT-1 and the neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were co-localized in the cortex and striatum of MCAO mice. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were cultured for five days before each treatment with reagents. Concomitant treatment with hydrogen peroxide and glucose induced the elevation of SGLT-1 and phosphorylated AMPK/AMPK ratio, and this elevation was suppressed by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, compound C suppressed neuronal cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment in primary cortical neurons. Therefore, we concluded that enhanced cerebral SGLT-1 function mediated by post

  2. Cerebral palsy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  3. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  4. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  5. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i) the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii) the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii) the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv) the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  6. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick;

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...... the cerebral cortex have been developed during the last decade (Dale 1999, Kim 2005, Eskildsen 2006). In many studies, the resolution of the morphological image acquisition sequence is chosen to be relatively low (~1mm3) due to time and equipment constraints. To improve segmentation accuracy, such low...... the ability to effectively increase the image resolution while preserving sharp features of the underlying anatomy. In this study, we investigated the effect of applying superresolution as proposed in (Manjon 2010a) to the accuracy of cerebral cortex segmentation....

  7. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

    2014-11-01

    A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog. PMID:25246180

  8. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  9. O envelhecimento cortical e a reorganização neural após o acidente vascular encefálico (AVE): implicações para a reabilitação Cortical aging and neural reorganization following cerebral vascular accident (CVA): implications for rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka Nicéia D'Aquino Oliveira Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma síntese sobre o envelhecimento do córtex cerebral humano e uma revisão das abordagens para a reabilitação do controle motor após o acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). Na discussão sobre as implicações clínicas na compensação das perdas, é enfatizado que os profissionais de reabilitação devem incentivar os pacientes idosos a usarem os dois membros superiores para a realização das atividades da vida diária (AVDs) ao invés de reforçarem o uso do membro superior não afet...

  10. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  11. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUVmax, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUVmax with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  12. Asperger's syndrome with unusual cerebral pathology: Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liqiong; Vo, Van; Ware, Marcus; Xiong, Zhenggang

    2012-01-01

    A case of Asperger's syndrome with unusual cerebral pathological changes is reported. A 22-year-old male had been having diagnostic Asperger's syndrome since the age of eight and had epilepsy during the past two years. Radiological studies revealed a focal intra-axial cortical and subcortical cerebral lesion with hyper-intensity and non-enhancing contrast in the left frontal lobe. Histological and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the lesion consisted of cortical laminar disorgani...

  13. Tuberculoma cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO ELIZABETH CLARA; OLIVEIRA TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE; AMARAL ANA MARIA DANTAS DO; PINHEIRO VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA; SOUSA ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  14. Cortical spreading depression: An enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R. M.; Huang, H.; Wylie, J. J.

    2007-08-01

    The brain is a complex organ with active components composed largely of neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. There exists an enormous experimental and theoretical literature on the mechanisms involved in the functioning of the brain, but we still do not have a good understanding of how it works on a gross mechanistic level. In general, the brain maintains a homeostatic state with relatively small ion concentration changes, the major ions being sodium, potassium, and chloride. Calcium ions are present in smaller quantities but still play an important role in many phenomena. Cortical spreading depression (CSD for short) was discovered over 60 years ago by A.A.P. Leão, a Brazilian physiologist doing his doctoral research on epilepsy at Harvard University, “Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex," J. Neurophysiol., 7 (1944), pp. 359-390. Cortical spreading depression is characterized by massive changes in ionic concentrations and slow nonlinear chemical waves, with speeds on the order of mm/min, in the cortex of different brain structures in various experimental animals. In humans, CSD is associated with migraine with aura, where a light scintillation in the visual field propagates, then disappears, and is followed by a sustained headache. To date, CSD remains an enigma, and further detailed experimental and theoretical investigations are needed to develop a comprehensive picture of the diverse mechanisms involved in producing CSD. A number of mechanisms have been hypothesized to be important for CSD wave propagation. In this paper, we briefly describe several characteristics of CSD wave propagation, and examine some of the mechanisms that are believed to be important, including ion diffusion, membrane ionic currents, osmotic effects, spatial buffering, neurotransmitter substances, gap junctions, metabolic pumps, and synaptic connections. Continuum models of CSD, consisting of coupled nonlinear diffusion equations for the ion concentrations, and

  15. Dendritic bundles, minicolumns, columns, and cortical output units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the fundamental building block of the cerebral cortex has highlighted three structures, perpendicular to the cortical surface: i columns of neurons with radially invariant response properties, e.g., receptive field position, sensory modality, stimulus orientation or direction, frequency tuning etc. ii minicolumns of radially aligned cell bodies and iii bundles, constituted by the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons with cell bodies in different layers. The latter were described in detail, and sometimes quantitatively, in several species and areas. It was recently suggested that the dendritic bundles consist of apical dendrites belonging to neurons projecting their axons to specific targets. We review the concept above and suggest that another structural and computational unit of cerebral cortex is the cortical output unit (COU, i.e. an assembly of bundles of apical dendrites and their parent cell bodies including each of the outputs to distant cortical or subcortical structures, of a given cortical locus (area or part of an area. This somato-dendritic assembly receives inputs some of which are common to the whole assembly and determine its radially invariant response properties, others are specific to one or more dendritic bundles, and determine the specific response signature of neurons in the different cortical layers and projecting to different targets.

  16. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  17. Prediction for human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cortical surface: partial least square analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M

    2013-08-29

    A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to relate the first derived latent variable with specific anatomy, we found that cortical thickness measures had a substantial impact on the PLS model supporting the most significant factor accounting for FSIQ. Our results presented here strongly suggest that the new predictor combining different morphometric properties of complex cortical structure is well suited for predicting human intelligence. PMID:23643979

  18. Drug-resistant epilepsy associated with cortical dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Poverennova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy associated with malformations of the cerebral cortex is reported in the literature to account for up to 25% of the total cases of symptomatic epilepsies. It is characterized by the most severe course and often induces drug-resistance in seizures. A group of patients with resistant seizures is singled out among the total number of patients with symptomatic epilepsy caused by cerebral cortical dysgenesis. The most important risk factors for resistance are identified in dysplasias. The prognostically unfavorable clinical features of epilepsy are described. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed to identify risk groups and to prevent drug-resistant forms of epilepsy.

  19. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT.

  20. Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLewitus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a basic rule to mammalian neocortical expansion: as it expands, so does it fold. The degree to which it folds, however, cannot strictly be attributed to its expansion. Across species, cortical volume does not keep pace with cortical surface area, but rather folds appear more rapidly than expected. As a result, larger brains quickly become disproportionately more convoluted than smaller brains. Both the absence (lissencephaly and presence (gyrencephaly of cortical folds is observed in all mammalian orders and, while there is likely some phylogenetic signature to the evolutionary appearance of gyri and sulci, there are undoubtedly universal trends to the acquisition of folds in an expanding neocortex. Whether these trends are governed by conical expansion of neocortical germinal zones, the distribution of cortical connectivity, or a combination of growth- and connectivity-driven forces remains an open question. But the importance of cortical folding for evolution of the uniquely mammalian neocortex, as well as for the incidence of neuropathologies in humans, is undisputed. In this hypothesis and theory article, we will summarize the development of cortical folds in the neocortex, consider the relative influence of growth- versus connectivity-driven forces for the acquisition of cortical folds between and within species, assess the genetic, cell-biological, and mechanistic implications for neocortical expansion, and discuss the significance of these implications for human evolution, development, and disease. We will argue that evolutionary increases in the density of neuron production, achieved via maintenance of a basal proliferative niche in the neocortical germinal zones, drive the conical migration of neurons towards the cortical surface and ultimately lead to the establishment of cortical folds in large-brained mammal species.

  1. ProbFold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Sudhakar; Świtnicki, Michał P; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2016-01-01

    ) with probabilistic graphical models. This approach allows rapid adaptation and integration of new probing data types. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: ProbFold is implemented in C ++. Models are specified using simple textual formats. Data reformatting is done using separate C ++ programs. Source code, statically...

  2. Folding worlds between pages

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    "We all remember pop-up books form our childhood. As fascinated as we were back then, we probably never imagined how much engineering know-how went into these books. Pop-up engineer Anton Radevsky has even managed to fold a 27-kilometre particle accelerator into a book" (4 pages)

  3. Folding Detonation Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Singh

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of converging detonation waves in solid explosive is discussed. Whitham's method modified for solid explosives is used. Using folding coordinates, it is found that the strength of detonation waves increases as it moves towards the centre of implosion.

  4. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model of t...

  5. Cegueira cortical: relato de dois casos clínicos Cortical blindness: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Lima e Silva

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar dois casos de cegueira cortical atendidos no serviço de urgência da Clínica de Olhos da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. A cegueira cortical é uma condição clínica rara e bilateral, de causa isquêmica, caracterizada por lesão no córtex cerebral. Nos presentes casos, o diagnóstico foi feito pela sintomatologia clínica, pelos achados oftalmológicos e pelas alterações obtidas por imagem. Em ambos houve evolução rápida da doença, com perda visual súbita importante. O acompanhamento oftalmológico não revelou melhora significativa da acuidade visual final. A baixa acuidade visual é um sinal importante em oftalmologia e deve ser avaliada com cautela e atenção, visto que pode ser causada pela cegueira cortical, condição rara, grave e ainda pouco estudada no nosso meio.The aim of this work is to report two cases of cortical blindness, evaluated at an ophthalmologic service (Clínica de Olhos da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Cortical blindness is a rare, usually ischemic, bilateral retrogeniculate lesion. The two diagnoses were based on patient complaints, ophthalmologic data and image signs. Both patients suddenly lost their visual function. None presented a significant improvement in their final vision acuity during the evolution. Subnormal visual acuity is an important ophthalmologic sign that must be seen with concern and attention since it may be caused by cortical blindness, a rare and serious condition not yet well studied in our Country.

  6. Molecular Regulation of DNA Damage-Induced Apoptosis in Neurons of Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Lee J.; Liu, Zhiping; Pipino, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Barry; Landek, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral cortical neuron degeneration occurs in brain disorders manifesting throughout life, but the mechanisms are understood poorly. We used cultured embryonic mouse cortical neurons and an in vivo mouse model to study mechanisms of DNA damaged-induced apoptosis in immature and differentiated neurons. p53 drives apoptosis of immature and differentiated cortical neurons through its rapid and prominent activation stimulated by DNA strand breaks induced by topoisomerase-I and -II inhibition. B...

  7. Modelling of lateral fold growth and fold linkage: Applications to fold-and-thrust belt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We use a finite element model to investigate the three-dimensional fold growth and interference of two initially isolated fold segments. The most critical parameter, which controls the fold linkage mode, is the phase difference between the laterally growing fold hinge lines: 1) "Linear-linkage" yields a sub-cylindrical fold with a saddle at the location where the two initial folds linked. 2) "Oblique-linkage" produces a curved fold resembling a Type II refold structure. 3) "Oblique-no-linkage" results in two curved folds with fold axes plunging in opposite directions. 4) "Linear-no-linkage" yields a fold train of two separate sub-cylindrical folds with fold axes plunging in opposite directions. The transition from linkage to no-linkage occurs when the fold separation between the initially isolated folds is slightly larger than one half of the low-amplitude fold wavelength. The model results compare well with previously published plasticine analogue models and can be directly applied to the investigation of fold growth history in fold-and-thust belts. An excellent natural example of lateral fold linkage is described from the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The fold growth in this region is not controlled by major thrust faults but the shortening of the Paleozoic to Cenozoic passive margin sediments of the Arabian plate occurred mainly by detachment folding. The sub-cylindrical anticlines with hinge-parallel lengths of more than 50 km have not developed from single sub-cylindrical embryonic folds but they have merged from different fold segments that joined laterally during fold amplification and lateral fold growth. Linkage points are marked by geomorphological saddle points which are structurally the lowermost points of antiforms and points of principal curvatures with opposite sign. Linkage points can significantly influence the migration of mineral-rich fluids and hydrocarbons and are therefore of great economic importance.

  8. Responses to Cortical Spreading Depression under Oxygen Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sonn, J.; Mayevsky, A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives: The effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]e), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mitochondrial NADH redox state and direct current (DC) potential was studied during normoxia and three pathological conditions: hypoxia, after NOS inhibition by L-NAME and partial ischemia. Methods: A special device (MPA) was used for monitoring CSD wave propagation, containing: mitochondrial NADH redox state and reflected light, by a fluorometry tec...

  9. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic–clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The pat...

  10. The cortical microstructural basis of lateralized cognition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chance, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of asymmetry in the human cerebral hemispheres is detectable at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The horizontal expansion of cortical surface during development (within individual brains), and across evolutionary time (between species), is largely due to the proliferation and spacing of the microscopic vertical columns of cells that form the cortex. In the asymmetric planum temporale (PT), minicolumn width asymmetry is associated with surface area asymmetry. Although ...

  11. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  12. Ab initio RNA folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA molecules are essential cellular machines performing a wide variety of functions for which a specific three-dimensional structure is required. Over the last several years, the experimental determination of RNA structures through x-ray crystallography and NMR seems to have reached a plateau in the number of structures resolved each year, but as more and more RNA sequences are being discovered, the need for structure prediction tools to complement experimental data is strong. Theoretical approaches to RNA folding have been developed since the late nineties, when the first algorithms for secondary structure prediction appeared. Over the last 10 years a number of prediction methods for 3D structures have been developed, first based on bioinformatics and data-mining, and more recently based on a coarse-grained physical representation of the systems. In this review we are going to present the challenges of RNA structure prediction and the main ideas behind bioinformatic approaches and physics-based approaches. We will focus on the description of the more recent physics-based phenomenological models and on how they are built to include the specificity of the interactions of RNA bases, whose role is critical in folding. Through examples from different models, we will point out the strengths of physics-based approaches, which are able not only to predict equilibrium structures, but also to investigate dynamical and thermodynamical behavior, and the open challenges to include more key interactions ruling RNA folding. (topical review)

  13. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...... of corporate community representation. Second, we suggest that French philosopher Gilles Deleuze’s concepts of fold, desire and interests can be useful in comprehending this modern form of corporate representation already present in McGregor’s text....

  15. Folding of Pollen Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Alben, Silas; Cerda, Enrique; Nelson, David; Dumais, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    At dehiscence, which occurs when the anther reaches maturity and opens, pollen grains dehydrate and their volume is reduced. The pollen wall deforms to accommodate the volume loss, and the deformation pathway depends on the initial turgid pollen grain geometry and the mechanical properties of the pollen wall. We demonstrate, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, that the design of the apertures (areas on the pollen wall where the stretching and the bending modulus are reduced) is critical for controlling the folding pattern, and ensures the pollen grain viability. An excellent fit to the experiments is obtained using a discretized version of the theory of thin elastic shells.

  16. The primate connectome in context: Principles of connections of the cortical visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgetag, Claus C; Medalla, Maria; Beul, Sarah F; Barbas, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Which principles determine the organization of the intricate network formed by nerve fibers that link the primate cerebral cortex? We addressed this issue for the connections of primate visual cortices by systematically analyzing how the existence or absence of connections, their density as well as laminar patterns of projection origins and terminations are correlated with distance, similarity in cortical type as well as neuronal density or the thickness of cortical areas. Analyses were based on four extensive compilations of qualitative as well as quantitative data for connections of the primate visual cortical system in macaque monkeys (Felleman and Van Essen 1991; Barbas 1986; Barbas and Rempel-Clower 1997; Barone et al. 2000; Markov et al. 2014). Distance and thickness similarity were not consistently correlated with connection features, but similarity of cortical type, determined by qualitative features of laminar differentiation, or measured quantitatively as the areas' overall neuronal density, was a reliable predictor for the existence of connections between areas. Cortical type similarity was also consistently and closely correlated with characteristic laminar connection profiles: structurally dissimilar areas had origin and termination patterns that were biased to the upper or deep cortical layers, while similar areas showed more bilaminar origins and terminations. These results suggest that patterns of corticocortical connections of primate visual cortices are closely linked to the stratified architecture of the cerebral cortex. In particular, the regularity of laminar projection origins and terminations arises from the structural differences between cortical areas. The observed integration of projections with the intrinsic cortical architecture provides a structural basis for advanced theories of cortical organization and function. PMID:27083526

  17. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED-POTENTIALS IN CEREBRAL ANEURYSM SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUCHTHAL, A; BELOPAVLOVIC, M

    1992-01-01

    Monitoring of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) during surgery for a basilar artery aneurysm under moderate hypothermia revealed an unexpected loss of the first cortical peak. This was due to compression of the middle cerebral artery under the retractor during the surgical approach

  18. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  19. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  20. Cerebral perfusion SPECT in transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.-L. E-mail: dlyou@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Shieh, F.-Y.; Tzen, K.-Y.; Tsai, M.-F.; Kao, P.-F

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of cerebral perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with TIA were collected for study. All patients had transient focal neurological symptoms or signs with complete recovery within 24 h after onset. The patients underwent cerebral perfusion SPECT between 6 h and 11 days after onset, with 10 cases performed within 24 h (group A), nine cases performed between 1 and 3 days (group B), 11 cases performed between 3 and 5 days (group C), and seven cases performed after more than 5 days (group D). A semi-quantitative method was used for analyzing the SPECT data, and the difference ratios between lesion side and contralateral normal side were calculated on each pair of regions of interest. Results: In total, 78.4% (29/37) of patients had reduced perfusion in the cerebral cortical regions or deep nuclei, and the regions with reduced perfusion corresponded with clinical presentations of the patients. The abnormal rate with reduced perfusion was 90.0% in group A, 77.8% in group B, 72.7% in group C and 71.4% in group D. Cross cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was present in seven patients, and all of the primary cerebral perfusion defects of these patients were located at the territory of left or right middle cerebral artery. Conclusion: Cerebral perfusion SPECT is a potential tool to detect cerebral perfusion defects and CCD in patients with TIA. Although the perfusion defect may persist more than 5 days after onset, we suggest cerebral perfusion SPECT should be performed as soon as possible.

  1. Human cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the literature on human cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), with respect to normal values and of regulation of cerebral circulation. A multicenter study in Japan showed that between-center variations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) values were not considerably larger than the corresponding within-center variations. Overall mean±SD values in cerebral cortical regions of normal human subjects were as follows: CBF=44.4±6.5 ml/100 ml/min; CBV=3.8±0.7 ml/100 ml; OEF=0.44±0.06; CMRO2=3.3±0.5 ml/100 ml/min (11 PET centers, 70 subjects). Intrinsic regulation of cerebral circulation involves several factors. Autoregulation maintains CBF in response to changes in cerebral perfusion pressure; chemical factors such as PaCO2 affect cerebral vascular tone and alter CBF; changes in neural activity cause changes in cerebral energy metabolism and CBF; neurogenic control of CBF occurs by sympathetic innervation. Regional differences in vascular response to changes in PaCO2 have been reported, indicating regional differences in cerebral vascular tone. Relations between CBF and CBV during changes in PaCO2 and during changes in neural activity were in good agreement with Poiseuille's law. The mechanisms of vascular response to neural activation and deactivation were independent on those of responses to PaCO2 changes. CBV in a brain region is the sum of three components: arterial, capillary and venous blood volumes. It has been reported that the arterial blood volume fraction is approximately 30% in humans and that changes in human CBV during changes in PaCO2 are caused by changes in arterial blood volume without changes in venous blood volume. These findings should be considered in future studies of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (author) 136 refs

  2. [Cortical diffusion characteristics of seizure induced in the horm of Ammoni: II. Chemical stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M F; González Barón, S; Teijeira, F

    1974-01-01

    We have studied the cortical diffusion characteristics of seizures induced at cornu Ammonis by toppical application of:pentilenetetrazol (Metrazol), acetylcholine and stricnine. We have observed that cerebral cortex synchronise with cornu ammonis showing similar morphology, which is characteristic for the differents drugs applied. We have found similar characteristics in the cortical diffusion to those described in a previous paper 4 for the mechanical stimulation. Hence we must conclue that the variability of the discharges depends onto the position of the electrode in the anteroposterior axes. As far as the electrodes are situated backwards the activity is slower with spikes of higher amplitude and without cortical propagation. PMID:4470829

  3. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  4. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  5. Cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  6. Serum MicroRNA-4521 is a Potential Biomarker for Focal Cortical Dysplasia with Refractory Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Sun, Yuqiang; Tan, Zeshi; Che, Ningwei; Ji, Anlong; Luo, Xiaodong; Sun, Xu; Li, Xinyu; Yang, Kang; Wang, Guanyu; Luan, Lan; Liu, Yaoling; Wei, Minghai; Yin, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Early biomarker-based diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) represents a major clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to identify novel brain microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with refractory epilepsy and FCD as potential biomarkers. We evaluated serum hsa-miR-4521 as a promising novel biomarker in patients with FCD. Tissue for microarray was obtained from nine patients with temporal lobe refractory epilepsy who underwent surgery to remove epileptic foci identified by cortical video electroencephalogram monitoring. Control tissue was collected from eight patients with hypertension who required emergency surgery to remove an intracranial hematoma. The Affymetrix® GeneChip® Command Console® Software (Affymetrix miRNA 4.0) was used to compare miRNA expression in the cerebral cortex of experimental and control patients. Temporal cortex tissue and serum samples were taken from the same patients for verification of hsa-miR-4521 expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The experimental and control patients did not differ significantly in terms of age and gender. 19.4 % (148/764) of the total miRNAs were differentially expressed in experimental and control tissue, which is in agreement with the existing literature. We selected miRNA-4521 for further analysis; the fold-change in expression was 14.4707 and the q value was almost 0, which confirmed up-regulation. Significant up-regulation of hsa-miR-4521 was further validated by RT-qPCR. miRNA microarrays can efficiently and conveniently identify differentially expressed miRNAs in epilepsy brain tissue. This is the first study to identify differential expression of hsa-miR-4521 in brain tissue and serum of refractory epilepsy patients and suggests that serum hsa-miR-4521 may represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for FCD with refractory epilepsy.

  7. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-shu Xu; Xuan Sun; Cheng-guang Song; Xiao-peng Mu; Wen-ping Ma; Xing-hu Zhang; Chuan-sheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-...

  8. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and neural function of rats in early period after cerebral ischemia injury%经颅重频磁刺激对大鼠脑缺血损伤早期运动皮质兴奋性和神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严莉; 丰宏林; 崔丽英

    2005-01-01

    组、实验组分别为(62.00±60.88),(20.00±12.41)mm3,做对数转换后比较无差异(t=-1.31,P=0.22),但若将数据做[Log10(梗死体积)]转换后有显著性差异(P=0.045).结论:①高频、高强经颅重频磁刺激可能参与维持脑缺血再灌注损伤后运动阈值的稳定,防止运动阈值过度升高而干扰运动功能的恢复.②经颅重频磁刺激可能缓解脑缺血再灌注损伤后的神经功能障碍,随损伤时间延长,效应越明显.③经颅重频磁刺激可能缩小脑梗死体积.%BACKGROUND: It is believed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may produce such neurophysiological effects as regulating regional cerebral blood flow, neurotransmitters, local metabolism, and neuronal remodeling after nerve tissue injuries. The prognosis ofischemic stroke is related with the cortical function reconstruction in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of the lesion. Currently studies have not defined whether rTMS can affect the cortical function, protect ischemic neurons and promote motor functional recovery after cerebral ischemia.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of rTMS on rat motor cortical excitability and neural function in acute stage of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.DESIGN: Completely randomized experiment.SETTING: Electroneurophysiological Laboratory of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed in the Zoological Research Center of Peking Union Hospital from January to June 2004. Totally 22adult male healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into treatment group and the control group with 11 in each.METHODS: After determination of the average motor threshold of the right hind limbs, which was 22% of the maximum output, the rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour followed by reperfusion for 72 hours. At each time point of immediately and at 12, 36 and 60 hours after the initiation of reperfusion, the rats in the treatment group received r

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis after ventriculoperitoneal shunting: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Teppei; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Aoki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Go; Shiigai, Masanari; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a simple procedure, but there are several potential complications. We describe the first reported case of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after VPS. A 69-year-old man suffering from normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent left VPS. Two months later he developed CVT and cerebral venous hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the thrombus formation just adjacent to the shunt tube. One possible cause is compression of the cortical vein after brain shift and/or tension of the cortical vein due to intracranial hypotension. A protein C deficiency was also detected. Surgeons should be aware that cerebral venous thrombosis can occur after VPS. PMID:24257484

  10. Relationship between higher cortical dysfunction and the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Yamada, Yoichi; Yukawa, Susumu [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and organic lesions was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify the etiology of higher cortical dysfunction in SLE. The subjects were 10 patients with SLE, and higher cortical dysfunction was observed in 8 (80%) of the 10 patients. Five (82.5%) of the 8 patients showed abnormal MRI findings. The findings of higher cortical dysfunction were consistent with the MRI findings in 1 of the 5 patients, but not in the remaining four. MRI revealed no lesion despite the presence of higher cortical dysfunction in three patients. These results suggest that the association of organic changes and functional changes in cerebral nerve cells is important for etiology of higher cortical dysfunction in SLE. (author).

  11. Neuroprotective effects of the immunomodulatory drug Setarud on cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzaneh Vafaee; Nasser Zangiabadi; Fatemeh Mehdi Pour; Farzaneh Dehghanian; Majid Asadi-Shekaari; Hossein Karimi Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents can alleviate ischemic cerebral injury. The immunomodulary drug Setarud, which is composed of herbal extracts including Rosa canina, Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare, supplemented with selenium exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that Setarud will have a neuroprotective effect against ischemic cerebral injury. To validate this hypothesis, rats were intraperitoneally administered with 0.66 mL/kg Setarud for 30 minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining showed that Setarud could reduce cerebral infarct volume of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Setarud could alleviate the degenerative changes in cortical neurons of rats with cerebral ischemia. The inclined plate test and prehensile test showed that Setarud could significantly improve the motor function of rats with cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that Setarud shows neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury.

  12. Cerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered

  13. Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J

    2012-01-24

    The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702

  14. Folding Gravitational-Wave Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, J R

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of kilometer-scale terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers is limited by mirror coating thermal noise. We explore the effect of folding the arm cavities of such interferometers. While simple folding alone does not reduce the mirror coating thermal noise, it makes the folding mirror the critical mirror, opening up a variety of design and upgrade options.

  15. Increase in Prefrontal Cortical Volume following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…

  16. Cortical injury in multiple sclerosis; the role of the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Caroline A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The easily identifiable, ubiquitous demyelination and neuronal damage that occurs within the cerebral white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS has been the subject of extensive study. Accordingly, MS has historically been described as a disease of the white matter. Recently, the cerebral cortex (gray matter of patients with MS has been recognized as an additional and major site of disease pathogenesis. This acknowledgement of cortical tissue damage is due, in part, to more powerful MRI that allows detection of such injury and to focused neuropathology-based investigations. Cortical tissue damage has been associated with inflammation that is less pronounced to that which is associated with damage in the white matter. There is, however, emerging evidence that suggests cortical damage can be closely associated with robust inflammation not only in the parenchyma, but also in the neighboring meninges. This manuscript will highlight the current knowledge of inflammation associated with cortical tissue injury. Historical literature along with contemporary work that focuses on both the absence and presence of inflammation in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebral meninges will be reviewed.

  17. Low-frequency oscillations and vasoreactivity of cortical vessels in obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Jensen, Benedicte Ersted; Jennum, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    Effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy reduces the cardiovascular outcomes associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the mechanism behind this effect is unclear. We investigated if OSA patients during wakefulness showed signs of increased sympathetic activity...... and decreased vasoreactivity in cerebral cortical vessels as measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and if this may be reversed by CPAP treatment....

  18. Purely cortical anaplastic ependymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Flávio Ramalho; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; de Lima Neto, Newton Moreira; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2012-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  19. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  20. Cortical cartography reveals political and physical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Gaillard, William Davis; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Meador, Kimford J; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in functional imaging have provided noninvasive techniques to probe brain organization of multiple constructs including language and memory. Because of high overall rates of agreements with older techniques, including Wada testing and cortical stimulation mapping (CSM), some have proposed that those approaches should be largely abandoned because of their invasiveness, and replaced with noninvasive functional imaging methods. High overall agreement, however, is based largely on concordant language lateralization in series dominated by cases of typical cerebral dominance. Advocating a universal switch from Wada testing and cortical stimulation mapping to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) ignores the differences in specific expertise across epilepsy centers, many of which often have greater skill with one approach rather than the other, and that Wada, CSM, fMRI, and MEG protocols vary across institutions resulting in different outcomes and reliability. Specific patient characteristics also affect whether Wada or CSM might influence surgical management, making it difficult to accept broad recommendations against currently useful clinical tools. Although the development of noninvasive techniques has diminished the frequency of more invasive approaches, advocating their use to replace Wada testing and CSM across all epilepsy surgery programs without consideration of the different skills, protocols, and expertise at any given center site is ill-advised.

  1. Cortical projections to the human red nucleus: a diffusion tensor tractography study with a 1.5-T MRI machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Service de Neuroimagerie, Centre Hospitalier National d' Optalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris (France)

    2006-10-15

    Previous studies in apes and monkeys have shown that the red nucleus receives projections from the sensorimotor and premotor cortices, whereas other experiments carried out with injured human brains have found corticorubral projections issuing from associative areas. Therefore, we reassessed in vivo the human anatomical projections from the cerebral cortex to the red nucleus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The connectivity between the cerebral cortex and the red nuclei of seven volunteers was studied at 1.5 T using streamlined DTI axonal tracking. Trajectories were constantly tracked between the red nuclei and the ipsilateral pericentral and prefrontal cortices, as well as the temporal cortex and the striatum in two subjects. Within the cerebral trunk, trajectories also include the superior cerebellar peduncle and the central tegmental tract. The human red nucleus receives its main afferences from the sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices. (orig.)

  2. Foreign gene expression in an organotypic culture of cortical anlage after in vivo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, N; Arimatsu, Y; Takiguchihayashi, K

    1999-08-01

    A high level of foreign gene expression in organotypic cultures of the cerebral cortical anlage was achieved by electroporation-mediated gene transfer in vivo. A mammalian expression plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was injected into the lateral ventricle of rat embryos. Immediately after the plasmid DNA injection, the head of the embryo was electroporated between a pair of tweezer-type electrodes. The cortical anlage was isolated and maintained organotypically up to 21 days in vitro (DIV). The GFP-transgene was expressed intensely in neural progenitor cells at 1 DIV. GFP-expressing cells were still detectable and were demonstrated to differentiate into neurons and glia at 21 DIV. This system is expected to be useful for molecular analysis of cerebral cortical development and function.

  3. Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disease that persists into adulthood in at least 30% of patients. There is evidence suggesting that abnormal left-right brain asymmetries in ADHD patients may be involved in a variety of ADHD......-related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working memory, response inhibition and planning. Although mechanisms underlying cerebral lateralization are unknown, left-right cortical asymmetry has been associated with transcriptional asymmetry at embryonic stages and several genes differentially...... expressed between hemispheres have been identified. METHODS: We selected six functional candidate genes showing at least 1.9-fold differential expression between hemispheres (BAIAP2, DAPPER1, LMO4, NEUROD6, ATP2B3, and ID2) and performed a case-control association study in an initial Spanish sample of 587...

  4. Supplementary motor area and other cortical areas in organization of voluntary movements in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A;

    1980-01-01

    1. Previous studies in man have revealed a coupling between the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen. In normal man, increases in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen leads to proportional increases in the rCBF(34). We have measured...... the rCBF as an expression of the level of cortical activity simultaneously from 254 cortical regions in 28 patients with no major neurological defects, during rest and during planning and execution of a few types of learned voluntary movements with the hand. 2. We found that the rCBF increases...... it projects to by itself can control ongoing simple ballistic movements with the self-same body part. A sequence of different isolated finger movements requires programming in the supplementary motor areas. We suggest that the supplementary motor areas are programming areas for motor subroutines...

  5. Analysis of Cortical Morphometric Variability Using Labeled Cortical Distance Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, E.; Nishino, T.; Botteron, K. N.; Miller, M. I.; Ratnanather, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the anatomy of cortical structures are associated with neuro-developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Such differences can be quantized and detected by a powerful tool called Labeled Cortical Distance Map (LCDM). The LCDM method pro-vides distances of labeled gray matter (GM) voxels from the GM/white matter (WM) surface for specific cortical structures (or tissues). Here we describe a method to analyze morphometric variability in the particular tissue using LC...

  6. Changes in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 mRNA expression in rat cortex after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Zhan; An Zhou; Jingquan Lan; Tao Yang

    2011-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) can increase the level of low density lipoprotein. Therefore, this study assumed that PCSK9 plays important roles in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The present study established transient focal cerebral ischemia models after 100 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion. In situ hybridization demonstrated that PCSK9 mRNA expression increased gradually with prolonged reperfusion time in ischemic cortices. This indicated that transient focal cerebral ischemia upregulated PCSK9 mRNA expression in ischemic cortices.

  7. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  8. Physical experiments of transpressional folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil; Peterson, Karl

    1998-06-01

    In order to understand the process of folding in obliquely convergent settings, we formed folds within a shear box capable of creating homogeneous transpressional deformations. Folds were created in a single layer of stiff mixed plasticine and silicone that overlay a Newtonian silicone, for a variety of plate convergence angles. As small amplitude folds became visible, they were parallel to the long axis of the horizontal finite strain ellipse. With increasing deformation, the fold hinges rotated parallel with the long axis of the horizontal finite strain ellipse for all angles of convergence. This parallelism indicates that fold hinges, once formed, rotate with the horizontal strain ellipse rather than as material lines. The experiments highlight several interesting effects of transpression dynamics. The fold hinges initiate parallel to either ṡ1 or ṡ2 and are parallel to either S1 or S2 with increasing deformation. Neither infinitesimal strain (stress) nor finite strain is resolvable solely from fold geometry. Further, the net amount of contraction determined by folding across the zone was overestimated in all cases except pure contraction. This effect is obvious for the case of wrenching, where folding implies that the zone contracts if elongation parallel to the fold hinge is not considered. Therefore, attempts to balance cross-sections in transpressional zones will tend to overestimate contraction unless the wrench component of deformation is addressed. This result is validated by applying the modeling results in folding in central California adjacent to the San Andreas fault, where cross-section balancing indicates higher amounts of contraction than predicted by plate motion.

  9. Effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral microvessels after global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Liu, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jan-Nong; Xu, Li

    2007-03-23

    This paper studied the effects of crocin, a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L., on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice cerebral microvessels. Transient global cerebral ischemia (20 min), followed by 24 h of reperfusion, significantly promoted the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cortical microvascular homogenates, as well as markedly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and promoted the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOs). Reperfusion for 24 h led to serous edema with substantial microvilli loss, vacuolation, membrane damage and mitochondrial injuries in cortical microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC). Furthermore, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were detected in cortical microvessels after I (20 min)/R (24 h). Reperfusion for 24 h also induced membrane (functional) G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) expression, while it reduced cytosol GRK2 expression. Pretreatment with crocin markedly inhibited oxidizing reactions and modulated the ultrastructure of CMEC in mice with 20 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Furthermore, crocin inhibited GRK2 translocation from the cytosol to the membrane and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression in cortical microvessels. We propose that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and constitutes a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia.

  10. Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia;

    2009-01-01

    -related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working memory, response inhibition and planning. Although mechanisms underlying cerebral lateralization are unknown, left-right cortical asymmetry has been associated with transcriptional asymmetry at embryonic stages and several genes differentially...

  11. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  12. Folding superfunnel to describe cooperative folding of interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, László

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a generalization of the well-known folding funnel concept of proteins. In the funnel model the polypeptide chain is treated as an individual object not interacting with other proteins. Since biological systems are considerably crowded, protein-protein interaction is a fundamental feature during the life cycle of proteins. The folding superfunnel proposed here describes the folding process of interacting proteins in various situations. The first example discussed is the folding of the freshly synthesized protein with the aid of chaperones. Another important aspect of protein-protein interactions is the folding of the recently characterized intrinsically disordered proteins, where binding to target proteins plays a crucial role in the completion of the folding process. The third scenario where the folding superfunnel is used is the formation of aggregates from destabilized proteins, which is an important factor in case of several conformational diseases. The folding superfunnel constructed here with the minimal assumption about the interaction potential explains all three cases mentioned above. Proteins 2016; 84:1009-1016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  14. Regulation of cerebral cortex development by Rho GTPases: insights from in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAzzarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex is the site of higher human cognitive and motor functions. Histologically, it is organized into six horizontal layers, each containing unique populations of molecularly and functionally distinct excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. The stereotyped cellular distribution of cortical neurons is crucial for the formation of functional neural circuits and it is predominantly established during embryonic development. Cortical neuron development is a multiphasic process characterized by sequential steps of neural progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit, neuroblast migration and neuronal differentiation. This series of events requires an extensive and dynamic remodeling of the cell cytoskeleton at each step of the process. As major regulators of the cytoskeleton, the family of small Rho GTPases has been shown to play essential functions in cerebral cortex development. Here we review in vivo findings that support the contribution of Rho GTPases to cortical projection neuron development and we address their involvement in the etiology of cerebral cortex malformations.

  15. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  16. N-Palmitoylethanolamine Prevents the Run-down of Amplitudes in Cortical Spreading Depression Possibly Implicating Proinflammatory Cytokine Release

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Richter; Peter Koulen; Simon Kaja

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a wave of neuronal depolarization in the cerebral cortex following traumatic brain injury or cerebral ischemia, significantly aggravates brain damage. Here, we tested whether N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), a substance that effectively reduces lesion volumes and neurological deficits after ischemic stroke, influences CSD. CSD was elicited chemically in adult rats and occurrence, amplitude, duration and propagation velocity of CSD was determined prior to and...

  17. Neural perspectives of cerebral correlates of giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A C; Buckley, K C

    1988-07-01

    Giftedness is defined as some special endowment or propensity for creativity, skill, and eminent achievement, found in relatively few individuals among the population. A high order of mental power (IQ), creativity, and motivation (task commitment) appear to be the most universally recognized attributes of the gifted. This report summarizes current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of intelligence and creativity, including physiological measures of EEG, cortical power spectrum, brain evoked potentials, and positron emission tomography. Controversy, debates, contentions, formal hypotheses, and research issues are considered. We are especially interested in the formulation of the deterministic function of EEG-brain dynamics. A CHAOS modeling on hierarchy of cognitive organization and cerebral processing in the gifted is suggested.

  18. Cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationship between cortical grey matter flow (CBF) and age, cerebrovascular risk factors and the severity of subcortical hypersignals (HS, hyperintensity score in MRI) in 47 asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HS was most strongly related to CBF, and that hematocrit, age and evidence of ischemic change detected in the electrocardiogram also appeared to be independent determinants of CBF. Both the severity and location of hypersignals were correlated with CBF. The most significant negative correlation observed was that between CBF and HS in the basal ganglia-thalamic region, where the degree of signal abnormality was modest. Decreased CBF in asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors may be related to microcirculatory disturbance associated with elevated hematocrit and an increase in the number of risk factors, and functional suppression of cerebral cortex due to the neuronal disconnection associated with subcortical lesions. In addition, impaired cerebral circulation may be related to MRI signal abnormalities. (author)

  19. Hemiplegic migraine aura begins with cerebral hypoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Schytz, Henrik W; Larsen, Vibeke A;

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies of spontaneous migraine aura have proved challenging because of the episodic and unpredictable nature of migraine attacks. Two patients with signs of acute ischemic stroke were evaluated for thrombolysis and turned out to suffer from familial hemiplegic migraine. It was possible...... to record the early phase of the hemiplegic aura with computed tomography with perfusion sequences and magnetic resonance imaging. We found cerebral hypoperfusion in the relevant cortical areas within the first hour after onset of aura symptoms. This report supports the concept that migraine aura across...... treatment, these cases underscore the importance of an accurate headache history, especially in younger patients....

  20. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  1. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-02-05

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully.

  2. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully. PMID:23389726

  3. Novel sequences propel familiar folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Zahra; Paoli, Massimo

    2002-04-01

    Recent structure determinations have made new additions to a set of strikingly different sequences that give rise to the same topology. Proteins with a beta propeller fold are characterized by extreme sequence diversity despite the similarity in their three-dimensional structures. Several fold predictions, based in part on sequence repeats thought to match modular beta sheets, have been proved correct.

  4. COS NUV MAMA Fold Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13128.

  5. Teaching computers to fold proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2004-01-01

    A new general algorithm for optimization of potential functions for protein folding is introduced. It is based upon gradient optimization of the thermodynamic stability of native folds of a training set of proteins with known structure. The iterative update rule contains two thermodynamic average...

  6. Parental age effects on cortical morphology in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P; Gilliam, M; Malek, M; Rodriguez, N; Greenstein, D; Clasen, L; Evans, A; Rapoport, J; Giedd, J

    2012-06-01

    The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

  7. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L. Tardif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although significant improvements have been made regarding the visualization and characterization of cortical multiple sclerosis (MS lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cortical lesions (CL continue to be under-detected in vivo, and we have a limited understanding of the causes of GM pathology. The objective of this study was to characterize the MRI signature of CLs to help interpret the changes seen in vivo and elucidate the factors limiting their visualization. A quantitative 3D high-resolution (350 μm isotropic MRI study at 3 Tesla of a fixed post mortem cerebral hemisphere from a patient with MS is presented in combination with matched immunohistochemistry. Type III subpial lesions are characterized by an increase in T1, T2 and M0, and a decrease in MTR in comparison to the normal appearing cortex (NAC. All quantitative MR parameters were associated with cortical GM myelin content, while T1 showed the strongest correlation. The histogram analysis showed extensive overlap between CL and NAC for all MR parameters and myelin content. This is due to the poor contrast in myelin content between CL and NAC in comparison to the variability in myelo-architecture throughout the healthy cortex. This latter comparison is highlighted by the representation of T1 times on cortical surfaces at several laminar depths.

  8. Functional Doppler optical coherence tomography for cortical blood flow imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Nguyen, Elaine; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-02-01

    Optical methods have been widely used in basic neuroscience research to study the cerebral blood flow dynamics in order to overcome the low spatial resolution associated with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Although laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle imaging can map out en face cortical hemodynamics and columns, depth resolution is not available. Two-photon microscopy has been used for mapping cortical activity. However, flow measurement requires fluorescent dye injection, which can be problematic. The noninvasive and high resolution tomographic capabilities of optical coherence tomography make it a promising technique for mapping depth resolved cortical blood flow. Here, we present a functional Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for quantitative evaluation of cortical blood flow in a mouse model. Fast, repeated, Doppler OCT scans across a vessel of interest were performed to record flow dynamic information with a high temporal resolution of the cardiac cycles. Spectral Doppler analysis of continuous Doppler images demonstrates how the velocity components and longitudinally projected flow-volume-rate change over time, thereby providing complementary temporal flow information to the spatially distributed flow information of Doppler OCT. The proposed functional Doppler OCT imaging modality can be used to diagnose vessel stenosis/blockage or monitor blood flow changes due to pharmacological agents/neuronal activities. Non-invasive in-vivo mice experiments were performed to verify the capabilities of function Doppler OCT.

  9. Public health issues related to infection in pregnancy and cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schendel, Diana E.; Schuchat, Anne; Thorsen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neuromotor developmental disability of childhood, affecting as many as 8,000 to 12,000 children born in the U.S. each year (corresponding to a prevalence rate of between 2 and 3 per 1000 children). Recent improvements in neonatal care have not resulted in a decline...... in the overall prevalence of cerebral palsy and, in fact, greater numbers of very preterm/very low birth weight infants are surviving with cerebral palsy and other developmental problems. Infection in pregnancy may be an important cause of the disorder. In preterm infants, there appears to be about a 2-fold...... increased risk for cerebral palsy from chorioamnionitis, and in term infants the estimated increased risk is about 4-fold. Provisionally, chorioamnionitis might account for 12% of spastic cerebral palsy in term infants and 28% of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Studies of biochemical markers of fetal...

  10. Equi-Gaussian Curvature Folding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E M El-Kholy; El-Said R Lashin; Salama N Daoud

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a new type of folding called equi-Gaussian curvature folding of connected Riemannian 2-manifolds. We prove that the composition and the cartesian product of such foldings is again an equi-Gaussian curvature folding. In case of equi-Gaussian curvature foldings, $f:M→ P_n$, of an orientable surface onto a polygon $P_n$ we prove that (i) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(S^2)\\Leftrightarrow n=3$ (ii) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(T^2)\\Rightarrow n=4$ (iii) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(\\# 2T^2)\\Rightarrow n=5, 6$ and we generalize (iii) for $\\# nT^2$.

  11. Desviación disociada. Estrabismo de origen cortical

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Gallegos-Duarte; Jorge Mendiola-Santibáñez; Juan José Ortiz-Retana; Bernardo Rubín de Celis-Monteverde; Rosana Vidal-Pineda; Arleth Sigala-Zamora

    2007-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar las alteraciones corticales relacionadas con el origen de la desviación disociada. Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo y observacional que incluyó a 10 niños con diagnóstico de desviación horizontal disociada, sin evidencia previa de daño neuronal. Se determinó la dominancia manual, cerebral y ocular, el estado sensorial y el perfil perceptual visual. Se analizó la respuesta cortical a diferentes estímulos: luminoso, hiperventilación, movimientos de segu...

  12. Cortical myoclonus during IV thrombolysis for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with an acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke developing subtle involuntary movements of the paretic upper limb with cortical origin during rt-PA perfusion. Despite the multiple potential pathophysiological mechanisms for the relationship between thrombolysis and epileptic activity, seizures during this procedure are scarcely reported. Our hypothesis is that subtle and transient clinical seizures, like those described in our patient, may not be detected or are misdiagnosed as nonepileptic involuntary movements. We aimed to draw attention to the recognition challenge of this paroxysmal motor behavior, highlighting this clinical and neurophysiological identification using video recording and back-average analysis of the EEG.

  13. Maduración cerebral y desarrollo cognoscitivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Roselli

    2003-01-01

    La maduración cerebral se correlaciona con muchos de los cambios cognoscitivos y de comportamiento observados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. En este artículo se revisa el concepto de maduración cerebral y su asociación con el desarrollo de la preferencia manual, del lenguaje verbal y de la función ejecutiva en el niño. Se describe el incremento de las arborizaciones dendríticas como el cambio cortical más importante asociado a la adquisición de funciones cognoscitivas complejas. Se as...

  14. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  15. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  16. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  17. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO2 did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow

  18. Protective effects of berberine against amyloid beta-induced toxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Yanjun Zhang; Shuai Du; Mixia Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, a major constituent of Coptidis rhizoma, exhibits neural protective effects. The present study analyzed the potential protective effect of berberine against amyloid G-induced cytotoxicity in rat cerebral cortical neurons. Alzheimer's disease cell models were treated with 0.5 and 2 μmol/Lberberine for 36 hours to inhibit amyloid G-induced toxicity. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining results showed that berberine significantly increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. In addition, western blot analysis revealed a protective effect of berberine against amyloid β-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neurons, which coincided with significantly decreased abnormal up-regulation of activated caspase-3. These results showed that berberine exhibited a protective effect against amyloid 13-induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons.

  19. Cerebral microangiopathies; Zerebrale Mikroangiopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-03-15

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  20. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  1. Effects of KR-33028, a novel Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibitor, on glutamate-induced neuronal cell death and ischemia-induced cerebral infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ha; Park, Sok; Park, Sung Lyea; Yoon, Jae-Seok; Lee, Min Goo; Lee, Sunkyung; Yi, Kyu Yang; Yoo, Sung Eun; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baik, Eun Joo; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2009-01-12

    We investigated the effects of a novel Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE-1) inhibitor KR-33028 on glutamate excitotoxicity in cultured neuron cells in vitro and cerebral infarct in vivo by comparing its potency with that of zoniporide, a well-known, highly potent NHE-1 inhibitor. KR-33028 inhibited NHE-1 activation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=2.2 nM), with 18-fold greater potency than that of zoniporide (IC(50)=40.7 nM). KR-33028 significantly attenuated glutamate-induced LDH release with approximately 100 times lower EC(25) than that of zoniporide in cortical neurons in vitro (EC(25) of 0.007 and 0.81 microM, respectively), suggesting its 100-fold greater potency than zoniporide in producing anti-necrotic effect. In addition, the EC(50) of KR-33028 for anti-apoptotic effect was 100 times lower than that of zoniporide shown by TUNEL positivity (0.005 and 0.62 microM, respectively) and caspase-3 activity (0.01 and 2.64 microM, respectively). Furthermore, the EC(50) value of KR-33028 against glutamate-induced intracellular Ca(2+) overload was also 100 times lower than that of zoniporide (EC(50) of 0.004 and 0.65 microM, respectively). In the in vivo cerebral infarct model (60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion), KR-33028 reduced infarct size in a dose-dependent manner. Its ED(25) value, however, was quite similar to that of zoniporide (ED(25) of 0.072 and 0.097 mg/kg, respectively). Hence these results suggest that the novel NHE-1 inhibitor, KR-33028, could be an efficient therapeutic tool to protect neuronal cells against ischemic injury.

  2. Cortical Gyrification in Autistic and Asperger Disorders: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Roger J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly due to the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: six with high-functioning autism, nine with Asperger disorder, and eight controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours we...

  3. Early asymmetry of gene transcription between embryonic human left and right cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Patoine, Christina; Abu-Khalil, Amir; Visvader, Jane; Sum, Eleanor; Cherry, Timothy J.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, suggesting that human cortical asymmetry is accompanied by early, striking transcriptional asymmetries. LMO4 is consistently more highly expressed...

  4. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  5. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  6. Linear coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in activated human cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D. Hoge; Atkinson, Jeff; Gill, Brad; Crelier, Gérard R.; Marrett, Sean; Pike, G Bruce

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, within a specific cortical unit, fractional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) are coupled through an invariant relationship during physiological stimulation. This aim was achieved by simultaneously measuring relative changes in these quantities in human primary visual cortex (V1) during graded stimulation with patterns designed to selectively activate different populations of V1...

  7. Self Contained Encrypted Image Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Constantinides, Anthony; Plastino, Angel

    2012-01-01

    The recently introduced approach for Encrypted Image Folding is generalized to make it Self Contained. The goal is achieved by enlarging the folded image so as to embed all the necessary information for the image recovery. The need for extra size is somewhat compensated by considering a transformation with higher folding capacity. Numerical examples show that the size of the resulting cipher image may be significantly smaller than the plain text one. The implementation of the approach is further extended to deal also with color images.

  8. PSD-95 uncoupling from NMDA receptors by Tat-N-dimer ameliorates neuronal depolarisation in cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharz, Krzysztof; Søndergaard Rasmussen, Ida; Bach, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression is associated with activation of NMDA receptors, which interact with the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) that binds to nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Here, we tested whether inhibition of the nNOS/PSD-95/NMDA receptor complex formation by anti-ischemic compound...... during the first hour after i.v. injection. The Tat-N-dimer suppressed stimulation-evoked synaptic activity by 2-20%, while cortical blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolic (CMRO2) responses were preserved. During cortical spreading depression, the Tat-N-dimer reduced the average amplitude of the...... negative shift in direct current potential by 33% (4.1 mV). Furthermore, the compound diminished the average depression of spontaneous electrocorticographic activity by 11% during first 40 min of post-cortical spreading depression recovery, but did not mitigate the suppressing effect of cortical spreading...

  9. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  10. Atlas-based identification of cortical sulci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Raphel, Jose K.; Nguyen, Bonnie T.

    1996-04-01

    The identification of cortical sulci is of great importance. In neurosurgical procedures any target in the cranium can be accessed by following the corridors of the sulci and fissures. The fusion of functional and anatomical data also requires the identification of sulci. Several approaches have been proposed for segmentation of the cortical surface and identification of sulci and fissures. Most of them are bottom-up. They work satisfactorily provided that the sulci are well discernible on MRI images, limiting their use to some major sulci and fissures, such as the central sulcus, interhemispheric fissure, or Sylvian fissure. We propose a sulcal model based approach, overcoming some of the above limitations. The sulcal model is derived from two brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach- Tournoux (TT), and Atlas of Cerebral Sulci by Ono-Kubik-Abernathey (OKA). The OKA atlas contains 403 patterns for 55 sulci along with their incidence rates of interruptions, side branches, and connections. An electronic version of the OKA atlas was constructed, quantitatively enhanced by placing the sulcal patterns in a stereotactic space. The original patterns from the OKA atlas were digitized, converted into geometric representation, placed in the Talairach stereotactic space, preregistered with the TT atlas, and integrated with a multi- atlas, multi-dimensional neuroimaging system developed by our group. The registration of any atlas with the clinical data automatically registers all atlases with this data. This way the sulcal patterns can be superimposed on data, indicating approximate locations of sulci on images. The approach proposed here provides a simple and real-time registration of the sulcal patterns with clinical data, and an interactive identification and labeling of sulci. This approach assists rather the medical professional, instead of providing a complete automated extraction of a few, primary sulci with certain accuracy, where a

  11. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth. CONCLUSIONS: Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  12. Electrochemistry of folded graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous interest in the investigation of electron transfer rates at the edges of graphene due to possible energy storage and sensing applications. While electrochemistry at the edges and the basal plane of graphene has been studied in the past, the new frontier is the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges. Here we describe the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges and compare it to that of open graphene edges. The materials were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. We found that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate is significantly lower on folded graphene edges compared to open edge sites for ferro/ferricyanide, and that electrochemical properties of open edges offer lower potential detection of biomarkers than the folded ones. It is apparent, therefore, that for sensing and biosensing applications the folded edges are less active than open edges, which should then be preferred for such applications. As folded edges are the product of thermal treatment of multilayer graphene, such thermal procedures should be avoided when fabricating graphene for electrochemical applications.

  13. CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaka, F.; Okuda, B.; Tsuji, T.; Kameyama, M.; Okada, M.

    1988-02-01

    The CT findings in 5 patients with cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state are presented. The findings were: 1) multiple, densely calcified areas with a variety of round or nodular shapes in the brain, 2) a large low density area surrounding or connecting with the calcified areas, and 3) cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation. The relation between the CT findings and the previously reported plain skull X-ray findings or neuropathological findings are discussed.

  14. CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, F; Okuda, B; Okada, M; Tsuji, T; Kameyama, M

    1988-01-01

    The CT findings in 5 patients with cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state are presented. The findings were: 1) multiple, densely calcified areas with a variety of round or nodular shapes in the brain, 2) a large low density area surrounding or connecting with the calcified areas, and 3) cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation. The relation between the CT findings and the previously reported plain skull X-ray findings or neuropathological findings are discussed.

  15. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  16. Construction of a fetal spatio-temporal cortical surface atlas from in utero MRI: Application of spectral surface matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R; Makropoulos, A; Kyriakopoulou, V; Patkee, P A; Koch, L M; Rutherford, M A; Hajnal, J V; Rueckert, D; Aljabar, P

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we construct a spatio-temporal surface atlas of the developing cerebral cortex, which is an important tool for analysing and understanding normal and abnormal cortical development. In utero Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of 80 healthy fetuses was performed, with a gestational age range of 21.7 to 38.9 weeks. Topologically correct cortical surface models were extracted from reconstructed 3D MRI volumes. Accurate correspondences were obtained by applying a joint spectral analysis to cortices for sets of subjects close to a specific age. Sulcal alignment was found to be accurate in comparison to spherical demons, a state of the art registration technique for aligning 2D cortical representations (average Fréchet distance≈0.4 mm at 30 weeks). We construct consistent, unbiased average cortical surface templates, for each week of gestation, from age-matched groups of surfaces by applying kernel regression in the spectral domain. These were found to accurately capture the average cortical shape of individuals within the cohort, suggesting a good alignment of cortical geometry. Each spectral embedding and its corresponding cortical surface template provide a dual reference space where cortical geometry is aligned and a vertex-wise morphometric analysis can be undertaken. PMID:26070259

  17. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  18. Cerebral Palsy: Comprehensive Review and Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common pediatric disorder occurring in about 2 to 2.5 per 1000 live births. It is a chronic motor disorder resulting from a nonprogressive (static) insult to the developing brain. CP is the clinical presentation of a wide variety of cerebral cortical or sub-cortical insults occurring during the first year of life. The commonest cause of CP remains unknown in 50% of the cases; prematurity remains the commonest risk factor. Children with CP suffer multiple problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. Screening for those conditions should be part of the initial assessment. The child with CP is best cared for with an individualized treatment plan that provides a combination of interventions. This requires the provision of a number of family-centered services that make a difference in the lives of these children and their families. Management of spasticity can be challenging with a wide variety of possible therapeutic interventions. The treatment must be goal oriented, such as to assist with mobility, reduce or prevent contractures, improve positioning and hygiene, and provide comfort. Each member of the child's multidisciplinary team, including the child and both parents, should participate in the serial evaluations and treatment planning. (author)

  19. Case Report of Vestibularly evoked Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Ognyan I

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that caloric vestibular stimulation may evoke elementary visual hallucinations in healthy humans, such as different colored lines or dots. Surprisingly, the present case report reveals that the same stimulation can evoke visual hallucinations in a patient with cortical blindness, but with fundamentally different characteristics. The visual hallucinations evoked were complex and came from daily life experiences. Moreover, they did not include other senses beyond vision. This case report suggests that in conditions of cerebral pathology, vestibular-visual interaction may stimulate hallucinogenic subcortical, or undamaged cortical structures, and arouse mechanisms that can generate visual images exclusively. PMID:27246956

  20. Periventricular hyperintensity lesions and dementia in multiple cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the relationship between the presence of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), as shown on MR-T2 weighted images, and both ischemia and dementia, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were determined by positron emission computed tomography using the 15O and 11CO inhalation technique. Thirty-three patients with subcortical cerebral infarction were classified according to the presence of PVH: the PVH (+) group with severe PVH (n=17) and the PVH (-) group without PVH (n=16). In the PVH (+) group of patients with no association of dementia and the PVH (-) group, both decreased rCBF and increased OEF were significantly observed in the frontal cingulate gyrus and PVH area, when compared with the normal controls. In the PVH (+) group of dementia patients, on the other hand, rCBF was significantly decreased in the PVH lesion and each cortical region; and CMRO2 was significantly decreased and OEF was increased in the PVH lesion and all cortical regions, especially the frontal cingulate gyrus. Moreover, the PVH(+) group had a significantly decreased rCBF and rCBF/CBV ratio in PVH lesion. These results showed that 'compensated hypoperfusion' existed in PVH lesion and cortical regions, especially the frontal cingulate gyrus, in multiple infarction patients without dementia and that 'ischemic hypoperfusion' was observed when associated with dementia. These changes, which seemed to be caused by cerebroarteriosclerosis, not only preceded the occurrence of mental deterioration, but also still persisted after dementia had occurred. PVH also reflected severe ischemic changes of the brain in multiple cerebral infarction, irrespective of the association of dementia. (N.K.)

  1. Bilateral olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promotes neurological function in a rat model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Yang; Wenli Sheng; Huiyong Shen; Qinghua Hou; Rui Li; Jinsheng Zeng; Ruxun Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, olfactory ensheathing cells were transplanted into the cortices of infarcted (infarct transplantation group), normal (normal transplantation group), and bilateral hemispheres (bilateral transplantation group). Olfactory ensheathing cells migrated to the infarct focus. The number of growth associated protein 43-positive cells and nerve fibers was slightly increased in the infarct area. These changes were more evident in the bilateral cortical transplantation group. Results demonstrated that transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells can migrate in rats with cerebral infarction. The olfactory ensheathing cells on the normal side can also promote neurological function. Bilateral cortical transplantation exhibited superior effects over unilateral transplantation.

  2. Cortical hypermetabolism in MCI subjects: a compensatory mechanism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A.; Fan, Z.; Brooks, D.J.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with amyloid accumulation that takes place decades before symptoms appear. Cognitive impairment in AD is associated with reduced glucose metabolism. However, neuronal plasticity/compensatory mechanisms might come into play before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of cortical hypermetabolism as a compensatory mechanism before amyloid deposition takes place in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Nine AD subjects and ten aMCI subjects had both [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans with arterial input in order to quantify the amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in vivo in comparison with healthy control subjects who underwent either [{sup 11}C]PIB or [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans. The [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scans were quantified using [{sup 11}C]PIB target region to cerebellum uptake ratio images created by integrating the activity collected from 60 to 90 min, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was quantified using spectral analysis. In MCI subjects, cortical hypermetabolism was observed in four amyloid-negative subjects and one amyloid-positive subject, while hypometabolism was seen in five other MCI subjects with high amyloid load. Subjects with hypermetabolism and low amyloid did not convert to AD during clinical follow-up for 18 months in contrast to four amyloid-positive hypometabolic subjects who did convert to AD. This preliminary study suggests that compensatory hypermetabolism can occur in aMCI subjects, particularly in those who are amyloid-negative. The increase in metabolic rate in different cortical regions with predominance in the occipital cortex may be a compensatory response to the neuronal damage occurring early in the disease process. It may also reflect recruitment of relatively minimally affected cortical regions to compensate for reduced function in the temporoparietal cortical association areas. (orig.)

  3. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  4. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-01

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  5. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence...... treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves....

  6. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  7. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  8. Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Children Treated for Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Children with medulloblastoma undergo surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. After treatment, these children have numerous structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the thickness of the cerebral cortex in a group of medulloblastoma patients and a group of normally developing children. Methods and Materials: We obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and measured the cortical thickness in 9 children after treatment of medulloblastoma. The measurements from these children were compared with the measurements from age- and gender-matched normally developing children previously scanned. For additional comparison, the pattern of thickness change was compared with the cortical thickness maps from a larger group of 65 normally developing children. Results: In the left hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the perirolandic region and the parieto-occipital lobe. In the right hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the parietal lobe, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal lobe. These regions of cortical thinning overlapped with the regions of cortex that undergo normal age-related thinning. Conclusion: The spatial distribution of cortical thinning suggested that the areas of cortex that are undergoing development are more sensitive to the effects of treatment of medulloblastoma. Such quantitative methods may improve our understanding of the biologic effects that treatment has on the cerebral development and their neuropsychological implications

  9. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  10. The cranial MRI in severe cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance examination was performed in 38 patients with severe cerebral palsy (CP; 15 males and 23 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move anywhere) and mental retardation (I.Q. or D.Q. below 30). Neuroimaging findings were compared with the CP type, etiology, and grade of understanding of language. Cranial magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) in CP were divided into five types. In type 1, nine predominantly showed cyst-liked ventricles and periventricular hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging (PVH) and only scarred basal ganglia and thalamus were visible. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was rigospastic tetraplegia (RST). In type 2, eleven predominantly showed PVH and hyperintensity on T2-weighted (HT2) in basal ganglia and thalamus. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was RST or rigospastic diplegia. In type 3, five showed PVH and three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was spastic diplegia. In type 4, four predominantly showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia. The clinical type was athetotic CP (ATH). In type 5, nine predominantly showed HT2 in globus pallidus. Four had cortical atrophy and two had hippocampal atrophy. All suffered from neonatal jaundice and the clinical type was ATH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and spastic CP had MRI in PVH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and ATH showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Almost patients who suffered from neonatal jaundice and ATH showed HT2 in globus pallidus. With athetotic CP, cases with atrophy of the cerebral cortex and/or hippocampus were lower grade of understanding of language than no atrophy of both. The results of studies of MRI are in agreement with neuropathological findings. (author)

  11. Differential equations and folding of $n$-mani-folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mousa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will describe some topological and geometric characters of $n$-manifold by using the properties of differential equations. The folding and unfolding of $n$-manifold into itself will be deduced from viewpoint of the differential equations.

  12. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients.

  13. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients

  14. Dynamic changes in proprotein convertase 2 activity in cortical neurons after ischemia/reperfusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Zhan; An Zhou; Chelsea Piper; Tao Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia was established by performing 100 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and an in vitro model of experimental oxygen-glucose deprivation using cultured rat cortical neurons was established. Proprotein convertase 2 activity gradually decreased in the ischemic cortex with increasing duration of reperfusion. In cultured rat cortical neurons, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive neurons significantly increased and proprotein convertase 2 activity also decreased gradually with increasing duration of oxygen-glucose deprivation. These experimental findings indicate that proprotein convertase 2 activity decreases in ischemic rat cortex after reperfusion, as well as in cultured rat cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation. These changes in enzyme activity may play an important pathological role in brain injury.

  15. Cortical hypometabolism and its recovery following nucleus basalis lesions in baboons: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyosawa, M.; Pappata, S.; Duverger, D.; Riche, D.; Cambon, H.; Mazoyer, B.; Samson, Y.; Crouzel, C.; Naquet, R.; MacKenzie, E.T.

    1987-12-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured serially with positron emission tomography and (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose in five baboons with stereotactic electrocoagulation of the left nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). Four days after lesion, a significant metabolic depression was present in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, most marked in the frontotemporal region, and which recovered progressively within 6-13 weeks. These data demonstrate that adaptive mechanisms efficiently compensate for the cortical metabolic effects of NbM-lesion-induced cholinergic deafferentation. Moreover, unilateral NbM lesions also induced a transient reduction in contralateral cortical metabolic rate, the mechanisms of which are discussed. Explanation of these effects of cholinergic deafferentation in the primate could further our understanding of the metabolic deficits observed in dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  16. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco meses de edad, atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas” con este diagnóstico, quien ingresó en el servicio de miscelánea B por una celulitis facial. Presentaba aumento de volumen en la región geniana izquierda, febrícola e inapetencia. Se impuso tratamiento con cefazolina y se egresó a los siete días. Acudió nuevamente con tumefacción blanda y difusa de ambas hemicaras, irritabilidad y fiebre. Se interconsultó con cirugía maxilofacial, se indicaron estudios sanguíneos y radiológicos. Se diagnosticó como enfermedad de Caffey, basado en la edad del niño, tumefacción facial sin signos inflamatorios agudos e hiperostosis en ambas corticales mandibulares a la radiografía AP mandíbula; unido a anemia ligera, leucocitosis y eritrosedimentación acelerada. El paciente se trató sintomáticamente y con antinflamatorios no esteroideos. Esta rara entidad se debe tener presente en casos de niños y lactantes con irritabilidad y fiebre inespecífica

  17. Effect of Salvianolic Acid B on Mitochondrial Function of Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yufeng; LUO Xuechun; WANG Ximei; FANG Lei; HUANG Qifu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of salvianolic acid B (SalB) on the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium, and apoptosis of neurons with cerebral ischemia in mice were investigated using an acute cerebral ischemia model established by ligating the bilateral common carotid arteries in mica. The MMP, the intracellular cal-cium concentration, and the apoptosis rate of cortical neurons were measured at 6 min, 12 min, 18 min, 24 min, and 30 min after cerebral ischemia by a flow cytometer. The experiments show that SalB increases the MMP and reduces the intracellular calcium and the apoptosis rate at different stages of the cerebral ischemia in mice. The results show that the protective mechanism of SalB on cerebral ischemia enhances the MMP and maintains intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  18. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  19. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Franzkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1 before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported. The present study aimed at investigating, whether this activation pattern is due to altered functional interaction between motor cortical areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 10 GTS-patients and 10 control subjects performed a self-paced finger movement task while neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Cerebro-cerebral coherence as a measure of functional interaction was calculated. During movement preparation and execution coherence between contralateral M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA was significantly increased at beta-frequency in GTS-patients. After movement termination no significant differences between groups were evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data suggest that increased M1 activation in GTS-patients might be due to increased functional interaction between SMA and M1 most likely reflecting a pathophysiological marker of GTS. The data extend previous findings of motor-cortical alterations in GTS by showing that local activation changes are associated with alterations of functional networks between premotor and primary motor areas. Interestingly enough, alterations were evident during preparation and execution of voluntary movements, which implies a general theme of increased motor-cortical interaction in GTS.

  20. Morphological and functional aspects of progenitors perturbed in cortical malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBizzotto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms important for the function of neuronal progenitors during development, revealed by their perturbation in different cortical malformations. We focus on a class of neuronal progenitors, radial glial cells (RGCs, which are renowned for their unique morphological and behavioural characteristics, constituting a key element during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex. We describe how the particular morphology of these cells is related to their roles in the orchestration of cortical development and their influence on other progenitor types and post-mitotic neurons. Important for disease mechanisms, we overview what is currently known about RGC cellular components, cytoskeletal mechanisms, signalling pathways and cell cycle characteristics, focusing on how defects lead to abnormal development and cortical malformation phenotypes. The multiple recent entry points from human genetics and animal models are contributing to our understanding of this important cell type. Combining data from phenotypes in the mouse reveals molecules which potentially act in common pathways. Going beyond this, we discuss future directions that may provide new data in this expanding area.

  1. Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT, clinical relevance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT will gain increasing clinical relevance for functional neuroanatomy (reading, speaking), localisation of largely unknown cortical functions (vestibular cortex), imaging of subjective complaints of functional impairments (pain, smell, memory), and documentation of neurological rehabilitation at neuronal level (regeneration, compensation, substitution, learning). (orig.)

  2. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  3. Immunochemical characterization of inhibitory mouse cortical neurons: Three chemically distinct classes of inhibitory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiangmin; Roby, Keith D.; Edward M Callaway

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral cortex has diverse types of inhibitory neurons. In rat cortex, past research has shown that parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), calretinin (CR), and cholecystokinin (CCK) label four distinct chemical classes of GABAergic interneurons. However, in contrast to rat cortex, previous studies indicate that there is significant co-localization of SOM and CR in mouse cortical inhibitory neurons. In the present study, we further characterized immunochemical distinctions among mouse inhi...

  4. Effect of glutamate on lysosomal membrane permeabilization in primary cultured cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Min; Zhu, Wenbo; Zheng, Xiaoke; Li, Yuan; TANG, LIPENG; LU, BINGZHENG; Chen, WenLi; Qiu, Pengxin; Leng, Tiandong; Lin, Suizhen; Yan, Guangmei; Yin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the predominant cause of cerebral damage. Recent studies have shown that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal death in non-human primates. This study was designed to investigate the effect of glutamate on lysosomal stability in primary cultured cortical neurons. Glutamate treatment for 30 min induced the permeabilization of lysosomal ...

  5. Modeling the Distribution of New MRI Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Sormani; Massimiliano Calabrese; Alessio Signori; Antonio Giorgio; Paolo Gallo; Nicola De Stefano

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown the relevance of the cerebral grey matter involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS). The number of new cortical lesions (CLs), detected by specific MRI sequences, has the potential to become a new research outcome in longitudinal MS studies. Aim of this study is to define the statistical model better describing the distribution of new CLs developed over 12 and 24 months in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: Four different models were tested (...

  6. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding of...

  7. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    and human migrants generates a dis/abled subject. In this context, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, both in physical/material (the folding of bodies in the crypt) and cultural/semiotic terms, and may become a barrier to accessing protection, to entering and/or crossing a country...

  8. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  9. Multimodal analysis of cortical chemoarchitecture and macroscale fMRI resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Scholtens, Lianne H; Turk, Elise; Mantini, Dante; Vanduffel, Wim; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The cerebral cortex is well known to display a large variation in excitatory and inhibitory chemoarchitecture, but the effect of this variation on global scale functional neural communication and synchronization patterns remains less well understood. Here, we provide evidence of the chemoarchitecture of cortical regions to be associated with large-scale region-to-region resting-state functional connectivity. We assessed the excitatory versus inhibitory chemoarchitecture of cortical areas as an ExIn ratio between receptor density mappings of excitatory (AMPA, M1 ) and inhibitory (GABAA , M2 ) receptors, computed on the basis of data collated from pioneering studies of autoradiography mappings as present in literature of the human (2 datasets) and macaque (1 dataset) cortex. Cortical variation in ExIn ratio significantly correlated with total level of functional connectivity as derived from resting-state functional connectivity recordings of cortical areas across all three datasets (human I: P = 0.0004; human II: P = 0.0008; macaque: P = 0.0007), suggesting cortical areas with an overall more excitatory character to show higher levels of intrinsic functional connectivity during resting-state. Our findings are indicative of the microscale chemoarchitecture of cortical regions to be related to resting-state fMRI connectivity patterns at the global system's level of connectome organization. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3103-3113, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27207489

  10. Development of Cortical Morphology Evaluated with Longitudinal MR Brain Images of Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Moeskops

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex develops rapidly in the last trimester of pregnancy. In preterm infants, brain development is very vulnerable because of their often complicated extra-uterine conditions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe cortical development in a cohort of 85 preterm infants with and without brain injury imaged at 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA.In the acquired T2-weighted MR images, unmyelinated white matter (UWM, cortical grey matter (CoGM, and cerebrospinal fluid in the extracerebral space (CSF were automatically segmented. Based on these segmentations, cortical descriptors evaluating volume, surface area, thickness, gyrification index, and global mean curvature were computed at both time points, for the whole brain, as well as for the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes separately. Additionally, visual scoring of brain abnormality was performed using a conventional scoring system at 40 weeks PMA.The evaluated descriptors showed larger change in the occipital lobes than in the other lobes. Moreover, the cortical descriptors showed an association with the abnormality scores: gyrification index and global mean curvature decreased, whereas, interestingly, median cortical thickness increased with increasing abnormality score. This was more pronounced at 40 weeks PMA than at 30 weeks PMA, suggesting that the period between 30 and 40 weeks PMA might provide a window of opportunity for intervention to prevent delay in cortical development.

  11. C3G regulates cortical neuron migration, preplate splitting and radial glial cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Anne K; Britto, Joanne M; Dixon, Mathew P; Sheikh, Bilal N; Collin, Caitlin; Tan, Seong-Seng; Thomas, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Neuronal migration is integral to the development of the cerebral cortex and higher brain function. Cortical neuron migration defects lead to mental disorders such as lissencephaly and epilepsy. Interaction of neurons with their extracellular environment regulates cortical neuron migration through cell surface receptors. However, it is unclear how the signals from extracellular matrix proteins are transduced intracellularly. We report here that mouse embryos lacking the Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, C3G (Rapgef1, Grf2), exhibit a cortical neuron migration defect resulting in a failure to split the preplate into marginal zone and subplate and a failure to form a cortical plate. C3G-deficient cortical neurons fail to migrate. Instead, they arrest in a multipolar state and accumulate below the preplate. The basement membrane is disrupted and radial glial processes are disorganised and lack attachment in C3G-deficient brains. C3G is activated in response to reelin in cortical neurons, which, in turn, leads to activation of the small GTPase Rap1. In C3G-deficient cells, Rap1 GTP loading in response to reelin stimulation is reduced. In conclusion, the Ras family regulator C3G is essential for two aspects of cortex development, namely radial glial attachment and neuronal migration.

  12. Pathophysiology of cerebral circulatory disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to elucidate the pathologic conditions of cerebral circulatory disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Among 44 possible iNPH patients, 40 patients underwent shunt surgery based on diagnostic flow charts plotted by the Southern Tohoku method and were evaluated to be shunt-effective at the end of the first post-surgical month. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by N-isopropyl-(123I)-P-iodo-amphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (mean, mCBF; cortical region, cCBF; thalamus-basal ganglia region, tbCBF on autoradiography [ARG] method) and the perfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex were measured based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) Z-score images, before and 1 month after the surgery in all 40 subjects. The mCBF rose significantly from 32.1±2.74 ml/100 g/min before surgery to 39.8±3.02 ml/100 g/min after surgery (p<0.03). Investigation of the change of CBF revealed reductions in the cCBF (3 cases), tbCBF (9 cases), and cCBF+tbCBF (28 cases), with the reduced-cCBF group totaling 31 cases and the reduced-tbCBF group totaling 37 cases. Investigation of cerebral cortex hypoperfusion by 3D-SSP Z-score revealed 31 cases with hypoperfusion (frontal lobe type [19 cases], occipitotemporal lobe type [5 cases], mixed type [7 cases]) and nine cases with cortical normoperfusion (N). The pattern of reduction of the cortical blood flow on ARG method was favorably correlated with the pattern of hypoperfusion of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z-score images before surgery. A reduction of blood flow was found in the thalamus-basal ganglia region of all N type cases. The blood flow improved in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases of the reduced-cCBF group and in 32 of 37 (86.5%) cases of the reduced-tbCBF group. All of the cases without detectable improvement exhibited increased blood flow in non-reduction areas. Investigation of the hypoperfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z

  13. Tangential migration of glutamatergic neurons and cortical patterning during development: Lessons from Cajal-Retzius cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Melissa; Pierani, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form appropriate neural circuits within the cortical plate. While it was previously believed that only GABAergic cortical interneurons migrate tangentially from their origins in the subpallial ganglionic eminences to integrate in the cortical plate, it is now known that transient populations of glutamatergic neurons also adopt this mode of migration. These include Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), subplate neurons (SPs), and cortical plate transient neurons (CPTs), which have crucial roles in orchestrating the radial and tangential development of the embryonic cerebral cortex in a noncell-autonomous manner. While CRs have been extensively studied, it is only in the last decade that the molecular mechanisms governing their tangential migration have begun to be elucidated. To date, the mechanisms of SPs and CPTs tangential migration remain unknown. We therefore review the known signaling pathways, which regulate parameters of CRs migration including their motility, contact-redistribution and adhesion to the pial surface, and discuss this in the context of how CR migration may regulate their signaling activity in a spatial and temporal manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 847-881, 2016. PMID:26581033

  14. Tangential migration of glutamatergic neurons and cortical patterning during development: Lessons from Cajal-Retzius cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Melissa; Pierani, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form appropriate neural circuits within the cortical plate. While it was previously believed that only GABAergic cortical interneurons migrate tangentially from their origins in the subpallial ganglionic eminences to integrate in the cortical plate, it is now known that transient populations of glutamatergic neurons also adopt this mode of migration. These include Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), subplate neurons (SPs), and cortical plate transient neurons (CPTs), which have crucial roles in orchestrating the radial and tangential development of the embryonic cerebral cortex in a noncell-autonomous manner. While CRs have been extensively studied, it is only in the last decade that the molecular mechanisms governing their tangential migration have begun to be elucidated. To date, the mechanisms of SPs and CPTs tangential migration remain unknown. We therefore review the known signaling pathways, which regulate parameters of CRs migration including their motility, contact-redistribution and adhesion to the pial surface, and discuss this in the context of how CR migration may regulate their signaling activity in a spatial and temporal manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 847-881, 2016.

  15. Quantitative Morphology of Epithelial Folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štorgel, Nick; Krajnc, Matej; Mrak, Polona; Štrus, Jasna; Ziherl, Primož

    2016-01-01

    The shape of spatially modulated epithelial morphologies such as villi and crypts is usually associated with the epithelium-stroma area mismatch leading to buckling. We propose an alternative mechanical model based on intraepithelial stresses generated by differential tensions of apical, lateral, and basal sides of cells as well as on the elasticity of the basement membrane. We use it to theoretically study longitudinal folds in simple epithelia and we identify four types of corrugated morphologies: compact, invaginated, evaginated, and wavy. The obtained tissue contours and thickness profiles are compared to epithelial folds observed in invertebrates and vertebrates, and for most samples, the agreement is within the estimated experimental error. Our model establishes the groove-crest modulation of tissue thickness as a morphometric parameter that can, together with the curvature profile, be used to estimate the relative differential apicobasal tension in the epithelium. PMID:26745429

  16. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  17. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen Bonds in Polymer Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, J; Jensen, M. H.; K. Sneppen; Tiana, G.

    2000-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a homopolymeric chain with both Van der Waals and highly-directional hydrogen bond interaction is studied. The effect of hydrogen bonds is to reduce dramatically the entropy of low-lying states and to give raise to long-range order and to conformations displaying secondary structures. For compact polymers a transition is found between helix-rich states and low-entropy sheet-dominated states. The consequences of this transition for protein folding and, in particular, for ...

  19. Scalar Leptons in Folded Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdman, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Folded supersymmetry is a natural theory of the electroweak scale in which the scalar top partner responsible for canceling the ultraviolet sensitivity of the Higgs mass at one loop carries no color. As a result, bounds on naturalness on these theories are more relaxed than in typical supersymmetric models, since collider bounds on top partners are less stringent. Here we consider the lepton sector of these theories. We show that a natural realization in a five-dimensional completion requires the existence of scalar leptons with weak scale masses and study their phenomenology. We derive bounds on the masses of these sleptons from the LHC data at $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV and study the sensitivity of the $\\sqrt{s}=13~$TeV run for various integrated luminosities. When supersymmetry is broken exclusively by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions the sleptons are stable on collider scales. This leads to bounds on the folded sleptons that translate into masses above $1~$TeV for the folded stops resulting in tuning. When additi...

  20. Sleep-active neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells of the cerebral cortex: a local regulator of sleep?

    OpenAIRE

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent report demonstrated that a small subset of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of rodents expresses Fos protein, a marker for neuronal activity, during slow wave sleep (Gerashchenko et al., 2008). The population of sleep-active neurons consists of strongly immunohistochemically-stained cells for the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase. By virtue of their widespread localization within the cerebral cortex and their widespread projections to other cortical cell types, cor...

  1. Grid cells and cortical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Edvard I; Roudi, Yasser; Witter, Menno P; Kentros, Clifford; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Moser, May-Britt

    2014-07-01

    One of the grand challenges in neuroscience is to comprehend neural computation in the association cortices, the parts of the cortex that have shown the largest expansion and differentiation during mammalian evolution and that are thought to contribute profoundly to the emergence of advanced cognition in humans. In this Review, we use grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex as a gateway to understand network computation at a stage of cortical processing in which firing patterns are shaped not primarily by incoming sensory signals but to a large extent by the intrinsic properties of the local circuit.

  2. Horizontal integration and cortical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D

    1992-07-01

    We have discussed several results that lead to a view that cells in the visual system are endowed with dynamic properties, influenced by context, expectation, and long-term modifications of the cortical network. These observations will be important for understanding how neuronal ensembles produce a system that perceives, remembers, and adapts to injury. The advantage to being able to observe changes at early stages in a sensory pathway is that one may be able to understand the way in which neuronal ensembles encode and represent images at the level of their receptive field properties, of cortical topographies, and of the patterns of connections between cells participating in a network.

  3. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. PMID:27516599

  4. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia : Cortical or non-cortical origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Teun W.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Hilgevoord, Anthony A. J.; Linssen, Wim H. J. P.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by involuntary dystonia and/or chorea triggered by a sudden movement. Cases are usually familial with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of PKD focus on the controversy whether PKD has a cortical or non-co

  5. The complexity of the calretinin-expressing progenitors in the human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena V Radonjic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure and function of the cerebral cortex critically depend on the balance of excitation and inhibition provided by the pyramidal projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, respectively. The calretinin-expressing (CalR+ cell is a subtype of GABAergic cortical interneurons that is more prevalent in humans than in rodents. In rodents, CalR+ interneurons originate in the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE from Gsx2+ progenitors, but in humans it has been suggested that a subpopulation of CalR+ cells can also be generated in the cortical ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ. The progenitors for cortically generated CalR+ subpopulation in primates are not yet characterized. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify patterns of expression of the transcription factors (TFs that commit cortical stem cells to the CalR fate, with a focus on Gsx2. First, we studied the expression of Gsx2 and its downstream effectors, Ascl1 and Sp8 in the cortical regions of the fetal human forebrain at midgestation. Next, we established that a subpopulation of cells expressing these TFs are proliferating in the cortical SVZ, and can be co-labeled with CalR. The presence and proliferation of Gsx2+ cells, not only in the ventral telencephalon (GE as previously reported, but also in the cerebral cortex suggests cortical origin of a subpopulation of CalR+ neurons in humans. In vitro treatment of human cortical progenitors with Sonic hedgehog (Shh, an important morphogen in the specification of interneurons, decreased levels of Ascl1 and Sp8 proteins, but did not affect Gsx2 levels. Taken together, our ex-vivo and in vitro results on human fetal brain suggest complex endogenous and exogenous regulation of TFs implied in the specification of different subtypes of CalR+ cortical interneurons.

  6. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (cerebral hemiatrophy: Radiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Bükte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to present cross- sectional cranial imaging findings of cases with Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS. Methods: The findings of 16 cases in whom unilateral cerebral hemispheric atrophy was detected at computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were retrospectively evaluated. The cases consisted of 8 females and 8 males, the ages ranged between 5 and 53 (mean:24. Six of the cases were children and 10 were males. Five of the patients had CT and 13 had MRI scan. The images were retrospectively evaluated and cerebral parenchymal findings and compensatory cranial findings were noted. Results: All cases had unilateral cerebral hemispheric atrophy, ipsilateral cortical sulcal and lateral ventricular dilatation. Together with hemispheric atrophy ipsilateral atrophy of corpus callosum in 6 cases (37.5%, ipsilateral thalamic atrophy in 13 cases (81%, ipsilateral parahippocampal atrophy in 8 cases (50%, ipsilateral cerebral pedincular atrophy in 7 cases (44% and ipsilateral pontine atrophy in 3 cases (19% were detected. Gliotic signal changes were observed in 13 cases (81%. Of compensatory findings, unilateral calvarial thickening was focal in 4 cases (25%, and diffuse in 12 cases (75%. There was expansion in ipsilateral half of frontal sinus in 15 cases (94% and expansion in temporal bone aeration in 5 cases (31%. Conclusion: DDMS is a syndrome presenting with findings of cerebral hemiatrophy and calvarial hypertrophy. Cross-sectional radiological imaging findings may be variable among cases.

  7. Ventricular-Fold Dynamics in Human Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Lucie; Bernardoni, Nathalie Henrich; Müller, Frank; Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Hess, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample…

  8. Clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism under glycerol and carbon dioxide loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanada, Shuji; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Senda, Michio

    1987-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO/sub 2/) were studied in normal cerebral cortices by positron emission tomography using continuous inhalation method of oxygen-15 labeled carbon dioxide and oxygen, and single inhalation method of oxygen-15 labeled carbon monoxide. The values of CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in cerebral cortices of 18 healthy normal volunteers represented 40 +- 7 ml/100 ml/min, 3.2 +- 0.5 ml O/sub 2//100 ml/min, and 0.43 +- 0.07, respectively. In cases with glycerol loading, CBF increased in 10/14 cases. Studies of 6 cases with intracranial pressure indicated the presence of mechanism by which depressed CMRO/sub 2/ improved and was kept in normal values. The loading of 5% carbon dioxide showed an increase in CBF in cases with cerebral infarction, which implied the good cerebral vascular response to the elevated arterial carbon dioxide, but no particular changes were observed in CMRO/sub 2/ which seemed to be less responsive to the elevated arterial carbon dioxide level. In cases with moyamoya disease, 5% carbon dioxide loading showed no changes in CBF and CMRO/sub 2/. This suggested the poor cerebral vascular response to the elevation of arterial carbon dioxide, while X-ray CT failed to demonstrate any abnormalities in corresponding areas. Positron emission tomography proved to have a great potentiality regarding the evaluation of the changes in cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism under various loadings.

  9. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  10. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  11. Cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point as a reliable landmark to place the corticectomy and reach the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frigeri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish preoperatively the localization of the cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point (ICP and use it as a reliable landmark when approaching the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus access. To review relevant anatomical features regarding selective amigdalohippocampectomy (AH for treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. Method The cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point was used in more than 300 surgeries by one authors as a reliable landmark to reach the temporal horn. In the laboratory, forty cerebral hemispheres were examined. Conclusion The cortical projection of the ICP is a reliable landmark for reaching the temporal horn.

  12. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  13. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.; Johnston, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothe...

  14. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process.

  15. Cortical Amyloid beta in cognitively normal elderly adults is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eSteininger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of cortical amyloid beta (Aβ is a correlate of aging and a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While several higher order cognitive processes involve functional interactions between cortex and cerebellum, this study aims to investigate effects of cortical Aβ deposition on coupling within the cerebro-cerebellar system. We included 15 healthy elderly subjects with normal cognitive performance as assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cortical Aβ was quantified using Pittsburgh Compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET late frame signals. Volumes of brain structures were assessed by applying an automated parcellation algorithm to three dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Basal functional network activity within the cerebro-cerebellar system was assessed using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at the high field strength of 7 Tesla for measuring coupling between cerebellar seeds and cerebral gray matter. A bivariate regression approach was applied for identification of brain regions with significant effects of individual cortical Aβ load on coupling.Consistent with earlier reports, a significant degree of positive and negative coupling could be observed between cerebellar seeds and cerebral voxels. Significant positive effects of cortical Aβ load on cerebro-cerebellar coupling resulted for cerebral brain regions located in inferior temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and thalamus. Our findings indicate that brain amyloidosis in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system. While the identified cerebral regions are consistent with established patterns of increased sensitivity for Aβ associated neurodegeneration, additional studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between dysfunction of the cerebro

  16. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  17. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  18. Hemiplegic migraine aura begins with cerebral hypoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Schytz, Henrik W; Larsen, Vibeke A;

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies of spontaneous migraine aura have proved challenging because of the episodic and unpredictable nature of migraine attacks. Two patients with signs of acute ischemic stroke were evaluated for thrombolysis and turned out to suffer from familial hemiplegic migraine. It was possible...... to record the early phase of the hemiplegic aura with computed tomography with perfusion sequences and magnetic resonance imaging. We found cerebral hypoperfusion in the relevant cortical areas within the first hour after onset of aura symptoms. This report supports the concept that migraine aura across...... the migraine spectrum is caused by similar mechanisms. In a setting with efficient cooperation between headache and stroke neurologists, thrombolysis centers provide the set-up and opportunity to record aura symptoms at an early phase. Furthermore, in the time of ready access to acute systemic thrombolysis...

  19. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  20. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Zenji

    1987-06-01

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor.

  1. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor. (author)

  2. Reorganization and Stability for Motor and Language Areas Using Cortical Stimulation: Case Example and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Serafini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral organization of language in epilepsy patients has been studied with invasive procedures such as Wada testing and electrical cortical stimulation mapping and more recently with noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI. In the setting of a chronic seizure disorder, clinical variables have been shown to contribute to cerebral language reorganization underscoring the need for language lateralization and localization procedures. We present a 14-year-old pediatric patient with a refractory epilepsy disorder who underwent two neurosurgical resections of a left frontal epileptic focus separated by a year. He was mapped extraoperatively through a subdural grid using cortical stimulation to preserve motor and language functions. The clinical history and extensive workup prior to surgery is discussed as well as the opportunity to compare the cortical maps for language, motor, and sensory function before each resection. Reorganization in cortical tongue sensory areas was seen concomitant with a new zone of ictal and interictal activity in the previous tongue sensory area. Detailed neuropsychological data is presented before and after any surgical intervention to hypothesize about the extent of reorganization between epochs. We conclude that intrahemispheric cortical plasticity does occur following frontal lobe resective surgery in a teenager with medically refractory seizures.

  3. Brain plasticity and recovery from early cortical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Williams, Preston; Gibb, Robbin

    2011-09-01

    Neocortical development represents more than a simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint: rather, it represents a complex dance of genetic and environmental events that interact to adapt the brain to fit a particular environmental context. Most cortical regions are sensitive to a wide range of experiential factors during development and later in life, but the injured cortex appears to be unusually sensitive to perinatal experiences. This paper reviews the factors that influence how normal and injured brains (both focal and ischemic injuries) develop and adapt into adulthood. Such factors include prenatal experiences in utero as well as postnatal experiences throughout life. Examples include the effects of sensory and motor stimulation, psychoactive drugs (including illicit and prescription drugs), maternal and postnatal stress, neurotrophic factors, and pre- and postnatal diet. All these factors influence cerebral development and influence recovery from brain injury during development. PMID:21950386

  4. The effect of hypothermia therapy on cortical laminar disruption following ischemic injury in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kida

    Full Text Available Hypothermia has been proposed as a treatment for reducing neuronal damage in the brain induced by hypoxic ischemia. In the developing brain, hypoxic ischemia-induced injury may give rise to cerebral palsy (CP. However, it is unknown whether hypothermia might affect the development of CP. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypothermia would have a protective effect on the brains of immature, 3-day old (P3 mice after a challenge of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced in P3 mice with a right common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia (6% O2, 37°C for 30 min. Immediately after hypoxic ischemia, mice were exposed to hypothermia (32°C or normothermia (37°C for 24 h. At 4 weeks of age, mouse motor development was tested in a behavioral test. Mice were sacrificed at P4, P7, and 5 weeks to examine brain morphology. The laminar structure of the cortex was examined with immunohistochemistry (Cux1/Ctip2; the number of neurons was counted; and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP was determined. The hypothermia treatment was associated with improved neurological outcomes in the behavioral test. In the normothermia group, histological analyses indicated reduced numbers of neurons, reduced cortical laminar thickness in the deep, ischemic cortical layers, and significant reduction in MBP expression in the ischemic cortex compared to the contralateral cortex. In the hypothermia group, no reductions were noted in deep cortical layer thickness and in MBP expression in the ischemic cortex compared to the contralateral cortex. At 24 h after the hypothermia treatment prevented the neuronal cell death that had predominantly occurred in the ischemic cortical deep layers with normothermia treatment. Our findings may provide a preclinical basis for testing hypothermal therapies in patients with CP induced by hypoxic ischemia in the preterm period.

  5. Pine pollen inhibits cell apoptosis-related protein expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanhong; Wei, Yaodong; Wang, Taizhong; Chen, Dongzhu; Lu, Tiansheng; Wu, Ruibo; Si, Keke

    2012-04-25

    Previous studies have demonstrated that pine pollen can inhibit cerebral cortical cell apoptosis in mice with arsenic poisoning. The present study sought to detect the influence of pine pollen on apoptosis-related proteins. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the levels of apoptosis-related proteins in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning. Results indicated that pine pollen suppressed cell apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of arsenic-poisoned mice by reducing Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and increasing p53 protein expression.

  6. Pine pollen inhibits cell apoptosis-related protein expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanhong; Wei, Yaodong; Wang, Taizhong; Chen, Dongzhu; Lu, Tiansheng; Wu, Ruibo; Si, Keke

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that pine pollen can inhibit cerebral cortical cell apoptosis in mice with arsenic poisoning. The present study sought to detect the influence of pine pollen on apoptosis-related proteins. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the levels of apoptosis-related proteins in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning. Results indicated that pine pollen suppressed cell apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of arsenic-poisoned mice by reducing Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and increasing p53 protein expression. PMID:25722672

  7. Pine pollen inhibits cell apoptosis-related protein expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhong Luo; Yaodong Wei; Taizhong Wang; Dongzhu Chen; Tiansheng Lu; Ruibo Wu; Keke Si

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that pine pollen can inhibit cerebral cortical cell apoptosis in mice with arsenic poisoning. The present study sought to detect the influence of pine pollen on apoptosis-related proteins. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assays were used to measure the levels of apoptosis-related proteins in the cerebral cortex of mice with arsenic poisoning. Results indicated that pine pollen suppressed cell apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of arsenic-poisoned mice by reducing Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and increasing p53 protein expression.

  8. Detection and quantification of regional cortical gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis utilizing gradient echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gray matter (GM damage is now widely recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS. The standard MRI does not reliably detect cortical GM lesions, although cortical volume loss can be measured. In this study, we demonstrate that the gradient echo MRI can reliably and quantitatively assess cortical GM damage in MS patients using standard clinical scanners. High resolution multi-gradient echo MRI was used for regional mapping of tissue-specific MRI signal transverse relaxation rate values (R2* in 10 each relapsing–remitting, primary-progressive and secondary-progressive MS subjects. A voxel spread function method was used to correct artifacts induced by background field gradients. R2* values from healthy controls (HCs of varying ages were obtained to establish baseline data and calculate ΔR2* values – age-adjusted differences between MS patients and HC. Thickness of cortical regions was also measured in all subjects. In cortical regions, ΔR2* values of MS patients were also adjusted for changes in cortical thickness. Symbol digit modalities (SDMT and paced auditory serial addition (PASAT neurocognitive tests, as well as Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg test results were also obtained on all MS subjects. We found that ΔR2* values were lower in multiple cortical GM and normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions in MS compared with HC. ΔR2* values of global cortical GM and several specific cortical regions showed significant (p < 0.05 correlations with SDMT and PASAT scores, and showed better correlations than volumetric measures of the same regions. Neurological tests not focused on cognition (Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg tests showed no correlation with cortical GM ΔR2* values. The technique presented here is robust and reproducible. It requires less than 10 min and can be implemented on any MRI scanner. Our results show that quantitative tissue-specific R2

  9. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  10. 4D segmentation of brain MR images with constrained cortical thickness variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain MR images plays an important role in longitudinal investigation of developmental, aging, disease progression changes in the cerebral cortex. However, most existing brain segmentation methods consider multiple time-point images individually and thus cannot achieve longitudinal consistency. For example, cortical thickness measured from the segmented image will contain unnecessary temporal variations, which will affect the time related change pattern and eventually reduce the statistical power of analysis. In this paper, we propose a 4D segmentation framework for the adult brain MR images with the constraint of cortical thickness variations. Specifically, we utilize local intensity information to address the intensity inhomogeneity, spatial cortical thickness constraint to maintain the cortical thickness being within a reasonable range, and temporal cortical thickness variation constraint in neighboring time-points to suppress the artificial variations. The proposed method has been tested on BLSA dataset and ADNI dataset with promising results. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method, in comparison to other state-of-the-art 4D segmentation methods.

  11. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  12. Stretching Folding Instability and Nanoemulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chon U

    2009-01-01

    Here we show a folding-stretching instability in a microfluidic flow focusing device using silicon oil (100cSt) and water. The fluid dynamics video demonstrates an oscillating thread of oil focused by two co-flowing streams of water. We show several high-speed sequences of these oscillations with 30,000 frames/s. Once the thread is decelerated in a slower moving pool downstream an instability sets in and water-in-oil droplets are formed. We reveal the details of the pinch-off with 500,000 frames/s. The pinch-off is so repeatable that complex droplet patterns emerge. Some of droplets are below the resolution limit, thus smaller than 1 micrometer in diameter.

  13. The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: A consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bluemcke; M. Thom; E.M.A. Aronica; D.D. Armstrong; H.V. Vinters; A. Palmini; T.S. Jacques; G. Avanzini; A.J. Barkovich; G. Battaglia; A. Becker; C. Cepeda; F. Cendes; N. Colombo; P. Crino; J.H. Cross; O. Delalande; F. Dubeau; J. Duncan; R. Guerrini; P. Kahane; G. Mathern; I. Najm; C. Ozkara; C. Raybaud; A. Represa; S.N. Roper; N. Salamon; A. Schulze-Bonhage; L. Tassi; A. Vezzani; R. Spreafico

    2011-01-01

    P>Purpose: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are localized regions of malformed cerebral cortex and are very frequently associated with epilepsy in both children and adults. A broad spectrum of histopathology has been included in the diagnosis of FCD. An ILAE task force proposes an international conse

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  15. Dementia and functional cerebral imaging a reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New concepts which concerned especially the nosologic classification of dementia as for example Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) incite to revalue the main characteristics of the regional cerebral blood flow measurements studied by SPECT in several forms of dementia. SPECT analysis with 99m-Technetium HMPAO (555 MBq) was performed to 20 patients with probable DLB, 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 patients with Fronto-Temporal dementia (FTD). Ten pairs of regions of interest were analysed. Tracer uptake was expressed as a cortico-cerebellar activity ratio. Statistical analysis of index of fixation was performed using an univariate analysis of variance, and a selection of significative ROIs was performed using two cut-off values (80 and 82.5 %). In the FTD group, a decrease of HMPAO uptake in frontal cortical regions of interest (internal, lateral and posterior) was observed. In the DLB group the decrease of HMPAO uptake was widespread and concerned all the cortical regions of interest except the posterior frontal and occipital regions. Finally in the AD group there was a limited temporal and parietal hypoperfusion more marked on the left side without frontal hypoperfusion. This last result was obtained whatever the cognitive impairment. Consequently it seems that the frontal hypoperfusion previously reported in AD groups was induced by the fact that patients with DLB were also included because the diagnosis was not established. In conclusion we estimate that SPECT studies could be used more often in clinical research especially for a classification approach of dementia. (authors)

  16. Isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage: Etiologies based on MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun; Kang, Myung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify common underlying etiologies that may be responsible for isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) by analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain. From August 2005 to February 2014, 15 cSAH patients were admitted to our institution. All patients with cSAH underwent brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography as a part of their initial evaluation. An analysis of the patients' medical history, clinical presentations, and brain MRI findings was retrospectively performed. Among the combined pathologies that were suspected causes of cSAH, 11 patients showed acute or subacute cerebral infarctions at the ipsilateral hemisphere of cSAH on the diffusion-weighted images. Four of 11 patients had only cerebral infarction, but the other 7 had combined vasculopathy of extra- and intracranial arteries. Four of 15 patients who did not have cerebral infarction, had intracranial artery stenosis, or showed possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or no abnormal findings on the brain MRI. Ischemic stroke, such as cerebral infarction or vasculopathy of the extra and intracranial arteries is regarded as a common underlying etiology of the cSAH based on MRI findings.

  17. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  18. Cortical Microstimulation for Neural Prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatraman, Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Brain-controlled prostheses have the potential to improve the quality of life of a large number of paralyzed persons by allowing them to control prosthetic limbs simply by thought. An essential requirement for natural use of such neural prostheses is that the user should be provided with somatosensory feedback from the artificial limb. This can be achieved by electrically stimulating small populations of neurons in the cortex; a process known as cortical microstimulation. This dissertation de...

  19. On the growth and form of cortical convolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Chung, Jun Young; Rousseau, François; Girard, Nadine; Lefèvre, Julien; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of the human cortex during development is accompanied by the folding of the brain into a highly convoluted structure. Recent studies have focused on the genetic and cellular regulation of cortical growth, but understanding the formation of the gyral and sulcal convolutions also requires consideration of the geometry and physical shaping of the growing brain. To study this, we use magnetic resonance images to build a 3D-printed layered gel mimic of the developing smooth fetal brain; when immersed in a solvent, the outer layer swells relative to the core, mimicking cortical growth. This relative growth puts the outer layer into mechanical compression and leads to sulci and gyri similar to those in fetal brains. Starting with the same initial geometry, we also build numerical simulations of the brain modelled as a soft tissue with a growing cortex, and show that this also produces the characteristic patterns of convolutions over a realistic developmental course. All together, our results show that although many molecular determinants control the tangential expansion of the cortex, the size, shape, placement and orientation of the folds arise through iterations and variations of an elementary mechanical instability modulated by early fetal brain geometry.

  20. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Guio

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy, a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE ≥24.Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male. Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models.MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls.Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  1. The parallel universe of RNA folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, R T; Doudna, J A

    1998-05-01

    How do large RNA molecules find their active conformations among a universe of possible structures? Two recent studies reveal that RNA folding is a rapid and ordered process, with surprising similarities to protein folding mechanisms.

  2. Secondary instabilities modulate cortical complexity in the mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Disclosing the origin of convolutions in the mammalian brain remains a scientific challenge. Primary folds form before we are born: they are static, well defined and highly preserved across individuals. Secondary folds occur and disappear throughout our entire lifetime: they are dynamic, irregular and highly variable among individuals. While extensive research has improved our understanding of primary folding in the mammalian brain, secondary folding remains understudied and poorly understood. Here, we show that secondary instabilities can explain the increasing complexity of our brain surface as we age. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we explore the critical conditions for secondary instabilities. We show that with continuing growth, our brain surface continues to bifurcate into increasingly complex morphologies. Our results suggest that even small geometric variations can have a significant impact on surface morphogenesis. Secondary bifurcations, and with them morphological changes during childhood and adolescence, are closely associated with the formation and loss of neuronal connections. Understanding the correlation between neuronal connectivity, cortical thickness, surface morphology and ultimately behaviour, could have important implications on the diagnostics, classification and treatment of neurological disorders.

  3. Mitochondrial activity and brain functions during cortical depolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Sonn, Judith

    2008-12-01

    Cortical depolarization (CD) of the cerebral cortex could be developed under various pathophysiological conditions. In animal models, CD was recorded under partial or complete ischemia as well as when cortical spreading depression (SD) was induced externally or by internal stimulus. The development of CD in patients and the changes in various metabolic parameters, during CD, was rarely reported. Brain metabolic, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical responses to the CD event are dependent upon the O2 balance in the tissue. When the O2 balance is negative (i.e. ischemia), the CD process will be developed due to mitochondrial dysfunction, lack of energy and the inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. In contradiction, when oxygen is available (i.e. normoxia) the development of CD after induction of SD will accelerate mitochondrial respiration for retaining ionic homeostasis and normal brain functions. We used the multiparametric monitoring approach that enable real time monitoring of mitochondrial NADH redox state, microcirculatory blood flow and oxygenation, extracellular K+, Ca2+, H+ levels, DC steady potential and electrocorticogram (ECoG). This monitoring approach, provide a unique tool that has a significant value in analyzing the pathophysiology of the brain when SD developed under normoxia, ischemia, or hypoxia. We applied the same monitoring approach to patients suffered from severe head injury or exposed to neurosurgical procedures.

  4. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  5. Evaluating the translational potential of progesterone treatment following transient cerebral ischaemia in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Raymond; Gibson, Claire L.; Kendall, David A; Bath, Philip MW

    2014-01-01

    Background Progesterone is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical CNS injury models including cerebral ischaemia. The aim of this study was two-fold; firstly, we aimed to determine whether progesterone delivery via osmotic mini-pump would confer neuroprotective effects and whether such neuroprotection could be produced in co-morbid animals. Results Animals underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. At the onset of reperfusion, mice were injected intraperitoneally with progesterone...

  6. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-03-01

    We reported previously that Low T{sub 2} intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T{sub 2}-weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  7. Cerebral abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral abscess (CA) is a focal, infectious process only or multiple, located in the cerebral parenchyma that produces tisular lysis and it behaves like a lesion of space occupative, being a suppurative illness, who origin is a distant infection, or for continuity that studies initially as an area of focal cerebritis and it is developed to a collection surrounded purulent. At the moment they are perfecting technical and protocols diagnoses and therapeutic and measures for allow to control the natural history of the illness, making from the confrontation to this pathology a necessarily interdisciplinary complicated art, stiller in the infantile population, due to their difficulty in the diagnosis and the relevance of the same one. The paper includes epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, localization, pathology, clinic, diagnoses, treatment and diagnostic images

  8. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W;

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  9. The Utility of Cerebral Blood Flow Assessment in TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbik, Omar S; Carlson, Andrew P; Krasberg, Mark; Yonas, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Over the past few decades, intracranial monitoring technologies focused on treating and preempting secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have experienced considerable growth. A physiological measure fundamental to the management of these patients is cerebral blood flow (CBF), which may be determined directly or indirectly. Direct measurement has proven difficult previously; however, invasive and non-invasive CBF monitors are now available. This article reviews the history of CBF measurements in TBI as well as the role of CBF in pathologies associated with TBI, such as cerebral autoregulation, hyperemia, and cortical spreading depression. The limitations of various CBF monitors are reviewed in order to better understand their role in TBI management. PMID:27315250

  10. Word and face recognition deficits following posterior cerebral artery stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...

  11. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  12. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  13. CT hypodensity on cerebral white matter in Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Jardim

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease in an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism where systemic manifestations are secondary to thei accumulation of copper in hepatic, nervous and other tissues. In CNS, the structural lesions most commonly found by CT scan are ventricular dilatation, cortical atrophy, basal ganglia hyperdensities, and brainstem and cerebellar atrophy. Degenerative changes of cerebral white matter seen on early anatomo-pathologic studies, but were almost never found on CT scan from recently described patients. We report a case of Wilson's disease with an unusually rapid deterioration where asymmetric low-densities in the subcortical white matter were disclosed by CT scan.

  14. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion......-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in focal ischemic...

  15. Functional localization of the cortical motor area in the brain Electrocorticogram analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Xiaoming Wu; Binggang Ye; Sijuan Huang

    2010-01-01

    The method for rapidly,precisely and non-invasively localizing functional regions of the brain is a problem in neuromedicine research.Cortical electrostimulation is the optimal localization method during brain surgery,with a degree of accuracy of approximately 5 mm.However,electrostimulation can damage the cerebral cortex,trigger epilepsy,and extend the operation time.Studies are required to determine whether cortical motor regions can be localized by wavelet analysis from electrocorticograms.In this study,based on wavelet analysis of electrocorticograms,a selection of algorithms for classification of the mu rhythm in the motor regions utilizing experimental data was verified.Results demonstrated that a characteristic quantity of energy ratio in the reconstructed signal was filtered in the d6(7.81-15.62 Hz)band prior to and following motion events.A characteristic threshold was considered to be 40%.The accuracy of localization detection was 93%.The degree of accuracy was less than 5 mm.The present study avoided the problems of cerebral cortex injury and epilepsy onset,with an operation time of 60 seconds.Therefore,wavelet analysis on electrocorticogram is feasible for localizing cortical motor regions.Furthermore,this localization technique is accurate,safe and rapid.

  16. Language function and dysfunction among Chinese- and English-speaking polyglots: cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, R L; Tan, C T; Whitaker, H A

    1983-03-01

    Language functions in a group of Chinese- and English-speaking polyglots living in a multiracial society have been investigated by several methods: the effects of cortical stimulation on object-naming and reading tasks in patients who required awake craniotomy, lateralization of cerebral dominance for speech by the Wada Test, and the pattern of language loss and recovery following stroke. The data indicate that these polyglots were all left hemisphere dominant for the languages tested: no consistent evidence for increased participation by the right hemisphere for language functions was found. The cortical stimulation experiments provided data most compatible with the "differential localization" model of cerebral localization in bilingualism. The variable which most influenced performance in all of these investigations was which language was used primarily for speaking as well as reading and writing at the time of the study. PMID:6188513

  17. Maduración cerebral y desarrollo cognoscitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La maduración cerebral se correlaciona con muchos de los cambios cognoscitivos y de comportamiento observados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. En este artículo se revisa el concepto de maduración cerebral y su asociación con el desarrollo de la preferencia manual, del lenguaje verbal y de la función ejecutiva en el niño. Se describe el incremento de las arborizaciones dendríticas como el cambio cortical más importante asociado a la adquisición de funciones cognoscitivas complejas. Se asocia la maduración del hemisferio derecho con la conducta emocional y la maduración del hemisferio izquierdo con el lenguaje. La maduración de las áreas prefrontales se correlaciona con el desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas. Se presentan ejemplos específicos sobre la existencia de asimetría cerebral motriz desde el nacimiento y sobre la lateralización posterior de funciones visuales, auditivas y táctiles. Se analiza la participación cualitativamente diferente de los hemisferios cerebrales en los procesos cognoscitivos durante las distintas etapas del desarrollo del niño. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de las secuelas cognoscitivas secundarias a lesiones cerebrales tempranas como un método más para entender la ontogenia de la asimetría cerebral

  18. Maduración cerebral y desarrollo cognoscitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Roselli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La maduración cerebral se correlaciona con muchos de los cambios cognoscitivos y de comportamiento observados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. En este artículo se revisa el concepto de maduración cerebral y su asociación con el desarrollo de la preferencia manual, del lenguaje verbal y de la función ejecutiva en el niño. Se describe el incremento de las arborizaciones dendríticas como el cambio cortical más importante asociado a la adquisición de funciones cognoscitivas complejas. Se asocia la maduración del hemisferio derecho con la conducta emocional y la maduración del hemisferio izquierdo con el lenguaje. La maduración de las áreas prefrontales se correlaciona con el desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas. Se presentan ejemplos específicos sobre la existencia de asimetría cerebral motriz desde el nacimiento y sobre la lateralización posterior de funciones visuales, auditivas y táctiles. Se analiza la participación cualitativamente diferente de los hemisferios cerebrales en los procesos cognoscitivos durante las distintas etapas del desarrollo del niño. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de las secuelas cognoscitivas secundarias a lesiones cerebrales tempranas como un método más para entender la ontogenia de la asimetría cerebral.

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism were studied in three aged normal volunteers and 10 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) by Positron Emission Tomography using O-15. The diagnosis of MID was done according to the Loeb's modified ischemic score and X-ray CT findings. The MID patients, whose X-ray CT showed localized low density areas in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia and thalamus, were studied. No occulusion was observed at anterior cerebral artery and/or middle cerebral artery on cerebral angiography. All cases of MID were mild dementias. Regional CBF, rOEF and rCMRO2 were measured by the steady state technique described by Terry Jones et al. The values of rCBF in MID patients were significantly low compared with those of aged normal subjects in frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal cortices and thalamus. The values of CMRO2 in MID were significantly low in frontal, temporal, occipital cortices and thalamus compared with normal subjects'. The OEF was 0.46 in aged normal subjects, and 0.52 in MID patients. The MID patients in the early stage of dementia showed the increased oxygen extraction fraction, and this fact suggests that ischemia is a significant pathogenic mechanism in the production and progression of multi-infarct dementia. The decrease of CBF and CMRO2 in MID compared from normal subjects' were most remarkable in frontal cortex. The impairment of mental functions in MID should be caused by the decreased neuronal activities in frontal association cortex. (author)

  20. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  2. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  3. Effect of propofol pretreatment on apoptosis in rat brain cortex after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Xu; Chengwei Zhang; Chunxiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to observe cortical expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 activity and apoptotic cell death in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion pretreated with propofol. Results showed that, propofol pretreatment significantly reduced oxidative stress levels and attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the cortex of rats. Propofol pretreatment upregulated Bcl-2 expression, and downregulated Bax expression and cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 activity. These findings indicate that propofol pretreatment inhibits cell apoptosis during focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This neuroprotective effect is most likely achieved through the Bcl-2/Bax/cysteine-dependent aspartate directed proteases-3 pathway.

  4. k-fold coloring of planar graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A k-fold n-coloring of G is a mapping φ: V (G) → Zk(n) where Zk(n) is the collection of all ksubsets of {1,2,...,n} such that φ(u) ∩φ(v) = φ if uv ∈ E(G).If G has a k-fold n-coloring,i.e.,G is k-fold n-colorable.Let the smallest integer n such that G is k-fold n-colorable be the k-th chromatic number,denoted by χk(G).In this paper,we show that any outerplanar graph is k-fold 2k-colorable or k-fold χk(C*)-colorable,where C* is a shortest odd cycle of G.Moreover,we investigate that every planar graph with odd girth at least 10k-9(k 3) can be k-fold (2k + 1)-colorable.

  5. Unilateral Cortical Spreading Depression Affects Sleep Need and Induces Molecular and Electrophysiological Signs of Synaptic Potentiation In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Faraguna, Ugo; Nelson, Aaron; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an electrophysiological phenomenon first described by Leao in 1944 as a suppression of spontaneous electroencephalographic activity, traveling across the cerebral cortex. In vitro studies suggest that CSD may induce synaptic potentiation. One recent study also found that CSD is followed by a non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep duration increase, suggesting an increased need for sleep. Recent experiments in animals and humans show that the occurrence of s...

  6. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin; Hartings, Jed A.; Graf, Rudolf; Strong, Anthony John

    2010-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The implications of these findings are widespread and suggest that intrinsic br...

  7. High Connectivity Between Reduced Cortical Thickness and Disrupted White Matter Tracts in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Franc, Daniel T.; Kodl, Christopher T.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muetzel, Ryan L.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have observed disruptions in brain white and gray matter structure in individuals with type 1 diabetes, and these structural differences have been associated with neurocognitive testing deficiencies. This study investigated the relationship between cerebral cortical thickness reductions and white matter microstructural integrity loss in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes and in healthy control subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND ...

  8. The development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in cerebral vessels. A review with illustrations based upon own investigated post mortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, T A; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, T; Lewandowska, E; Stępień, T; Szpak, G M

    2013-12-01

    The process of β-amyloid accumulation in cerebral vessels is presented. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was confirmed during an autopsy. It was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can involve all kinds of cerebral vessels (cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, capillaries and veins). The development of CAA is a progressive process. β-amyloid appears first in the tunica media, surrounding smooth muscle cells, and in the adventitia. β-amyloid is progressively accumulated, causing a gradual loss of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall and finally replacing them. Then, the detachment and delamination of the outer part of the tunica media results in the "double barrel" appearance, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysm formation. Microbleeding with perivascular deposition of erythrocytes and blood breakdown products can also occur. β-amyloid can also be deposited in the surrounding of the affected vessels of the brain parenchyma, known as "dysphoric CAA". Ultrastructurally, when deposits of amyloid fibers were localized in or outside the arteriolar wall, the degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells were observed. In the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology the study was carried out in a group of 48 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhage caused by sporadic CAA. PMID:24375040

  9. Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shinichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masaki; Arita, Jiro; Sakamoto, Masafumi; Eda, Naruyuki; Ogawara, Yoshikazu [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Maekawa, Kihei

    1995-09-01

    Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.).

  10. Circadian regulation of human cortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Julien Q M; Gaggioni, Giulia; Chellappa, Sarah L; Papachilleos, Soterios; Brzozowski, Alexandre; Borsu, Chloé; Rosanova, Mario; Sarasso, Simone; Middleton, Benita; Luxen, André; Archer, Simon N; Phillips, Christophe; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Maquet, Pierre; Massimini, Marcello; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness alters cortical excitability, which is essential for proper brain function and cognition. However, besides prior wakefulness, brain function and cognition are also affected by circadian rhythmicity. Whether the regulation of cognition involves a circadian impact on cortical excitability is unknown. Here, we assessed cortical excitability from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in 22 participants during 29 h of wakefulness under constant conditions. Data reveal robust circadian dynamics of cortical excitability that are strongest in those individuals with highest endocrine markers of circadian amplitude. In addition, the time course of cortical excitability correlates with changes in EEG synchronization and cognitive performance. These results demonstrate that the crucial factor for cortical excitability, and basic brain function in general, is the balance between circadian rhythmicity and sleep need, rather than sleep homoeostasis alone. These findings have implications for clinical applications such as non-invasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation. PMID:27339884

  11. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  12. Computerized method for automated measurement of thickness of cerebral cortex for 3-D MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Koga, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2006-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the degeneration of cerebral cortex, which results in focal volume change or thinning in the cerebral cortex in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, the measurement of the cortical thickness is important for detection of the atrophy related to AD. Our purpose was to develop a computerized method for automated measurement of the cortical thickness for three-dimensional (3-D) MRI. The cortical thickness was measured with normal vectors from white matter surface to cortical gray matter surface on a voxel-by-voxel basis. First, a head region was segmented by use of an automatic thresholding technique, and then the head region was separated into the cranium region and brain region by means of a multiple gray level thresholding with monitoring the ratio of the first maximum volume to the second one. Next, a fine white matter region was determined based on a level set method as a seed region of the rough white matter region extracted from the brain region. Finally, the cortical thickness was measured by extending normal vectors from the white matter surface to gray matter surface (brain surface) on a voxel-by-voxel basis. We applied the computerized method to high-resolution 3-D T1-weighted images of the whole brains from 7 clinically diagnosed AD patients and 8 healthy subjects. The average cortical thicknesses in the upper slices for AD patients were thinner than those for non-AD subjects, whereas the average cortical thicknesses in the lower slices for most AD patients were slightly thinner. Our preliminary results suggest that the MRI-based computerized measurement of gray matter atrophy is promising for detecting AD.

  13. Functional photoacoustic micro-imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels after photo-induced brain stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lun-De; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Chin-Teng; Li, Meng-Lin

    2013-03-01

    Studying the functional hemodynamic roles of individual cerebral cortical arterioles in maintaining both the structure and function of cortical regions during and after brain stroke in small animals is an important issue. Recently, functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) has been proved as a reliable imaging technique to probe the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in single cerebral blood vessels of rats. Here, we report the application of fPAM associated with electrophysiology recordings to investigating functional hemodynamic changes in single cortical arterioles of rats with electrical forepaw stimulation after photo-induced ischemic stroke. Because of the weak optical focusing nature of our fPAM system, photo-induced ischemic stroke targeting single cortical arterioles can be easily conducted with simple adaptation. Functional HbT, CBV and SO2 changes associated with the induced stroke in selected arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were imaged with 36 x 65-μm spatial resolution. Experimental results showed that after photo-occlusion of a single arteriole, the functional changes of nearby arterioles in cerebral cortex only can be observed immediately after the stroke. After a few minutes of stroke onset, there are no significant functional changes under the forepaw stimulation, suggesting that alternate blood flow routes are not actively recruited. The fPAM with electrophysiology recordings complements existing imaging techniques and has the potential to offer a favorable tool for explicitly studying cerebral hemodynamics in small animal models of photo-indcued ischemic stroke.

  14. Decreased cortical inhibition and yet cerebellar pathology in 'familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Bour, Lo J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Brown, Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Rozemuller-Kwakkel, Johanna M.; Koehler, Peter J.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Rothwell, John C.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cortical hyperexcitability is a feature of "familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy" (FCMTE). However, neuropathological investigations in a single FCMTE patient showed isolated cerebellar pathology. Pathological investigations in a second FCMTE patient, reported here, confirmed cerebellar

  15. Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: wbzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-01-14

    RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.

  16. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  17. Remote changes in cortical excitability after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütefisch, Cathrin M; Netz, Johannes; Wessling, Marion; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Hömberg, Volker

    2003-02-01

    Changes in the cerebral metabolism and the excitability of brain areas remote from an ischaemic brain lesion have been reported in animals and humans and implicated as a mechanism relevant to functional recovery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in the inhibitory and excitatory activity in motor cortex of the non-affected hemisphere are present in stroke patients, and whether these changes are related to the extent of the patients' recovery of function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to study the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) of the non-affected hand in 13 patients with good recovery of hand function after stroke, and was compared with left hemispheric stimulation in 13 healthy age-matched volunteers. In the first experiment, paired-pulse TMS with the conditioning stimulus (CS) set at 80% of the subject's motor threshold (MT) and interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 2, 3, 10 and 15 ms was used. In the second experiment, different intensities of CS were used to study its inhibitory effect on a succeeding suprathreshold test stimulus at an ISI that was kept constant at 2 ms. In a third experiment, the rise in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes with increasing stimulus intensities was measured. In two additional control experiments, the effect of left versus right hemispheric stimulation in normal volunteers and good versus poor recovery of hand function in patients after stroke on the excitability of inhibitory and excitatory activity was studied. MT, mean test MEP and recruitment curves were similar in patients and healthy volunteers. In those patients with good recovery, paired-pulse excitability was increased at ISIs of 2 and 3 ms, similar to healthy volunteers at ISIs of 10 and 15 ms. When tested with different CS intensities at an ISI of 2 ms, inhibitory activity was similar in patients and healthy subjects at small CS intensities, but faded rapidly at higher CS intensities in patients. In contrast, in

  18. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  19. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  20. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  1. Visualizing stages of cortical atrophy in progressive MCI from the ADNI cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick;

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a condition where patients are at risk of developing clinically definite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an annual conversion rate of approximately 15%[1]. AD is characterized by progressive brain atrophy with major impact on the cerebral cortex...... and medial temporal lobe structures such as hippocampus. Understanding the structural pattern of cortical atrophy at different stages of MCI, before AD can be diagnosed, may help in patient monitoring and prognosis. We used data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to calculate...... and visualize the cortical atrophy at different stages in patients who eventually converted to clinically definite AD. We selected patients with a diagnosis of MCI from the ADNI database who converted to AD during the follow-up period. T1-weighted MRI scans were collected at time of conversion(n=140...

  2. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  3. [Design of a medical folding fridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianjun; Wei, Jiancang; Wu, Taihu; Meng, Xingju

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces a design of a medical folding fridge, which consists of three major components, base, folding frame and insulated cover. The base has a cooling system. The frame and cover are expanded during normal use and folded during storage or transportation. The device is compact, durable, transportable and well environmental adaptable. The system design is proved proper and the temperature inside is reliable. It is very suitable for temperature sensitive supplies stored in the medical emergency field. PMID:22097750

  4. Protein folding guides disulfide bond formation

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Thirumalai, D.

    2015-01-01

    Anfinsen inferred the principles of protein folding by studying a protein containing four disulfide bonds in the native state. However, how protein folding drives disulfide bond formation is poorly understood despite the role such proteins play in variety of extracellular and intracellular functions. We developed a method to mimic the complex chemistry of disulfide bond formation in molecular simulations, which is used to decipher the mechanism of folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibito...

  5. Altered low frequency oscillations of cortical vessels in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease – a NIRS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Iversen, Helle K; Schytz, Henrik W;

    2013-01-01

    patients with both symptomatic carotid occlusive disease and cerebral hypoperfusion in comparison to healthy controls. Each hemisphere was examined with two NIRS channels using a 3 cm source detector distance. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) was measured via a finger plethysmograph. Using transfer function......Analysis of cerebral autoregulation by measuring spontaneous oscillations in the low frequency spectrum of cerebral cortical vessels might be a useful tool for assessing risk and investigating different treatment strategies in carotid artery disease and stroke. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS...... analysis ABP-oxyHb phase shift and gain as well as inter-hemispheric phase shift and amplitude ratio were assessed. We found that inter-hemispheric amplitude ratio was significantly altered in hypoperfusion patients compared to healthy controls (P = 0.010), because of relatively lower amplitude...

  6. High-spatial-resolution mapping of the oxygen concentration in cortical tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Sakadžic, Sava

    2016-03-01

    Due to a lack of imaging tools for high-resolution imaging of cortical tissue oxygenation, the detailed maps of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) around arterioles, venules, and capillaries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that secure sufficient oxygen delivery in microvascular domains during brain activation, and provide some metabolic reserve capacity in diseases that affect either microvascular networks or the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this challenge, we applied a Two-Photon PO2 Microscopy to map PO2 at different depths in mice cortices. Measurements were performed through the cranial window in the anesthetized healthy mice as well as in the mouse models of microvascular dysfunctions. In addition, microvascular morphology was recorded by the two-photon microscopy at the end of each experiment and subsequently segmented. Co-registration of the PO2 measurements and exact microvascular morphology enabled quantification of the tissue PO2 dependence on distance from the arterioles, capillaries, and venules at various depths. Our measurements reveal significant spatial heterogeneity of the cortical tissue PO2 distribution that is dominated by the high oxygenation in periarteriolar spaces. In cases of impaired oxygen delivery due to microvascular dysfunction, significant reduction in tissue oxygenation away from the arterioles was observed. These tissue domains may be the initial sites of cortical injury that can further exacerbate the progression of the disease.

  7. Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma due to Rupture of a Tiny Cortical Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Ko, Jun Kyeung

    2015-12-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is rare, especially SDH associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is extremely rare. The authors report a case of acute spontaneous SDH due to rupture of a tiny cortical AVM. A 51-year-old male presented with sudden onset headache and mentality deterioration without a history of trauma. Brain CT revealed a large volume acute SDH compressing the right cerebral hemisphere with subfalcine and tentorial herniation. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed to remove the hematoma and during surgery a small (5 mm sized) conglomerated aciniform mass with two surrounding enlarged vessels was identified on the parietal cortex. After warm saline irrigation of the mass, active bleeding developed from a one of the vessel. The bleeding was stopped by coagulation and the vessels were removed. Histopathological examination confirmed the lesion as an AVM. We concluded that a small cortical AVM existed at this area, and that the cortical AVM had caused the acute SDH. Follow up conventional angiography confirmed the absence of remnant AVM or any other vascular abnormality. This report demonstrates rupture of a cortical AVM is worth considering when a patient presents with non-traumatic SDH without intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26819690

  8. Basal forebrain motivational salience signal enhances cortical processing and decision speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvina M Raver

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain (BF contains major projections to the cerebral cortex, and plays a well-documented role in arousal, attention, decision-making, and in modulating cortical activity. BF neuronal degeneration is an early event in Alzheimer’s disease and dementias, and occurs in normal cognitive aging. While the BF is best known for its population of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, the region is anatomically and neurochemically diverse, and also contains prominent populations of non-cholinergic projection neurons. In recent years, increasing attention has been dedicated to these non-cholinergic BF neurons in order to better understand how non-cholinergic BF circuits control cortical processing and behavioral performance. In this review, we focus on a unique population of putative non-cholinergic BF neurons that encodes the motivational salience of stimuli with a robust ensemble bursting response. We review recent studies that describe the specific physiological and functional characteristics of these BF salience-encoding neurons in behaving animals. These studies support the unifying hypothesis whereby BF salience-encoding neurons act as a gain modulation mechanism of the decision-making process to enhance cortical processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli, and thereby facilitate faster and more precise behavioral responses. This function of BF salience-encoding neurons represents a critical component in determining which incoming stimuli warrant an animal’s attention, and is therefore a fundamental and early requirement of behavioral flexibility.

  9. A comparison of RNA folding measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, E.; Gardner, P. P.; Moulton, V.

    2005-01-01

    the behaviour of these measures over a large range of Rfam ncRNA families. Such measures can be useful in, for example, identifying novel ncRNAs, and indicating the presence of alternate RNA foldings. Results Our analysis shows that ncRNAs, but not mRNAs, in general have lower minimal free energy (MFE) than...... random sequences with the same dinucleotide frequency. Moreover, even when the MFE is significant, many ncRNAs appear to not have a unique fold, but rather several alternative folds, at least when folded in silico. Furthermore, we find that the six investigated measures are correlated to varying degrees...

  10. COS Side 2 NUV MAMA Fold Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the COS MAMA Fold Analysis {13128} during Cycle 20.This proposal is an exact duplication of nominal COS MAMA Fold Analysis {proposal 13128, Cycle 20}. Any changes 13128 or subsequent cycle submissions should be reflected in this proposal and vice versa.

  11. Dependence of Internal Friction on Folding Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An outstanding challenge in protein folding is understanding the origin of “internal friction” in folding dynamics, experimentally identified from the dependence of folding rates on solvent viscosity. A possible origin suggested by simulation is the crossing of local torsion barriers. However, it was unclear why internal friction varied from protein to protein or for different folding barriers of the same protein. Using all-atom simulations with variable solvent viscosity, in conjunction with transition-path sampling to obtain reaction rates and analysis via Markov state models, we are able to determine the internal friction in the folding of several peptides and miniproteins. In agreement with experiment, we find that the folding events with greatest internal friction are those that mainly involve helix formation, while hairpin formation exhibits little or no evidence of friction. Via a careful analysis of folding transition paths, we show that internal friction arises when torsion angle changes are an important part of the folding mechanism near the folding free energy barrier. These results suggest an explanation for the variation of internal friction effects from protein to protein and across the energy landscape of the same protein. PMID:25721133

  12. The determination of projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Dino P.; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Chen, Bin; Alcamo, Elizabeth; McConnell, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    Here we review the mechanisms that determine projection neuron identity during cortical development. Pyramidal neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: corticocortical projection neurons, which are concentrated in the upper layers of the cortex, and subcortical projection neurons, which are found in the deep layers. Early progenitor cells in the ventricular zone produce deep layer neurons that express transcription factors including Sox5, Fezf2, and C...

  13. Somatostatin content and receptors in the cerebral cortex of depressed and control subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, B G; Leake, A; Wright, C.; Fairbairn, A F; McKeith, I G; Candy, J M; Ferrier, I. N.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity is reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid in depression and this is presumed to reflect alterations in cerebral somatostatinergic systems. We have examined this hypothesis by measuring this immunoreactivity and somatostatin receptors in post-mortem cortical tissue from depressed patients and control subjects. There was no significant difference in the temporal and occipital cortex in somatostatin-like immunoreactivity or in somatostatin receptor affinity and bin...

  14. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Granold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia. Most tissues showed relatively similar levels of protein oxidation. However, human cortex was affected by severe membrane protein oxidation, while exhibiting lower than average cytoplasmic protein oxidation. In contrast, ex vivo autooxidation of murine cortical tissue primarily induced aqueous protein oxidation, while in vivo biological aging or cerebral ischemia had no major effect on brain protein oxidation. The unusually high levels of membrane protein oxidation in the human cortex were also not predicted by lipid peroxidation, as the levels of isoprostane immunoreactivity in human samples were considerably lower than in rodent tissues. Our results indicate that the aged human cortex is under steady pressure from specific and potentially detrimental membrane protein oxidation. The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in translating into therapies the wealth of data describing successful antioxidant neuroprotection in rodents.

  15. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists. PMID:20183203

  16. Music and cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, M; Grassi, E; Latorraca, S; Caruso, A; Sorbi, S

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies performed by positron emission tomography and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) found a different cerebral activation during musical stimuli in musicians compared to non-musicians. The aim of our study is to evaluate by means of TCD, possible different pattern of cerebral activation during the performance of different musical tasks in musicians, non-musicians and lyrical singers. Our findings show a left hemispheric activation in musicians and a right one in non-musicians. Preliminary data on lyrical singers' activation patterns need further confirmation with a larger population. These data could be related to a different approach to music listening in musicians (analytical) and non-musicians who are supposed to have an emotional approach to music. PMID:10942664

  17. 21 CFR 882.1310 - Cortical electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cortical electrode. 882.1310 Section 882.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...) Identification. A cortical electrode is an electrode which is temporarily placed on the surface of the brain...

  18. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  19. The effects of propofol on cerebral perfusion MRI in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harreld, Julie H.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Sansgiri, Rakhee; Ji, Qing; Patay, Zoltan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaddoum, Roland N.; Parish, Mary Edna [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The effects of anesthesia are infrequently considered when interpreting pediatric perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objectives of this study were to test for measurable differences in MR measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) between non-sedated and propofol-sedated children, and to identify influential factors. Supratentorial cortical CBF and CBV measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 37 children (1.8-18 years) treated for infratentorial brain tumors receiving propofol (IV, n = 19) or no sedation (NS, n = 18) were compared between groups and correlated with age, hematocrit (Hct), end-tidal CO{sub 2} (ETCO{sub 2}), dose, weight, and history of radiation therapy (RT). The model most predictive of CBF and CBV was identified by multiple linear regression. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory CBF were significantly lower, and MCA territory CBV greater (p = 0.03), in IV than NS patients (p = 0.01, 0.04). The usual trend of decreasing CBF with age was reversed with propofol in ACA and MCA territories (r = 0.53, r = 0.47; p < 0.05). ACA and MCA CBF (r = 0.59, 0.49; p < 0.05) and CBV in ACA, MCA, and posterior cerebral artery territories (r = 0.73, 0.80, 0.52; p < 0.05) increased with weight in propofol-sedated children, with no significant additional influence from age, ETCO{sub 2}, hematocrit, or RT. In propofol-sedated children, usual age-related decreases in CBF were reversed, and increases in CBF and CBV were weight-dependent, not previously described. Weight-dependent increases in propofol clearance may diminish suppression of CBF and CBV. Prospective study is required to establish anesthetic-specific models of CBF and CBV in children. (orig.)

  20. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alterations contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Methods To investigate the relation of electrophysiological, metabolic and morphological changes caused by SE, we simultaneously assessed systemic circulation, regional cerebral blood flow and cortical electroencephalography in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, cerebral glucose uptake, astro- and microglial activation as well as changes of inflammatory gene transcription were examined by small animal PET using [18F]FDG, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Results While the systemic hemodynamic did not change significantly, regional cerebral blood flow was decreased in the cortex paralleled by a decrease of alpha activity of the electroencephalography. Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus. Sepsis enhanced the transcription of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta, and monocot chemoattractant protein 1 in the cerebrum. Regional analysis of different brain regions revealed an increase in ED1-positive microglia in the cortex, while total and neuronal cell counts decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus. Conclusion Together, the present study highlights the complexity of sepsis induced early impairment of neuronal metabolism and activity. Since our model uses techniques that determine parameters relevant to the clinical setting, it might be a useful tool to develop brain specific therapeutic strategies for human septic encephalopathy.

  1. In-vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao

    Functional optical imaging techniques, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy and laser speckle imaging (LSI), were used in research and clinical settings to measure cerebral hemodynamics. In this thesis, theoretical and experimental developments of the techniques and their in-vivo applications ranging from small animals to adult humans are demonstrated. Near infrared diffuse optical techniques non-invasively measure hemoglobin concentrations, blood oxygen saturation (diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, DRS) and blood flow (diffuse correlation spectroscopy, DCS) in deep tissues, e.g. brain. A noise model was derived for DCS measurements. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with DCS was validated with arterial-spin-labeling MRI. Three-dimensional CBF tomography was obtained during cortical spreading depression from a rat using the optimized diffuse correlation tomographic method. Cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets after traumatic brain injury were continuously monitored optically for six hours to demonstrate the feasibility of using diffuse optical techniques as bedside patient monitors. Cerebral autoregulation in piglets and human stroke patients was demonstrated to be non-invasively assessable via the continuous DCS measurement. Significant differences of CBF responses to head-of-bead maneuvers were observed between the peri- and contra-infarct hemispheres in human stroke patients. A significant portion of patient population showed paradoxical CBF responses, indicating the importance of individualized stroke management. The development of a speckle noise model revealed the source of noise for LSI. LSI was then applied to study the acute functional recovery of the rat brain following transient brain ischemia. The spatial and temporal cerebral blood flow responses to functional stimulation were statistically quantified. The area of activation, and the temporal response to stimulation were found significantly altered by the ischemic insult, while the

  2. New Molecular Knowledge Towards the Trigemino-Cardiac Reflex as a Cerebral Oxygen-Conserving Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sandu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR represents the most powerful of the autonomous reflexes and is a subphenomenon in the group of the so-called “oxygen-conserving reflexes”. Within seconds after the initiation of such a reflex, there is a powerful and differentiated activation of the sympathetic system with subsequent elevation in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF, with no changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 or in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc. Such an increase in regional CBF without a change of CMRO2 or CMRglc provides the brain with oxygen rapidly and efficiently. Features of the reflex have been discovered during skull base surgery, mediating reflex protection projects via currently undefined pathways from the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata to the upper brainstem and/or thalamus, which finally engage a small population of neurons in the cortex. This cortical center appears to be dedicated to transduce a neuronal signal reflexively into cerebral vasodilatation and synchronization of electrocortical activity; a fact that seems to be unique among autonomous reflexes. Sympathetic excitation is mediated by cortical-spinal projection to spinal preganglionic sympathetic neurons, whereas bradycardia is mediated via projections to cardiovagal motor medullary neurons. The integrated reflex response serves to redistribute blood from viscera to the brain in response to a challenge to cerebral metabolism, but seems also to initiate a preconditioning mechanism. Previous studies showed a great variability in the human TCR response, in special to external stimuli and individual factors. The TCR gives, therefore, not only new insights into novel therapeutic options for a range of disorders characterized by neuronal death, but also into the cortical and molecular organization of the brain.

  3. The spinothalamic system targets motor and sensory areas in the cerebral cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2009-11-11

    Classically, the spinothalamic (ST) system has been viewed as the major pathway for transmitting nociceptive and thermoceptive information to the cerebral cortex. There is a long-standing controversy about the cortical targets of this system. We used anterograde transneuronal transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the Cebus monkey to label the cortical areas that receive ST input. We found that the ST system reaches multiple cortical areas located in the contralateral hemisphere. The major targets are granular insular cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex and several cortical areas in the cingulate sulcus. It is noteworthy that comparable cortical regions in humans consistently display activation when subjects are acutely exposed to painful stimuli. We next combined anterograde transneuronal transport of virus with injections of a conventional tracer into the ventral premotor area (PMv). We used the PMv injection to identify the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. This combined approach demonstrated that each of the cingulate motor areas receives ST input. Our meta-analysis of imaging studies indicates that the human equivalents of the three cingulate motor areas also correspond to sites of pain-related activation. The cingulate motor areas in the monkey project directly to the primary motor cortex and to the spinal cord. Thus, the substrate exists for the ST system to have an important influence on the cortical control of movement. PMID:19906970

  4. Dysphagia in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Salghetti, Annamaria; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Feeding problemsare often present in children with neuromotor impairment: dysphagia is usuallyseen in the most severe form of cerebral palsy and it’s defined as thedifficulty with any of the four phases of swallowing. Clinical consequences aremalnutrition and recurrent chest infections that reduce expected duration andquality of life. In order to prevent these consequences it’s important todetect with clinical and instrumental examinations dysphagia symptoms and totreat them. Clinic...

  5. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan B; Nance E; Johnston MV; Kannan R; Kannan S

    2013-01-01

    Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the...

  6. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  8. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures

  9. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  10. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  11. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  12. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2016-08-30

    Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of "psychosomatic" disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671

  13. From sauropsids to mammals and back: New approaches to comparative cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Juan F; Vasistha, Navneet A; Garcia-Moreno, Fernando; Molnár, Zoltán

    2016-02-15

    Evolution of the mammalian neocortex (isocortex) has been a persisting problem in neurobiology. While recent studies have attempted to understand the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex from rodents, similar approaches have been used to study the changes between reptiles, birds, and mammals. We review here findings from the past decades on the development, organization, and gene expression patterns in various extant species. This review aims to compare cortical cell numbers and neuronal cell types to the elaboration of progenitor populations and their proliferation in these species. Several progenitors, such as the ventricular radial glia, the subventricular intermediate progenitors, and the subventricular (outer) radial glia, have been identified but the contribution of each to cortical layers and cell types through specific lineages, their possible roles in determining brain size or cortical folding, are not yet understood. Across species, larger, more diverse progenitors relate to cortical size and cell diversity. The challenge is to relate the radial and tangential expansion of the neocortex to the changes in the proliferative compartments during mammalian evolution and with the changes in gene expression and lineages evident in various sectors of the developing brain. We also review the use of recent lineage tracing and transcriptomic approaches to revisit theories and to provide novel understanding of molecular processes involved in specification of cortical regions.

  14. [Insomnia and cerebral hypoperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára

    2007-11-18

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century. PMID:17988972

  15. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  16. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  17. Cortical cartography and Caret software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, David C

    2012-08-15

    Caret software is widely used for analyzing and visualizing many types of fMRI data, often in conjunction with experimental data from other modalities. This article places Caret's development in a historical context that spans three decades of brain mapping--from the early days of manually generated flat maps to the nascent field of human connectomics. It also highlights some of Caret's distinctive capabilities. This includes the ease of visualizing data on surfaces and/or volumes and on atlases as well as individual subjects. Caret can display many types of experimental data using various combinations of overlays (e.g., fMRI activation maps, cortical parcellations, areal boundaries), and it has other features that facilitate the analysis and visualization of complex neuroimaging datasets.

  18. A comparison of RNA folding measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Paul P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few decades there has been a great deal of discussion concerning whether or not noncoding RNA sequences (ncRNAs fold in a more well-defined manner than random sequences. In this paper, we investigate several existing measures for how well an RNA sequence folds, and compare the behaviour of these measures over a large range of Rfam ncRNA families. Such measures can be useful in, for example, identifying novel ncRNAs, and indicating the presence of alternate RNA foldings. Results Our analysis shows that ncRNAs, but not mRNAs, in general have lower minimal free energy (MFE than random sequences with the same dinucleotide frequency. Moreover, even when the MFE is significant, many ncRNAs appear to not have a unique fold, but rather several alternative folds, at least when folded in silico. Furthermore, we find that the six investigated measures are correlated to varying degrees. Conclusion Due to the correlations between the different measures we find that it is sufficient to use only two of them in RNA folding studies, one to test if the sequence in question has lower energy than a random sequence with the same dinucleotide frequency (the Z-score and the other to see if the sequence has a unique fold (the average base-pair distance, D.

  19. Cerebral Autoregulation in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Griffioen, Annemiek C.; Zeeman, Gerda; Belfort, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that preeclampsia is associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (determined by noninvasive arter

  20. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  1. Microglia and macrophages are major sources of locally produced transforming growth factor-beta1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Kiefer, R; Christensen, Thomas;

    1998-01-01

    of their middle cerebral artery. Six hours after ischemia, an early and transient neuronal and microglial expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA was observed in the extraischemic cingulate and frontal cortices. Both early and protracted expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA in the caudate-putamen and neocortical infarcts...... source of TGF-beta1 mRNA following experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Consequently, TGF-beta1-mediated functions may be exerted by microglia both in the early degenerative phase, and later in combination with blood-borne macrophages, in the remodeling and healing phase after focal cerebral ischemia....

  2. A case of pathology-proven neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with Sjögren syndrome manifesting aphasia and apraxia due to a localized cerebral white matter lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Jun; Orimoto, Ryosuke; Misu, Tatsuro; Katayama, Takayuki; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Anei, Ryogo; Kamada, Kyousuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    A woman with Sjögren syndrome manifesting as aphasia with a left deep cerebral white matter lesion tested positive for anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody. Open biopsy of the lesion revealed active demyelination with edematous changes and the preservation of most axons, indicating a non-necrotic demyelinating lesion. Immunostaining for AQP4 was diffusely lost, whereas the loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining was limited but with highly degenerated astrocytic foot processes in perivascular areas. These results suggested neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) pathology rather than Sjögren-related vasculitis. Only cerebral cortical symptoms with a cerebral white matter lesion could be observed in NMOSDs.

  3. The geometry and wetting of capillary folding

    CERN Document Server

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Capillary forces are involved in a variety of natural phenomena, ranging from droplet breakup to the physics of clouds. The forces from surface tension can also be exploited in industrial application provided the length scales involved are small enough. Recent experimental investigations showed how to take advantage of capillarity to fold planar structures into three-dimensional configurations by selectively melting polymeric hinges joining otherwise rigid shapes. In this paper we use theoretical calculations to quantify the role of geometry and fluid wetting on the final folded state. Considering folding in two and three dimensions, studying both hydrophilic and hydrophobic situations with possible contact angle hysteresis, and addressing the shapes to be folded to be successively infinite, finite, curved, kinked, elastic, we are able to derive an overview of the geometrical parameter space available for capillary folding.

  4. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A. (JHU); (Maryland)

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  5. The robustness and innovability of protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-01

    Assignment of protein folds to functions indicates that >60% of folds carry out one or two enzymatic functions, while few folds, for example, the TIM-barrel and Rossmann folds, exhibit hundreds. Are there structural features that make a fold amenable to functional innovation (innovability)? Do these features relate to robustness--the ability to readily accumulate sequence changes? We discuss several hypotheses regarding the relationship between the architecture of a protein and its evolutionary potential. We describe how, in a seemingly paradoxical manner, opposite properties, such as high stability and rigidity versus conformational plasticity and structural order versus disorder, promote robustness and/or innovability. We hypothesize that polarity--differentiation and low connectivity between a protein's scaffold and its active-site--is a key prerequisite for innovability.

  6. Protein Folding in Nano-Sized Cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Xin; WANG Jun; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ The folding of a model protein confined in a nano-sized cylinder is studied by the off-lattice G-olike model. The entropy and anisotropy effects of confinement on thermodynamics and dynamics for folding are investigated. Our results show that due to reduction of the search on conformations, the folding rate can be sped up and the thermodynamic stability is enhanced at the cost of the decrease of folding cooperativity. In addition, it is found that these are shape-dependent. Folding is optimized in a cylinder with an appropriate shape when the volume is fixed. This is probably related to the shape of the protein molecule. Furthermore, our results also suggest that there is an orientational transition for the protein molecule following the variation of the radius of cylinder.

  7. Reduced Numbers of Somatostatin Receptors in the Cerebral Cortex in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint Beal, M.; Mazurek, Michael F.; Tran, Vinh T.; Chattha, Geetinder; Bird, Edward D.; Martin, Joseph B.

    1985-07-01

    Somatostatin receptor concentrations were measured in patients with Alzheimer's disease and controls. In the frontal cortex (Brodmann areas 6, 9, and 10) and temporal cortex (Brodmann area 21), the concentrations of somatostatin in receptors in the patients were reduced to approximately 50 percent of control values. A 40 percent reduction was seen in the hippocampus, while no significant changes were found in the cingulate cortex, postcentral gyrus, temporal pole, and superior temporal gyrus. Scatchard analysis showed a reduction in receptor number rather than a change in affinity. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the frontal and temporal cortex. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was linearly related to somatostatin-receptor binding in the cortices of Alzheimer's patients. These findings may reflect degeneration of postsynaptic neurons or cortical afferents in the patients' cerebral cortices. Alternatively, decreased somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease might indicate increased release of somatostatin and down regulation of postsynaptic receptors.

  8. Manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the caudal region in Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C D; Reep, R L

    1995-01-01

    In several brains of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, the architecture of caudal regions of cerebral cortex was examined in order to complete a map of cortical areas in the brain of this unique herbivore. Through observation of sections stained for Nissl substance, myelinated axons, acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase, we have identified 11 new cortical areas based on qualitative cytoarchitectural appearance and measurements of laminar thicknesses, for a total of 24 such cortical areas in manatee cerebral cortex. Some areas exhibit poorly differentiated laminae while in others there are 6 clearly demarcated layers, often with sublaminar organization. Some previously identified areas were found to extend into the region caudal to the vertically oriented lateral fissure. As in other mammalian brains, cortical areas in manatees are organized in concentric rings of allocortex, mesocortex, and isocortex. Putative functional roles have been assigned to most of the identified areas based on location, architecture, behavioral and anatomical considerations, and extrapolation from other taxa in which functional mapping has been done. PMID:7866767

  9. Cerebral and blood correlates of reduced functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Solis, David; Cantero, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that decreased functional connectivity in cortical networks precedes clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although our knowledge about cerebral and biological correlates of this phenomenon is limited. To shed light on this issue, we have investigated whether resting-state oscillatory connectivity patterns in healthy older (HO) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects are related to anatomical grey matter (GM) and functional (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET) changes of neuroelectric sources of alpha rhythms, and/or to changes in plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) and serum lipid levels, blood markers tied to AD pathogenesis and aging-related cognitive decline. We found that aMCI subjects showed decreased levels of cortical connectivity, reduced FDG-PET intake of the precuneus, and GM atrophy of the thalamus, together with higher levels of Aβ and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) compared to HO. Interestingly, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were positively correlated with the strength of neural-phase coupling in aMCI subjects, and increased triglycerides accompanied bilateral GM loss in the precuneus of aMCI subjects. Together, these findings provide peripheral blood correlates of reduced resting-state cortical connectivity in aMCI, supported by anatomo-functional changes in cerebral sources of alpha rhythms. This framework constitutes an integrated approach to assess functional changes in cortical networks through neuroimaging and peripheral blood markers during early stages of neurodegeneration.

  10. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachia, A; Borst, G; Tissier, C; Fisher, C; Plaze, M; Gay, O; Rivière, D; Gogtay, N; Giedd, J; Mangin, J-F; Houdé, O; Raznahan, A

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events - under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show - without exception-that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life. PMID:26974743

  11. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cachia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events – under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC – an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show – without exception–that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life.

  12. Treating cerebral palsy with aculaser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Dar, Irfan

    2008-03-01

    A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness and speech disorders. In all 250 childern were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 3 years from December 2003 till December 2006. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for minimum 6 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 171 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 147 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 126 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 91 children showing 72% success rate, out of 48 children with Cortical Blindness 30 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 105 children with Hearing Difficulties, 63 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 190 children with Speech Disorders 122 showed improvement reflecting 64% improvement rate, out of 96 children with Hemiplegia 71 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 76 children with Quadriplegia 52 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 58 children with Paraplegia of

  13. Effect of the antibody of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the rat with ischemic injury from obstruction of middle cerebral artery%脑源性神经营养因子抗体对大脑中动脉阻塞大鼠缺血损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英辉; 王根发; 陈兴华; 姚革; 陈伟; 周永炜

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To observe the effect of the antibody of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) by cortical microinjection on hippocampal ischemic injury rats.METHODS:Preparation of local cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury model: cortical stereostaxic approach, microinjection of BDNF antibody. Applied immunohistochemical method to observe distribution of BDNF in cortex after injection of the antibody,to observe the alteration of ischemic injury between control group and BDNF antibody group.RESULT: The volume of cerebral infarction in BDNF antibody group was larger than control group.CONCLUSION: BDNF has protection function for cerebral ischemia.

  14. Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Joseph O; Mouzon, Benoit; Algamal, Moustafa; Leary, Paige; Lynch, Cillian; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Mullan, Michael; Bachmeier, Corbin; Stewart, William; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is characterized by patchy deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and astrocytes at the depths of cortical sulci. We developed an mTBI paradigm to explore effects of repetitive concussive-type injury over several months in mice with a human tau genetic background (hTau). Two injuries were induced in the hTau mice weekly over a period of 3 or 4 months and the effects were compared with those in noninjured sham animals. Behavioral and in vivo measures and detailed neuropathological assessments were conducted 6 months after the first injury. Our data confirm impairment in cerebral blood flow and white matter damage. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in total tau levels and mild increases in tau oligomers/conformers and pTau (Thr231) species in brain gray matter. There was no evidence of neurofibrillary/astroglial tangles, neuropil threads, or perivascular foci of tau immunoreactivity. There were neurobehavioral deficits (ie, disinhibition and impaired cognitive performance) in the mTBI animals. These data support the relevance of this new mTBI injury model for studying the consequences of chronic repetitive mTBI in humans, and the role of tau in TBI. PMID:27251042

  15. The effects of healthy aging on cerebral hemodynamic responses to posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension, impairment of the baroreceptor reflex and lower baseline cerebral blood flow. The effect of aging on cerebrovascular autoregulation, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We used a novel optical instrument to assess microvascular cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe cortex of 60 healthy subjects ranging from ages 20–78. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), total hemoglobin concentration (THC), oxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb). Cerebral hemodynamics were monitored for 5 min at each of the following postures: head-of-bed 30°, supine, standing and supine. Supine-to-standing posture change caused significant declines in rCBF, THC and HbO2, and an increase in Hb, across the age continuum (p < 0.01). Healthy aging did not alter postural changes in frontal cortical rCBF (p = 0.23) and was associated with a smaller magnitude of decline in HbO2 (p < 0.05) during supine-to-standing posture change. We conclude that healthy aging does not alter postural changes in frontal cortical perfusion

  16. Cerebral circulation, metabolism, and blood-brain barrier of rats in hypocapnic hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Krieglstein, J.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of hypoxic hypoxia on physiological variables, cerebral circulation, cerebral metabolism, and blood-brain barrier were investigated in conscious, spontaneously breathing rats by exposing them to an atmosphere containing 7% O/sub 2/. Hypoxia affected a marked hypotension, hypocapnia and alkalosis. Cortical tissue high-energy phosphates and glucose content were not affected by hypoxia, glucose 6-phosphate lactate, and pyruvate levels were significantly increased. Blood-brain barrier permeability, regional brain glucose content and lumped constant were not changed by hypoxia. Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rose by 40-70% of control values in gray matter and by 80-90% in white matter. Under hypoxia, columns of increased and decreased LCGU and were detectable in cortical gray matter. Color-coded (/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiograms of rat brain are shown. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) increased by 50-90% in gray matter and by up to 180% in white matter. Coupling between LCGU and LCBF in hypoxia remained unchanged. The data suggests a stimulation of glycolysis, increased glucose transport into the cell, and increased hexokinase activity. The physiological response of gray and white matter to hypoxia obviously differs. Uncoupling of the relation between LCGU and LCBF does not occur.

  17. I-123 hydroxyiodobenzyl propanediamine (HIPDM) cerebral blood flow imaging demonstrating transtentorial diaschisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Dekosky, S.T.; Coupal, J.J.; Simmons, G.; Pulmano, C.; Kung, H.F.; Ryo, U.Y.; Clark, D.B. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Lexington, KY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    To assess the clinical significance of transtentorial diaschisis (TTD) as demonstrated by I-123 HIPDM brain imaging, SPECT and/or planar images of 35 patients with stroke, 26 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 2 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and 1 patient with a schizoaffective disorder were analyzed. TTD was observed in 21 of the 35 patients with strokes. In 13 stroke patients, TTD was associated with large infarcts in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory; in the remaining 8 stroke patients, TTD was associated with internal capsule and/or basal ganglia infarcts. TTD was not associated with small occipital or parietal infarcts. Despite cortical perfusion decrements, TTD was not seen in the AD patients, the CJD patients, or the patient with schizoaffective disorder. It is concluded that (1) TTD frequently occurs following cerebral infarct of the MCA territory (60% of the patients in this sample); (2) absence of TTD in the presence of a large cerebral perfusion abnormality may represent neuronal dysfunction of the cerebral cortex; and (3) the presence of TTD without a significant cortical perfusion abnormality may indicate basal ganglia and/or internal capsule infarct.

  18. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Amin, Faisal Mohammad;

    2015-01-01

    hemispheric specialization. However, the possible lateralization of cerebral responses to a simple checkerboard visual stimulation has not been a focus of previous studies. To investigate this, we performed two sessions of blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......MRI) in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume......, handedness, age, gender, ocular dominance, interocular difference in visual acuity, as well as line-bisection performance. We found a general lateralization of cerebral activation towards the right hemisphere of early visual cortical areas and areas of higher-level visual processing, involved in visuospatial...

  19. Actualities on molecular pathogenesis and repairing processes of cerebral damage in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praticò Andrea D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is the most important cause of cerebral damage and long-term neurological sequelae in the perinatal period both in term and preterm infant. Hypoxic-ischemic (H-I injuries develop in two phases: the ischemic phase, dominated by necrotic processes, and the reperfusion phase, dominated by apoptotic processes extending beyond ischemic areas. Due to selective ischemic vulnerability, cerebral damage affects gray matter in term newborns and white matter in preterm newborns with the typical neuropathological aspects of laminar cortical necrosis in the former and periventricular leukomalacia in the latter. This article summarises the principal physiopathological and biochemical processes leading to necrosis and/or apoptosis of neuronal and glial cells and reports recent insights into some endogenous and exogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms aimed at repairing H-I cerebral damage.

  20. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  1. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author)

  2. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  3. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Najas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome.

  4. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najas, Sònia; Arranz, Juan; Lochhead, Pamela A; Ashford, Anne L; Oxley, David; Delabar, Jean M; Cook, Simon J; Barallobre, María José; Arbonés, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia) cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome. PMID:26137553

  5. Quantification of a Helical Origami Fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Eric; Han, Xiaomin; Chen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, is traditionally viewed as an amusing pastime and medium of artistic expression. However, in recent years, origami has served as a source of inspiration for innovations in science and engineering. Here, we present the geometric and mechanical properties of a twisting origami fold. The origami structure created by the fold exhibits several interesting properties, including rigid foldibility, local bistability and finely tunable helical coiling, with control over pitch, radius and handedness of the helix. In addition, the pattern generated by the fold closely mimics the twist buckling patterns shown by thin materials, for example, a mobius strip. We use six parameters of the twisting origami pattern to generate a fully tunable graphical model of the fold. Finally, we present a mathematical model of the local bistability of the twisting origami fold. Our study elucidates the mechanisms behind the helical coiling and local bistability of the twisting origami fold, with potential applications in robotics and deployable structures. Acknowledgment to Branco Weiss Fellowship for funding.

  6. Effects of Folding on Metalloprotein Active Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jay R.; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Leckner, Johan; Malmstrom, Bo G.; Gray, Harry B.

    1997-04-01

    Experimental data for the unfolding of cytochrome c and azurin by guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) are used to construct free-energy diagrams for the folding of the oxidized and reduced proteins. With cytochrome c, the driving force for folding the reduced protein is larger than that for the oxidized form. Both the oxidized and the reduced folded forms of yeast cytochrome c are less stable than the corresponding states of the horse protein. Due to the covalent attachment of the heme and its fixed tetragonal coordination geometry, cytochrome c folding can be described by a two-state model. A thermodynamic cycle leads to an expression for the difference in self-exchange reorganization energies for the folded and unfolded proteins. The reorganization energy for electron exchange in the folded protein is approximately 0.5 eV smaller than that for a heme in aqueous solution. The finding that reduced azurin unfolds at lower GuHCl concentrations than the oxidized protein suggests that the coordination structure of copper is different in oxidized and reduced unfolded states: it is likely that the geometry of CuI in the unfolded protein is linear or trigonal, whereas CuII prefers to be tetragonal. The evidence indicates that protein folding lowers the azurin reorganization energy by roughly 1.7 eV relative to an aqueous Cu(1,10-phenanthroline)2{}2+/+ reference system.

  7. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-shu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  8. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-shu Xu; Xuan Sun; Cheng-guang Song; Xiao-peng Mu; Wen-ping Ma; Xing-hu Zhang; Chuan-sheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumeta-nide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These ifndings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia.

  9. Encoding Cortical Dynamics in Sparse Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz eKhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed cortical solutions of magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG exhibit complex spatial and temporal dynamics. The extraction of patterns of interest and dynamic features from these cortical signals has so far relied on the expertise of investigators. There is a definite need in both clinical and neuroscience research for a method that will extract critical features from high-dimensional neuroimaging data in an automatic fashion. We have previously demonstrated the use of optical flow techniques for evaluating the kinematic properties of motion field projected on non-flat manifolds like in a cortical surface. We have further extended this framework to automatically detect features in the optical flow vector field by using the modified and extended 2-Riemannian Helmholtz Hodge Decomposition (HHD. Here, we applied these mathematical models on simulation and MEG data recorded from a healthy individual during a somatosensory experiment and an epilepsy pediatric patient during sleep. We tested whether our technique can automatically extract salient dynamical features of cortical activity. Simulation results indicated that we can precisely reproduce the simulated cortical dynamics with HHD; encode them in sparse features and represent the propagation of brain activity between distinct cortical areas. Using HHD, we decoded the somatosensory N20 component into two HHD features and represented the dynamics of brain activity as a traveling source between two primary somatosensory regions. In the epilepsy patient, we displayed the propagation of the epileptiform activity around the margins of a brain lesion. Our findings indicate that HHD measures computed from cortical dynamics can: (i quantitatively access the cortical dynamics in both healthy and disease brain in terms of sparse features and dynamic brain activity propagation between distinct cortical areas, and (ii facilitate a reproducible, automated analysis of MEG

  10. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  11. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque. PMID:25246511

  12. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  13. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H;

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon di...

  14. Absence of beta-amyloid in cortical cataracts of donors with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M

    2013-01-01

    Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta

  15. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  16. Fenómenos de despolarización cortical propagada en los pacientes con lesiones cerebrales traumáticas e isquémicas. Resultados de un estudio piloto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueiras, M; Sahuquillo, J; García-López, B;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and duration of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and CSD-like episodes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) requiring craniotomy. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study was carried ou...

  17. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 300-350 g, were orally given the extract once daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 2 weeks, then, they were permanently occluded the right Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO. The animals were assessed the cerebral infarction volume and oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPx enzymes at 24 h after occlusion. Results: Rats subjected to M.oleifera extract at all doses used in this study significantly decreased brain infarct volume both at cortical and subcortical structures in accompany with the elevation of SOD activity in both hippocampus and striatum while only the rats exposed to the extract at doses of 100 and 400 mg kg-1 BW showed the increased GSHPx activity in hippocampus. No the changes were observed. Therefore, our results demonstrates the potential benefit of M.oleifera leaves to decrease oxidative stress damage and brain infarct volume. Conclusion: This study is the first study to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemia of M.oleifera leaves. It suggests that M.oleifera may be served as natural resource for developing neuroprotectant against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the precise underlying mechanism and possible active ingredient are still required further study.

  18. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  19. Cerebral Hemorrhage and APOE genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun xiaojiang; Wu ping; Zhang jing; Lu shanqing; Li bing

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Current evidence Suggests that the apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε 4 allele predisposes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) whereas ε 2 is associated with CAA-zelated hemorrhage. In this study we examined potential clinical risk factors inpatients with cerebral hemorrhage and assessed these with respect to APOE genotype. Methoeds: 146 patinas with cerebral hemorrhage and 70 normal controls were investigated. APOE genotypes were determined with use of polymerase Chain reaction techniques.Results: The frequency of allele gene ( 0.180 ) and the percentage of the APOE ε 4 genotype in the cerebral hemorrhage group were Significantly higher as compared with the e 4 prequency ( O.O72 ) in the control group respectively ( p=O.O389 ) .Conelusious: APOE ε 4 :allele is a risk gene for cerebral hemorrhage.

  20. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  1. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  2. Design Procedure for Compact Folded Waveguide Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy;

    Waveguide filters are widely used in communication systems due to low losses and high power handling capabilities. One drawback of the conventional waveguide filters is their large size, especially for low-frequency and high-order realizations. It has been shown that the footprint of conventional...... waveguide resonators can be reduced to one quarter by folding the electric and magnetic fields inside the cavity (J. S. Hong, Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004, Vol. 1, pp. 213-216). This paper presents a novel systematic procedure for designing compact low-loss bandpass filters by using folded waveguide...... resonators. As a design example, a scaled version of a filter specified for a TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) system has been considered. The folded waveguide filter is designed to fulfil specific requirements, and the design procedure can be easily applied to other folded waveguide filter designs...

  3. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  4. Moments of the folded logistic distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Samuel Kotz

    2007-01-01

    The recent paper by Cooray et al. introduced the folded logistic distribution. The moments properties given in the paper appear too complicated. In this note, a simple formula is derived in terms of the well known Lerch function.

  5. Folds--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  6. Folds--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California....

  7. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Folds--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  10. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding proceeds through a a slipknot conformation. We elucidate the mechanics and energetics of its formation. We show that the knotting probability in on-ribosome folding is a function of temperature and that there is an optimal temperature for the process. Our model often leads to the establishment of the native contacts without formation of the knot. (paper)

  11. Inverse Folding of RNA Pseudoknot Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, James Z M; Reidys, Christian M

    2010-01-01

    Background: RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and \\pairGU-base pairings (secondary structure) and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, {\\tt RNAinverse}, {\\tt RNA-SSD} as well as {\\tt INFO-RNA} are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv} which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results: In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm {\\tt Inv}. We give a detailed analysis of {\\tt Inv}, including pseudocodes. We show that {\\tt Inv} allows to...

  12. Folds--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Folds--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  14. PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Yong Yao; Zhi-hai Liu; Zhi-gang Lian; Yu-jie Zou; Yu-kui Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Models of cerebral infarction in rats were made and the time-course expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Musashil, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU and Musashil were used to mark dividing neural stem cells. GFAP and NeuN were used to mark differentiating neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-labeled and BrdU-labeled with Musashil-positive cells increased strikingly 1 day after cerebral infarction; approximately 6 fold with a peak 7 days later; markedly decreased 14 days later, but was still elevated compared with that of controls; decling to the control level 28 days later. The number of BrdU-labeled with GFAP-positive cells nearly remained unchanged in the hippocampus after cerebral infarction. The number of BrdU-labeled with NeuN-positive cells increased strikingly 14 days after cerebral infarction, reached maximum peak in the hippocampus 28 days after cerebral infarction in rats.Conclusion Cerebral infarction stimulate proliferation of inherent neural stem cells and most proliferated neural stem cells differentiate into neurons.

  15. Changes in cortical microvasculature during misery perfusion measured by two-photon laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yosuke; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Seki, Chie; Masamoto, Kazuto; Ikoma, Yoko; Taniguchi, Junko; Aoki, Ichio; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kanno, Iwao; Saeki, Naokatsu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the cortical microvessel diameter response to hypercapnia in misery perfusion using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). We evaluated whether the vascular response to hypercapnia could represent the cerebrovascular reserve. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normocapnia and hypercapnia was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry through cranial windows in awake C57/BL6 mice before and at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO). Diameters of the cortical microvessels during normocapnia and hypercapnia were also measured by TPLSM. Cerebral blood flow and the vascular response to hypercapnia were decreased after UCCAO. Before UCCAO, vasodilation during hypercapnia was found primarily in arterioles (22.9%±3.5%). At 14 days after UCCAO, arterioles, capillaries, and venules were autoregulatorily dilated by 79.5%±19.7%, 57.2%±32.3%, and 32.0%±10.8%, respectively. At the same time, the diameter response to hypercapnia in arterioles was significantly decreased to 1.9%±1.5%. A significant negative correlation was observed between autoregulatory vasodilation and the diameter response to hypercapnia in arterioles. Our findings indicate that arterioles play main roles in both autoregulatory vasodilation and hypercapnic vasodilation, and that the vascular response to hypercapnia can be used to estimate the cerebrovascular reserve.

  16. Automatic parcellation of human cortical gyri and sulci using standard anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Christophe; Fischl, Bruce; Dale, Anders; Halgren, Eric

    2010-10-15

    Precise localization of sulco-gyral structures of the human cerebral cortex is important for the interpretation of morpho-functional data, but requires anatomical expertise and is time consuming because of the brain's geometric complexity. Software developed to automatically identify sulco-gyral structures has improved substantially as a result of techniques providing topologically correct reconstructions permitting inflated views of the human brain. Here we describe a complete parcellation of the cortical surface using standard internationally accepted nomenclature and criteria. This parcellation is available in the FreeSurfer package. First, a computer-assisted hand parcellation classified each vertex as sulcal or gyral, and these were then subparcellated into 74 labels per hemisphere. Twelve datasets were used to develop rules and algorithms (reported here) that produced labels consistent with anatomical rules as well as automated computational parcellation. The final parcellation was used to build an atlas for automatically labeling the whole cerebral cortex. This atlas was used to label an additional 12 datasets, which were found to have good concordance with manual labels. This paper presents a precisely defined method for automatically labeling the cortical surface in standard terminology. PMID:20547229

  17. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  18. Cooperative tertiary interaction network guides RNA folding

    OpenAIRE

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, Robert M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs form unique three-dimensional structures, which perform many biochemical and regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting and native PAGE. Double and triple mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions hav...

  19. Protein folding, protein homeostasis, and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Van Drie

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold into their functional 3-dimensional structures from a linear amino acid sequence. In vitro this process is spontaneous; while in vivo it is orchestrated by a specialized set of proteins, called chaperones. Protein folding is an ongoing cellular process, as cellular proteins constantly undergo synthesis and degradation. Here emerging links between this process and cancer are reviewed. This perspective both yields insights into the current struggle to develop novel cancer chemotherapeutics and has implications for future chemotherapy discovery.

  20. Homology group on manifolds and their foldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Saleem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the definition of the induced unfolding on the homology group. Some types of conditional foldings restricted on the elements of the homology groups are deduced. The effect of retraction on the homology group of a manifold is dicussed. The unfolding of variation curvature of manifolds on their homology group are represented. The relations between homology group of the manifold and its folding are deduced.