Sample records for cerebellum granular layer

  1. Adult neurogenesis without germinal layers: the "atypical" cerebellum of rabbits. (United States)

    Ponti, G; Crociara, P; Armentano, M; Bonfanti, L


    Unlike non mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis in mammals is detectable in highly restricted brain sites. Persistent neurogenesis is thought to depend on stem cells residing in neural stem cell niches which are remnants of the embryonic germinal layers. Local progenitors which retain some proliferative capacity have been identified in the mature brain parenchyma, yet they do not support a constitutive, 'actual' neurogenesis, but rather a 'potential' neurogenesis which does not extrinsecate fully and spontaneously in vivo. In contrast with such a view, genesis of neuronal and glial cells from local progenitors does occur in the peripuberal and adult rabbit cerebellum. This process is independent from persisting germinal layers and involves different cell populations.

  2. Period tripling causes rotating spirals in agitated wet granular layers. (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Rehberg, Ingo


    Pattern formation of a thin layer of vertically agitated wet granular matter is investigated experimentally. Rotating spirals with three arms, which correspond to the kinks between regions with different colliding phases, are the dominating pattern. This preferred number of arms corresponds to period tripling of the agitated granular layer, unlike predominantly subharmonic Faraday crispations in dry granular matter. The chirality of the spatiotemporal pattern corresponds to the rotation direction of the spirals.

  3. Surface Instability of a Vertically Oscillating Granular Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Lei; MIAO Guo-Qing; WEI Rong-Jue


    In the study of the surface instability of a vertically oscillating granular layer, we obtained experimentally thephase diagram for the surface states of the layer in the driving frequency-acceleration plane, and measured thedispersion relation for the surface waves in a granular layer in comparison to that in viscous fluids. Our experiments show that the onset dimensionless acceleration increases with the driving frequency, and the wavelengthof the surface waves increases with the depth of granular layer. These experimental results are in agreement withour theoretical model qualitatively.

  4. Granular computing with multiple granular layers for brain big data processing. (United States)

    Wang, Guoyin; Xu, Ji


    Big data is the term for a collection of datasets so huge and complex that it becomes difficult to be processed using on-hand theoretical models and technique tools. Brain big data is one of the most typical, important big data collected using powerful equipments of functional magnetic resonance imaging, multichannel electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, Positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopic imaging, as well as other various devices. Granular computing with multiple granular layers, referred to as multi-granular computing (MGrC) for short hereafter, is an emerging computing paradigm of information processing, which simulates the multi-granular intelligent thinking model of human brain. It concerns the processing of complex information entities called information granules, which arise in the process of data abstraction and derivation of information and even knowledge from data. This paper analyzes three basic mechanisms of MGrC, namely granularity optimization, granularity conversion, and multi-granularity joint computation, and discusses the potential of introducing MGrC into intelligent processing of brain big data.

  5. Stress distribution and surface instability of an inclined granular layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng He-Peng; Jiang Yi-Min; Peng Zheng


    Static granular materials may avalanche suddenly under continuous quasi-static drives.This phenomenon,which is important in many engineering applications,can be explained by analyzing the stability of the elastic solutions.We show this for a granular layer driven by its inclination angle in gravity,where the elastic problem can be solved generally and analytically.It is found that a loss of stability may occur only at the free surface of the layer.This result is considered to be relevant for understanding surface avalanches and the flows observed experimentally.

  6. Scaling of the critical slip distance in granular layers

    CERN Document Server

    Hatano, Takahiro


    We investigate the nature of friction in granular layers by means of numerical simulation focusing on the critical slip distance, over which the system relaxes to a new stationary state. Analyzing a transient process in which the sliding velocity is instantaneously changed, we find that the critical slip distance is proportional to the sliding velocity. We thus define the relaxation time, which is independent of the sliding velocity. It is found that the relaxation time is proportional to the layer thickness and inversely proportional to the square root of the pressure. An evolution law for the relaxation process is proposed, which does not contain any length constants describing the surface geometry but the relaxation time of the bulk granular matter. As a result, the critical slip distance is scaled with a typical length scale of a system. It is proportional to the layer thickness in an instantaneous velocity change experiment, whereas it is scaled with the total slip distance in a spring-block system on gr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Ekanem


    Full Text Available Introduction: Datura stramonium (DS is a tropical ubiquitous shrub which is often used to increase intoxication in some beverages and is also freely used as a hallucinogen. It is a depressant of the central nervous system, yet commonly smoked in like manner tobacco. The present study investigated changes induced by intoxication with DS on the purkinje cells and parallel fibres of the cerebellum in Wistar rats to further elucidate the effects of this drug on cerebellar structure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on both male and female Wistar rats (200-250 g. They were placed into three batches and four groups were derived from each batch, with eight animals per group. Ethanolic dried seed extract of DS was diluted in normal saline and administered intraperitoneally (I.P. at a dose of 750mg/kg and given to the treatment groups: once in batch 1, twice in batch 2, twelve hourly and thrice in batch 3, eight hourly per day respectively for 4 weeks, while the control groups received an equivalent of normal saline. The rats were euthanized and sections of the cerebellum were histologically processed in all groups. Silver impregnation stain for degenerating axons and neurons was used to elucidate the actions of DS on purkinje cells and the parallel fibres of the cerebellum. Results: The result of IP administration of DS extract (750 mg/kg given three times daily to the treated rats showed significant histological changes, which included atrophy of the parallel fibres but no significant changes in the purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Conclusions: Intoxication of DS seed as a result of excessive ingestion may have a selective degenerative effect on the parallel fibres of the granule cells of the cerebellum while the purkinje cells are spared; the implication being motor dysfunction.

  8. Erosion of the granular layer due to the collision of a vortex ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Junya; Sano, Osamu, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)


    The erosion of a granular layer due to the normal impact of a vortex ring was investigated experimentally. We observed two characteristic surface patterns, grooves and dimples, depending on the magnitude of the vortex ring, its travelling distance, and the properties of the granular material. In order to clarify these pattern formation mechanisms, we measured the temporal variation of the layer thickness using the transmitted light intensity, as well as the velocity field using particle image velocimetry. These patterns are found to be generated by successive collisions of the primary vortex ring and the secondary vortex ring which develops on the granular layer. (paper)

  9. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon. (United States)

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako


    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  10. Effect of boundary vibration on the frictional behavior of a dense sheared granular layer

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, B; Guyer, R A; Johnson, P A; Carmeliet, J


    We report results of 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations aiming at investigating the role of the boundary vibration in inducing frictional weakening in sheared granular layers. We study the role of different vibration amplitudes applied at various shear stress levels, for a granular layer in the stick-slip regime and in the steady-sliding regime. Results are reported in terms of friction drops and kinetic energy release associated with frictional weakening events. We find that larger vibration amplitude induces larger frictional weakening events. The results show evidence of a threshold below which no induced frictional weakening takes place. Friction drop size is found to be dependent on the shear stress at the time of vibration. A significant increase in the ratio between the number of slipping contacts to the number of sticking contacts in the granular layer is observed for large vibration amplitudes. These vibration-induced contact rearrangements enhance particle mobilization and induces a fricti...

  11. Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Granular Layers Stiffness on Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalts - HMA

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    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana


    Full Text Available The mainly factors studied to predict fatigue life of hot mix asphalt-HMA in flexible pavements are the loading effect, type of test, compaction methods, design parameters of HMA (e.g., particle size and size distribution curve, fine content, type of bitumen and the variables associated with the environment (mainly moisture, temperature, aging. This study evaluated through a computer simulation, the influence of the granular layers and subgrade on the fatigue life of asphalt layers in flexible pavement structures. Mechanics parameters of granular layers of subgrade, base and subbase were obtained using the mathematical equations currently used for this purpose in the world. The emphasis of the study was the city of Bogotá, where the average annual temperature is 14°C and soils predominantly clay, generally experience CBR magnitudes between 1% and 4%. General conclusion: stiffness of the granular layers and subgrade significantly affect the fatigue resistance of HMA mixtures. Likewise, the use of different equations reported in reference literature in order to characterize granular layers may vary the fatigue life between 4.6 and 48.5 times, varying the thickness of the pavement layers in the design.

  12. Dynamic of Air Invasion in an Immersed Granular Layer (United States)

    Varas, G.; Ramos, G.; Géminard, J. C.; Vidal, V.


    Displacement processes (typically, grains displaced by a fluid) are the driving mechanism which control the dynamics of many geological processes (e.g. oil extraction, air sparging, piercement structures). They also play an important role in a wide range of industrial applications, from ground water hydrology and soil mechanics to agricultural engineering. The interaction between one or more moving fluids (e.g. rising gas immersed in a granular medium) and grains control the dynamics of these phenomena. Due to their economic and ecological importance, it is essential to understand the variety and potentiality of these phenomena. When an ascending air passes trough an immersed granular bed its fluidized producing the grains to start to move. When this process is repeated, its created a fluidized zone that evolves over time. Here, we investigate the morphology and dynamics of the region invaded by air as a function of a dimensionless parameter χ which accounts for the relative effects of the gravity and the capillarity. We propose new experimental observations on the air invasion regimes and on the morphology of the fluidized zone, in particular its growth dynamics.

  13. Asymmetric cell division of granule neuron progenitors in the external granule layer of the mouse cerebellum


    Parthiv Haldipur; Iswariya Sivaprakasam; Vinod Periasamy; Subashika Govindan; Shyamala Mani


    ABSTRACT The plane of division of granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) was analysed with respect to the pial surface in P0 to P14 cerebellum and the results showed that there was a significant bias towards the plane of cell division being parallel to pial surface across this developmental window. In addition, the distribution of β-Catenin in anaphase cells was analysed, which showed that there was a significant asymmetry in the distribution of β-Catenin in dividing GNPs. Further, inhibition of S...

  14. Asymmetric cell division of granule neuron progenitors in the external granule layer of the mouse cerebellum. (United States)

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Sivaprakasam, Iswariya; Periasamy, Vinod; Govindan, Subashika; Mani, Shyamala


    The plane of division of granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) was analysed with respect to the pial surface in P0 to P14 cerebellum and the results showed that there was a significant bias towards the plane of cell division being parallel to pial surface across this developmental window. In addition, the distribution of β-Catenin in anaphase cells was analysed, which showed that there was a significant asymmetry in the distribution of β-Catenin in dividing GNPs. Further, inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling had an effect on plane of cell division. Asymmetric distribution of β-Catenin was shown to occur towards the source of a localized extracellular cue.

  15. A General Criterion for Liquefaction in Granular Layers with Heterogeneous Pore Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Liran; Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude


    Fluid-saturated granular and porous layers can undergo liquefaction and lose their shear resistance when subjected to shear forcing. In geosystems, such a process can lead to severe natural hazards of soil liquefaction, accelerating slope failure, and large earthquakes. Terzaghi's principle of effective stress predicts that liquefaction occurs when the pore pressure within the layer becomes equal to the applied normal stress on the layer. However, under dynamic loading and when the internal permeability is relatively small the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous and it is not clear what measurement of pore pressure should be used in Terzaghi's principle. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate using numerical simulations a general criterion for liquefaction that applies also for the cases in which the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous. The general criterion demands that the average pore pressure along a continuous surface within the fluid-saturated granular or porous layer is equal to the appl...

  16. Pattern Formation in a Vibrated Granular Layer on an Inclined Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Dong; MIAO Guo-Qing


    We carry out the simulations of pattern formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular layer on an inclined base by molecular dynamics.It is found that the maximum amplitude of the pattern is greater at the lower part than at the higher part of the base,and is proportional to the thickness of the layer.Meanwhile,the wavelength varies non-monotonically as the inclined angle of the base is increased.

  17. Asymmetric cell division of granule neuron progenitors in the external granule layer of the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiv Haldipur


    Full Text Available The plane of division of granule neuron progenitors (GNPs was analysed with respect to the pial surface in P0 to P14 cerebellum and the results showed that there was a significant bias towards the plane of cell division being parallel to pial surface across this developmental window. In addition, the distribution of β-Catenin in anaphase cells was analysed, which showed that there was a significant asymmetry in the distribution of β-Catenin in dividing GNPs. Further, inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh signalling had an effect on plane of cell division. Asymmetric distribution of β-Catenin was shown to occur towards the source of a localized extracellular cue.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer


    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  19. Acoustically-induced slip in sheared granular layers: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Guyer, Robert A; Johnson, Paul A; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan


    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is "how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?" A possible explanation is suggested by results found in discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick-slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance, i.e., transient vibration and earthquake are simultaneous. The critical strain is of order 10^{-6}, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic increase in the number of slipping contacts and decrease in the coordination number. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic moduli of the layer.

  20. Segregation and layering in the flow of wet granular matter (United States)

    Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, Arshad


    We report the effect of interstitial fluid on the extent of segregation by imaging the pile that results after bidisperse color-coded glass particles are poured into a silo. Segregation is sharply reduced and the angle of repose increases when a small volume fraction of fluid is added. The phase diagram of segregation as a function of volume fraction of the fluid and the size ratio of the particles is obtained. We also find that viscous forces in addition to capillary forces have an important effect on the extent of segregation and the angle of repose. We show that the sharp initial change and the subsequent saturation in the extent of segregation and angle of repose occurs over similar volume fraction of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of smoother large particles. We calculate the azimuthal correlation function of particle density inside the pile to characterize the layering. Finally the progress of segregation in the limit where particles are completely immersed in a fluid was measured. In this case liquid bridges and capillary forces are absent but viscous forces are present. We find that a transition back to segregation can occur when the particles are completely immersed in a fluid at low viscosities.

  1. Acoustically induced slip in sheared granular layers: Application to dynamic earthquake triggering (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Griffa, Michele; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan


    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is "how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?" Here we use discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation to gain further insight into the physics of dynamic earthquake triggering. Using Coulomb friction law for grains interaction, we observe delayed triggering of slip in the granular gouge. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance; i.e., transient vibration and triggered slip are simultaneous. The critical strain is of order 10-6, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic decrease in coordination number and the weakening of the contact force network. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic modulus of the layer. The study has important implications for mechanisms of triggered earthquakes and induced seismic events and points out the underlying processes in response of the fault gouge to dynamic transient stresses.

  2. The cerebellar Golgi cell and spatiotemporal organization of granular layer activity

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    Egidio eD‘Angelo


    Full Text Available The cerebellar granular layer has been suggested to perform a complex spatiotemporal reconfiguration of incoming mossy fiber signals. Central to this role is the inhibitory action exerted by Golgi cells over granule cells: Golgi cells inhibit granule cells through double feedforward and feedback inhibitory loops and generate a broad lateral inhibition that extends beyond the afferent synaptic field. This characteristic connectivity has recently been investigated in great detail and been correlated with specific functional properties of the neuron. These include theta-frequency pacemaking, network entrainment into coherent oscillations and phase resetting. Important advances have also been made in terms of determining the membrane and synaptic properties of the neuron, and clarifying the mechanisms of activation by input bursts. Moreover, voltage sensitive dye imaging and multi-electrode array recordings, combined with mathematical simulations based on realistic computational models, have improved our understanding of the impact of Golgi cell activity on granular layer circuit computations. These investigations have highlighted the critical role of Golgi cells in: generating dense clusters of granule cell activity organized in center-surround structures, implementing combinatorial operations on multiple mossy fiber inputs, regulating transmission gain and cut-off frequency, controlling spike timing and burst transmission, and determining the sign, intensity and extension of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-granule cell relay. This review considers recent advances in the field, highlighting the functional implications of Golgi cells for granular layer network computation and indicating new challenges for cerebellar research.

  3. Absence of the granular layer and keratohyalin define a morphologically distinct subset of individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris. (United States)

    Fleckman, Philip; Brumbaugh, Steven


    The clinical diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) can be difficult. Abnormalities in the granular layer and the ultrastructure of keratohyalin granules (KHG) suggest that morphology may be helpful. To clarify morphologic findings in IV, 41 clinically affected individuals and 21 unaffected family members or age- and sex-matched controls were studied by light microscopy. In these, the granular layer was totally absent in approximately 50% of affected individuals, while present in all controls. Forty-seven individuals in the light microscopy group were also studied by electron microscopy. Keratohyalin granules were absent in all affected individuals lacking the granular layer by light microscopy. Clinical severity usually correlated with the lack of a granular layer and KHG. Absence of the granular layer was consistent in different anatomic sites and in serial biopsies taken over a 1-3-year period. In a subset of clinically affected, unrelated subjects with moderate to severe involvement, four out of 11 (36%) had similar findings. Keratinocytes cultured from affected individuals with no KHG expressed virtually no detectable profilaggrin protein in vitro. The data suggest that a subset of individuals with moderate to severe IV have a consistently absent granular layer and KHG. Absence of the granular layer and lack of KHG correlated almost perfectly; thus light microscopy offers a convenient means of identifying this subtype of IV. However, both morphologic types of IV were observed within single families. Therefore, the relationship between granular layer abnormalities and IV is complex and requires the study of more affected families. One interpretation of the data is that IV is a multigenic disorder in which one of the genes alters profilaggrin expression. We propose this clinical and histologic phenotype as useful for identifying the gene(s) involved and also for determining whether it represents a modifier or a major locus of the disorder.

  4. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of discontinuous granular multi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardin, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); Schelp, L.F. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)


    Results of structural, magnetic and transport properties of magnetic Co/SiO{sub 2} discontinuous multi-layers produced by sequential deposition are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the samples that are close to metal-insulation transition are composed by a connected network of metallic paths, and display an enhanced Hall Effect. The granular samples are composed by an almost periodic array of Co nanoparticles, and after annealing these samples show a clear evolution in the nanostructure, with increasing average Co grain sizes and decreasing size dispersion. Relationships between the nanostructure and magnetotransport properties are discussed and compared with previous results obtained in cosputtered films.

  5. Experimental Study on a New Dual-Layer Granular Bed Filter for Removing Particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-hua; ZHOU Jiang-hua


    A new dual-layer granular bed filter for hot gas cleanup was invented and studied experimentally. Fine sand, 0.5-1 mm grain size and about 1350 kg/m3 bulk density, was used as the lower layer of the filter. Expanded perlite particles, 2-5 mm grain size and about 70 kg/m3 bulk density, was used for the upper layer of the filter in this study. It was confirmed that the sizes and densities of these two media matched well; the binary media remained in complete segregation during regeneration by fluidization. Test results show that the filtration of the expanded perlite particle layer was characterized as "deep bed filtration." Filtration of the fine sand layer was "surface cake filtration." The expanded perlite particle layer contributed about 90% to the bed dust capacity, but only about 20% to the total bed pressure drop, which increased the bed dust capacity ten fold compared to a single-layer bed of the same sand and the same total bed pressure drop. The dust cake on the surface of the fine sand layer raised the collection efficiencies to over 99.99%.

  6. Pseudo-hcp nonmagnetic intermediate layer for granular media with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itagaki, Norikazu [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Migaku [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)


    Materials with the hexagonal close-packed structure (hcp) and the face-centred-cubic structure with stacking faults (pseudo-hcp) are examined for the nonmagnetic intermediate layer (NMIL) in order to suppress variant growth of magnetic grains for granular-type perpendicular recording media. Judging from the analysis of the epitaxial growth of Co-based magnetic grains, it has been found that a lattice misfit between NMIL and magnetic grain of less than 6% and a spreading coefficient of wettability of magnetic grain on NMIL of greater than 0.3 J m{sup -3} are required for the recording layer to have high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy. (fast track communication)

  7. Developmental analysis of the external granular layer in the meander tail mutant mouse: do cerebellar microneurons have independent progenitors? (United States)

    Napieralski, J A; Eisenman, L M


    The cerebellum of the meander tail mutant mouse (mea/mea) is characterized by an apparently normal cytoarchitecture posteriorly with an abrupt transition to an abnormal anterior region. Anteriorly, there is abnormal foliation, a drastic reduction in the granule cells (GC) population, disorganization of the Purkinje cells (PC), and a virtual absence of Bergmann glial processes. In this paper we analyze the prenatal and postnatal development of the cerebellum in the mea/mea and attempt to determine the phenotypic onset of the mutation in the anterior region. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections reveal a morphological difference in the cerebellum of the mea/mea as early as embryonic day 16 characterized by a reduction in the external granule cell layer (EGL). The reduction in the EGL becomes increasingly apparent as development proceeds. This deficit in the EGL most probably results in the absence of GC, but it is unclear at this point whether reduced migration, proliferation, and/or increased cell death is the major factor. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against parvalbumin reveals that the basket and stellate cells, which are also thought to arise from the EGL, are present in the anterior region of the mea/mea cerebellum. These results suggest that the lack of GC in the meander tail is due to an early expressed abnormality of the EGL. However, the presence of the basket and/or stellate cells raises some interesting questions concerning the lineage of the cerebellar microneurons.

  8. Stimulus-dependent state transition between synchronized oscillation and randomly repetitive burst in a model cerebellar granular layer.

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    Takeru Honda


    Full Text Available Information processing of the cerebellar granular layer composed of granule and Golgi cells is regarded as an important first step toward the cerebellar computation. Our previous theoretical studies have shown that granule cells can exhibit random alternation between burst and silent modes, which provides a basis of population representation of the passage-of-time (POT from the onset of external input stimuli. On the other hand, another computational study has reported that granule cells can exhibit synchronized oscillation of activity, as consistent with observed oscillation in local field potential recorded from the granular layer while animals keep still. Here we have a question of whether an identical network model can explain these distinct dynamics. In the present study, we carried out computer simulations based on a spiking network model of the granular layer varying two parameters: the strength of a current injected to granule cells and the concentration of Mg²⁺ which controls the conductance of NMDA channels assumed on the Golgi cell dendrites. The simulations showed that cells in the granular layer can switch activity states between synchronized oscillation and random burst-silent alternation depending on the two parameters. For higher Mg²⁺ concentration and a weaker injected current, granule and Golgi cells elicited spikes synchronously (synchronized oscillation state. In contrast, for lower Mg²⁺ concentration and a stronger injected current, those cells showed the random burst-silent alternation (POT-representing state. It is suggested that NMDA channels on the Golgi cell dendrites play an important role for determining how the granular layer works in response to external input.

  9. A two-layer depth-averaged approach to describe the regime stratification in collapses of dry granular columns (United States)

    Sarno, L.; Carravetta, A.; Martino, R.; Tai, Y. C.


    The dynamics of dry granular flows is still insufficiently understood. Several depth-averaged approaches, where the flow motion is described through hydrodynamic-like models with suitable resistance laws, have been proposed in the last decades to describe the propagation of avalanches and debris flows. Yet, some important features of the granular flow dynamics cannot be well delivered. For example, it is very challenging to capture the progressive deposition process, observed in collapses and dam-break flows over rough beds, where an upper surface flow is found to coexist with a lower creeping flow. The experimental observations of such flows suggest the existence of a flow regime stratification caused by different momentum transfer mechanisms. In this work, we propose a two-layer depth-averaged model, aiming at describing such a stratification regime inside the flowing granular mass. The model equations are derived for both two-dimensional plane and axi-symmetric flows. Mass and momentum balances of each layer are considered separately, so that different constitutive laws are introduced. The proposed model is equipped with a closure equation accounting for the mass flux at the interface between the layers. Numerical results are compared with experimental data of axi-symmetric granular collapses to validate the proposed approach. The model delivers sound agreement with experimental data when the initial aspect ratios are small. In case of large initial aspect ratios, it yields a significant improvement in predicting the final shape of deposit and also the run-out distances. Further comparisons with different numerical models show that the two-layer approach is capable of correctly describing the main features of the final deposit also in the case of two-dimensional granular collapses.

  10. PTU-induced hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing cerebellum. (United States)

    Bhanja, S; Chainy, G B N


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on oxidative stress parameters, expression of antioxidant defence enzymes, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the developing cerebellum. PTU challenged neonates showed significant decrease in serum T(3) and T(4) levels and marked increase in TSH levels. Significantly elevated levels of cerebellar H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation were observed in 7 days old hypothyroid rats, along with increased activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and decline in catalase activity. In 30 days old hypothyroid rats, a significant decline in cerebellar lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and expression was observed along with an up-regulation in catalase activity and expression. Expression of antioxidant enzymes was studied by Western blot and semi-quantitative rt-PCR. A distinct increase in cell proliferation as indicated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity was observed in the internal granular layer of cerebellum of 7 days old hypothyroid rats and significant drop in PCNA positive cells in the cerebellar molecular layer and internal granular layer of 30 days old PTU treated rats as compared to controls. In situ end labeling by TUNEL assay showed increased apoptosis in cerebellum of hypothyroid rats in comparison to controls. These results suggest that the antioxidant defence system of the developing cerebellum is sensitive to thyroid hormone deficiency and consequent alterations in oxidative stress status may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation of the cerebellum during neonatal brain development.

  11. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn


    -related behaviors. Based on such findings our aim was to investigate the molecular differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampal granular cell layer of the rat dentate gyrus. Homogeneous isolation of this specific area was performed by laser-capture microdissection and Illumina microarray chips......Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...... and ventral granular cell layer with a false discovery rate below 5% and with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. From this pool of genes 45 genes were more than two-fold regulated, 13 genes being dorsally enriched and 32 genes being ventrally enriched. Moreover, cluster analysis based...

  12. High-pass filtering and dynamic gain regulation enhance vertical bursts transmission along the mossy fiber pathway of cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mapelli


    Full Text Available Signal elaboration in the cerebellum mossy fiber input pathway presents controversial aspects, especially concerning gain regulation and the spot-like (rather than beam-like appearance of granular-to-molecular layer transmission. By using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging in rat cerebellar slices (Mapelli et al., 2010, we found that mossy fiber bursts optimally excited the granular layer above ~50 Hz and the overlaying molecular layer above ~100 Hz, thus generating a cascade of high-pass filters. NMDA receptors enhanced transmission in the granular, while GABA-A receptors depressed transmission in both the granular and molecular layer. Burst transmission gain was controlled through a dynamic frequency-dependent involvement of these receptors. Moreover, while high-frequency transmission was enhanced along vertical lines connecting the granular to molecular layer, no high-frequency enhancement was observed along the parallel fiber axis in the molecular layer. This was probably due to the stronger effect of Purkinje cell GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition occurring along the parallel fibers than along the granule cell axon ascending branch. The consequent amplification of burst responses along vertical transmission lines could explain the spot-like activation of Purkinje cells observed following punctuate stimulation in vivo .

  13. A discrete element study of settlement in vibrated granular layers: role of contact loss and acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Karrech, Ali; Bonnet, Guy; Chevoir, François; Roux, Jean-Noel; Canou, Jean; Dupla, Jean-Claude


    This paper deals with the vibration of granular materials due to cyclic external excitation. It highlights the effect of the acceleration on the settlement speed and proves the existence of a relationship between settlement and loss of contacts in partially confined granular materials under vibration. The numerical simulations are carried out using the Molecular Dynamics method, where the discrete elements consist of polygonal grains. The data analyses are conducted based on multivariate autoregressive models to describe the settlement and permanent contacts number with respect to the number of loading cycles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsov


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a research into various hydromechanical processes such as hindered falling of an individual ball in a liquid; suspension of a homogeneous monodispersed granular layer with ascending fluid flow; homogeneous liquid filtration in a porous granular layer. The authors generalize the results of theoretical and experimental studies, employ the theory of similarity, and establish that the laws of hydraulic friction for the mentioned hydromechanical processes share the common ground described by one general equation that provides basis for obtaining the individual formulae computing the studied hydromechanical processes. The formulae appear in dimensionless similitude parameters that reflect correlation of the essential action forces.The presented scientific results contribute to the theory development of the applied hydromechanical phenomena and the new obtained formulae enable enhancement of the calculation procedures for structures and installations that realize the studied hydraumechanical processes. Thus, the research results for the hindered falling of an individual ball in a liquid can apply in viscosimetry techniques and in handling the problems related to calculations of various movement types and separate units in technologies realizing the hydraulic processes of hindered falling of individual balls in liquids.Fluidization processes (pseudo-liquefaction of the granular layers enjoy wide application in various segments of industry for instance in chemical engineering at adsorption, desorption, dissolution, dealkalization, ablution. A new general calculating formula incipiency provides a possibility for technological computations realization under any operational mode. The filtration process is used in industry as well as occurs in nature, for example, in movement of the ground water. At present, the basis for calculating techniques is the monomial Darcy formula defining the filtering rate as function of the

  15. Impulsive dispersion of a granular layer by a weak blast wave (United States)

    Rodriguez, V.; Saurel, R.; Jourdan, G.; Houas, L.


    The dispersion of particles by blast or shock waves induces the formation of coherent structures taking the shape of particle jets. In the present study, a blast wave, issued from an open shock tube, is generated at the center of a granular ring initially confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. With the present experimental setup, solid particle jet formation is clearly observed in a quasi-two-dimensional configuration. In all instances, the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. Furthermore, thanks to the two-dimensional experimental configuration, a general study of the main parameters involved in these types of flows can be performed. Among them, the particle diameter, the density of the particles, the initial size of the ring, the shape of the overpressure generated and the surface friction of the Hele-Shaw cell are investigated. Empirical relationships are deduced from experimental results.

  16. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders


    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de [UNIFESP; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin [UNIFESP


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  17. Cerebellar cortex granular layer interneurons in the macaque monkey are functionally driven by mossy fiber pathways through net excitation or inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Laurens

    Full Text Available The granular layer is the input layer of the cerebellar cortex. It receives information through mossy fibers, which contact local granular layer interneurons (GLIs and granular layer output neurons (granule cells. GLIs provide one of the first signal processing stages in the cerebellar cortex by exciting or inhibiting granule cells. Despite the importance of this early processing stage for later cerebellar computations, the responses of GLIs and the functional connections of mossy fibers with GLIs in awake animals are poorly understood. Here, we recorded GLIs and mossy fibers in the macaque ventral-paraflocculus (VPFL during oculomotor tasks, providing the first full inventory of GLI responses in the VPFL of awake primates. We found that while mossy fiber responses are characterized by a linear monotonic relationship between firing rate and eye position, GLIs show complex response profiles characterized by "eye position fields" and single or double directional tunings. For the majority of GLIs, prominent features of their responses can be explained by assuming that a single GLI receives inputs from mossy fibers with similar or opposite directional preferences, and that these mossy fiber inputs influence GLI discharge through net excitatory or inhibitory pathways. Importantly, GLIs receiving mossy fiber inputs through these putative excitatory and inhibitory pathways show different firing properties, suggesting that they indeed correspond to two distinct classes of interneurons. We propose a new interpretation of the information flow through the cerebellar cortex granular layer, in which mossy fiber input patterns drive the responses of GLIs not only through excitatory but also through net inhibitory pathways, and that excited and inhibited GLIs can be identified based on their responses and their intrinsic properties.

  18. Dose response relationship of disturbed migration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmanto, W.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine


    Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.0, 2.25 or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation on gestation day 21. Pups were sacrificed 12 hr after exposure, and on postnatal day 5 (P5), P7 and P9. Their cerebella were observed immunohistochemically using anti-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptor antibody to identify Purkinje cells. These cells were disturbed to migrate and remained in the internal granular layer and white matter of the cerebellum. They had short dendrites, and some showed an abnormal direction of dendrites in rats exposed to 2.25 or 2.5 Gy. Alignment of Purkinje cells was also disturbed when examined either on P5, P7 or P9 especially by doses of 2.25 and 2.5 Gy. There was a relationship between X-ray doses and the number of cells piling up in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The dose-response relationship with the number of ectopic Purkinje cells was noted in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  19. Predominant involvement of the cerebellum in guinea pigs infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). (United States)

    Furuoka, H; Horiuchi, M; Yamakawa, Y; Sata, T


    This study reports the experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to guinea pigs and describes the cerebellar lesions in these animals. Guinea pigs were inoculated intracerebrally with 10% brain homogenates from BSE-affected cattle. These animals were designated as the first passage. Second and third passages were subsequently performed. All guinea pigs developed infection at each passage. The mean incubation period of the first passage was 370 days post-infection (dpi) and this decreased to 307 dpi and 309 dpi for the second and third passages, respectively. Mild to severe spongiform degeneration and gliosis were observed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. In addition, the affected animals had marked pathological changes in the cerebellum characterized by severe cortical atrophy associated with Bergmann radial gliosis of the molecular layer and reduction in the width of the granular cell layer. Immunohistochemically, intense PrP(Sc) deposition and scattered plaque-like deposits were observed in the molecular and granular cell layers. Cerebellar lesions associated with severe atrophy of the cortex have not been reported in animal prion diseases, including in the experimental transmission of PrP(Sc) to small rodents. These lesions were similar to the lesions of human kuru or the VV2 variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although typical kuru plaques or florid plaques were not observed in the affected animals.

  20. Cerebellum and apraxia. (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo


    As early as the beginning of the nineteenth century, a variety of nonmotor cognitive and affective impairments associated with cerebellar pathology were occasionally documented. A causal link between cerebellar disease and nonmotor cognitive and affective disorders has, however, been dismissed for almost two centuries. During the past decades, the prevailing view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of autonomic and somatic motor function has changed fundamentally. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the neuroanatomical connections of the cerebellum with the supratentorial association cortices that subserve nonmotor cognition and affect. Furthermore, functional neuroimaging studies and neurophysiological and neuropsychological research have shown that the cerebellum is crucially involved in modulating cognitive and affective processes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical and neuroradiological evidence supporting the view that the cerebellum plays an intrinsic part in purposeful, skilled motor actions. Despite the increasing number of studies devoted to a further refinement of the typology and anatomoclinical configurations of apraxia related to cerebellar pathology, the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebellar involvement remain to be elucidated. As genuine planning, organization, and execution disorders of skilled motor actions not due to motor, sensory, or general intellectual failure, the apraxias following disruption of the cerebrocerebellar network may be hypothetically considered to form part of the executive cluster of the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS), a highly influential concept defined by Schmahmann and Sherman (Brain 121:561-579, 1998) on the basis of four symptom clusters grouping related neurocognitive and affective deficits (executive, visuospatial, affective, and linguistic impairments). However, since only a handful of studies have explored the possible role of the cerebellum in

  1. Mapping of the associated phenotype of an absent granular layer in ichthyosis vulgaris to the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1. (United States)

    Compton, John G; DiGiovanna, John J; Johnston, Kay A; Fleckman, Philip; Bale, Sherri J


    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is a mild to severe scaling disorder of uncertain etiology estimated to affect as many as 1 : 250 in the population. Family studies have shown that in many cases IV follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, but gene mapping studies have not been reported. To investigate the genetic basis for inherited IV, we have performed gene linkage studies in two multigenerational families where affected individuals have clinical features of IV but distinct histological features. The epidermis in this disorder characteristically displays non-specific orthohyperkeratosis. Notably, a subset of IV patients with a reduced or absent granular epidermal layer (AGL) have been reported, and decreased filaggrin levels have been described in others. The prominent role of profilaggrin in human keratohyalin suggests that defects in the gene for profilaggrin (FLG), its processing of profillagrin to filaggrin, or a gene involved in profilaggrin regulation may underlie or modify the pathology in IV. Family 1 had seven individuals with IV, severe heat intolerance and epidermis with 1-3 granular layers (consistent with normal epidermal histology). Ichthyosis vulgaris in this family did not segregate with FLG or other genes in the epidermal differentiation complex. In contrast, five of the six IV patients in Family 2, all siblings, had epidermis with no granular layer. Significant evidence was obtained for linkage of IV with the associated AGL phenotype to the epidermal differentiation complex (which includes FLG) assuming either a recessive (max Lod 3.4) or dominant (max Lod 3.6) inheritance model. Sequence analysis of FLG did not reveal a mutation in the amino or carboxyl terminal portions of the coding sequence adjacent to filaggrin repeats. The AGL may represent an endophenotype for IV, and the presence of a modifier of IV pathology at this locus is discussed.

  2. Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The basic ideas and principles of granular computing (GrC) have been studied explicitly or implicitly in many fields in isolation. With the recent renewed and fast growing interest, it is time to extract the commonality from a diversity of fields and to study systematically and formally the domain independent principles of granular computing in a unified model. A framework of granular computing can be established by applying its own principles. We examine such a framework from two perspectives,granular computing as structured thinking and structured problem solving. From the philosophical perspective or the conceptual level,granular computing focuses on structured thinking based on multiple levels of granularity. The implementation of such a philosophy in the application level deals with structured problem solving.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cerebellums of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus. (United States)

    Kabak, Y B; Sozmen, M; Yarim, M; Guvenc, T; Karayigit, M O; Gulbahar, M Y


    We investigated the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in the cerebellums of dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy. The cerebellums of 20 dogs infected with CDV were used. Specimens showing demyelination of white matter were considered to have an acute infection, whereas specimens showing signs of severe perivascular cuffing and demyelination of white matter were classified as having chronic CDV. Cerebellar sections were immunostained with CDV and LC3 antibodies. The cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, granular layer cells, motor neurons in large cerebellar ganglia and some neurons in white matter were positive for the LC3 antibody in both the control and CDV-infected dogs. In the infected cerebellums, however, white matter was immunostained more intensely, particularly the neurons and gemistocytic astrocytes in the demyelinated areas, compared to controls. Autophagy also was demonstrated in CDV-positive cells using double immunofluorescence staining. Our findings indicate that increased autophagy in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected with CDV may play a role in transferring the virus from cell to cell.

  4. D-Galactose Causes Motor Coordination Impairment, and Histological and Biochemical Changes in the Cerebellum of Rats. (United States)

    Rodrigues, André Felipe; Biasibetti, Helena; Zanotto, Bruna Stela; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Schmitz, Felipe; Nunes, Vinícius Tejada; Pierozan, Paula; Manfredini, Vanusa; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela T S


    Classical galactosemia is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism in which patients accumulate high concentration of galactose in the brain. The most common treatment is a galactose-restricted diet. However, even treated patients develop several complications. One of the most common symptoms is motor coordination impairment, including affected gait, balance, and speech, as well as tremor and ataxia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular galactose administration on motor coordination, as well as on histological and biochemical parameters in cerebellum of adult rats. Wistar rats received 5 μL of galactose (4 mM) or saline by intracerebroventricular injection. The animals performed the beam walking test at 1 and 24 h after galactose administration. Histological and biochemical parameters were performed 24 h after the injections. The results showed motor coordination impairment at 24 h after galactose injection. Galactose also decreased the number of cells in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellum. The immunohistochemistry results suggest that the cell types lost by galactose are neurons and astrocytes in the spinocerebellum and neurons in the cerebrocerebellum. Galactose increased active caspase-3 immunocontent and acetylcholinesterase activity, decreased acetylcholinesterase immunocontent, glutathione, and BDNF levels, as well as caused protein and DNA damage. Our results suggest that galactose induces histological and biochemical changes in cerebellum, which can be associated with motor coordination impairment.

  5. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips


    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  6. Ultransonic velocity measurements in sheared granular layers: Implications for the evolution of dynamic elastic moduli of compositionally-diverse cataclastic fault gouges (United States)

    Knuth, Matthew William

    The objective of this project was to investigate the mechanical and elastic evolution of laboratory fault gouge analogs during active shear. To do this, I designed, constructed, and implemented a new technique for measuring changes in the elastic properties of granular layers subjected to shear deformation. Granular layers serve as an experimental analog to gouge layers forming in cataclastic faults. The technique combines a double-direct shear configuration with a method of determining ultrasonic elastic compressional and shear wavespeed. Experimental results are divided into chapters based on application to fundamental mechanics or to field cases. The first set of experiments allowed us to develop the technique and apply it to a range of end- member materials including quartz sands, montmorillonite clays, and mixtures of sand and clay. Emphasis is placed on normal stress unload-reload cycles and the resulting behavior as clay content is varied within the layer. We observe consistent decrease in wavespeed with shear for sand, and nonlinear but increasing wavespeed for clay and the sand/clay mixture. The second set of experiments involves the application of this technique to measurements conducted under fluid saturation and controlled pressure conditions, examining the behavior of materials from the Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism under shear. I introduce the effects of variable displacement rate and hold time, with implications for fault stability and rate-and-state frictional sliding. The experiments demonstrate a consistent inverse relationship between sliding velocity and wavespeed, and an increase in wavespeed associated with holds. The third set of experiments deals with velocity through stick-slipping glass beads, which has implications for fundamental granular mechanics questions involving velocity-weakening materials. I find that wavespeed decreases in the time between events and increases at "slips", suggesting a strong control related to changes in

  7. Cerebellum and personality traits. (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela


    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  8. Neuropathologic features in the hippocampus and cerebellum of three older men with fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Claudia M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and is the most common single-gene disorder known to be associated with autism. Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging and our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, only limited neuropathologic information on FXS is available. Methods Neuropathologic examinations were performed on post-mortem brain tissue from three older men (aged 57, 64 and 78 years who had received a clinical or genetic diagnosis of FXS. In each case, physical and cognitive features were typical of FXS, and one man was also diagnosed with autism. Guided by reports of clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities of the limbic system and cerebellum of individuals with FXS, the current analysis focused on neuropathologic features present in the hippocampus and the cerebellar vermis. Results Histologic and immunologic staining revealed abnormalities in both the hippocampus and cerebellar vermis. Focal thickening of hippocampal CA1 and irregularities in the appearance of the dentate gyrus were identified. All lobules of the cerebellar vermis and the lateral cortex of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum had decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, which were occasionally misplaced, and often lacked proper orientation. There were mild, albeit excessive, undulations of the internal granular cell layer, with patchy foliar white matter axonal and astrocytic abnormalities. Quantitative analysis documented panfoliar atrophy of both the anterior and posterior lobes of the vermis, with preferential atrophy of the posterior lobule (VI to VII compared with age-matched normal controls. Conclusions Significant morphologic changes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in three adult men with FXS were identified. This pattern of pathologic features supports the idea that primary defects in neuronal migration, neurogenesis and aging may underlie the neuropathology reported in FXS.

  9. Regional functionality of the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, Laurens; De Zeeuw, Chris I


    Over the recent years, advances in brain imaging, optogenetics and viral tracing have greatly advanced our understanding of the cerebellum and its connectivity. It has become clear that the cerebellum can be divided into functional units, each connected with particular brain areas involved in specif

  10. Oxygen-glucose deprivation increases firing of unipolar brush cells and enhances spontaneous EPSCs in Purkinje cells in the vestibulo-cerebellum. (United States)

    Takayasu, Yukihiro; Shino, Masato; Nikkuni, Osamu; Yoshida, Yukari; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki


    Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are excitatory interneurons in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex, which are predominantly distributed in the vestibulo-cerebellar region. The unique firing properties and synaptic connections of UBCs may underlie lobular heterogeneity of excitability in the granular layer and the susceptibility to ischemia-induced excitotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on the firing properties of UBCs and granule cells and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) of Purkinje cells using whole-cell recordings. Short-term OGD induced increases in spontaneous firing of UBCs by causing membrane depolarization via the activation of NMDA receptors. UBC firing indirectly affected Purkinje cells by altering parallel fiber inputs of a subset granule cells, resulting in a marked increase in sEPSCs in Purkinje cells in vestibulo-cerebellar lobules IX-X, but not in lobules IV-VI, which have fewer UBCs. Similarly, the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs in Purkinje cells were significantly greater in lobules IX-X than in IV-VI, even in control conditions. These results reveal that UBCs play key roles in regulating local excitability in the granular layer, resulting in lobular heterogeneity in the susceptibility to ischemic insult in the cerebellum.

  11. Spike timing regulation on the millisecond scale by distributed synaptic plasticity at the cerebellum input stage: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido


    Full Text Available The way long-term synaptic plasticity regulates neuronal spike patterns is not completely understood. This issue is especially relevant for the cerebellum, which is endowed with several forms of long-term synaptic plasticity and has been predicted to operate as a timing and a learning machine. Here we have used a computational model to simulate the impact of multiple distributed synaptic weights in the cerebellar granular layer network. In response to mossy fiber bursts, synaptic weights at multiple connections played a crucial role to regulate spike number and positioning in granule cells. The weight at mossy fiber to granule cell synapses regulated the delay of the first spike and the weight at mossy fiber and parallel fiber to Golgi cell synapses regulated the duration of the time-window during which the first-spike could be emitted. Moreover, the weights of synapses controlling Golgi cell activation regulated the intensity of granule cell inhibition and therefore the number of spikes that could be emitted. First spike timing was regulated with millisecond precision and the number of spikes ranged from 0 to 3. Interestingly, different combinations of synaptic weights optimized either first-spike timing precision or spike number, efficiently controlling transmission and filtering properties. These results predict that distributed synaptic plasticity regulates the emission of quasi-digital spike patterns on the millisecond time scale and allows the cerebellar granular layer to flexibly control burst transmission along the mossy fiber pathway.

  12. Immunohistochemical examination of the INK4 and Cip inhibitors in the rat neonatal cerebellum: cellular localization and the impact of protein calorie malnutrition. (United States)

    Shambaugh, G E; Haines, G K; Koch, A; Lee, E J; Zhou, J n; Pestell, R


    Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) has been linked to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of differentiation. Based on structure function analysis, two distinct families of CDKIs, the INK4 and the Cip/Kip family have been identified. The INK4 family member p16(Ink4), and the Cip/Kip protein p27(Kip1) have been implicated in normal development of the CNS and cerebellum. Recent studies have suggested a functional inter-dependence between the CKI and the abundance of cyclin D1 in orchestrating growth factor-induced cellular proliferation. The neonatal rat cerebellum undergoes proliferative growth and differentiation, localized to distinct topographical regions and cell types. The cell type and the temporal profile of CKI expression during postnatal cerebellar development had not been described. The current studies determined the specific cerebellar cell types in which the CKIs were expressed during post natal development by co-staining for cell-type specific markers. p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) immunostaining was identified in both neurons and glial cells, increasing progressively between postnatal days 6 to 13 into adulthood. By contrast, neuronal and glial cell p21(Cip1) staining was prominent at days 6-11 and decreased thereafter. Cyclin D1 was expressed in the proliferating external granular cells, with occassional staining in the molecular, and internal granular layers. Dual immunostaining demonstrated cyclin D1 within cells expressing CKI (p16(Ink4a), p21(Cip1),p27(Kip1)). Cerebellar cellular growth arrest, induced by protein-calorie malnutrition, inhibited cyclin D1 protein levels without affecting CKI immunostaining suggesting CKI do not mediate the developmental arrest. These results demonstrate that the CKIs are induced by differentiation cues in specific cell types with distinct kinetics in the developing cerebellum in vivo.

  13. Zac1 plays a key role in the development of specific neuronal subsets in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurmans Carol


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cerebellum is composed of a diverse array of neuronal subtypes. Here we have used a candidate approach to identify Zac1, a tumor suppressor gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor, as a new player in the transcriptional network required for the development of a specific subset of cerebellar nuclei and a population of Golgi cells in the cerebellar cortex. Results We found that Zac1 has a complex expression profile in the developing cerebellum, including in two proliferating progenitor populations; the cerebellar ventricular zone and the external granular layer overlying posterior cerebellar lobules IX and X. Zac1 is also expressed in some postmitotic cerebellar neurons, including a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the medial cerebellar nuclei. Notably, GABAergic interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei are derived from the cerebellar ventricular zone, where Zac1 is also expressed, consistent with a lineage relationship between these two Zac1+ populations. Zac1 is also expressed in a small subset of cells in the posterior vermis, including some neurogranin-immunoreactive (NG+ Golgi cells, which, based on short-term birthdating, are derived from the EGL, where Zac1 is also expressed. However, Zac1+ cells and NG+ Golgi cells in the cerebellar cortex also display unique properties, as they are generated within different, albeit overlapping, time windows. Finally, consistent with the expression profile of Zac1, two conspicuous abnormalities were found in the cerebellum of Zac1 null mice: the medial cerebellar nuclei, and not the others, were significantly reduced in size; and the number of Golgi cells in cerebellar lobule IX was reduced by approximately 60% compared to wild-type littermates. Conclusions The data presented here indicate that the tumor suppressor gene Zac1 is expressed in a complex fashion in the developing cerebellum, including in two dividing progenitor populations and in specific subsets of

  14. Quantitative in situ hybridization analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in developing rat cerebellum. (United States)

    Willcutts, M D; Morrison-Bogorad, M


    The appearance and relative amounts of GAD mRNA in rat cerebellar neurons during postnatal development was studied by in situ hybridization. GAD mRNA content within all GABAergic neurons increased during the first month of postnatal development, but the degree and time course of the increase varied among different neuronal types. In newborn rats, GAD mRNA was present only in the prenatally-formed Purkinje and Golgi cells. GAD mRNA in Golgi cells had reached adult levels by postnatal day 14, while GAD mRNA levels in Purkinje cells reached adult levels one week later. Most basket cells expressed GAD mRNA by postnatal day 14, and final levels were attained one week later. Stellate cells in the bottom two-thirds of the molecular layer attained their final GAD mRNA content by postnatal day 21 whereas stellate cells in close proximity to the pial surface were not yet mature at this age. No GAD mRNA was detected within the external granular layer at any time during development. In adult rat, approximately 40% of cerebellar GAD mRNA was contained within the Purkinje cell population, 38% within the stellate cells, 17% within the basket cells, and only 5% within the Golgi cells. Increases in GAD mRNA within GABAergic neurons during cerebellar development correlated with the timing of neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis in these cell populations, suggesting that synaptic activity affects GAD gene expression in developing cerebellum.

  15. Dielectric function of very thin nano-granular ZnO layers with different states of growth. (United States)

    Gilliot, Mickaël; Hadjadj, Aomar; En Naciri, Aotmane


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) layers consisting of grains closely packed together are grown using a solgel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process. The morphologies are characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and their optical properties are investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry at the different stages of the growth process. The optical observations are correlated with evolution of morphology and orientation. Two remarkable evolutions are observed: gradual evolution of morphology, crystallinity, and excitonic contribution with the first deposition steps; and transformation from a poorly oriented to a c-axis oriented crystalline state featuring a large contribution of bound excitons after thermal annealing. A modified Elliott model is used to obtain the optical parameters of ZnO, including bandgap and exciton energies. A simple growth mechanism is proposed to explain the evolution of the layers in accordance with the different deposition steps.

  16. Decreased expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism in the hippocampal granular layer of rats submitted to the pilocarpine epilepsy model. (United States)

    Araujo, Bruno; Torres, Laila; Stein, Mariana; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Herai, Roberto; Okamoto, Oswaldo; Cavalheiro, Esper


    Long-term structural and functional changes in the hippocampus have been identified as the primary physiopathological basis for temporal lobe epilepsy. These changes include reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus. The intimate mechanisms of these changes are beginning to be revealed. Here, we show the possibility of using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate the dentate granular cell layer of Wistar rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and mass spectrometry for laser-captured cells, we identified molecular events that could be altered as part of the epileptic pathogenic process. According to our results, eight proteins related to energy metabolism were differentially expressed between both the control and pilocarpine-treated animals. These results provide, for the first time, new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and can contribute to a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the genesis and maintenance of the epileptic state.

  17. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKheradmand


    Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.

  18. Distribution of mGluR1alpha and SMI 311 immunoreactive Lugaro cells in the kitten cerebellum. (United States)

    Víg, Julianna; Takács, József; Vastagh, Csaba; Baldauf, Zsolt; Veisenberger, Eleonóra; Hámori, József


    The Lugaro cell is a feedback interneuron of the cerebellar cortex, recognizable by its characteristic morphology. Postnatal neuronal migration to the cortex has been described for several cerebellar interneurons. Since in our previous studies we observed Lugaro-like cells (LCs) in the white matter (WM) and internal granular layer (IGL) of the cerebellum of young cats, we assumed that a proportion of these cells migrate also postnatally to their destination. In the present study using and immunostaining for the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1alpha and neurofilament protein SMI 311 the number and spatial distribution of LCs at different postnatal days were investigated. We found that the number and distribution of both mGluR1a-immunoreactive (ir) and of SMI 311-ir LCs changed with age in the developing cerebellar cortex of kittens: developing LCs express mGluR1alpha already in the newborn, while expression of SMI 311-ir in LCs appears only about a week later. At postnatal day 1 (P1) relatively few mGluR1-ir LCs were detected in the WM and at the border of WM and IGL. Later, their number increased sharply until P15 (6-7 fold) and decreased continuously between P15 and P135. SMI 311-ir LCs were not present at P1 and even at P8 only a few were observed in the WM or in infraganglionic positions. Their number increased gradually (12-14 fold) until adulthood when their number was stabilized at 8.000-10.000/cerebellum. At the same time the number of probably ectopic SMI 311-ir LCs decreased with age: at P22 about one third of them was found in "ectopic" position, whereas in the adult cat only about 10-12% of LCs's was either in the WM or scattered in the whole depth of the granular layer. These results suggest that: (1) most LCs appear in the cerebellar cortex postnatally; and (2) postnatal migration and incorporation of LCs to the cortex is a much longer process than previously expected, occurring even after the cytoarchitectonic built-up (about P65-P70 in cat) of

  19. Observations on Hippocampal Mossy Cells in Mink (Neovison vison) with Special Reference to Dendrites Ascending to the Granular and Molecular Layers (United States)

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W.; Leergaard, Trygve B.


    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. PMID:26286893

  20. Consensus paper: Cerebellum and emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamaszek, M.; D'Agata, F.; Ferrucci, R.; Habas, C.; Keulen, S.; Kirkby, K.C.; Leggio, M.; Marië n, P.; Molinari, M.; Moulton, E.; Orsi, L.; Overwalle, F. van; Papadelis, C.; Priori, A.; Sacchetti, B.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Styliadis, C.; Verhoeven, J.


    Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponentia

  1. Experimental Observation of Kink in a Perfect Bidimensional Granular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; MIAO Guo-Qing; HUANG Kai; YUN Yi; WEI Rong-Jue


    @@ The kink formation in a vertical vibrated granular layer has been widely studied in three-dimensional systems, but there are few if any experimental reports on bidimensional granular layers. We report the kink formation newly found in a perfect bidimensional granular system. We measure the range of the driving frequencies and dimensionless accelerations for kinks. Furthermore, we observe a heaping process, which is caused by co-operative action of the kink-associated convection and the sidewall-associated convection.

  2. Prenatal hypoxic-ischemic insult changes the distribution and number of NADPH-diaphorase cells in the cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Savignon

    Full Text Available Astrogliosis, oligodendroglial death and motor deficits have been observed in the offspring of female rats that had their uterine arteries clamped at the 18(th gestational day. Since nitric oxide has important roles in several inflammatory and developmental events, here we evaluated NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d distribution in the cerebellum of rats submitted to this hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. At postnatal (P day 9, Purkinje cells of SHAM and non-manipulated (NM animals showed NADPH-d+ labeling both in the cell body and dendritic arborization in folia 1 to 8, while HI animals presented a weaker labeling in both cellular structures. NADPH-d+ labeling in the molecular (ML, and in both the external and internal granular layer, was unaffected by HI at this age. At P23, labeling in Purkinje cells was absent in all three groups. Ectopic NADPH-d+ cells in the ML of folia 1 to 4 and folium 10 were present exclusively in HI animals. This labeling pattern was maintained up to P90 in folium 10. In the cerebellar white matter (WM, at P9 and P23, microglial (ED1+ NADPH-d+ cells, were observed in all groups. At P23, only HI animals presented NADPH-d labeling in the cell body and processes of reactive astrocytes (GFAP+. At P9 and P23, the number of NADPH-d+ cells in the WM was higher in HI animals than in SHAM and NM ones. At P45 and at P90 no NADPH-d+ cells were observed in the WM of the three groups. Our results indicate that HI insults lead to long-lasting alterations in nitric oxide synthase expression in the cerebellum. Such alterations in cerebellar differentiation might explain, at least in part, the motor deficits that are commonly observed in this model.

  3. Solving the mystery of the human cerebellum. (United States)

    Leiner, Henrietta C


    The mystery of the human cerebellum is this: Why did it enlarge so dramatically in the last million years of human evolution, concomitantly with the greater enlargement of the cerebral cortex? A solution to this mystery was proposed in the 20th century as a result of research by several groups of scientists who investigated the contributions of the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex. In contrast to the 19th century investigations, which were focused on the motor functions of the cerebellum, the focus of the subsequent investigations was expanded to include some mental functions because evidence was produced that the cerebellum contributes to cognition. It was proposed that the combination in the cerebellum of motor and mental capabilities enables the cerebellum to confer on humans some adaptive advantages of great value, and this ability would explain why the human cerebellum has continued to enlarge so dramatically. A valuable adaptive advantage that is included in the proposal is the possibility that the cerebellum couples the motor function of articulating speech to the mental function that selects the language to be spoken, thus helping to produce fluent human speech and language. The validity of this proposal about linguistic processing has not yet been verified. Therefore the mystery of cerebellar enlargement in humans is not yet solved and requires further research.

  4. GABAρ subunits confer a bicuculline-insensitive component to GFAP+ cells of cerebellum (United States)

    Pétriz, Adriana; Reyes-Haro, Daniel; González-González, María Alejandra; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo


    GABA-A receptors mediating synaptic or extrasynaptic transmission are molecularly and functionally distinct, and glial cells are known to express a plethora of GABA-A subunits. Here we demonstrate that GFAP+ cells of the granular layer of cerebellum express GABAρ subunits during early postnatal development, thereby conferring peculiar pharmacologic characteristics to GABA responses. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of GABAρ in the plasma membrane of GFAP+ cells. In contrast, expression in the adult was restricted to Purkinje neurons and a subset of ependymal cells. Electrophysiological studies in vitro revealed that astrocytes express functional receptors with an EC50 of 52.2 ± 11.8 μM for GABA. The evoked currents were inhibited by bicuculline (100 μM) and TPMPA (IC50, 5.9 ± 0.6 μM), indicating the presence of a GABAρ component. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated protein–protein interactions between GABAρ1 and GABAα1, and double immunofluorescence showed that these subunits colocalize in the plasma membrane. Three populations of GABA-A receptors in astrocytes were identified: classic GABA-A, bicuculline-insensitive GABAρ, and GABA-A–GABAρ hybrids. Clusters of GABA-A receptors were distributed in the perinuclear space and along the processes of GFAP+ cells. Time-lapse microscopy showed GABAρ2-GFP accumulation in clusters located in the soma and along the processes. The clusters were relatively immobile, with mean displacement of 9.4 ± 0.9 μm and a net distance traveled of 1–2 μm, owing mainly to directional movement or simple diffusion. Modulation of GABAρ dynamics may be a novel mechanism of extrasynaptic transmission regulating GABAergic control of GFAP+ cells during early postnatal development. PMID:25422464

  5. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi


    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  6. Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Meer, van der Devaraj; Weele, van der Ko; Lohse, Detlef


    Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The experi

  7. Effect of grinding wheel granularity on the grinding-hardened layer of 42CrMo steel%砂轮粒度对42CrMo钢磨削强化层的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时海芳; 刘波; 马壮; 刘克铭


    在精密卧式磨床M7132A上,利用磨削加工产生的大量磨削热对磨削加工表面进行淬火处理.采用砂轮作为磨削淬火的加工工具,研究不同粒度的刚玉砂轮对42CrMo钢进行磨削淬火试验及强化层的组织和硬度的影响.结果表明:随着砂轮粒度的减小,距加工表面的强化层组织越细小;强化层的显微硬度分布曲线基本相同,但是距强化层至加工表面0.25 mm时,随着砂轮粒度的减小,强化层显微硬度增大,磨削强化层厚度增加.%Grinding heat generated from grinding was used to do hardening treatment for grinding machining surface on horizontal precision grinder (M7132A). The grinding wheel was used as grind-hardening machining tool to study the influence of grinding wheel granularity on microstructure and hardness of strengthened layer of 42CrMo. The results show that with the decrease of the particle size of grinding wheel, microstructure of strengthened layer on machined surface is fine. The microhardness distribution curve of strengthened layer is basicly same, but when the strengthened layer is 0.25 mm away from the machined surface, the decrease of particle size of grinding wheel will lead to the increase of microhardness of strengthened layer. Thickness of the grinding-strengthened layer increases.

  8. Scaling of granular convective velocity and timescale of asteroidal resurfacing (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ando, Kousuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    Granular convection is one of the well-known phenomena observed in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Recently, the possbile relation between granular convection and asteroidal surface processes has been discussed. The granular convection on the surface of small asteroids might be induced by seismic vibration resulting from meteorite impacts. To quantitatively evaluate the timescale of asteroidal resurfacing by granular convection, the granular convective velocity under various conditions must be revealed. As a first step to approach this problem, we experimentally study the velocity scaling of granular convection using a vertically vibrated glass-beads layer. By systematic experiments, a scaling form of granular convective velocity has been obtained. The obtained scaling form implies that the granular convective velocity can be written by a power-law product of two characteristic velocity components: vibrational and gravitational velocities. In addition, the system size dependence is also scaled. According to the scaling form, the granular convective velocity is almost proportional to gravitatinal acceleration. Using this scaling form, we have estimated the resurfacing timescale on small asteroid surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L


    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  10. The Effect of Tryptophan on Serotonin-Like Neurons in Duck Cerebellum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua-zhen; TANG Wen-hua; PENG Ke-mei; CHEN Wen-qin; LUO Guan-zhong; WANG Yan; WEI Lan


    Healthy Cherry Valley ducks were used in the present study. Different doses of tryptophan were injected intraperitoneallyto them after being fasted 4 h (8:00 a.m.-12:00 a.m.). One hour later, they were deeply anaesthetized and perfused. The cerebellum was removed to make serial paraffin longitudinal sections. The streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) method was used to study the distribution of serotonin-like neurons in the cerebellum. All films were analysed by using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Serotonin-like neurons are only localized in cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. The optical density averages of serotonin-like neurons in 200 and 100 mg kg-1 group are significantly higher than that of O mg kg-1 group (P<0.01). These results show that serotonin-like neurons are distributed in Purkinje cell layer and that excessive tryptophan can affect the content of serotonin in cerebellum.

  11. Hh and Wnt signaling regulate formation of olig2+ neurons in the zebrafish cerebellum. (United States)

    McFarland, Karen A; Topczewska, Jolanta M; Weidinger, Gilbert; Dorsky, Richard I; Appel, Bruce


    The cerebellum, which forms from anterior hindbrain, coordinates motor movements and balance. Sensory input from the periphery is relayed and modulated by cerebellar interneurons, which are organized in layers. The mechanisms that specify the different neurons of the cerebellum and direct its layered organization remain poorly understood. Drawing from investigations of spinal cord, we hypothesized that the embryonic cerebellum is patterned on the dorsoventral axis by opposing morphogens. We tested this using zebrafish. Here we show that expression of olig2, which encodes a bHLH transcription factor, marks a distinct subset of neurons with similarities to eurydendroid neurons, the principal efferent neurons of the teleost cerebellum. In combination with other markers, olig2 reveals a dorsoventral organization of cerebellar neurons in embryos. Disruption of Hedgehog signaling, which patterns the ventral neural tube, produced a two-fold increase in the number of olig2(+) neurons. By contrast, olig2(+) neurons did not develop in embryos deficient for Wnt signaling, which patterns dorsal neural tube, nor did they develop in embryos deficient for both Hedgehog and Wnt signaling. Our data indicate that Hedgehog and Wnt work in opposition across the dorsoventral axis of the cerebellum to regulate formation of olig2(+) neurons. Specifically, we propose that Hedgehog limits the range of Wnt signaling, which is necessary for olig2(+) neuron development.

  12. Chronic lithium treatment with or without haloperidol fails to affect the morphology of the rat cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Rasmus Wentzer; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Smith, D.


    We used unbiased stereological principles to determine whether long-term administration of lithium at human therapeutic levels, with or without haloperidol, affects the number or sizes of cerebellar Purkinje cells or the volume of histological layers in the rat cerebellum. Twenty-eight rats were...

  13. Congenital granular cell epulis. (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N


    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  14. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai


    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  15. Duck cerebellum participates in regulation of food intake via the neurotransmitters serotonin and neuropeptide Y. (United States)

    Liu, Hua Z; Li, Xin Y; Tong, Jing J; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhan, Han C; Sha, Jun N; Peng, Ke M


    Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum. Moreover, the expression level of 5-HT in fasted (4 h) and tryptophan (100-200 mg/kg)-treated ducks was significantly higher than that in control animals (Pfood intake respectively increased and decreased cerebellar 5-HT and NPY in the duck.

  16. Plowing of granular surface by a vertical blade (United States)

    Judge, Vachitar Singh; Dressaire, Emilie; Sauret, Alban


    The interaction of a blade with a layer of fluid is an important industrial problem involved in coating of substrates, removing of snow, plowing the fields for agriculture. Most experimental and theoretical work has focused on the drag and lift forces on plowing blade as it is dragged on a granular surface or studying the flow of the fluid while plowing. However the study of deformation of a granular surface by a vertical plow blade has received less attention, despite significant practical and fundamental implications. In this study, we investigate experimentally the behavior of a granular substrate as a vertical plow blade of finite width is translated at constant speed. The vertical blade directs the granular material outward and sand piles form on either sides. We characterize the dynamics of plowing by measuring and rationalizing the influence of the width of the vertical plow blade, the height of the plow blade, and the depth granular substrate.

  17. Radiation induces progenitor cell death, microglia activation, and blood-brain barrier damage in the juvenile rat cerebellum (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Boström, Martina; Ek, C. Joakim; Li, Tao; Xie, Cuicui; Xu, Yiran; Sun, Yanyan; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian


    Posterior fossa tumors are the most common childhood intracranial tumors, and radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, irradiation induces long-term adverse effects that can have significant negative impacts on the patient’s quality of life. The purpose of this study was to characterize irradiation-induced cellular and molecular changes in the cerebellum. We found that irradiation-induced cell death occurred mainly in the external germinal layer (EGL) of the juvenile rat cerebellum. The number of proliferating cells in the EGL decreased, and 82.9% of them died within 24 h after irradiation. Furthermore, irradiation induced oxidative stress, microglia accumulation, and inflammation in the cerebellum. Interestingly, blood-brain barrier damage and blood flow reduction was considerably more pronounced in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions. The cerebellar volume decreased by 39% and the migration of proliferating cells to the internal granule layer decreased by 87.5% at 16 weeks after irradiation. In the light of recent studies demonstrating that the cerebellum is important not only for motor functions, but also for cognition, and since treatment of posterior fossa tumors in children typically results in debilitating cognitive deficits, this differential susceptibility of the cerebellum to irradiation should be taken into consideration for future protective strategies. PMID:28382975

  18. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges. (United States)

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold


    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  19. Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.


    Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  20. Shaken Granular Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio


    Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

  1. Effects of lead exposure on histological structure and antioxidant capacity in the cerebellum of 30-day-old mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang


    The current study sought to observe the effects of lead on histological structure and antioxidant capacity in 30-day-old mice. Spectrophotometry was used to detect the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and the malondialdehyde content. The results revealed that Purkinje cells in the lead-exposed group exhibited obvious pyknosis, atrophy and a decrease in overall number. Granular cells exhibited a disorderly arrangement, and were reduced in number. Administration of lead decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while malondialdehyde content increased. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that dose contributed more to lead-induced cerebellum damage than treatment time. The present study demonstrated that lead exerted strong effects on histological structure and inhibited antioxidant capacity of the cerebellum in 30-day-old mice.

  2. Rough-Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Skowron


    Solving complex problems by multi-agent systems in distributed environments requires new approximate reasoning methods based on new computing paradigms. One such recently emerging computing paradigm is Granular Computing(GC). We discuss the Rough-Granular Computing(RGC) approach to modeling of computations in complex adaptive systems and multiagent systems as well as for approximate reasoning about the behavior of such systems. The RGC methods have been successfully applied for solving complex problems in areas such as identification of objects or behavioral patterns by autonomous systems, web mining, and sensor fusion.

  3. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  4. Failure of granular assemblies


    Welker, Philipp


    This work investigates granular assemblies subjected to increasing external forces in the quasi-static limit. In this limit, the system’s evolution depends on static properties of the system, but is independent of the particles’ inertia. At the failure, which occurs at a certain value of the external forces, the particles’ motions increase quickly. In this thesis, the properties of granular systems during the weakening process and at the failure are investigated with the Discrete Element Meth...

  5. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno


    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  6. Consensus Paper: The Cerebellum's Role in Movement and Cognition


    Koziol L.F.; Budding D.; Andreasen N.; D'Arrigo S.; Bulgheroni S.; Imamizu H.; Ito M.; Manto M.; Marvel C.; Parker K.


    While the cerebellum's role in motor function is well recognized, the nature of its concurrent role in cognitive function remains considerably less clear. The current consensus paper gathers diverse views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum across a range of cognitive and emotional functions. This paper considers the cerebellum in relation to neurocognitive development, language function, working memory, executive function, and the development of cerebellar internal contr...

  7. New roles for the cerebellum in health and disease


    Stacey L Reeber; Otis, Tom S.; Sillitoe, Roy V.


    The cerebellum has a well-established role in maintaining motor coordination and studies of cerebellar learning suggest that it does this by recognizing neural patterns, which it uses to predict optimal movements. Serious damage to the cerebellum impairs this learning and results in a set of motor disturbances called ataxia. However, recent work implicates the cerebellum in cognition and emotion, and it has been argued that cerebellar dysfunction contributes to non-motor conditions such as au...

  8. A subpial, transitory germinal zone forms chains of neuronal precursors in the rabbit cerebellum. (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanna; Peretto, Paolo; Bonfanti, Luca


    Protracted neurogenesis occurs at different postnatal stages in different brain locations, whereby leading to site-specific adult neurogenesis in some cases. No spontaneous genesis of neurons occurs in the cerebellum after the postnatal genesis of granule cells from the external germinal layer (EGL), a transitory actively proliferating zone which is thought to be exhausted before puberty. Here, we show the protracted genesis of newly generated neuronal precursors in the cerebellar cortex of young rabbits, persisting beyond puberty. Neuroblasts generated within an actively proliferating subpial layer thus extending the postnatal EGL are arranged to form thousands of tangential chains reminiscent of those responsible for cell migration in the forebrain subventricular zone. These subpial chains cover the whole cerebellar surface from the 2nd to the 5th month of life, then disappearing after puberty. In addition, we describe the appearance of similar groups of cells at the end of granule cell genesis in the mouse cerebellum, here limited to the short period of EGL exhaustion (4-5 days). These results show common features do exist in the postnatal reorganization of secondary germinal layers of brain and cerebellum at specific stages, parallel to differences in the slowing down of cerebellar neurogenesis among mammalian species.

  9. The Cerebellum and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (United States)

    Rapkin, Andrea J.; Berman, Steven M.; London, Edythe D.


    The cerebellum constitutes ten percent of brain volume and contains the majority of brain neurons. Although it was historically viewed primarily as processing motoric computations, current evidence supports a more comprehensive role, where cerebro-cerebellar feedback loops also modulate various forms of cognitive and affective processing. Here we present evidence for a role of the cerebellum in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is characterized by severe negative mood symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although a link between menstruation and cyclical dysphoria has long been recognized, neuroscientific investigations of this common disorder have only recently been explored. This article reviews functional and structural brain imaging studies of PMDD and the similar but less well defined condition of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The most consistent findings are that women with premenstrual dysphoria exhibit greater relative activity than other women in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior lobules VI and VII of the neocerebellum. Since both brain areas have been implicated in emotional processing and mood disorders, working memory and executive functions, this greater activity probably represents coactivation within a cerebro-cerebellar feedback loop regulating emotional and cognitive processing. Some of the evidence suggests that increased activity within this circuit may preserve cerebellar structure during aging, and possible mechanisms and implications of this finding are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application (United States)

    Pinzon Morales, Ruben Dario; Hirata, Yutaka


    Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF) input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE) and motor command error (ME); however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task) and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task). We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot. PMID:27999381

  11. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Pinzon Morales


    Full Text Available Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE and motor command error (ME; however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task. We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot.

  12. Developmental analysis of GFAP immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of the meander tail mutant mouse. (United States)

    Grishkat, H L; Schwartz, E; Jain, G; Eisenman, L M


    It is thought that Bergmann glial fibers assist in the inward migration of granule cells. Model systems in which there is a perturbation of either the migrating cells or the glial cell population have been useful in understanding the migratory process. In the meander tail mutant mouse, the anterior cerebellar region is agranular, whereas the posterior cerebellum is relatively unaffected by the mutation. This study presents a qualitative analysis of the development of cerebellar radial glia in mea/mea and +/mea mice aged from postnatal day 0 to adult, using an antibody against the glia specific antigen, glial fibrillary acidic protein. The results indicate a slight delay in the onset of immunoreactivity in the mea/mea cerebellum and abnormal glial formation in the anterior and posterior regions by postnatal day 5. At postnatal day 11, the full complement of labeled fibers appears to be present and although they appear abnormal in formation, they eventually reach the surface and terminate in oddly shaped and irregularly spaced endfeet. In adult mea/mea and +/mea mice, as compared to the early postnatal stages, there is a significant reduction in GFAP immunoreactive fibers. Cresyl violet stained adult mea/mea sections revealed the presence of ectopic granule cells in radial columns and small clumps at the surface of and within the molecular layer of the caudal cerebellum. Quantitative analyses revealed a 4- to 5-fold increase in the number of ectopic granule cells in lobule VIII of the mea/mea when compared with the +/mea cerebellum. These results suggest that the radial glia in the mea/mea cerebellum exhibit some uncharacteristic morphologies, but that these abnormalities are most likely the consequence of environmental alterations produced by the mutant gene.

  13. The rise of granular computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yi-yu


    This paper has two purposes. One is to present a critical examination of the rise of granular computing and the other is to suggest a triarchic theory of granular computing. By examining the reasons, justifications, and motivations for the rise of granular computing, we may be able to fully appreciate its scope, goal and potential values. The results enable us to formulate a triarchic theory in the light of research results from many disciplines. The three components of the theory are labeled as the philosophy, the methodology, and the computation. The integration of the three offers a unified view of gran-ular computing as a way of structured thinking, a method of structured problem solving, and a paradigm of structured infor-mation processing, focusing on hierarchical granular structures. The triarchic theory is an important effort in synthesizing the various theories and models of granular computing.

  14. Three Perspectives of Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyu(Y.Y.) Yao


    As an emerging field of study, granular computing has received much attention. Many models, frameorks, methods and techniques have been proposed and studied. It is perhaps the time to seek for a general and unified view so that fundamental issues can be examined and clarified. This paper examines granular computing from three perspectives. By viewing granular computing as a way of structured thinking,we focus on its philosophical foundations in modeling human perception of the reality. By viewing granular computing as a method of structured problem solving, we examine its theoretical and methodological foundations in solving a wide range of real-world problems. By viewing granular computing as a paradigm of information processing,we turn our attention to its more concrete techniques. The three perspectives together offer a holistic view of granular computing.

  15. Liquefaction of a Horizontally Vibrated Granular Bed Friction, Dilation and Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Tennakoon, S G K; Tennakoon, Sarath G.


    We present experimental observations of the onset of flow (liquefaction) for horizontally vibrated granular materials. As the acceleration increases above certain value, the top layer of granular material liquefies, while the remainder of the layer moves with the shaker in solid body motion. With increasing acceleration, more of the layer becomes fluidized. The initial bifurcation is backward, and the amount of hysteresis depends mainly on frictional properties of the granular media. A small amount of fluidization by gas flow lifts the hysteresis. Modest differences in the frictional properties of otherwise identical particles leads to rapid segregation.

  16. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R


    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  17. Mathematical models of granular matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale


    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  18. How the cerebellum may monitor sensory information for spatial representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure eRondi-Reig


    Full Text Available The cerebellum has already been shown to participate in the navigation function. We propose here that this structure is involved in maintaining a sense of direction and location during self-motion by monitoring sensory information and interacting with navigation circuits to update the mental representation of space.To better understand the processing performed by the cerebellum in the navigation function, we have reviewed: the anatomical pathways that convey self-motion information to the cerebellum; the computational algorithm(s thought to be performed by the cerebellum from these multi-source inputs; the cerebellar outputs directed toward navigation circuits and the influence of self-motion information on space-modulated cells receiving cerebellar outputs. This review highlights that the cerebellum is adequately wired to combine the diversity of sensory signals to be monitored during self-motion and fuel the navigation circuits. The direct anatomical projections of the cerebellum toward the head-direction cell system and the parietal cortex make those structures possible relays of the cerebellum influence on the hippocampal spatial map. We describe computational models of the cerebellar function showing that the cerebellum can filter out the components of the sensory signals that are predictable, and provides a novelty output. We finally speculate that this novelty output is taken into account by the navigation structures, which implement an update over time of position and stabilize perception during navigation.

  19. Functional Anatomy Of The Intermediate Cerebellum In The Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C.T.M. Pijpers (Angelique)


    textabstractThe cerebellum is situated in the posterior part of the scull, dorsal to the brainstem and pontine nuclei (Fig.1). Despite the fact that it is called “little brain” it harbors about half of the total number of neurons within the central nervous system (Kandel, 2003). The cerebellum is di

  20. The cerebellum: a neuronal learning machine? (United States)

    Raymond, J. L.; Lisberger, S. G.; Mauk, M. D.


    Comparison of two seemingly quite different behaviors yields a surprisingly consistent picture of the role of the cerebellum in motor learning. Behavioral and physiological data about classical conditioning of the eyelid response and motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex suggests that (i) plasticity is distributed between the cerebellar cortex and the deep cerebellar nuclei; (ii) the cerebellar cortex plays a special role in learning the timing of movement; and (iii) the cerebellar cortex guides learning in the deep nuclei, which may allow learning to be transferred from the cortex to the deep nuclei. Because many of the similarities in the data from the two systems typify general features of cerebellar organization, the cerebellar mechanisms of learning in these two systems may represent principles that apply to many motor systems.

  1. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II. Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, Naomi; Richardson, Derek C; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R; Green, Simon F; Losert, Wolfgang


    Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collect...

  2. The cerebellum for jocks and nerds alike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu ePopa


    Full Text Available Historically the cerebellum has been implicated in the control of movement. However, the cerebellum’s role in non-motor functions, including cognitive and emotional processes, has also received increasing attention. Starting from the premise that the uniform architecture of the cerebellum underlies a common mode of information processing, this review examines recent electrophysiological findings on the motor signals encoded in the cerebellar cortex and then relates these signals to observations in the non-motor domain. Simple spike firing of individual Purkinje cells encodes performance errors, both predicting upcoming errors as well as providing feedback about those errors. Further, this dual temporal encoding of prediction and feedback involves a change in the sign of the simple spike modulation. Therefore, Purkinje cell simple spike firing both predicts and responds to feedback about a specific parameter, consistent with computing sensory prediction errors in which the predictions about the consequences of a motor command are compared with the feedback resulting from the motor command execution. These new findings are in contrast with the historical view that complex spikes encode errors. Evaluation of the kinematic coding in the simple spike discharge shows the same dual temporal encoding, suggesting this is a common mode of signal processing in the cerebellar cortex. Decoding analyses show the considerable accuracy of the predictions provided by Purkinje cells across a range of times. Further, individual Purkinje cells encode linearly and independently a multitude of signals, both kinematic and performance errors. Therefore, the cerebellar cortex’s capacity to make associations across different sensory, motor and non-motor signals is large. The results from studying how Purkinje cells encode movement signals suggest that the cerebellar cortex circuitry can support associative learning, sequencing, working memory, and forward internal

  3. Granular flows : fluidization and anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Gerrit Herman


    This work discusses the flow of granular materials (e.g. sand). Even though a single particle is a simple object, the collective behavior of billions of particles can be very complex. In a surprisingly large amount of cases, it is not exactly known how a granular material behaves, and this while the

  4. Bulldozing of granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N


    We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

  5. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines. (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L


    Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response.

  6. Uphill solitary waves in granular flows (United States)

    Martínez, E.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Ramos, O.; Måløy, K. J.; Douady, S.; Altshuler, E.


    We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move “up the hill” (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models.

  7. Speckle visibility spectroscopy and variable granular fluidization. (United States)

    Dixon, P K; Durian, D J


    We introduce a dynamic light scattering technique capable of resolving motion that changes systematically, and rapidly, with time. It is based on the visibility of a speckle pattern for a given exposure duration. Applying this to a vibrated layer of glass beads, we measure the granular temperature and its variation with phase in the oscillation cycle. We observe several transitions involving jammed states, where the grains are at rest during some portion of the cycle. We also observe a two-step decay of the temperature on approach to jamming.

  8. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics II: Particle dynamics in a shaken granular material (United States)

    Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Berardi, Christian R.; Green, Simon F.; Losert, Wolfgang


    Surfaces of planets and small bodies of our Solar System are often covered by a layer of granular material that can range from a fine regolith to a gravel-like structure of varying depths. Therefore, the dynamics of granular materials are involved in many events occurring during planetary and small-body evolution thus contributing to their geological properties. We demonstrate that the new adaptation of the parallel N-body hard-sphere code pkdgrav has the capability to model accurately the key features of the collective motion of bidisperse granular materials in a dense regime as a result of shaking. As a stringent test of the numerical code we investigate the complex collective ordering and motion of granular material by direct comparison with laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that, as experimentally observed, the scale of the collective motion increases with increasing small-particle additive concentration. We then extend our investigations to assess how self-gravity and external gravity affect collective motion. In our reduced-gravity simulations both the gravitational conditions and the frequency of the vibrations roughly match the conditions on asteroids subjected to seismic shaking, though real regolith is likely to be much more heterogeneous and less ordered than in our idealised simulations. We also show that collective motion can occur in a granular material under a wide range of inter-particle gravity conditions and in the absence of an external gravitational field. These investigations demonstrate the great interest of being able to simulate conditions that are to relevant planetary science yet unreachable by Earth-based laboratory experiments.

  9. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  10. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.


    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  11. Effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on phosphorylated CREB in rat cerebellum: an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Casu, Maria Antonietta; Pisu, Carla; Sanna, Angela; Tambaro, Simone; Spada, Gabriele Pinna; Mongeau, Raymond; Pani, Luca


    Several converging lines of evidence indicate that drugs of abuse may exert their long-term effects on the central nervous system by modulating signaling pathways controlling gene expression. Cannabinoids produce, beside locomotor effects, cognitive impairment through central CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Data clearly indicate that the cerebellum, an area enriched with CB1 receptors, has a role not only in motor function but also in cognition. This immunohistochemical study examines the effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the principal psychoactive component of marijuana, on the levels of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the rat cerebellum. Acute treatments with delta9-THC at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg induced a significant increase of p-CREB in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, an effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A. Following chronic delta9-THC administration (10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), the density of p-CREB was markedly attenuated compared to controls, and this attenuation persisted 3 weeks after withdrawal from delta9-THC. These data provide evidence for the involvement of cerebellar granule cells in the adaptive changes occurring during acute and chronic delta9-THC exposure. This might be a mechanism by which delta9-THC interferes with motor and cognitive functions.

  12. Using a million cell simulation of the cerebellum: network scaling and task generality. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ke; Hausknecht, Matthew J; Stone, Peter; Mauk, Michael D


    Several factors combine to make it feasible to build computer simulations of the cerebellum and to test them in biologically realistic ways. These simulations can be used to help understand the computational contributions of various cerebellar components, including the relevance of the enormous number of neurons in the granule cell layer. In previous work we have used a simulation containing 12000 granule cells to develop new predictions and to account for various aspects of eyelid conditioning, a form of motor learning mediated by the cerebellum. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up this simulation to over one million granule cells using parallel graphics processing unit (GPU) technology. We observe that this increase in number of granule cells requires only twice the execution time of the smaller simulation on the GPU. We demonstrate that this simulation, like its smaller predecessor, can emulate certain basic features of conditioned eyelid responses, with a slight improvement in performance in one measure. We also use this simulation to examine the generality of the computation properties that we have derived from studying eyelid conditioning. We demonstrate that this scaled up simulation can learn a high level of performance in a classic machine learning task, the cart-pole balancing task. These results suggest that this parallel GPU technology can be used to build very large-scale simulations whose connectivity ratios match those of the real cerebellum and that these simulations can be used guide future studies on cerebellar mediated tasks and on machine learning problems.

  13. Predictive modeling by the cerebellum improves proprioception. (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Okamura, Allison M; Bastian, Amy J


    Because sensation is delayed, real-time movement control requires not just sensing, but also predicting limb position, a function hypothesized for the cerebellum. Such cerebellar predictions could contribute to perception of limb position (i.e., proprioception), particularly when a person actively moves the limb. Here we show that human cerebellar patients have proprioceptive deficits compared with controls during active movement, but not when the arm is moved passively. Furthermore, when healthy subjects move in a force field with unpredictable dynamics, they have active proprioceptive deficits similar to cerebellar patients. Therefore, muscle activity alone is likely insufficient to enhance proprioception and predictability (i.e., an internal model of the body and environment) is important for active movement to benefit proprioception. We conclude that cerebellar patients have an active proprioceptive deficit consistent with disrupted movement prediction rather than an inability to generally enhance peripheral proprioceptive signals during action and suggest that active proprioceptive deficits should be considered a fundamental cerebellar impairment of clinical importance.

  14. Hypoxic preconditioning differentially affects GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal cells in the injured cerebellum of the neonatal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G Benitez

    Full Text Available In this study we examined cerebellar alterations in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with or without hypoxic preconditioning (Pc. Between postnatal days 7 and 15, the cerebellum is still undergoing intense cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67 and the differentiation factor NeuroD1 were examined as markers of Purkinje and granule cells, respectively. We applied quantitative immunohistochemistry to sagittal cerebellar slices, and Western blot analysis of whole cerebella obtained from control (C rats and rats submitted to Pc, hypoxia-ischemia (L and a combination of both treatments (PcL. We found that either hypoxia-ischemia or Pc perturbed the granule cells in the posterior lobes, affecting their migration and final placement in the internal granular layer. These effects were partially attenuated when the Pc was delivered prior to the hypoxia-ischemia. Interestingly, whole nuclear NeuroD1 levels in Pc animals were comparable to those in the C rats. However, a subset of Purkinje cells that were severely affected by the hypoxic-ischemic insult--showing signs of neuronal distress at the levels of the nucleus, cytoplasm and dendritic arborization--were not protected by Pc. A monoclonal antibody specific for GAD67 revealed a three-band pattern in cytoplasmic extracts from whole P15 cerebella. A ∼110 kDa band, interpreted as a potential homodimer of a truncated form of GAD67, was reduced in Pc and L groups while its levels were close to the control animals in PcL rats. Additionally we demonstrated differential glial responses depending on the treatment, including astrogliosis in hypoxiated cerebella and a selective effect of hypoxia-ischemia on the vimentin-immunolabeled intermediate filaments of the Bergmann glia. Thus, while both glutamatergic and GABAergic cerebellar neurons are compromised by the hypoxic-ischemic insult

  15. Cerebellum lesion impairs eyeblink-like classical conditioning in goldfish. (United States)

    Gómez, A; Durán, E; Salas, C; Rodríguez, F


    The cerebellum of mammals is an essential component of the neural circuitry underlying classical conditioning of eyeblink and other discrete responses. Although the neuroanatomical organization of the cerebellum is notably well conserved in vertebrates, little is actually known about the cerebellar learning functions in nonmammal vertebrate groups. In this work we studied whether the cerebellum of teleost fish plays a critical role in the classical conditioning of a motor response. In Experiment 1, we classically conditioned goldfish in a procedure analogous to the eyeblink conditioning paradigm commonly used in mammals. Goldfish were able to learn to express an eyeblink-like conditioned response to a predictive light (conditioned stimulus) that was paired with a mild electric shock (unconditioned stimulus). The application of unpaired and extinction control procedures demonstrated that also in teleosts the learning of this motor response depends on associative rules. In Experiment 2 we studied whether classical conditioning of this response is critically dependent on the cerebellum and independent of telencephalic structures as occurs in mammals. Cerebellum lesion prevented the acquisition of the eyeblink-like conditioned response whereas telencephalon ablation did not impair the learning of this response. No deficit was observed following lesions in the performance of the unconditioned response or in the percentage of spontaneous responses. These results suggest that cerebellum ablation in goldfish affects a critical component of the circuitry necessary for the acquisition of the conditioned response but does not interfere with the ability of the animal to perform the response itself. The striking similarity in the role of cerebellum in classical conditioning of a motor response between teleost fish and mammals suggests that this learning function of the cerebellum could be a primitive feature of the vertebrate brain that has been conserved through evolution.

  16. The Cerebellum and Pain: Passive Integrator or Active Participator?


    Moulton, Eric A.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David


    The cerebellum is classically considered to be a brain region involved in motor processing, but it has also been implicated innon-motor, and even cognitive, functions. Though previous research suggests that the cerebellum responds to noxious stimuli, its specific role during pain is unclear. Pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses sensory discriminative, affective motivational, and cognitive evaluative components. Cerebellar involvement during the processing of pain could thus ...

  17. Mechanisms of intruder motion in cyclically sheared granular media (United States)

    Zheng, Hu; Barés, Jonathan; Wang, Dong; Behringer, Robert


    We perform an experimental study showing how an intruder, a Teflon disk that experiences a moderate constant force, F, can advance through a granular material that is subject to quasi-static cyclic shear. The large Teflon disk is embedded in a layer of smaller bidisperse photoelastic disks. The granular medium and disk are contained in a horizontal cell, which is deformed from a square to a parallelogram and back again. The area of the cell remains constant throughout, and the protocol corresponds to cyclical simple shear. We find that the net intruder motion per cycle increases as a power law in Nc. The intruder motion relative to the granular background occurs primarily following strain reversals. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR1206351, NASA Grant No. NNX15AD38G and the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neuropathology of the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hampson


    Full Text Available The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Advanced Granular System Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  20. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches (United States)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico


    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that

  1. Localizing energy in granular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Przedborski, Michelle A; Sen, Surajit


    A device for absorbing and storing short duration impulses in an initially uncompressed one-dimensional granular chain is presented. Simply stated, short regions of sufficiently soft grains are embedded in a hard granular chain. These grains exhibit long-lived standing waves of predictable frequencies regardless of the timing of the arrival of solitary waves from the larger matrix. We explore the origins, symmetry, and energy content of the soft region and its intrinsic modes.

  2. A Low-Dissipation Technique for Computing Dense Granular Compressible Flows with Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Houim, Ryan W


    A low-dissipation numerical method was developed for solving kinetic theory-based granular multiphase models with volume fractions ranging from very dilute to very dense in highly compressible flows containing shock waves. The proposed numerical method takes advantage of particle incompressibility and allows computation of gas-phase and granular-phase hyperbolic fluxes to be decoupled while treating non-conservative terms consistent with their physical meaning. The technique converges under grid refinement even with very high volume fraction granular interfaces and is compatible with high-order numerical algorithms. The method can advect sharp granular interfaces that coincide with multi-species gaseous contacts without violating the pressure non-disturbing conditions. The method also reproduces features from multiphase shock tube problems, granular shocks, transmission angles of compaction waves, and shock wave and dust layer interactions. The proposed scheme is relatively straight-forward to implement and c...

  3. Granular Superconductors and Gravity (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron


    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  4. Simulations of Granular Media (United States)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Müller, M.

    For the last ten years there has been an enormous progress in the simulation of granular media like sand or powders. These simulations consist in simulating trajectories of each particle individually. Essentially one has to solve the Newton's equations including the effects of Coulomb friction and the physics occuring at a collision. But the details of the trajectories are not important for the collective behaviour. Therefore simplifications are introduced on the smallest scales. I will introduce various methods like molecular dynamics that are used to simulate large amounts of particles (over 109). Some of these medhods are based on the exploitation of parallelisation and metacomputing. Other approaches are more stochastic (DSMC Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) which simplify the calculation of collisions, positions and collision times. Very successful has been also the use of cellular automata which have been able to predict details such as the logarithmic tale of sand heaps. I will also discuss numerical techniques used for the surrounding fluid. This can be water in the case of sedimentation or air when one studies the formation of dunes in the desert. The calculation of velocity and pressure field of the fluid are done using multigrid techniques on parallel computers. We will compare the performance of the various techniques and show some benchmarks on the dependence on the size of the system, the density of particles and the number of processors used.

  5. FGF/FGFR2 signaling regulates the generation and correct positioning of Bergmann glia cells in the developing mouse cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Meier

    Full Text Available The normal cellular organization and layering of the vertebrate cerebellum is established during embryonic and early postnatal development by the interplay of a complex array of genetic and signaling pathways. Disruption of these processes and of the proper layering of the cerebellum usually leads to ataxic behaviors. Here, we analyzed the relative contribution of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2-mediated signaling to cerebellar development in conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice. We show that during embryonic mouse development, Fgfr2 expression is higher in the anterior cerebellar primordium and excluded from the proliferative ventricular neuroepithelium. Consistent with this finding, conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice display the most prominent defects in the anterior lobules of the adult cerebellum. In this context, FGFR2-mediated signaling is required for the proper generation of Bergmann glia cells and the correct positioning of these cells within the Purkinje cell layer, and for cell survival in the developing cerebellar primordium. Using cerebellar microexplant cultures treated with an FGFR agonist (FGF9 or antagonist (SU5402, we also show that FGF9/FGFR-mediated signaling inhibits the outward migration of radial glia and Bergmann glia precursors and cells, and might thus act as a positioning cue for these cells. Altogether, our findings reveal the specific functions of the FGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in the generation and positioning of Bergmann glia cells during cerebellar development in the mouse.

  6. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.


    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  7. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)


    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  8. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media (United States)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team


    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  9. Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves (United States)

    Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie


    A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiangshan; Zhu Guangxi


    This letter proposes an efficient wavelet-based Fine Granularity Scalable (FGS)coding scheme, where the base layer is encoded with a newly designed wavelet-based coder, and the enhancement layer is encoded with Progressive Fine Granularity Scalable (PFGS) coding.This algorithm involves multi-frame motion compensation, rate-distortion optimizing strategy with Lagrangian cost function and context-based adaptive arithmetic coding. In order to improve efficiency of the enhancement layer coding, an improved motion estimation scheme that uses both information from the base layer and the enhancement layer is also proposed in this letter. The wavelet-based coder significantly improves the coding efficiency of the base layer compared with MPEG-4 ASP (Advanced Simple Profile) and H.26L TML9. The PFGS coding is a significant improvement over MPEG-4 FGS coding at the enhancement layer. Experiments show that single layer coding efficiency gain of the proposed scheme is about 2.0-3.0dB and 0.3-1.0dB higher than that of MPEG-4 ASP and H.26L TML9, respectively. The overall coding efficiency gain of the proposed scheme is about 4.0-5.0dB higher than that of MPEG-4 FGS.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiangshan; ZhuGuangxi


    This letter proposes an efficient wavelet-based fine Granularity Scalable(FGS)coding scheme,where the base layer is encoded with a newly designed wavelet-based coder,and the entancement layer is encoded with Progressive Fins Granularity Scalable(PFGS)coding.This algorithm involves multi-frame motion compensationk,rate-distortion optimizing strategy with Lagrangian cost function and context-based adaptive arithmetic coding.In order to improve efficiency of the enhancenent layer coding,an improved motion estimation scheme that uses both information from the base layer and the enhancement layer is also proposed in this letter.The wavelet-based coder significantly improves the coding efficiency of the base layer compared with MPEG-4 ASP(Advanced Simple Profile)and H.26L TML9.The PFGS coding is a significant improvement over MPEG-4 FGS coding at the enhancement layer.Experiments show that single layer coding efficiency gain of the proposed scheme is about 2.0-3.0dB and 0.3-1.0dB higher than that of MPEG-4 ASP and H.26L TML9,respectively.The overall coding efficiency gain of the proposed scheme is about 4.0-5.0dB higher than that of MPEG04 FGS.

  12. Ablation of BRaf impairs neuronal differentiation in the postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of the kinase BRaf in postnatal brain development. Mice expressing truncated, non-functional BRaf in neural stem cell-derived brain tissue demonstrate alterations in the cerebellum, with decreased sizes and fuzzy borders of the glomeruli in the granule cell layer. In addition we observed reduced numbers and misplaced ectopic Purkinje cells that showed an altered structure of their dendritic arborizations in the hippocampus, while the overall cornus ammonis architecture appeared to be unchanged. In male mice lacking BRaf in the hippocampus the size of the granule cell layer was normal at postnatal day 12 (P12 but diminished at P21, as compared to control littermates. This defect was caused by a reduced ability of dentate gyrus progenitor cells to differentiate into NeuN positive granule cell neurons. In vitro cell culture of P0/P1 hippocampal cells revealed that BRaf deficient cells were impaired in their ability to form microtubule-associated protein 2 positive neurons. Together with the alterations in behaviour, such as autoaggression and loss of balance fitness, these observations indicate that in the absence of BRaf all neuronal cellular structures develop, but neuronal circuits in the cerebellum and hippocampus are partially disturbed besides impaired neuronal generation in both structures.

  13. Instability in Shocked Granular Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei


    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  14. Instability in shocked granular gases (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei


    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  15. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11


    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  16. Unifying suspension and granular rheology. (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier


    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  17. The role of the cerebellum in neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Shakiba, Alia


    For a long time, cerebellum was only known for its role in movement coordination and until recently, its role in non-motor brain function was largely ignored. Recent evidences has expanded the concept of coordination, from voluntary movements and orientation of the body to nearly every cerebral function including emotion regulation, social cognition, and time perception. This article aims to review the current evidences supporting the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including studies using volumetric and/or functional imaging techniques, genetic and molecular studies, and clinical reports. The implication of these findings, their potential use, and future directions are also discussed.

  18. The evolution of cerebellum structure correlates with nest complexity


    Hall, Zachary Jonas; Street, Sally; Healy, Susan Denise


    This article was made open access through RCUK OA block grant funds. The work was financially supported by the BBSRC (BB/I019502/1), NSERC (PGSD3-409582-2011 to Z.J.H.) and ERC (232823 to S.E.S.). Across the brains of different bird species, the cerebellum varies greatly in the amount of surface folding (foliation). The degree of cerebellar foliation is thought to correlate positively with the processing capacity of the cerebellum, supporting complex motor abilities, particularly manipulat...

  19. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)


    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  20. Phase Diagram of Vertically Shaken Granular Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Eshuis, P; Lohse, D; Van der Meer, D; Van der Weele, K; Bos, Robert; Eshuis, Peter; Lohse, Detlef; Meer, Devaraj van der; Weele, Ko van der


    A shallow, vertically shaken granular bed in a quasi 2-D container is studied experimentally yielding a wider variety of phenomena than in any previous study: (1) bouncing bed, (2) undulations, (3) granular Leidenfrost effect, (4) convection rolls, and (5) granular gas. These phenomena and the transitions between them are characterized by dimensionless control parameters and combined in a full experimental phase diagram.

  1. A granular computing method for nonlinear convection-diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Lan


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method of solving nonlinear convection-diffusion equation (NCDE, based on the combination of granular computing (GrC and characteristics finite element method (CFEM. The key idea of the proposed method (denoted as GrC-CFEM is to reconstruct the solution from coarse-grained layer to fine-grained layer. It first gets the nonlinear solution on the coarse-grained layer, and then the function (Taylor expansion is applied to linearize the NCDE on the fine-grained layer. Switch to the fine-grained layer, the linear solution is directly derived from the nonlinear solution. The full nonlinear problem is solved only on the coarse-grained layer. Numerical experiments show that the GrC-CFEM can accelerate the convergence and improve the computational efficiency without sacrificing the accuracy.

  2. River-bed armoring as a granular segregation phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Houssais, Morgane; Jerolmack, Douglas J


    Gravel-river beds typically have an "armored" layer of coarse grains on the surface, which acts to protect finer particles underneath from erosion. River bed-load transport is a kind of dense granular flow, and such flows are known to vertically segregate grains. The contribution of granular physics to river-bed armoring, however, has not been investigated. Here we examine these connections in a laboratory river with bimodal sediment size, by tracking the motion of particles from the surface to deep inside the bed, and find that armor develops by two distinct mechanisms. Bed-load transport in the near-surface layer drives rapid segregation, with a vertical advection rate proportional to the granular shear rate. Creeping grains beneath the bed-load layer give rise to slow but persistent segregation, which is diffusion dominated and insensitive to shear rate. We verify these findings with a continuum phenomenological model and discrete element method simulations. Our results suggest that river beds armor by gra...

  3. Investigation of the resilient behavior of granular base materials with simple test apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.; Huurman, M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.


    In many developing countries, where resources are at premium, thin asphalt layers or chip seals are widely used to provide a durable all weather pavement surfacing. In such pavements the role of granular layers is very important in the general performance of the structure. Pavement designs in these

  4. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz


    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  5. New roles for the cerebellum in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Reeber


    Full Text Available The cerebellum has a well-established role in maintaining motor coordination and studies of cerebellar learning suggest that it does this by recognizing neural patterns, which it uses to predict optimal movements. Serious damage to the cerebellum impairs this learning and results in a set of motor disturbances called ataxia. However, recent work implicates the cerebellum in cognition and emotion, and it has been argued that cerebellar dysfunction contributes to non-motor conditions such as autism spectrum disorders. Based on human and animal model studies, two major questions arise. Does the cerebellum contribute to non-motor as well as motor diseases, and if so, how does altering its function contribute to such diverse symptoms? The architecture and connectivity of cerebellar circuits may hold the answers to these questions. An emerging view is that cerebellar defects can trigger motor and non-motor neurological conditions by globally influencing brain function. Furthermore, during development cerebellar circuits may play a role in wiring events necessary for higher cognitive functions such as social behavior and language. We discuss genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral evidence that implicates Purkinje cell dysfunction as a major culprit in several diseases and offer a hypothesis as to how canonical cerebellar functions might be at fault in non-motor as well as motor diseases.

  6. Pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum. (United States)

    Coombes, Stephen A; Misra, Gaurav


    Pain-related adaptations in movement require a network architecture that allows for integration across pain and motor circuits. Previous studies addressing this issue have focused on cortical areas such as the midcingulate cortex. Here, we focus on pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum. The goal of this study was to identify areas of activation in the cerebellum, which are common to pain and motor processing, and to determine whether the activation is limited to the superior and inferior cerebellar motor maps or extends into multimodal areas of the posterior cerebellum. Our observations identified overlapping activity in left and right lobules VI and VIIb during pain and motor processing. Activation in these multimodal regions persisted when pain and motor processes were combined within the same trial, and activation in contralateral left lobule VIIb persisted when stimulation was controlled for. Functional connectivity analyses revealed significant correlations in the BOLD time series between multimodal cerebellar regions and sensorimotor regions in the cerebrum including anterior midcingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and thalamus. The current findings are the first to show multimodal processing in lobules VI and VIIb for motor control and pain processing and suggest that the posterior cerebellum may be important in understanding pain-related adaptations in motor control.

  7. Multiple sclerosis impairs regional functional connectivity in the cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Kasper Winther; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard


    expressed a reduction in regional homogeneity with increasing global disability as reflected by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score or higher ataxia scores. The two clusters were mainly located in Crus I and extended into Crus II and the dentate nucleus but with little spatial overlap....... These findings suggest a link between impaired regional integration in the cerebellum and general disability and ataxia....

  8. Autism and the Cerebellum: Evidence from Tuberous Sclerosis. (United States)

    Weber, Anna M.; Egelhoff, John C.; McKellop, J. Mark; Franz, David Neal


    A study examined the relationship between neuroimaging findings and the behavioral characteristics of 29 patients with tuberous sclerosis. Findings indicate a positive linear relationship between a patient's total number of tubers and degree of intellectual impairment. The number of tubers in the cerebellum was associated with more autistic…

  9. Functional Modules in the flocculus of the rabbit cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.M. Tan (Tjiauw Hok Marinus)


    textabstractMany studies, using different anatomical and physiological techniques, have aimed at subdiViding the cerebellum into distinctive parts that exert control over specific motor systems for reflex and voluntary movements, posture, and muscle tone. In view of the homogeneity of the cerebellar

  10. The cerebellum on the rise in human emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van


    For decennia the cerebellum has largely been excluded from scientific enquiry beyond motor function. However, the intimate afferent and efferent connections to the midbrain and limbic system provide for the neuroanatomical foundation of cerebellar involvement in emotion and emotional disorders. More

  11. Elephants have relatively the largest cerebellum size of mammals. (United States)

    Maseko, Busisiwe C; Spocter, Muhammad A; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R


    The current study used MR imaging to determine the volume of the cerebellum and its component parts in the brain of three adult male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and compared this with published data from Asian elephants and other mammalian species including odontocete cetaceans, primates, chiropterans, insectivores, carnivores, and artiodactyls. The cerebellum of the adult elephant has a volume of ∼925 mL (average of both African and Asian species). Allometric analysis indicates that the elephant has the largest relative cerebellum size of all mammals studied to date. In addition, both odontocete cetaceans and microchiropterans appear to have large relative cerebellar sizes. The vermal and hemispheric components of the African elephant cerebellum are both large relative to other mammals of similar brain size, however, for odontocete cetaceans the vermal component is small and the hemispheric component is large. These volumetric observations are related to life-histories and anatomies of the species investigated. The current study provides context for one aspect of the elephant brain in the broader picture of mammalian brain evolution.

  12. Cerebellum and motor learning, motor memory and motor integration: morphology and distribution of neuropeptide Y neurons in rat cerebellar cortex%大鼠小脑皮质内神经肽Y能神经元的形态与分布小脑的运动学习、记忆及整合功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王省; 孙银平; 蔡新华


    the Purkinje layer of the cerebellum. They had pear-like or spherical shapes, clear and unstained nucleus, unstained axons and dendrites, and their axons stretching out into the granular layer while the reticular dendrites elongated into the molecular layer. NPY-immunoreactive fibers, instead of neurons, were found in the molecular layer and granular layer.CONCLUSION: NPY-immunoreactive neurons in the Purkinje layer of the cerebellum may be involved in motor learning, motor memory, visceral activity and higher motor integration.%背景:神经肽Y能神经元分布于大脑皮质、尾壳核、边缘系统、丘脑、脑干等多个部位,与运动的学习、记忆及高级整合功能有关;小脑具有通过学习而重新组合的能力,研究大鼠小脑皮质内神经肽Y阳性神经元的形态与分布,可对小脑皮质运动学习的形态学基础有所了解.目的:研究大鼠小脑皮质内神经肽Y免疫阳性神经元的形态与分布,探讨神经肽Y能神经元与小脑运动学习、记忆的关系.设计:以动物为研究对象,单一样本研究.单位:新乡医学院解剖学教研室、病理生理教研室和形态中心.材料:实验于2001-07/12在新乡医学院形态中心进行.清洁级SD大鼠10只,雌雄不限,体质量100~200g.方法:腹腔麻醉后,升主动脉灌注固定,开颅取小脑,人相同固定液中后固定48 h,常规石蜡包埋;沿小脑矢状面作连续切片.神经肽Y免疫组化染色,阳性对照采用大鼠大脑切片;阴性对照用正常小牛血清替代第一抗体,0.01 mol/L磷酸盐缓冲液替代第二抗体.光镜下观察,显微照相.主要观察指标:观察大鼠小脑皮质内神经肽Y能神经元的形态与分布.结果:大鼠小脑内神经肽Y免疫阳性神经元分布在皮质的Purkinje细胞层,胞体呈梨形或烧瓶状,细胞核清晰不染色,轴突伸向颗粒层,树突呈网状伸向分子层,突起未见染色.分子层和颗粒层未见阳性细胞,但可见神经纤维的存

  13. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Particle ID Studies in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reichelt, Christian Günther


    CERN Summer Student Report: Highly granular hadronic calorimeters optimized for the Particle Flow Paradigm are being developed for future linear colliders. A new algorithm for identifying shower starts has been developed for analyses of data from the CALICE tungsten DHCAL prototype. The new algorithm improves the linearity between the reconstructed and generated interaction layers in Monte Carlo simulations, and it is applied as part of the particle identification of muons and pions. Additionally, the effective nuclear interaction length for pions in the DHCAL is estimated by analysing the distribution of interaction layers.

  17. Investigation of 3D surface acoustic waves in granular media with 3-color digital holography (United States)

    Leclercq, Mathieu; Picart, Pascal; Penelet, Guillaume; Tournat, Vincent


    This paper reports the implementation of digital color holography to investigate elastic waves propagating along a layer of a granular medium. The holographic set-up provides simultaneous recording and measurement of the 3D dynamic displacement at the surface. Full-field measurements of the acoustic amplitude and phase at different excitation frequencies are obtained. It is shown that the experimental data can be used to obtain the dispersion curve of the modes propagating in this granular medium layer. The experimental dispersion curve and that obtained from a finite element modeling of the problem are found to be in good agreement. In addition, full-field images of the interaction of an acoustic wave guided in the granular layer with a buried object are also shown.

  18. Effect of volume fraction on granular avalanche dynamics. (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Goldman, Daniel I


    We study the evolution and failure of a granular slope as a function of prepared volume fraction, ϕ(0). We rotated an initially horizontal layer of granular material (0.3-mm-diam glass spheres) to a 45° angle while we monitor the motion of grains from the side and top with high-speed video cameras. The dynamics of grain motion during the tilt process depended sensitively on ϕ(0)∈[0.58-0.63] and differed above or below the granular critical state, ϕ(c), defined as the onset of dilation as a function of increasing volume fraction. For ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)avalanche. Precursor compaction events began at an initial angle θ(0)=7.7±1.4° and occurred intermittently prior to the onset of an avalanche. Avalanches occurred at the maximal slope angle θ(m)=28.5±1.0°. Granular material at ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)>0 did not experience precursor compaction prior to avalanche flow, and instead experienced a single dilational motion at θ(0)=32.1±1.5° prior to the onset of an avalanche at θ(m)=35.9±0.7°. Both θ(0) and θ(m) increased with ϕ(0) and approached the same value in the limit of random close packing. The angle at which avalanching grains came to rest, θ(R)=22±2°, was independent of ϕ(0). From side-view high-speed video, we measured the velocity field of intermittent and avalanching flow. We found that flow direction, depth, and duration were affected by ϕ(0), with ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)0. Our study elucidates how initial conditions-including volume fraction-are important determinants of granular slope stability and the onset of avalanches.

  19. Bipedal locomotion in granular media (United States)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  20. Plane shock wave structure in a dilute granular gas (United States)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob


    We analyse the early time evolution of the Riemann problem of planar shock wave structures for a dilute granular gas by solving Navier-Stokes equations numerically. The one-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations for plane shock wave problem are solved numerically using a relaxation-type numerical scheme. The results on the shock structures in granular gases are presented for different Mach numbers and restitution coefficients. Based on our analysis on early time shock dynamics we conclude that the density and temperature profiles are "asymmetric"; the density maximum and the temperature maximum occur within the shock layer; the absolute magnitudes of longitudinal stress and heat flux which are initially zero at both end states attain maxima in a very short time and thereafter decrease with time.

  1. Extraction Method of Fine Granular Performance from Scintillator Strip Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Katsushige; Miyamoto, Akiya; Takeshita, Tohru


    We describe an algorithm which has been developed to extract fine granularity information from an electromagnetic calorimeter with strip-based readout. Such a calorimeter, based on scintillator strips, is being developed to apply particle flow reconstruction to future experiments in high energy physics. Tests of this algorithm in full detector simulations, using strips of size 45 x 5 mm^2 show that the performance is close to that of a calorimeter with true 5 x 5 mm^2 readout granularity. The performance can be further improved by the use of 10 x 10 mm^2 tile- shaped layers interspersed between strip layers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh


    Full Text Available There was developed a technology to produce starch sweeteners in granular form, which allows to obtain ready product in dry freeflowing state, without separation of mother liquor with valuable nutritional components, for short period of time. During granulation dextrose is crystallized on the surface of seed granules and it increases their size up to determined value, after that granules are destroyed, forming new centers of granules formation. The sizes of granules are in the range of 3–7 mm. The analysis of experimental data shows, that density of granules is decrease with increase of size of granules. Increasing the load for crushing granules at increase of their size is connected with increase of strength due to its mass increase. However, with increase of granule size the specific load per unit of cross-sectional area (tensile strength is decreased. With increase of moisture content of granules the load for destruction is decreased. The tensile strength is decreased with increase of granule size and moisture content. The value of the optimal average granule size is determined using experimental data on change of critical stress arising inside of granules of different size, from the action of load, determined experimentally for each granule, and specific load in granules of seed layer from external forces at mixing of granule layer. Substituting the known values corresponding to experimental installation, in equations, obtained based on experimental data, we find optimal average size of granule for existing boundary conditions, obtained in the experimental installation d = 3,78 mm. The size of granule at starch sweeteners production could be change in certain limits depending on the height of seed layer of granules in granulator. The greater height of seed layer, the smaller average size of granules obtained at granulation.

  3. Visualising stress-chain morphology during granular shear (United States)

    Mair, K.; Hazzard, J. F.; Heath, A.


    Active faults often contain distinct accumulations of granular wear material. During shear, this granular material accommodates stress and strain in heterogeneous manner that may influence fault stability. We present new work to visualise evolving stress distributions during granular shear. Our 3D numerical models consist of granular layers subjected to normal loading and shear, where gouge particles are simulated by individual spheres interacting at points of contact according to simple laws. During shear we observe the transient microscopic processes and resulting macroscopic mechanical behaviour that emerge from interactions of thousands of particles. We track particle translations and contact forces to determine the nature of internal stress accommodation with accumulated slip for different initial configurations. We view model outputs using novel 3D visualisation techniques. Our results highlight the prevalence of transient force or stress chain networks that preferentially transmit enhanced stresses across our layers. We demonstrate that particle size distribution (psd) strongly controls the nature and persistence of the stress chain networks. Models having a narrow (or relatively uniform) psd exhibit localised stress chains with a dominant orientation, whereas wider psd models show diffuse stress chain webs that take a range of orientations. First order macroscopic friction, is insensitive to these distinct stress chain morphologies, however, wider psd models with diffuse stress chains are linked to enhanced friction fluctuations i.e. second order macroscopic effects. Our results are consistent with predictions, based on recent laboratory observations, that stress chain morphologies are sensitive to grain characteristics such as psd. Our numerical approach offers the potential to investigate correlations between stress chain geometry, evolution and resulting macroscopic friction, thus allowing us to explore ideas that heterogeneous stress distributions in

  4. Cerebellum and cognition: viewed from philosophy of mind. (United States)

    Frings, M; Maschke, M; Timmann, D


    Traditionally, it is believed, that the primary function of the cerebellum is to coordinate movement. During the past three decades, it has been controversially discussed, whether the cerebellum may also contribute to cognition and mental states like emotions. In this paper, no position relating to this controversy will be taken. Instead, the hypothesis of non-motor functions of the cerebellum will be viewed from the position of the philosophy of mind. The remarkably uniform microscopic structure and neuronal networks of the cerebellum have led to computer analogies by several authors. The main idea of functionalism, i.e., a theory within the philosophy of mind, is that the mental relates to the physical as computer software does to hardware. This raises the question, whether a cerebellar contribution to cognition and mental states would support functionalism in the philosophy of mind. No support of functionalism could be found in this study, investigating the classical philosophical arguments pro and con functionalism such as those of multiple realizability, the Chinese room and the explanatory gap, while taking the results of cerebellar research into account. On the other hand, philosophical reflection suggests a careful use of the phrases "cognitive dysmetria" (Andreasen et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:9985-90) in the context of mental illness and of "dysmetria of thought" (Schmahmann Arch Neurol. 1991;48:1178-87). According to the argument of the explanatory gap there is at present little support for the assumption that the phenomenal experiencing of an altered emotion can be reduced to the dysmetria of movement.

  5. Multicentric glioblastoma arising in two unusual sites : cerebellum and thalamus


    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pêgas,Karla Lais; Simão,Mariana Fernandez; Stüker, Guilherme


    Multicentric glioblastomas (MGBM) arising in infra/supratentorial regions are uncommon lesions. The authors report a case of MGBM in a 61 year-old female patient, who presented a sudden onset of left hemiplegia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed two expansive large lesions affecting cerebellum and thalamus, with strong contrast enhancement. The patient underwent resection of the cerebellar lesion. Microscopy revealed a high grade glial neoplasm exhibiting high mitotic index, areas o...

  6. The involvement of the human cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning. (United States)

    Gerwig, M; Kolb, F P; Timmann, D


    Besides its known importance for motor coordination, the cerebellum plays a major role in associative learning. The form of cerebellum-dependent associative learning, which has been examined in greatest detail, is classical conditioning of eyeblink responses. The much advanced knowledge of anatomical correlates, as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in eyeblink conditioning in animal models are of particular importance because there is general acceptance that findings in humans parallel the animal data. The aim of the present review is to give an update of findings in humans. Emphasis is put on human lesion studies, which take advantage of the advances of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, findings of functional brain imaging in healthy human subjects are reviewed. The former helped to localize areas involved in eyeblink conditioning within the cerebellum, the latter was in particular helpful in delineating extracerebellar neural substrates, which may contribute to eyeblink conditioning. Human lesion studies support the importance of cortical areas of the ipsilateral superior cerebellum both in the acquisition and timing of conditioned eyeblink responses (CR). Furthermore, the ipsilateral cerebellar cortex seems to be also important in extinction of CRs. Cortical areas, which are important for CR acquisition, overlap with areas related to the control of the unconditioned eyeblink response. Likewise, cortical lesions are followed by increased amplitudes of unconditioned eyeblinks. These findings are in good accordance with the animal literature. Knowledge about contributions of the cerebellar nuclei in humans, however, is sparse. Due to methodological limitations both of human lesion and functional MRI studies, at present no clear conclusions can be drawn on the relative contributions of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei.

  7. Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil (United States)


    elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models , there is no consensus yet within the research community on...Classification) (U) Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular MOWo I... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Emmanuel Petrakis and Ricardo Dobry 13a. TYPE OF...Institute (RPI) on the behavior and modelling of granular media is summarized. The final objective is to develol a constitutive law for granular soil

  8. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar


    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟利; 钟美萍; 吴圣楣; 罗敏洁


    Objective To know the growth of the cerebellum in newborn infants. Methods The central vermian area (CVA) of the cerebellum was measured by head ultrasonography in 90 newborns including 65full- terms, 14 preterms and 11 small for gestational age infants (SGA). Results The average age of the newborn infants were 4.7d (3~7d). The mean CVA in full- terms was 5.8±0.8cm2, which was significantly greater than that in preterms (3.7±1.0cm2), and SGA (5.1±0.8cm2), respectively. However, when corrected for birth weight (BW), the ratio of CVA/BW in term SGA was 2.07, being significantly higher than the ratio of 1.72 in normal full-term newborns. There was no difference between male and female infants. Statistically significant relationships were found between CVA and BW (r=0.8129, P<0.01) and between CVA and gestational age (r=0.7450, P<0.01). Conclusion The study provide some understanding on the growth of the cerebellum, and the cerebellar measurement by cranial ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of neurological maturation in newborn infants.

  10. Network Resource Provisioning for IP over Multi-Granular Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-wei; POO Gee-Swee


    In the internet protocol(IP) over multi-granular optical switch network (IP/MG-OXC), the network node is a typical multilayer switch comprising several layers, the IP packet switching (PXC) layer, wavelength switching (WXC) layer and fiber switching (FXC) layer.This network is capable of both IP layer grooming and wavelength grooming in a hierarchical manner.Resource provisioning in the multi-granular network paradigm is called hierarchical grooming problem.An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to formulate the problem.An iterative heuristic approach is developed for solving the problem in large networks.Case study shows that IP/MG-OXC network is much more extendible and can significantly save the overall network cost as compared with IP over wavelength division multiplexing network.

  11. Characterization of granular flows from the generated seismic signal (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Toussaint, Renaud; De Rosny, Julien; Trinh, Phuong-Thu


    Landslides, rock avalanche and debris flows represent a major natural hazard in steep landscapes. Recent studies showed that the seismic signal generated by these events can provide quantitative information on their location and amplitude. However, owing to the lack of visual observations, the dynamics of gravitational events is still not well understood. A burning challenge is to establish relations between the characteristics of the landslide (volume, speed, runout distance,...) and that of the emitted seismic signal (maximum amplitude, seismic energy, frequencies,...). We present here laboratory experiments of granular columns collapse on an inclined plane. The seismic signal generated by the collapse is recorded by piezoelectric accelerometers sensitive in a wide frequency range (1 Hz - 56 kHz). The granular column is made of steel beads of the same diameter, between 1 mm and 3 mm that are initially contained in a cylinder. The column collapses when the cylinder is removed. A layer of steel beads is glued on the surface of the plane to provide basal roughness. For horizontal granular flows, we show that it is possible to distinguish the phases of acceleration and deceleration of the flow in the emitted seismic signal. Indeed, the signal envelope is symmetrical with respect to its maximum, separating the acceleration from the deceleration. When the slope angle increases, we observe that the signal envelope looses its symmetry: it stays unchanged during the acceleration but it is significantly extended during the deceleration. In addition, we propose a semi-empirical scaling law to describe the increase of the elastic energy radiated by a granular flow when the slope angle increases. The fit of this law with the seismic data allows us to retrieve the friction angle of the granular material, which is a crucial rheological parameter. Finally, we show that the ratio of the radiated elastic energy over the potential energy lost of granular flows, i.e. their seismic

  12. Experimental study of collisional granular flows down an inclined plane (United States)

    Azanza, Emmanuel; Chevoir, François; Moucheront, Pascal


    The collisional flow of a slightly inelastic granular material down a rough inclined plane is usually described by kinetic theories. We present an experimental study aimed at analysing the assumptions and the quantitative predictions of such theories. A two-dimensional channel coupled to a model granular material and image analysis allow detailed and complete measurement of the kinematics and structure of the flows. We determine the range of inclination and particle flux for which the flow is stationary and uniform. The characteristic profiles of solid fraction, mean velocity and granular temperature are systematically measured. Both the true collisional and the dilute kinetic regimes are examined. We show that a quasi-hydrodynamic description of these regimes seems relevant, and that the pressure and the viscosity terms are in good qualitative agreement with the prediction of the kinetic theory. The profiles are well described by the kinetic theory near the top of the flow, at low solid fraction. Conversely there are large discrepancies near the rough plane, where the material is structured in layers.

  13. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.


    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their applica

  14. Some open problems in granular matter mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qicheng Sun; Guangqian Wang; Kaiheng Hu


    Granular matter is a large assemblage of solid particles,which is fundamentally different from any other type of matters,such as solid and liquid.Most models presented for granular matter are phenomenological and are only suitable for solving engineering problems.Many fundamental mechanical problems remain open.By analyzing characteristics of internal state structure,we propose that granularmatter is intrinsically multiscale,i.e.microscale of particle size,mesoscale of force chain,and macroscale of the bulk of granular matter.The correlations among difference scales would be crucial.The mesoscale force chain network is determined by both particle properties and macroscopic boundary conditions.The evolution of the force the chain network contributes to macroscopic mechanical properties of granular matter.In addition,we discuss the drawbacks in simplifying contact forces in the current models,and the difficulties in analyzing the interaction of interstitial fluid in wet granular matter.As an appropriate application of granular matter,debris flow can be studied with granular matter mechanics;meanwhile,debris flow brings more challenges which certainly motivate future studies on granular matter.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  15. Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maten, van der J; Blaauwgeers, JL; Sutedja, G.; Kwa, HB; Postmus, P.E.; Wagenaar, SS


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the population-based incidence and clinical characteristics of granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree. METHODS: All newly registered tracheobronchial granular cell tumors in the Dutch Network and National Database for Pathology for 10 consecutive years (1990-1999) w

  16. Two Classes of Models of Granular Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daowu Pei


    This paper reviews a class of important models of granular computing which are induced by equivalence relations, or by general binary relations, or by neighborhood systems, and propose a class of models of granular computing which are induced by coverings of the given universe.

  17. 黄土高原土壤剖面粒度异常层及相关因素的响应初步分析%Preliminary Analysis on Abnormal Granularity Layers of Soil Profile and the Response of Relative Factors in Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海波; 梁宗锁


    [Objective] The paper was to analyze organic carbon content (SOC), granularity, total nitrogen content (TN), carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N), calcium carbonate content (CaCO3) of 1cm soil profiles in returning forest in Zhifanggou watershed of Ansai County in Loess Plateau, so as to study the changes of physical and chemical properties in abnormal layer of soil reflected with granularity, as well as the physical and chemical responses of soil. [Method] Three quadrats with the size of 10 m×10 m were randomly selected in three sampling plots in Loess Plateau, three profiles in upper, middle and lower slope were excavated, and the samples were collected with interval of 10 cm; the surface layer with the depth of 0-10 cm was divided into two layers of 0-5 and 5-10 cm for sampling, respectively. Eleven samples were collected in each profile with a total of 99 samples. Its organic carbon content, granularity, total nitrogen content, carbon-nitrogen ratio and CaCO3 content were analyzed. [Result] The soil profiles in three sampling sites contained five characteristic layers, including a1, b1, b2, c1 and c2, the content of soil granule with particle size less than 0.02 mm decreased, and those with particle size 0.02 mm increased, the organic carbon content and C/N value (a1, b1, b2, c2) increased, but the increase trend of CaCO3 content was not obvious. [Conclusion] The study shows that the characteristic soil layer is commonly existed in loess region, especially the eroded loess region, which should be paid attention in the research fields of modern soil science and ecology.%[目的]对黄土高原安塞县纸坊沟流域退耕林土壤1m剖面有机碳含量、粒度、全氮含量、碳氮比、碳酸钙含量进行分析,研究以粒度反映下的土壤异常层理化性质变化,以及各土壤物理化学的响应。[方法]对黄土高原上3个样地各随机选择3个10m×10m的样方并分坡上、坡中、坡下分别挖掘3剖面,间隔10cm

  18. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich


    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  19. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich


    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  20. "Lock in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter (United States)

    Clement, Cecile; Sanchez-Colina, Gustavo; Alonso-Llanes, Laciel; Martinez-Roman, Etien; Batitsta-Leyva, Alfo-Jose; Toussaint, Renaud; Altshuler, Ernesto


    molecular dynamic algorithm to confirm or not this assumption. We modelized a granular bed with particles of the same size than the one used in the experiments. Because we have access to the velocity of every particles we can quantify the dynamic of each layers of the granular medium and find its "jammed" boundary. Reference [1] G Sánchez-Colina, L Alonso-Llanes, E Martínez, AJ Batista-Leyva, C Clement, C Fliedner, R Toussaint, and E Altshuler. Note :"lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(12) :126101, 2014.

  1. Example study for granular bioreactor stratification: Three-dimensional evaluation of a sulfate-reducing granular bioreactor (United States)

    Hao, Tian-wei; Luo, Jing-hai; Su, Kui-zu; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R.; Chi, Kun; Chen, Guang-Hao


    Recently, sulfate-reducing granular sludge has been developed for application in sulfate-laden water and wastewater treatment. However, little is known about biomass stratification and its effects on the bioprocesses inside the granular bioreactor. A comprehensive investigation followed by a verification trial was therefore conducted in the present work. The investigation focused on the performance of each sludge layer, the internal hydrodynamics and microbial community structures along the height of the reactor. The reactor substratum (the section below baffle 1) was identified as the main acidification zone based on microbial analysis and reactor performance. Two baffle installations increased mixing intensity but at the same time introduced dead zones. Computational fluid dynamics simulation was employed to visualize the internal hydrodynamics. The 16S rRNA gene of the organisms further revealed that more diverse communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acidogens were detected in the reactor substratum than in the superstratum (the section above baffle 1). The findings of this study shed light on biomass stratification in an SRB granular bioreactor to aid in the design and optimization of such reactors. PMID:27539264

  2. Multiple sclerosis impairs regional functional connectivity in the cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Dogonowski


    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI has been used to study changes in long-range functional brain connectivity in multiple sclerosis (MS. Yet little is known about how MS affects functional brain connectivity at the local level. Here we studied 42 patients with MS and 30 matched healthy controls with whole-brain rs-fMRI at 3 T to examine local functional connectivity. Using the Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance, regional homogeneity of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD-signal fluctuations was calculated for each voxel and used as a measure of local connectivity. Patients with MS showed a decrease in regional homogeneity in the upper left cerebellar hemisphere in lobules V and VI relative to healthy controls. Similar trend changes in regional homogeneity were present in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The results indicate a disintegration of regional processing in the cerebellum in MS. This might be caused by a functional disruption of cortico-ponto-cerebellar and spino-cerebellar inputs, since patients with higher lesion load in the left cerebellar peduncles showed a stronger reduction in cerebellar homogeneity. In patients, two clusters in the left posterior cerebellum expressed a reduction in regional homogeneity with increasing global disability as reflected by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score or higher ataxia scores. The two clusters were mainly located in Crus I and extended into Crus II and the dentate nucleus but with little spatial overlap. These findings suggest a link between impaired regional integration in the cerebellum and general disability and ataxia.

  3. The therapeutic potential of the cerebellum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Lynn Parker


    Full Text Available The cognitive role of the cerebellum is critically tied to its distributed connections throughout the brain. Accumulating evidence from anatomical, structural and functional imaging, and lesion studies advocate a cognitive network involving indirect connections between the cerebellum and non-motor areas in the prefrontal cortex. Cerebellar stimulation dynamically influences activity in several regions of the frontal cortex and effectively improves cognition in schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we summarize current literature on the cingulocerebellar circuit and we introduce a method to interrogate this circuit combining opotogenetics, neuropharmacology, and electrophysiology in awake-behaving animals while minimizing incidental stimulation of neighboring cerebellar nuclei. We propose the novel hypothesis that optogenetic cerebellar stimulation can restore aberrant frontal activity and rescue impaired cognition in schizophrenia. We focus on how a known cognitive region in the frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, is influenced by the cerebellum. This circuit is of particular interest because it has been confirmed using tracing studies, neuroimaging reveals its role in cognitive tasks, it is conserved from rodents to humans, and diseases such as schizophrenia and autism appear in its aberrancy. Novel tract tracing results presented here provide support for how these two areas communicate. The primary pathway involves a disynaptic connection between the cerebellar dentate nuclei and the anterior cingulate cortex. Secondarily, the pathway from cerebellar fastigial nuclei to the ventral tegmental area, which supplies dopamine to the prefrontal cortex, may play a role as schizophrenia characteristically involves dopamine deficiencies. We hope that the hypothesis described here will inspire new therapeutic strategies targeting currently untreatable cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  4. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  5. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy. (United States)

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza


    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning.

  6. Numerical inversion of the Laplace transform in some problems of granular media dynamics (United States)

    Yavich, Nikolay B.


    Approximated value for the vertical displacement of a surface bounding a half space and a layer laying on rigid foundation filled with granular medium caused by a vertical symmetric load is received here. The results obtained for Kandaurov standard linear medium model are used. This model takes in account an internal friction. The Papoulis method of numerical inversion of the Laplace transform is applied.

  7. Myosin Va is developmentally regulated and expressed in the human cerebellum from birth to old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.R. Souza


    Full Text Available Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL. In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko


    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  9. The cerebellum: a new key structure in the navigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle eRochefort


    Full Text Available Early investigations of cerebellar function focused on motor learning, in particular on eyeblink conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and led to the general view that cerebellar Long Term Depression (LTD at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses is the neural correlate of cerebellar motor learning. Thereafter, while the full complexity of cerebellar plasticities was being unraveled, cerebellar involvement in more cognitive tasks - including spatial navigation - was further investigated. However, cerebellar implication in spatial navigation remains a matter of debate because motor deficits frequently associated with cerebellar damage often prevent the dissociation between its role in spatial cognition from its implication in motor function. Here, we review recent findings from behavioral and electrophysiological analyses of cerebellar mutant mouse models, which show that the cerebellum might participate in the construction of hippocampal spatial representation map (i.e. place cells and thereby in goal-directed navigation. These recent advances in cerebellar research point toward a model in which computation from the cerebellum could be required for spatial representation and would involve the integration of multi-source self-motion information to: 1 transform the reference frame of vestibular signals and 2 distinguish between self- and externally-generated vestibular signals. We eventually present herein anatomical and functional connectivity data supporting a cerebello-hippocampal interaction. Whilst a direct cerebello-hippocampal projection has been suggested, recent investigations rather favor a multi-synaptic pathway involving posterior parietal and retrosplenial cortices, two regions critically involved in spatial navigation.

  10. Degranulation of rat cerebellum induces selective variations in gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliyahu, D.; Soreq, H.


    Selective variations in the composition of poly(A)-containing mRNA were found to be induced in the rat cerebellum by X-irradiation. mRNA populations prepared from normal and X-irradiated rat cerebella at different stages of their development displayed equal efficiencies when translated in vitro in reticulocyte lysates. Specific differences were revealed, however, when the labeled translation products of both mRNA preparations were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography of the dried gels. Of more than 100 polypeptide products, several showed marked intensity differences, indicating changes in the abundance of their directing mRNA species. These differences appear both in developing and in mature cerebellar mRNA, and the extent of modification in mRNA is much higher than the consequent changes in the composition of proteins in the irradiated cerebellum. The degranulation-induced modifications in levels of specific cerebellar mRNA species can be used to identify proteins whose biosynthesis depends on the presence of interneurons.

  11. Wet granular walkers and climbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Z S; Steinberger, A; Seemann, R; Herminghaus, S, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)


    Mechanisms of locomotion in microscopic systems are of great interest not only for technological applications but also for the sake of understanding, and potentially harnessing, processes far from thermal equilibrium. Downscaling is a particular challenge and has led to a number of interesting concepts, including thermal ratchet systems and asymmetric swimmers. Here we present a granular ratchet system employing a particularly robust mechanism that can be implemented in various settings. The system consists of wetted spheres of different sizes that adhere to each other, and are subject to a symmetric oscillating, zero average external force field. An inherent asymmetry in the mutual force network leads to force rectification and hence to locomotion. We present a simple model that accounts for the observed behaviour, underscores its robustness and suggests a potential scalability of the concept.

  12. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.


    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  13. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  14. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1,...

  15. Kinetic approach to granular gases. (United States)

    Puglisi, A; Loreto, V; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U; Vulpiani, A


    We address the problem of the so-called "granular gases," i.e., gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e., at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the number N of particles, for large values of N. One has two regimes: when the typical relaxation time tau of the driving Brownian process is small compared with the mean collision time tau(c) the spatial density is nearly homogeneous and the velocity probability distribution is Gaussian. In the opposite limit tau>tau(c) one has strong spatial clustering, with a fractal distribution of particles, and the velocity probability distribution strongly deviates from the Gaussian one. Simulations performed in one and two dimensions under the Stosszahlansatz Boltzmann approximation confirm the scenario. Furthermore, we analyze the instabilities bringing to the spatial and the velocity clusterization. Firstly, in the framework of a mean-field model, we explain how the existence of the inelasticity can lead to a spatial clusterization; on the other hand, we discuss, in the framework of a Langevin dynamics treating the collisions in a mean-field way, how a non-Gaussian distribution of velocity can arise. The comparison between the numerical and the analytical results exhibits an excellent agreement.

  16. Linguistic granular model: design and realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Shihong; LI Ping; SONG Zhihuan


    A new linguistic granular model is proposed and the effect of its parameters on the output is analyzed. The design of the model consists of two stages: using conditional fuzzy clustering for information granular, and integrating all information granules to final output. The integrating tool is fuzzy integral based on fuzzy measure, and the generalization of fuzzy integral increases flexibility of the linguistic granular model greatly. A heuristic algorithm to determine the parameters in the fuzzy integral is used to realize the linguistic model. Two experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed model.

  17. Energy decay in a granular gas collapse (United States)

    Almazán, Lidia; Serero, Dan; Salueña, Clara; Pöschel, Thorsten


    An inelastic hard ball bouncing repeatedly off the ground comes to rest in finite time by performing an infinite number of collisions. Similarly, a granular gas under the influence of external gravity, condenses at the bottom of the confinement due to inelastic collisions. By means of hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the condensation process of a granular gas reveals a similar dynamics as the bouncing ball. Our result is in agreement with both experiments and particle simulations, but disagrees with earlier simplified hydrodynamical description. Analyzing the result in detail, we find that the adequate modeling of pressure plays a key role in continuum modeling of granular matter.

  18. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Hońko, Piotr


    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  19. Gas-driven subharmonic waves in a vibrated two-phase granular material. (United States)

    Matas, J-P; Uehara, J; Behringer, R P


    Vibrated powders exhibit striking phenomena: subharmonic waves, oscillons, convection, heaping, and even bubbling. We demonstrate novel rectangular profile subharmonic waves for vibrated granular material, that occur uniquely in the two-phase case of grains, and a fluid, such as air. These waves differ substantially from those for the gas-free case, exhibit different dispersion relations, and occur for specific shaking parameters and air pressure, understandable with gas-particle flow models. These waves occur when the gas diffusively penetrates the granular layer in a time comparable to the shaker period. As the pressure is lowered towards P =0, the granular-gas system exhibits a Knudsen regime. This instability provides an opportunity to quantitatively test models of two-phase flow.

  20. Cell-Targeted Optogenetics and Electrical Microstimulation Reveal the Primate Koniocellular Projection to Supra-granular Visual Cortex. (United States)

    Klein, Carsten; Evrard, Henry C; Shapcott, Katharine A; Haverkamp, Silke; Logothetis, Nikos K; Schmid, Michael C


    Electrical microstimulation and more recently optogenetics are widely used to map large-scale brain circuits. However, the neuronal specificity achieved with both methods is not well understood. Here we compare cell-targeted optogenetics and electrical microstimulation in the macaque monkey brain to functionally map the koniocellular lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) projection to primary visual cortex (V1). Selective activation of the LGN konio neurons with CamK-specific optogenetics caused selective electrical current inflow in the supra-granular layers of V1. Electrical microstimulation targeted at LGN konio layers revealed the same supra-granular V1 activation pattern as the one elicited by optogenetics. Taken together, these findings establish a selective koniocellular LGN influence on V1 supra-granular layers, and they indicate comparable capacities of both stimulation methods to isolate thalamo-cortical circuits in the primate brain.

  1. Noise induces rare events in granular media. (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M


    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  2. Sliding through a superlight granular medium. (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  3. The role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Fitzgerald, P.B.; Chen, R.; Daskalakis, Z.J.


    The cerebellum has traditionally been looked upon as a brain area primarily involved in motor behaviour. The last decade has however heralded the cerebellum as a brain region of renewed interest for neuropsychiatric disorders. This renewed interest is fuelled by new insights obtained from neuroanato

  4. [Granular cell tumor of the larynx]. (United States)

    Modrzyński, M; Wróbel, B; Zawisza, E; Drozd, K


    Granular cell tumor is an unusual growth of probably neuroectodermal histogenesis, first reported by Abrikossoff in 1926 with the name of myoblastenmyoma. Authors described a case of a 54 year man with laryngeal seat of granular-cell myoblastoma. In this case Abrikossoff tumor was located in the right vocal chord. The tumor was treated successfully surgically by microlaryngoscopy. The etiology, clinical features and diagnostic difficulties are discussed.

  5. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)


    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  6. Shearing fluid-filled granular media: A coupled discrete element - continuous approach (United States)

    Goren, L.; Aharonov, E.; Sparks, D.; Toussaint, R.; Marder, E.


    Fluid-filled granular layers are abundant in the Earth's shallow crust as saturated soils and poorly consolidated hillslope material, and as fluid-filled fault gouge layers. When such grains-fluid systems are subjected to excitation by the passage of seismic waves, tectonic loading, or gravitational loading they exhibit a highly non-trivial dynamical behavior that may lead to instabilities in the form of soil liquefaction, debris flow mobilization, and earthquakes. In order to study the basic coupled mechanics of fluid-filled granular media and the dynamical processes that are responsible for the emergence of instabilities we develop a model that couples granular dynamics (DEM) algorithm with a continuous Eulerian grid-based solver. The two components of the model represent the two phases (grains and fluid) in two different scales. Each grain is represented by a single element in the granular dynamics component, where grains interact by elastic collisions and frictional sliding. The compressible pore fluid is represented on a coarser Darcy scale grid that is super-imposed over the grains layer. The pore space geometry set by the evolving granular packing is used to define smooth porosity and permeability fields, and the individual grain velocities are interpolated to define a smooth field of a solid-fraction velocity. The porosity, permeability, and solid velocity fields are used in the continuous fluid grid-based solver to find pore fluid velocity and pressure. Pore fluid pressure gradients are interpolated back from the fluid grid to individual grains, where they enter the grains force balance equation as seepage forces. Boundary conditions are specified separately for the two phases. For the pore fluid we test two end-member drainage conditions: completely drained system (with infinite boundary permeability) and completely undrained system (with zero boundary permeability). For the grains, two-dimensional time dependent stress and velocity conditions are

  7. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ita, Stacey Leigh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu


    This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.

  9. Multicentric glioblastoma arising in two unusual sites: cerebellum and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi


    Full Text Available Multicentric glioblastomas (MGBM arising in infra/supratentorial regions are uncommon lesions. The authors report a case of MGBM in a 61 year-old female patient, who presented a sudden onset of left hemiplegia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed two expansive large lesions affecting cerebellum and thalamus, with strong contrast enhancement. The patient underwent resection of the cerebellar lesion. Microscopy revealed a high grade glial neoplasm exhibiting high mitotic index, areas of necrosis and microvascular proliferation. The neoplastic cells showed positive immunoexpression for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. The morphological findings were consistent with glioblastoma (GBM. The patient was referred to radiotherapy, with discrete signs of tumor regression after a 60-day clinical follow-up.

  10. Wavelet analysis of MR functional data from the cerebellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen, Romero Sánchez, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Vásquez Reyes Marcos, A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; González Gómez Dulce, I., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Hernández López, Javier M., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón, E-mail: [Infant Hospital of Mexico, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. Mexico and Physics Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Pilar, Dies Suarez, E-mail:, E-mail:; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez, E-mail:, E-mail: [Infant Hospital of Mexico, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Benito, De Celis Alonso, E-mail: [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. Mexico and Foundation for Development Carlos Sigüenza. Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)


    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of BOLD signals, which automatically diagnosed ADHD using information from resting state MR experiments. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Wavelet analysis, which is a mathematical tool used to decompose time series into elementary constituents and detect hidden information, was applied here to the BOLD signal obtained from the cerebellum 8 region of all our volunteers. Statistical differences between the values of the a parameters of wavelet analysis was found and showed significant differences (p<0.02) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto


    Full Text Available The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodelling are being unravelled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip (RL, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signalling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of SHH (Sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired development and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. The cerebellum and visual perceptual learning: evidence from a motion extrapolation task. (United States)

    Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo


    Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus

  13. Transition of Magnetoresistance in Co/Alq3 Granular Film on Silicon Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Qi; ZHAO Xiao-Meng; ZHANG Yan; SHENG Peng; TANG Zhen-Yao; NI Gang


    A Co0.38 (Alq3)0.62 granular film is prepared using a co-evaporating technique on a silicon substrate with a native oxide layer. A crossover of magnetoresistance (MR) from positive to negative is observed. The positive MR ratio reaches 17.5% at room temperature (H = 50 kOe), and the negative MR ratio reaches -1.35% at 15K (H = 10 kOe). Furthermore, a metal-insulator transition is also observed. The transition of resistance and MR results from the channel switching of electron transport between the upper Co-Alq3 granular film and the inversion layer underneath. The negative MR originates from the tunneling magnetoresistance effect due to the tunneling conducting between adjacent Co granules, and the positive MR may be attributed to the transport of high mobility carriers in the SiO2/Si inversion layer.

  14. Driven fragmentation of granular gases. (United States)

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio


    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  15. Self-assembled granular towers (United States)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team


    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  16. Distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor proteins in the fetal and postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum of the guinea pig. (United States)

    Dieni, Sandra; Rees, Sandra


    This study investigates the distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, during the development of hippocampus and cerebellum in a long-gestation species, the guinea pig. In the granule cell populations of both structures, BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was exclusive to postmigratory, mature neurons. In dentate granule cells, TrkB-IR was coexpressed with BDNF-IR, suggesting that the ligand-receptor interaction could occur by means of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. In cerebellar granule cells, TrkB-IR was detected in both pre- and postmigratory cells, indicating that immature neurons are also BDNF-responsive. With advancing gestational age an increase in the intensity of BDNF-IR in granule cells was accompanied by concomitant increases in the staining and areal growth of the associated mossy fiber layer in the hippocampus, and the molecular layer in the cerebellum. The developmental increase in BDNF- and TrkB-IR in the neuropil of both structures coincided with periods of significant growth in all strata, indicating a role for BDNF and TrkB in process outgrowth. In the hippocampus, CA2, CA3, and hilar, neurons demonstrated both BDNF- and TrkB-IR during development and maturation, whereas CA1 neurons showed TrkB-IR throughout this period but only transient BDNF-IR in early gestation. In the fetal cerebellum, Purkinje cell bodies coexpressed BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR. In the postnatal period, BDNF-IR was down-regulated but TrkB-IR persisted, indicating that mature Purkinje cells might retain their responsiveness to BDNF. Thus, we have demonstrated in both the hippocampus and cerebellum that the spatiotemporal distribution of BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR coincides with the maturation of granule cells prenatally and with significant periods of neuropil growth, both prenatally and in the immediate postnatal period.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana


    Full Text Available Los vehículos que circulan sobre una estructura de pavimento inducen ciclos de carga y descarga que generan dentro de las capas granulares deformaciones recuperables (resilientes y permanentes (plásticas. La ingeniería de pavimentos ha venido desarrollando estudios desde la década de los 60 con el fin de intentar comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares cuando conforman capas de base y subbase en estructuras flexibles. La mayor parte de las investigaciones que se han realizado en esta área se han concentrado en estudiar su comportamiento resiliente. El estado del conocimiento de estudios desarrollados para medir la respuesta resiliente y la deformación permanente en materiales granulares es presentado en dos artículos por separado. En este primer artículo se presenta la forma como ha sido estudiado el comportamiento resiliente de materiales granulares y se discuten los factores que influyen en dicho comportamiento. Al final del artículo se presenta la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas a partir de resultados de estudios teóricos y experimentales. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el fenómeno de deformación permanente es presentado en un segundo artículo.When vehicles move on a pavement structure, they induce load cycles that generate resilient and permanent strains inside granular layers. Since the 60's, pavement engineering has developed studies in order to understand the elasto-plastic behavior that granular materials experiment on base and sub-base layers of flexible pavements. Most of the researches that have been made in this area have concentrated in studying their resilient behavior. A state of the art about the behavior of granular materials in flexible pavements is presented in two separate papers. This first paper tries on resilient stress-strain characteristics of such materials. The mathematical equations found in the literature to predict the resilient

  18. Investigation of the mouse cerebellum using STIM and {mu}-PIXE spectrometric and FTIR spectroscopic mapping and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, M.J. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Siegele, R., E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia); El-Assaad, F. [Vascular Immunology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McQuillan, J.A. [Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Aitken, J.B.; Carter, E.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Grau, G.E. [Vascular Immunology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hunt, N.H. [Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Cohen, D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia); Lay, P.A. [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    The cerebral biochemistry associated with the development of many neurological diseases remains poorly understood. In particular, incomplete understanding of the mechanisms through which vascular inflammation manifests in tissue damage and altered brain function is a significant hindrance to the development of improved patient therapies. To this extent, a combination of spectrometric/spectroscopic mapping/imaging methods with an inherent ability to provide a wealth of biochemical and physical information have been investigated to understand further the pathogenesis of brain disease. In this study, proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping was combined with scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) mapping and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging of the same tissue sample to study directly the composition of the murine (mouse) cerebellum. The combination of the elemental, density and molecular information provided by these techniques enabled differentiation between four specific tissue types within the murine cerebellum (grey matter, white matter, molecular layer and micro blood vessels). The results presented are complementary, multi-technique measurements of the same tissue sample. They show elemental, density and molecular differences among the different tissue types.

  19. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter* (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad


    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter in two experimental systems. In the regime where the volume fraction of the introduced fluid (liquid) is small, liquid bridges between particles are formed thus giving rise to cohesive forces between particles. In the first series of experiments, we pour the mixture of granular matter and liquid from a reservoir into a silo and imaging the resulting pile through the transparent glass side walls [1]. The angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturate at a value that depends on the size of the particles. The viscosity of the fluid is observed to have a significant effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. Similar phenomena is observed in both the angle of repose and the maximum angle of stability, when the granular-fluid mixture is placed inside a horizontal cylindrical container and rotated. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We also report experiments in which the particles are poured into a silo filled with a fluid to understand the limit of maximum volume fraction of the fluid. In this case the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged from the dry case. However, the segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. * Work in collaboration with Azadeh Samadani, and funded by NSF under Grant No. DMR-9983659. [1]: A. Samadani and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5102 (2000); Phys. Rev. E 64, 051301 (2001).

  20. Influence of vibration on granular flowability and its mechanism of aided flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Regarding flowing granular media as weak transverse isotropic media, the phase velocity expressions of wave P, wave SH and wave SV were deduced, the propagation characteristics of waves in flowing granular media were analyzed. The experiments show that vibration has great influence on granular fluidity. The wavefront of wave P is elliptic or closely elliptic, the wavefront of wave SH is elliptic, and the wavefront of wave SV is not elliptic. Wave propagation in the granular flowing field attenuates layer after layer. The theory and experiment both substantiate that the density difference is the key factor which leads to the attenuation of vibrating energy. In terms of characteristics of wave propagation one can deduce that vibrating waves have less influence on flowability of granules when the amplitude and frequency are small. However, when the amplitude and frequency increase gradually, the eccentricity of ellipsoid, the viscosity resistance and inner friction among granules, and shear intensity of granules decrease, and the loosening coefficient of granules increases, which shows the granules have better flowability.

  1. Mechanics of granular environments; Mecanique des milieux granulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, J. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, 38 (France)


    This book aims at presenting different aspects of the behaviour of granular materials as encountered in natural environments (mainly soils), in industries involving the handling of granular products (cereals..) or powders (chemistry, metal industry..). It brings together the contributions of various specialists of physics and mechanics: mechanics of collisions between solids; gravity flows; grain flows; solid transport as example of two-phase granular flow; wave propagation inside a model of granular environment; propagation of waves in soils; enrockments and stability of rocky slopes; soils behaviour; coupled heat and mass transfers in granular environments; thermo-mechanical properties of granular environments. (J.S.)

  2. Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1. (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; D'Andrea, Giorgio; De Bardi, Marco; Scheijen, Blanca; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Leonardi, Luca; Luvisetto, Siro; Tirone, Felice


    Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

  3. Emotion and Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia-Investigating the Role of the Cerebellum. (United States)

    Mothersill, Omar; Knee-Zaska, Charlotte; Donohoe, Gary


    Social cognitive dysfunction, including deficits in facial emotion recognition and theory of mind, is a core feature of schizophrenia and more strongly predicts functional outcome than neurocognition alone. Although traditionally considered to play an important role in motor coordination, the cerebellum has been suggested to play a role in emotion processing and theory of mind, and also shows structural and functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the specific role of the cerebellum in emotion and theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia using previously published functional neuroimaging studies. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to search for all functional neuroimaging studies reporting altered cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients during emotion processing or theory of mind tasks, published until December 2014. Overall, 14 functional neuroimaging studies were retrieved. Most emotion studies reported lower cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. In contrast, the theory of mind studies reported mixed findings. Altered activity was observed across several posterior cerebellar regions involved in emotion and cognition. Weaker cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls during emotion processing may contribute to blunted affect and reduced ability to recognise emotion in others. This research could be expanded by examining the relationship between cerebellum function, symptomatology and behaviour, and examining cerebellum functional connectivity in patients during emotion and theory of mind tasks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. M. B. Ekong


    Full Text Available Amodiaquine and artesunate are two antimalarial drugs sold in combination as Larimal®. This drug is a very effective artemisinin-base combination. This study was to access the effects of amodiaquine and artesunate combination on the histology of the cerebellum. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-180g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D of five animals each. Group A served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while group B received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days, group C received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for six days and group D received 17.50+5.71mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days. Histological sections showed destruction of the Purkinje cortical layers in group B, with increased destructions in groups C and D compared to the control. These results reveal that amodiaquine and artesunate combination causes histological alterations, which were dose and time dependent and these may result in cerebellar dysfunction.

  5. Pulling rigid bodies through granular material (United States)

    Kubik, Ryan; Dressaire, Emilie


    The need for anchoring systems in granular materials such as sand is present in the marine transportation industry, e.g. to layout moorings, keep vessels and docks fixed in bodies of water, build oil rigs, etc. The holding power of an anchor is associated with the force exerted by the granular media. Empirical evidence indicates that the holding power depends on the size and shape of the anchoring structure. In this model study, we use a two-dimensional geometry in which a rigid body is pulled through a granular media at constant velocity to determine the drag and lift forces exerted by a granular medium on a moving object. The method allows measuring the drag force and recording the trajectory of the rigid object through the sand. We systematically vary the size and geometry of the rigid body, the properties of the granular medium and the extraction speed. For different initial positions of a cylindrical object pulled horizontally through the medium, we record large variations in magnitude of the drag and a significant lift force that pulls the object out of the sand.

  6. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.


    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  7. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala


    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  8. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum (United States)

    Blanco Ayala, Tonali; Lugo Huitrón, Rafael; Carmona Aparicio, Liliana; Ramírez Ortega, Daniela; González Esquivel, Dinora; Pedraza Chaverrí, José; Pérez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ríos, Camilo; Schwarcz, Robert; Pérez de la Cruz, Verónica


    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•), resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 μM each) attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO− (25 μM) potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO− but not from D-KYN + ONOO−. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO− and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 μM). Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative

  9. Coupled granular/continuous medium for thermally stable perpendicular magnetic recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Y. E-mail:; Weller, D.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Schabes, M.E.; Zeltzer, G.; Do, H.; Yen, B.K.; Best, M.E


    We studied coupled granular/continuous (CGC) perpendicular media consisting of a continuous multilayer structure and a granular layer. The addition of Co/Pt multilayers decreased the nucleation field from 200 to -1800 Oe and increased the squareness from 0.9 to 1.0. The moment decay at room temperature was significantly reduced from -4.8% to -0.05% per decade. At elevated temperatures, strong exchange coupling between a granular layer and a continuous layer is needed for thermal stability. The exchange-coupled continuous layer reduces thermal demagnetization as it effectively increases the grain size, tightens the grain distribution, and prevents the reversal of individual grains. Magnetic Force Microscope image showed a larger magnetic cluster size for the CGC structure. Compared to the CoCr{sub 18}Pt{sub 12} medium, the CGC medium had 2.3 dB higher output. However, the noise for the CGC medium increased with the recording density, while the noise for the CoCr{sub 18}Pt{sub 12} medium remained constant from 4 to 15 kfc/mm. Further optimization and noise reduction are still required for future high density recording.

  10. Characterization of base roughness for granular chute flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Lu; Leung, Y F; Sobral, Y D


    Base roughness plays an important role to the dynamics of granular flows but is yet poorly understood due to the difficulty of its quantification. For a bumpy base made by spheres, at least two factors should be considered to characterize its geometric roughness, namely the size ratio of base- to flow-particles and the packing of base particles. In this paper, we propose a definition of base roughness, Ra, which is a function of both the size ratio and the packing arrangement of base particles. The function is generalized for random and regular packing of multi-layered spheres, where the range of possible values of Ra is studied, along with the optimal values to create maximum base roughness. The new definition is applied to granular flows down chute in both two- and three-dimensional configurations. It is proven to be a good indicator of slip condi- tion, and a transition occurs from slip to non-slip condition as Ra increases. Critical values of Ra are identified for the construction of a non-slip base. The ...

  11. Regularized Moment Equations and Shock Waves for Rarefied Granular Gas (United States)

    Reddy, Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob


    It is well-known that the shock structures predicted by extended hydrodynamic models are more accurate than the standard Navier-Stokes model in the rarefied regime, but they fail to predict continuous shock structures when the Mach number exceeds a critical value. Regularization or parabolization is one method to obtain smooth shock profiles at all Mach numbers. Following a Chapman-Enskog-like method, we have derived the "regularized" version 10-moment equations ("R10" moment equations) for inelastic hard-spheres. In order to show the advantage of R10 moment equations over standard 10-moment equations, the R10 moment equations have been employed to solve the Riemann problem of plane shock waves for both molecular and granular gases. The numerical results are compared between the 10-moment and R10-moment models and it is found that the 10-moment model fails to produce continuous shock structures beyond an upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 , while the R10-moment model predicts smooth shock profiles beyond the upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 . The density and granular temperature profiles are found to be asymmetric, with their maxima occurring within the shock-layer.

  12. DEM/CFD modelling of the deposition of dilute granular systems in a vertical container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shen; GUO Yu; WU ChuanYu


    Deposition of granular materials into a container is a general industrial packing process. In this study, the deposition behaviour of dilute granular mixtures consisting of two types of particles that were of the same particle size but different particle densities in the presence of air was numerically analyzed using a coupled discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Bilayer gra-nular mixtures with light particles at bottom and heavy particles at top were first simulated. It was found that the presence of air significantly affected the flow behaviour of the bilayer mixtures. For the system with a relatively low initial void fraction, the air entrapped inside the container escaped through the dilated zones induced due to the friction between the powder bed and wall surfaces. The escaping air streams entrained light particles that were originally located at the bottom of the granular system. Consequently, these light particles were migrated to the top of the granular bed at the end of deposition process. More light particles were migrated when the deposition distance was increased. For the sys-tem with a high initial void fraction, some light particles penetrated into the top layer of heavy particles and created a mixing zone. Deposition of random mixtures with different initial void fractions was also investigated and the influence of initial void fraction on the segregation behaviour was explored as well. It was found that the increase of void fraction promoted segregation during the deposition in air. It was demonstrated that, for granular mixtures consisting of particles of different air sensitivities, the pres-ence of air had a significant impact on the mixing and segregation behaviour during the deposition.

  13. Compaction dynamics of wet granular packings (United States)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Ludewig, Francois; Fiscina, Jorge E.; Lumay, Geoffroy


    The extremely slow compaction dynamics of wet granular assemblies has been studied experimentally. The cohesion, due to capillary bridges between neighboring grains, has been tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The characteristic relaxation time for compaction τ grows strongly with cohesion. A kinetic model, based on a free volume kinetic equations and the presence of a capillary energy barrier (due to liquid bridges), is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimental curves. This model allows one to describe the cohesion in wet granular packing. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has also been investigated in the range 20 % - 80 % . Triboelectric and capillary condensation effects have been introduced in the kinetic model. Results confirm the existence of an optimal condition at RH ~ 45 % for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads.

  14. Perfect fluid flow from granular jet impact

    CERN Document Server

    Ellowitz, Jake; Zhang, Wendy W


    Experiments on the impact of a densely-packed jet of non-cohesive grains onto a fixed target show that the impact produces an ejecta sheet comprised of particles in collimated motion. The ejecta sheet leaves the target at a well-defined angle whose value agrees quantitatively with the sheet angle produced by water jet impact. Motivated by these experiments, we examine the idealized problem of dense granular jet impact onto a frictionless target in two dimensions. Numerical results for the velocity and pressure fields within the granular jet agree quantitatively with predictions from an exact solution for 2D perfect-fluid impact. This correspondence demonstrates that the continuum limit controlling the coherent collective motion in dense granular impact is Euler flow.

  15. Vibration-induced liquefaction of granular suspensions. (United States)

    Hanotin, C; Kiesgen de Richter, S; Marchal, P; Michot, L J; Baravian, C


    We investigate the mechanical behavior of granular suspensions subjected to coupled vibrations and shear. At high shear stress, whatever the mechanical vibration energy and bead size, the system behaves like a homogeneous suspension of hard spheres. At low shear stress, in addition to a dependence on bead size, vibration energy drastically influences the viscosity of the material that can decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. All experiments can be rationalized by introducing a hydrodynamical Peclet number defined as the ratio between the lubrication stress induced by vibrations and granular pressure. The behavior of vibrated wet and dry granular materials can then be unified by assimilating the hookean stress in dry media to the lubrication stress in suspensions.

  16. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan


    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  17. Computational Granular Dynamics Models and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten


    Computer simulations not only belong to the most important methods for the theoretical investigation of granular materials, but also provide the tools that have enabled much of the expanding research by physicists and engineers. The present book is intended to serve as an introduction to the application of numerical methods to systems of granular particles. Accordingly, emphasis is placed on a general understanding of the subject rather than on the presentation of the latest advances in numerical algorithms. Although a basic knowledge of C++ is needed for the understanding of the numerical methods and algorithms in the book, it avoids usage of elegant but complicated algorithms to remain accessible for those who prefer to use a different programming language. While the book focuses more on models than on the physics of granular material, many applications to real systems are presented.

  18. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Zhiwei; Elfring, Gwynn J


    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swi...

  19. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie


    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  20. Ultrasound features of orbital granular cell tumor. (United States)

    Ayres, Bernadete; Miller, Neil R; Eberhart, Charles G; Dibernardo, Cathy W


    The authors report the echographic characteristics of a rare orbital granular cell tumor and correlate these findings with histopathology. A 56-year-old woman presented with proptosis. Complete ophthalmic and ultrasound examinations were performed. Ultrasound revealed an oval, well-outlined orbital mass in the intraconal space with low-medium reflectivity and regular internal structure. An orbitotomy with complete excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic evaluation showed sheets and nests of cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm in a uniform distribution throughout the lesion. The echographic characteristics correlated well with the morphologic surgical findings and the histologic architecture. This is the first report describing the echographic characteristics of orbital granular cell tumor.

  1. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  2. Fractal dimension analysis of cerebellum in Chiari Malformation type I. (United States)

    Akar, Engin; Kara, Sadık; Akdemir, Hidayet; Kırış, Adem


    Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a serious neurological disorder that is characterized by hindbrain herniation. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of fractal analysis in CM-I patients. To examine the morphological complexity features of this disorder, fractal dimension (FD) of cerebellar regions were estimated from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 17 patients with CM-I and 16 healthy control subjects in this study. The areas of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated and the corresponding FD values were computed using a 2D box-counting method in both groups. The results indicated that CM-I patients had significantly higher (p<0.05) FD values of GM, WM and CSF tissues compared to control group. According to the results of correlation analysis between FD values and the corresponding area values, FD and area values of GM tissues in the patients group were found to be correlated. The results of the present study suggest that FD values of cerebellar regions may be a discriminative feature and a useful marker for investigation of abnormalities in the cerebellum of CM-I patients. Further studies to explore the changes in cerebellar regions with the help of 3D FD analysis and volumetric calculations should be performed as a future work.

  3. Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Kumar


    Full Text Available Ethanol is the main constituent of alcoholic beverages that exerts toxicity to neuronal development. Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third trimester of pregnancy, and in rodents this period corresponds to the initial few weeks of postnatal development. In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations. Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol’s harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening of neuronal plasticity. Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the signaling mechanisms that are required for proper neuronal development, and how these processes are impaired by ethanol resulting in harmful consequences to brain development.

  4. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill. (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A


    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice.

  5. [Ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum of experimental hypothyroidism (cretinism)]. (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Miyakawa, T; Kuramoto, M


    We examined the cerebellum of the rats being the experimental hypothyroidism (cretinism) on the 20th day, 35th day and 60th day by the light and electron microscope. The remarkable findings were observed to the experimental group on the 20th day. The maturational states of this group correspond to that of the 16th day of the control group. On the other hand, the remarkable pathological findings were not observed on the 35th and 60th day of the experimental group. According to the findings of the experimental rats on the 20th day, the changes of the cells were the retention of the external granule cells and the maturational changes of the internal granule cells. We recognized the retardation of the maturational timing and a disagreement of the maturational rate of the internal granule cells. The lamellar bodies being the disturbance of the mitochondrial cristae were observed. About the white matter, the myelinated nerve fibers were a small quantity in number, and the deficiency of the myelin synthesis, the maturational disturbance of oligoglia were seen. In the several axons, the lamellar bodies and the honeycomb like structures were seen. It is concluded that the maturational disturbance of the internal granule cells are due to the disturbance of the secondary protein synthesis by the hypothyroid state and the degeneration of the mitocondria. The deficiency of the myelin synthesis is related to the maturational disturbance of oligoglia.

  6. The cerebellum in action: a simulation and robotics study. (United States)

    Hofstötter, Constanze; Mintz, Matti; Verschure, Paul F M J


    The control or prediction of the precise timing of events are central aspects of the many tasks assigned to the cerebellum. Despite much detailed knowledge of its physiology and anatomy, it remains unclear how the cerebellar circuitry can achieve such an adaptive timing function. We present a computational model pursuing this question for one extensively studied type of cerebellar-mediated learning: the classical conditioning of discrete motor responses. This model combines multiple current assumptions on the function of the cerebellar circuitry and was used to investigate whether plasticity in the cerebellar cortex alone can mediate adaptive conditioned response timing. In particular, we studied the effect of changes in the strength of the synapses formed between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells under the control of a negative feedback loop formed between inferior olive, cerebellar cortex and cerebellar deep nuclei. The learning performance of the model was evaluated at the circuit level in simulated conditioning experiments as well as at the behavioural level using a mobile robot. We demonstrate that the model supports adaptively timed responses under real-world conditions. Thus, in contrast to many other models that have focused on cerebellar-mediated conditioning, we investigated whether and how the suggested underlying mechanisms could give rise to behavioural phenomena.

  7. Performance of Anammox granular sludge bed reactor started up with nitrifying granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song


    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) granular sludge bed reactor was started up successfully withnitrifying granular sludge. During the operation, the nitrifying granular sludge was gradually converted into Anammoxgranular sludge with good settling property and high conversion activity. The Anammox reactor worked well with theshortest HRT of 2.43 h. Under the condition that HRT was 6.39 h and influent concentration of ammonia and nitritewas 10 mmol/L, the removal of ammonia and nitrite was 97.17% and 100.00%, respectively. Corresponding

  8. Multiscale modelling of fluid-immersed granular media


    Clément, Christian Paul André René


    In this thesis we present numerical simulation studies of fluid-immersed granular systems using models of varying scales and complexities. These techniques are used to examine the effects of an interstitial fluid on the dynamics of dense granular beds within a number of vibrated systems. After an introduction to the field of granular materials, we present the techniques used to model both the granular dynamics and the fluid flow. We introduce various multiscale techniques to couple the mo...

  9. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics


    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  10. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  11. Granular Impact Dynamics: Acoustics and Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Abram H


    In the corresponding fluid dynamics video, created for the APS DFD 2012 Gallery of Fluid Motion, we show high-speed videos of 2D granular impact experiments, where an intruder strikes a collection of bidisperse photoelastic disks from above. We discuss the force beneath the intruder, which is strongly fluctuating in space and time. These fluctuations correspond to acoustic pulses which propagate into the medium. Analysis shows that this process, in our experiments, is dominated by collisions with grain clusters. The energy from these collisions is carried into the granular medium along networks of grains, where is it dissipated.

  12. A kinetic approach to granular gases


    Puglisi, A.; Loreto, V.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo; Vulpiani, A.


    We address the problem of the so-called ``granular gases'', i.e. gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e. at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the num...

  13. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.


    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie

  14. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Leng


    Full Text Available The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ∼ 95% (88% ∼ 98% of the incident peak force (energy under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ∼ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  15. Magnetism and magnetoresistance from different origins in Co/ZnO:Al granular films (United States)

    Quan, Zhiyong; Liu, Xia; Song, Zhilin; Xu, Xiaohong


    Co/ZnO:Al granular films were made on glass substrates by sequential magnetron sputter deposition of ultrathin Co layer and ZnO:Al layer at room temperature. The as-deposited films consist of superparamagnetic Co particles dispersed in ZnO:Al ( 2% Al) semiconductor matrix. Distinguished magnetoresistance effect at room temperature was obtained in the as-deposited films, which obviously reduced after annealing due to the growth of Co particles. The size of important magnetic particles was analyzed by Langevin function for hysteresis loops and magnetoresistance curves at room temperature. It was found that small magnetic particle contribute to magnetoresistance behavior and large particles dominate the room temperature magnetism in Co/ZnO:Al granular films.

  16. Air-Driven Segregation in Binary Granular Mixtures with Same Size but Different Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chang-Hong; SHI Qing-Fan; YANG Lei; SUN Gang


    We investigate the segregation effect of binary granular mixtures with the same size but different densities under vibration at different air pressures. Our experiments show that the segregation state is seriously dependent on the air pressure and there is a new type of partially segregated state at high air pressure, which has the characteristic that the lighter grains tend to stay at the bottom and form a pure layer, while heavier grains and remained lighter ones tend to rise and to form a mixed layer on the top of the system. We redefine the order parameter to study the variation of the segregation effect with the air pressure and vibration parameter in detail. Finally, the mechanism of the air-driven segregation is illustrated by the faster acceleration due to the airflow through the granular bed for lighter particles.

  17. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  18. The critical role of Golgi cells in regulating spatio-temporal integration and plasticity at the cerebellum input stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available After the discovery at the end of the 19th century (Golgi, 1883, the Golgi cell was precisely described by S.R. y Cajal (see Cajal, 1987, 1995 and functionally identified as an inhibitory interneuron 50 years later by J.C. Eccles and colleagues (Eccles e al., 1967. Then, its role has been casted by Marr (1969 within the Motor Learning Theory as a codon size regulator of granule cell activity. It was immediately clear that Golgi cells had to play a critical role, since they are the main inhibitory interneuron of the granular layer and control activity of as many as 100 millions granule cells. In vitro, Golgi cells show pacemaking, resonance, phase-reset and rebound-excitation in the theta-frequency band. These properties are likely to impact on their activity in vivo, which shows irregular spontaneous beating modulated by sensory inputs and burst responses to punctuate stimulation followed by a silent pause. Moreover, investigations have given insight into Golgi cells connectivity within the cerebellar network and on their impact on the spatio-temporal organization of activity. It turns out that Golgi cells can control both the temporal dynamics and the spatial distribution of information transmitted through the cerebellar network. Moreover, Golgi cells regulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber - granule cell synapse. Thus, the concept is emerging that Golgi cells are of critical importance for regulating granular layer network activity bearing important consequences for cerebellar computation as a whole.

  19. Vigorous convection in a sunspot granular light bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Lagg, Andreas; van Noort, Michiel; Danilovic, Sanja


    Light bridges are the most prominent manifestation of convection in sunspots. The brightest representatives are granular light bridges composed of features that appear to be similar to granules. An in-depth study of the convective motions, temperature stratification, and magnetic field vector in and around light bridge granules is presented with the aim of identifying similarities and differences to typical quiet-Sun granules. Spectropolarimetric data from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope were analyzed using a spatially coupled inversion technique to retrieve the stratified atmospheric parameters of light bridge and quiet-Sun granules. Central hot upflows surrounded by cooler fast downflows reaching 10 km/s clearly establish the convective nature of the light bridge granules. The inner part of these granules in the near surface layers is field free and is covered by a cusp-like magnetic field configuration. We observe hints of field reversals at the location of the fast downflows. The quiet-Sun granules in ...

  20. Blast shocks in quasi-two-dimensional supersonic granular flows. (United States)

    Boudet, J F; Cassagne, J; Kellay, H


    In a thin, dilute, and fast flowing granular layer, the impact of a small sphere generates a fast growing hole devoid of matter. The growth of this hole is studied in detail, and its dynamics is found to mimic that of blast shocks in gases. This dynamics can be decomposed into two stages: a fast initial stage (the blast) and a slower growth regime whose growth velocity is given by the speed of sound in the medium used. A simple model using ingredients already invoked for the case of blast shocks in gases but including the inelastic nature of collisions between grains accounts accurately for our results. The system studied here allows for a detailed study of the full dynamics of a blast as it relaxes from a strong to a weak shock and later to an acoustic disturbance.

  1. Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

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    Xiufeng Li


    Full Text Available To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF, studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM and white matter (WM, and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values.

  2. Morphological and Metabolic Alteration of Cerebellum in Patients with Post-Stroke Depression

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    Ling Zhang


    Full Text Available Background: To study morphological and metabolic changes of cerebellum with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS, respective, to explore correlation between cerebellum alteration and severity of depression in patients with post-stroke depression. Methods: 60 subjects, including 40 stroke patients and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Depression of stroke patients was tested by Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD, based on which stroke-patients were grouped into post-stroke depression (PSD group and without post-stroke depression (CONT group. Results: Volume of cerebellum decreased in PSD group and CONT group compared with healthy volunteer (NORM group. White matter of cerebellum in PSD group and CONT group was disrupted; such disruption was significantly in PSD group. In addition, there was correlation between cerebellum volume and FA and HDRS scores (PConclusion: Morphologic and metabolic alterations are evident in patients with post-stroke depression, indicating possible involvement of cerebellum in post-stroke-depression occurrence.

  3. Sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum: an MRI-based morphometric study. (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Tang, Yuchun; Sun, Bo; Gong, Gaolang; Chen, Zhang J; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Li, Zhenping; Evans, Alan C; Liu, Shuwei


    Structural sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum have been described in previous research, but results remain inconclusive or even conflicting. In this study, gender differences and hemispheric asymmetries in global and regional human cerebellum gray matter (GM) were estimated in an age-matched sample (n=112) of young Chinese adults. An optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in spatial unbiased infratentorial template (SUIT) space together with an automated atlas-based volumetric approach were performed for mapping regional gray matter (GM) gender-related differences across the entire cerebellum. The two methods provided consistent findings on gender differences. The cerebellar GM volume was significantly larger in the anterior and middle posterior lobes of male group. In addition, a trend of greater GM volume in lateral posterior lobe of female group was observed. With the created symmetric cerebellar template, the asymmetric properties of cerebellar hemisphere were also assessed by VBM analysis, showing rightward asymmetry distributed in most cerebellar lobules and leftwards asymmetry distributed in the lobules around the medial posterior lobe. Gender differences in males showed higher leftward asymmetry sparsely within a few lobules and lower rightward asymmetry mainly within lobule Crus II, as compared with females. The acquired detailed morphologic knowledge of normal human cerebellum could establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in the cerebellum. Moreover, our results might help to address controversies in thestudy of sexual dimorphisms and asymmetric patterns in human cerebellum.

  4. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.


    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  5. Cerebellar Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors are Intrinsic to the Cerebellum: Implications for Diverse Functional Roles (United States)

    Turner, Jill R.; Ortinski, Pavel I.; Sherrard, Rachel M.


    Although recent studies have delineated the specific nicotinic subtypes present in the mammalian cerebellum, very little is known about their location or function within the cerebellum. This is of increased interest since nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the cerebellum have recently been implicated in the pathology of autism spectrum disorders. To begin to better understand the roles of these heteromeric nAChRs in the cerebellar circuitry and their therapeutic potential as targets for drug development, we used various chemical and stereotaxic lesion models in conjunction with slice electrophysiology to examine how specific heteromeric nAChR subtypes may influence the surrounding cerebellar circuitry. Using subunit-specific immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled nAChRs in the cerebella following N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride, p-chloroamphetamine, and pendunculotomy lesions, we show that most, if not all, cerebellar nicotinic receptors are present in cells within the cerebellum itself and not in extracerebellar afferents. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the β4-containing, but not the β2-containing, nAChRs intrinsic to the cerebellum can regulate inhibitory synaptic efficacy at two major classes of cerebellar neurons. These tandem findings suggest that nAChRs may present a potential drug target for disorders involving the cerebellum. PMID:21562921

  6. Alterations in the cell cycle in the cerebellum of hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat: a possible link with apoptosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Robert

    Full Text Available Severe hyperbilirubinemia causes neurological damage both in humans and rodents. The hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat shows a marked cerebellar hypoplasia. More recently bilirubin ability to arrest the cell cycle progression in vascular smooth muscle, tumour cells, and, more importantly, cultured neurons has been demonstrated. However, the involvement of cell cycle perturbation in the development of cerebellar hypoplasia was never investigated before. We explored the effect of sustained spontaneous hyperbilirubinemia on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in whole cerebella dissected from 9 day old Gunn rat by Real Time PCR, Western blot and FACS analysis. The cerebellum of the hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats exhibits an increased cell cycle arrest in the late G0/G1 phase (p < 0.001, characterized by a decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1 (15%, p < 0.05, cyclin A/A1 (20 and 30%, p < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively and cyclin dependent kinases2 (25%, p < 0.001. This was associated with a marked increase in the 18 kDa fragment of cyclin E (67%, p < 0.001 which amplifies the apoptotic pathway. In line with this was the increase of the cleaved form of Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (54%, p < 0.01 and active Caspase3 (two fold, p < 0.01. These data indicate that the characteristic cerebellar alteration in this developing brain structure of the hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rat may be partly due to cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis related to the high bilirubin concentration in cerebellar tissue mainly affecting granular cells. These two phenomena might be intimately connected.

  7. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects (United States)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys


    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To

  8. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods (United States)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.


    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  9. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.


    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials sh

  10. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Z; Geromichalos, D; Herminghaus, S; Kohonen, M M; Mugele, F; Scheel, M; Schulz, M; Schulz, B; Schier, Ch; Seemann, R; Skudelny, A


    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring grains due to capillary forces.

  11. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes (United States)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine


    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  12. Experimental velocity distributions in a granular submonolayer (United States)

    Cadillo-Martínez, Alejandra T.; Sánchez, Rodrigo


    Experimental speed distributions are obtained for driven granular submonolayers of binary mixtures of single spheres and dimers of spheres. The results are well-described by a distribution originally developed for a single-species one-dimensional system. This suggests that such a distribution may be extended to other mixtures such as systems exhibiting aggregation and dissociation.

  13. Scales and kinetics of granular flows. (United States)

    Goldhirsch, I.


    When a granular material experiences strong forcing, as may be the case, e.g., for coal or gravel flowing down a chute or snow (or rocks) avalanching down a mountain slope, the individual grains interact by nearly instantaneous collisions, much like in the classical model of a gas. The dissipative nature of the particle collisions renders this analogy incomplete and is the source of a number of phenomena which are peculiar to "granular gases," such as clustering and collapse. In addition, the inelasticity of the collisions is the reason that granular gases, unlike atomic ones, lack temporal and spatial scale separation, a fact manifested by macroscopic mean free paths, scale dependent stresses, "macroscopic measurability" of "microscopic fluctuations" and observability of the effects of the Burnett and super-Burnett "corrections." The latter features may also exist in atomic fluids but they are observable there only under extreme conditions. Clustering, collapse and a kinetic theory for rapid flows of dilute granular systems, including a derivation of boundary conditions, are described alongside the mesoscopic properties of these systems with emphasis on the effects, theoretical conclusions and restrictions imposed by the lack of scale separation. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Micromechanical study of plasticity of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.


    Plastic deformation of granular materials is investigated from the micromechanical viewpoint, in which the assembly of particles and interparticle contacts is considered as a mechanical structure. This is done in three ways. Firstly, by investigating the degree of redundancy of the system by compari

  15. Localized fluidization in a granular medium. (United States)

    Philippe, P; Badiane, M


    We present here experimental results on the progressive development of a fluidized zone in a bed of grains, immersed in a liquid, under the effect of a localized upward flow injected through a small orifice at the bottom of the bed. Visualization inside the model granular medium consisting of glass beads is made possible by the combined use of two optical techniques: refractive index matching between the liquid and the beads and planar laser-induced fluorescence. Gradually increasing the injection rate, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not open to the upper surface of the granular bed, and finally fluidization over the entire height of the granular bed inside a fluidized chimney. The phase diagram is plotted and partially interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh and Merlen [F. Zoueshtiagh and A. Merlen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 053613 (2007)]. A typical sequence, where the flow rate is first increased and then decreased back to zero, reveals a strong hysteretic behavior since the stability of the fluidized cavity is considerably strengthened during the defluidization phase. This effect can be explained by the formation of force arches within the granular packing when the chimney closes up at the top of the bed. A study of the expansion rate of the fluidized cavity was also conducted as well as the analysis of the interaction between two injection orifices with respect to their spacing.

  16. Discrete element modelling of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baars, S.


    A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw

  17. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics (United States)

    Goddard, Joe


    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  18. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot


    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  19. Increased LINGO1 in the cerebellum of essential tremor patients. (United States)

    Delay, Charlotte; Tremblay, Cyntia; Brochu, Elodie; Paris-Robidas, Sarah; Emond, Vincent; Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alex; Calon, Frédéric


    Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent adult-onset movement disorder. Despite its health burden, no clear pathognomonic sign has been identified to date because of the rarity of clinicopathological studies. Moreover, treatment options are still scarce and have not significantly changed in the last 30 years, underscoring the urgent need to develop new treatment avenues. In the recent years, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing Nogo receptor-interacting proteins 1 and 2 (LINGO1 and LINGO2, respectively) have been increasingly regarded as possible ET modulators due to emerging genetic association studies linking LINGO with ET. We have investigated LINGO protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the cerebellum of patients with ET, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a control group using Western immunoblotting and in situ hybridization. Protein levels of LINGO1, but not LINGO2, were significantly increased in the cerebellar cortex of ET patients compared with controls, particularly in individuals with longer disease duration. Compared with controls, LINGO1 protein levels were increased in the cerebellar white matter of PD and ET patients but, for the latter, only when disease duration exceeded 20 years. However, no alteration in LINGO1 mRNA was observed between groups in either the cerebellar cortex or the white matter. We observed alterations in LINGO expression in diseased brain that seemed to progress along with the disease, being initiated in the cerebellar cortex before reaching the white matter. Because LINGO up-regulation has been identified as a potential pathological response to ongoing neurodegenerative processes, the present data suggest that LINGO1 is a potential drug target for ET.

  20. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun


    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  1. Study of Dissipation Characteristics of Granular Damping with Discrete Element Method%基于离散单元法颗粒阻尼的耗能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杰; 马春庭; 常青


    A new algorithm is presented for analysis of granular damping energy consumptions, soft ball energy consumptions model of granular damping was established. with studying slippage and plumb pressing force between granular layers, energy consumptions between granular layers was presented, the computing formula of theoretical for friction energy in granular damping is presented. On the condition of simple harmonic, the experimental research is conducted to investigate dissipation of granular damping in a cylindrical container. The effect of the depth of granular layer on damping Capacity is made a systematic study. The results showed that with the increasing of the granular filling height, the damping effect is markedly strengthened.%提出了用于颗粒阻尼耗能研究的新算法,建立了颗粒阻尼软球耗能模型,并通过研究颗粒层之间的滑移和竖直压力来计算颗粒层之间的耗能情况,通过迭代法得到颗粒阻尼中摩擦耗能情况,并由此推导出颗粒阻尼摩擦耗能的理论计算公式.在简谐激励条件下,对圆柱形钢制容器内的颗粒体耗能情况进行测试,系统地研究了颗粒层深度对阻尼性能的影响,试验结果对理论计算给予了有效验证,同时得出随着颗粒填充高度的增加,阻尼效果明显加强.

  2. The Effect of Salvia Rhytidea Extract on the Number of Cells of Different Layers of Cerebellar Cortex Following Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farahmand


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Salvia has anti-oxidant oxygen free radicals which are generated during the interruption and reestablishment of ischemia reperfusion.  The aim of study was to investigate the effect of Salvia Rhytidea extract on the number of cells of different layers of cerebellar cortex following ischemia reperfusion in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 adult male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 5: Group 1 (control-: Sampling without ischemia. Group 2 (control +: Cerebellar ischemia with administration of normal saline. Group 3(sham: Manipulation without ischemia with normal saline administration. Group 4   received (3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 2 hours after ischemia. Group 5 received 50 mg/kg silymarin drug, 2 hours after ischemia. Group 6 received 3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 72, 48, 24 and 0 h before ischemia and group 7 received silymarin drug (50 mg/kg, 0, 24, 48, and 72, hrs. before ischemia. 24 hrs. following reperfusion, the rats were euthanized and samples of the cerebellum were obtained. By using routine histological technique, the sections were stained by H&E. The measurement of cell count in cerebellar cortex were accomplished. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA and Tukey diagnostic tests. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of neural cells in granular layer in the non-treated ischemia group and in the groups which received Salvia extract and silymarin, two hours after the ischemia (p< 0.05. No significant decrease was observed in the number of cells of this layer in the groups which received salvia extract before ischemia. But regarding the cell number of molecular and purkinje layers in above groups, no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (P˃0.05. However, no significant differences was seen in the number of cells layers compared to the control group (P˃0.05. Conclusion: Finally, administration of

  3. Low in situ expression of antioxidative enzymes in rat cerebellar granular cells susceptible to methylmercury. (United States)

    Fujimura, M; Usuki, F


    Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, induces site-specific toxicity in the brain. Although oxidative stress has been demonstrated with MeHg toxicity, the site-specific toxicity is not completely understood. Among the cerebellar neurons, cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) appear vulnerable to MeHg, whereas Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons are resistant. Here, we use a MeHg-intoxicated rat model to investigate these cerebellar neurons for the different causes of susceptibility to MeHg. Rats were exposed to 20 ppm MeHg for 4 weeks and subsequently exhibited neuropathological changes in the cerebellum that were similar to those observed in humans. We first isolated the three cerebellar neuron types using a microdissection system and then performed real-time PCR analyses for antioxidative enzymes. We observed that expression of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) was significantly higher in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons than in CGCs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical analyses on the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons, which was coincident with the mRNA expression patterns. Considering Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 are critical for protecting cells against MeHg intoxication, the results indicate that low expression of these antioxidative enzymes increases CGCs vulnerability to MeHg toxicity.

  4. Social cognition and the cerebellum: a meta-analysis of over 350 fMRI studies. (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Baetens, Kris; Mariën, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Marie


    This meta-analysis explores the role of the cerebellum in social cognition. Recent meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies since 2008 demonstrate that the cerebellum is only marginally involved in social cognition and emotionality, with a few meta-analyses pointing to an involvement of at most 54% of the individual studies. In this study, novel meta-analyses of over 350 fMRI studies, dividing up the domain of social cognition in homogeneous subdomains, confirmed this low involvement of the cerebellum in conditions that trigger the mirror network (e.g., when familiar movements of body parts are observed) and the mentalizing network (when no moving body parts or unfamiliar movements are present). There is, however, one set of mentalizing conditions that strongly involve the cerebellum in 50-100% of the individual studies. In particular, when the level of abstraction is high, such as when behaviors are described in terms of traits or permanent characteristics, in terms of groups rather than individuals, in terms of the past (episodic autobiographic memory) or the future rather than the present, or in terms of hypothetical events that may happen. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis conducted in this study reveals that the cerebellum is critically implicated in social cognition and that the areas of the cerebellum which are consistently involved in social cognitive processes show extensive overlap with the areas involved in sensorimotor (during mirror and self-judgments tasks) as well as in executive functioning (across all tasks). We discuss the role of the cerebellum in social cognition in general and in higher abstraction mentalizing in particular. We also point out a number of methodological limitations of some available studies on the social brain that hamper the detection of cerebellar activity.

  5. Effect of low frequency rTMS stimulation over lateral cerebellum: a FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Bang, Soong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Several lines of evidence suggested the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive function as well as motor function. Because of the measurement difficulty of functional connectivity, little is known about the underlying mechanism involvement of cerebellum in motor and cognitive function in living human brain. To understand the role of cerebellum within the neural network, we investigated the changes of neuronal activity elicited by the cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 11 right-handed normal volunteers (age: 23.4{+-}2.5 y;6 males) were studied with FDG PET under two conditions; sham and 1Hz rTMS over left lateral cerebellum. With 10 min inter-block interval, three blocks of rTMS were started with the intravenous injection of [18F]FDG. In each block, 5min rTMS were delivered with an intensity of 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT). Sham rTMS was delivered with same protocol but the coil was positioned perpendicular to the target area with 50% RMT. PET scans were acquired immediately after the rTMS stimulation. Sham and 1Hz rTMS images compared using paired t-test with SPM2. Inhibited neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the stimulated left lateral cerebellum and orbitofrontal gyrus and right motor related areas (S1, SMA and posterior parietal cortex). While enhanced neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri including Broca's area and superior temporal gyrus including primary auditory cortex. Bilateral middle temporal, left precentral and right middle occipital gyri were also showed enhanced neuronal activity. This result showed that rTMS over left lateral cerebellum modulate direct vicinity of the targeted region and a large network of remote interconnected contralateral motor and ipsilateral language related brain regions. Present result provide evidence that cerebellum may contribute to language related cognitive function as well as motor

  6. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.


    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  7. Topography of Purkinje cells and other calbindin-immunoreactive cells within adult and hatchling turtle cerebellum. (United States)

    Ariel, Michael; Ward, Kyle C; Tolbert, Daniel L


    The turtle's cerebellum (Cb) is an unfoliated sheet, so the topography of its entire cortex can be easily studied physiologically by optical recordings. However, unlike the mammalian Cb, little is known about the topography of turtle Purkinje cells (PCs). Here, topography was examined using calbindin-D(28K) immunohistochemistry of adult and hatchling turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans, 2.5-15 cm carapace length). Each Cb was flattened between two Sylgard sheets and fixed in paraformaldehyde. Sections (52 microm thick) were cut parallel to the flattened cortex (tangential), resulting in calbindin-immunolabeled PCs being localized to three to six sections for each turtle. PC position and size were quantified using Neurolucida Image Analysis system. Although hatchling Cb were medial-laterally narrower (3.0 vs. 6.5 mm) and rostral-caudally shorter (2.5 vs. 5.5 mm) than adult Cb, both averaged near 15,000 PCs distributed uniformly. Hatchling PCs were smaller than adult PCs (178 vs. 551 microm(2)) and more densely packed (2,180 vs. 625 cells/mm(2)). Calbindin immunoreactivity also labeled non-PCs along the Cb's marginal rim and its caudal pole. Many of these were very small (22.9 microm(2)) ovoid-shaped cells clustered together, possibly proliferating external granule layer cells. Other labeled cells were larger and fusiform-shaped (12.6 x 33.4 microm) adjacent to inner granule cells along the marginal rim, suggestive of migrating cells. It is not known whether these are new neurons being generated within the adult and hatchling Cb and if they connect to efferent and afferent paths. Based on these anatomical findings, we suggest that unique physiological features may exist along the rim of the turtle Cb.

  8. Layered Systems Engineering Engines (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.


    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  9. Effects of combined prenatal stress and toluene exposure on apoptotic neurodegeneration in cerebellum and hippocampus of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Ole; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hass, Ulla


    the offspring for developmental neurotoxicity and level of apoptosis in the brain. The number of apoptotic cells in cerebellum postnatal day 22, 24, and 27 and in hippocampus (postnatal day 22, 24, and 27) were counted after visualization by the TUNEL staining or measured by DNA-laddering technique. Caspase-3...... activity was determined in cerebellum (postnatal day 6, 22, 24, and 27) and in hippocampus (postnatal day 6 and 22). TUNEL staining and DNA-laddering technique showed a marked decrease in number of apoptotic cells from postnatal day 22 to 27 in both cerebellum and hippocampus. Apparently, a peak...... in the number of TUNEL positive cells was identified in cerebellum at postnatal day 22. There was no statistically significant influence of exposure except that DNA-laddering in cerebellum at postnatal day 27 was increased by toluene exposure. Caspase-3 activity decreased in cerebellum and hippocampus with age...

  10. Two dimension porous media reconstruction using granular model under influence of gravity (United States)

    Sundari, Pury; Fauzi, Umar; Irayani, Zaroh; Viridi, Sparisoma


    Modeling of pores generation in 2-D with granular grains using molecular dynamics method is reported in this work. Grains with certain diameter distribution are let falling due to gravity. Three configurations (larger diameter in at upper layer, smaller diameter in at upper layer, and mixed) and two kinds of mixture (similar of grain density and mass) are used in the simulation. Mixture with heterogeneous density gives higher porosity than the homogeneous one for higher initial height, but change into opposite condition for lower initial height.

  11. Effect of viscosity on the shaking-induced fluidization in a liquid-immersed granular medium. (United States)

    Yasuda, Nao; Sumita, Ikuro


    A liquid-immersed granular medium is shaken vertically under a wide range of accelerations (Γ in dimensionless form) and frequencies (f) and its fluidization process is studied. The granular medium is formed by settling and consists of two size-graded layers (particle diameter d) such that the upper layer is fine grained and is less permeable. When Γ>Γ(c), a liquid-rich layer formed by the accumulated liquid at the two-layer boundary causes a gravitational instability. The upwellings of the instability are separated horizontally by a distance (wavelength) λ, and their amplitude grows exponentially with time [∝exp(pt)] at a growth rate p. We conduct experiments for two liquid viscosity cases such that the particle settling velocity (V(s)) of the same particle differs by a factor of 17. We find that for both cases, Γ(c) is at a minimum in an optimum frequency band centered at f∼100 Hz. However, the high-viscosity (HV) case has a smaller Γ(c), a shorter λ, and a faster dimensionless growth rate [p'=p/(V(s)/d)]. We also measure granular rheology under an oscillatory shear and find that (i) interparticle friction decreases when the strain amplitude becomes large and (ii) friction is smaller for the HV case. From (i), we infer that the shear strain of the shaking experiments becomes largest at around f∼100 Hz. We consider that (ii) is a consequence of liquid lubrication and is a reason for a smaller Γ(c) for the HV case. We show that the low- and high-frequency limits of the optimum frequency band can be explained by introducing critical values of dimensionless jerk (i.e., time derivative of acceleration) J and dimensionless shaking energy S. The low-frequency limit corresponds to the requirement that in order to unjam the particles, the period of shaking (1/f) must be shorter than the time needed for the particles to rearrange by settling (d/V(s)), which also explains why the HV case is fluidized at a lower f compared to the LV case. We apply the results

  12. A study of the spatial protein organization of the postsynaptic density isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. (United States)

    Yun-Hong, Yen; Chih-Fan, Chuang; Chia-Wei, Chang; Yen-Chung, Chang


    Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼ 10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum

  13. Effects of local anesthesia of the cerebellum on classical fear conditioning in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Ruriko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides the amygdala, of which emotion roles have been intensively studied, the cerebellum has also been demonstrated to play a critical role in simple classical fear conditioning in both mammals and fishes. In the present study, we examined the effect of local administration of the anesthetic agent lidocaine into the cerebellum on fear-related, classical heart-rate conditioning in goldfish. Methods The effects of microinjection of the anesthetic agent lidocaine into the cerebellum on fear conditioning were investigated in goldfish. The fear conditioning paradigm was delayed classical conditioning with light as a conditioned stimulus and electric shock as an unconditioned stimulus; cardiac deceleration (bradycardia was the conditioned response. Results Injecting lidocaine into the cerebellum had no effect on the base heart rate, an arousal/orienting response to the novel stimulus (i.e., the first presentation of light, or an unconditioned response to electric shock. However, lidocaine injection greatly impaired acquisition of conditioned bradycardia. Lidocaine injection 60 min before the start of the conditioning procedure showed no effect on acquisition of conditioned bradycardia, indicating that the effect of lidocaine was reversible. Conclusions The present results further confirm the idea that the cerebellum in teleost fish, as in mammals, is critically involved in classical fear conditioning.

  14. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori


    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  15. The cerebro-cerebellum: Could it be loci of forward models? (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takahiro; Tomatsu, Saeka; Izawa, Jun; Kakei, Shinji


    It is widely accepted that the cerebellum acquires and maintain internal models for motor control. An internal model simulates mapping between a set of causes and effects. There are two candidates of cerebellar internal models, forward models and inverse models. A forward model transforms a motor command into a prediction of the sensory consequences of a movement. In contrast, an inverse model inverts the information flow of the forward model. Despite the clearly different formulations of the two internal models, it is still controversial whether the cerebro-cerebellum, the phylogenetically newer part of the cerebellum, provides inverse models or forward models for voluntary limb movements or other higher brain functions. In this article, we review physiological and morphological evidence that suggests the existence in the cerebro-cerebellum of a forward model for limb movement. We will also discuss how the characteristic input-output organization of the cerebro-cerebellum may contribute to forward models for non-motor higher brain functions.

  16. Jan Evangelista Purkyně and the cerebellum then and now. (United States)

    VoŽeh, F


    The name of Jan Evangelista Purkyně and the cerebellum belong inseparably together. He was the first who saw and described the largest nerve cells in the brain, de facto in the cerebellum. The most distinguished researchers of the nervous system then showed him the highest recognition by naming these neurons as Purkinje cells. Through experiments by J. E. Purkyně and his followers properly functionally was attributed to the cerebellum share in precision of motor skills. Despite ongoing and fruitful research, after a relatively long time, especially in the last two decades, scientists had to constantly replenish and re-evaluate the traditional conception of the cerebellum and formulate a new one. It started in the early 1990s, when it was found that cerebellar cortex contains more neurons than the cerebral cortex. Shortly thereafter it was gradually revealed that such enormous numbers of neural cells are not without an impact on brain functions and that the cerebellum, except its traditional role in the motor skills, also participates in higher nervous activity. These new findings were obtained thanks to the introduction of modern methods of examination into the clinical praxis, and experimental procedures using animal models of cerebellar disorders described below.

  17. Expression of thrombin and its associated protein in cerebellum of human and rat after intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yi; QI Ji-ping; ZHU Hong; SONG Yue-jia; WU He; JIA Ying; ZHANG Guang-mei


    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can cause brain damage through a number of pathways.The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of thrombin, protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in rat and human cerebellum after ICH.Methods A model of ICH was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by direct injection of autologous blood (50 μl) into caudate nucleus.Patients with injured hemorrhage were also enrolled in this study.Different expressions of thrombin,PAR-1, PN-1 were detected in rat and human cerebellum by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.Results In rat cerebellum, thrombin protein significantly increased at 6 hours and reached the maximum 2 days afterICH.The expression of PAR-1 protein reached the maximum at 24-48 hours, and then began to decrease.The expression of PN-1 protein reached the maximum at 3 hours, decreased somewhat after that and increased a little at 5days after ICH.While in human cerebellum, the changing tendency of thrombin, PAR-1 and PN-1 was almost conform to the rat.Conclusion In cerebellum, thrombin can activate PAR-1 expression after ICH, and PN-1 appears quickly after ICH in order to control the deleterious effect of thrombin.

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns in reaction-diffusion system and in a vibrated granular bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinney, H.L.; Lee, K.J.; McCormick, W.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Experiments on a quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system reveal transitions from a uniform state to stationary hexagonal, striped, and rhombic spatial patterns. For other reactor conditions lamellae and self-replicating spot patterns are observed. These patterns form in continuously fed thin gel reactors that can be maintained indefinitely in well-defined nonequilibrium states. Reaction-diffusion models with two chemical species yield patterns similar to those observed in the experiments. Pattern formation is also being examined in vertically oscillated thin granular layers (typically 3-30 particle diameters deep). For small acceleration amplitudes, a granular layer is flat, but above a well-defined critical acceleration amplitude, spatial patterns spontaneously form. Disordered time-dependent granular patterns are observed as well as regular patterns of squares, stripes, and hexagons. A one-dimensional model consisting of a completely inelastic ball colliding with a sinusoidally oscillating platform provides a semi-quantitative description of most of the observed bifurcations between the different spatiotemporal regimes.

  19. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries (United States)

    Marks, Benjy; Sandnes, Bjornar; Dumazer, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jon Alm; Måløy, Knut Jørgen


    In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  20. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh


    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  1. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.


    A class of variational formulations for discrete element analysis of granular media is presented. These formulations lead naturally to convex mathematical programs that can be solved using standard and readily available tools. In contrast to traditional discrete element analysis, the present...... granular contact dynamics formulation uses an implicit time discretization, thus allowing for large time steps. Moreover, in the limit of an infinite time step, the general dynamic formulation reduces to a static formulation that is useful in simulating common quasi-static problems such as triaxial tests...... and similar laboratory experiments. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to exploring the consequences of the associated frictional sliding rule implied by the variational formulation adopted. In this connection, a new interior-point algorithm for general linear complementarity problems...

  2. Velocity distributions in dilute granular systems. (United States)

    van Zon, J S; MacKintosh, F C


    We investigate the idea that velocity distributions in granular gases are determined mainly by eta, the coefficient of restitution and q, which measures the relative importance of heating (or energy input) to collisions. To this end, we study by numerical simulation the properties of inelastic gases as functions of eta, concentration phi, and particle number N with various heating mechanisms. For a wide range of parameters, we find Gaussian velocity distributions for uniform heating and non-Gaussian velocity distributions for boundary heating. Comparison between these results and velocity distributions obtained by other heating mechanisms and for a simple model of a granular gas without spatial degrees of freedom, shows that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q>1 and q < or approximately 1 respectively. We review the literature for evidence of the role of q in the recent experiments.

  3. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M


    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  4. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael


    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  5. Applying MDL to Learning Best Model Granularity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Q; Vitanyi, P; Gao, Qiong; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul


    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is solidly based on a provably ideal method of inference using Kolmogorov complexity. We test how the theory behaves in practice on a general problem in model selection: that of learning the best model granularity. The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters. Too high precision generally involves modeling of accidental noise and too low precision may lead to confusion of models that should be distinguished. This precision is often determined ad hoc. In MDL the best model is the one that most compresses a two-part code of the data set: this embodies ``Occam's Razor.'' In two quite different experimental settings the theoretical value determined using MDL coincides with the best value found experimentally. In the first experiment the task is to recognize isolated handwritten characters in one subject's handwriting, irrespective of size and orientation. Based on a new modification of elastic...

  6. Sound scattering in dense granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The sound propagation in a dense granular medium is basically characterized by the ratio of wave-length to the grain size. Two types of wave transport are distinguished: one corresponds to coherent waves in the long wavelength limit, the other to short-wavelength scattered waves by the inhomoge-neous contact force networks. These multiply scattered elastic waves are shown to exhibit a diffusive characteristics of transport over long distances of propagation. Determination of the transport mean free path l* and the inelastic absorption (Q~(-1)) allows the inference of the structural properties of the material such as the heterogeneity and internal dissipation. The relevance of our experiments for seismological applications is discussed. Moreover, we apply the correlation technique of the configu-ration-specific sound scattering to monitoring the dynamic behaviour of the granular medium (irre-versible rearrangements) under strong vibration, shearing and thermal cycling, respectively.

  7. Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study (United States)

    Montellà, E. P.; Toraldo, M.; Chareyre, B.; Sibille, L.


    We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.

  8. Localized fluidization in granular materials: Theoretical and numerical study. (United States)

    Montellà, E P; Toraldo, M; Chareyre, B; Sibille, L


    We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy's law and Therzaghi's effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous, i.e., for small injection rates. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled discrete element method and a pore-scale finite volume method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. The results from both methods are in qualitative agreement with data published independently. A more quantitative agreement is achieved by the numerical model. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. While narrow apertures let the three different regimes be distinguished clearly, larger apertures tend to produce a single homogeneous fluidization regime. In the former case, it is found that the transition between the cavity regime and the chimney regime for an increasing injection rate coincides with a peak in the evolution of inlet pressure. Finally, the occurrence of the different regimes is defined in terms of the normalized flux and aperture.

  9. Convection in horizontally shaken granular material


    Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten


    In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

  10. Structure and stability of methanogenic granular sludge.


    Grotenhuis, J.T.C.


    Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria was essential for the development of high rate anaerobic systems for the treatment of waste waters. The most widely applied anaerobic reactor type in which solids retention time is uncoupled from the hydraulic retention time is the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. In this reactor type methanogenic granular sludge is formed by self-immobilization of methanogenic consortia. The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to study microbiologi...

  11. A model for collisions in granular gases


    Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Spahn, Frank; Hertzsch, Jan-Martin; Poeschel, Thorsten


    We propose a model for collisions between particles of a granular material and calculate the restitution coefficients for the normal and tangential motion as functions of the impact velocity from considerations of dissipative viscoelastic collisions. Existing models of impact with dissipation as well as the classical Hertz impact theory are included in the present model as special cases. We find that the type of collision (smooth, reflecting or sticky) is determined by the impact velocity and...

  12. Seismic wave propagation in granular media (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion


    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  13. Deformación permanente de materiales granulares en pavimentos flexibles: estado del conocimiento Permanent strain of granular materials in flexible pavements: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón


    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han sido desarrollados en el área de los pavimentos para comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares bajo carga cíclica. Este es el segundo de dos artículos que presentan el estado del conocimiento de investigaciones desarrolladas en esta área. Basado en una amplia revisión bibliográfica, este artículo da cuenta de la forma como ha sido estudiado el fenómeno de deformación permanente en materiales granulares empleados para conformar capas de base y sub-base de estructuras de pavimentos flexibles. Además, se exponen y se discuten los factores que afectan la resistencia a la deformación permanente y la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas para predecir la deformación que experimentan estos materiales bajo carga cíclica. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el comportamiento resiliente de estos materiales es presentado en el primer artículo (Rondón y Reyes, 2007.Several studies have been conducted in pavement field for trying to understand the elastoplastic behavior experienced by granular materials under a cyclic load. This is the second out of two articles which show state-of-the-art of researches conducted in this field. Based on a wide literature review, this article accounts for the way how permanent strain phenomenon has been studied in granular materials used for creating base and sub-base layers of flexible pavement structures. Besides, this article displays and discusses factors which affect resistance to permanent strain and evolution of mathematical equations developed for predicting that strain experienced by these materials under a cyclic load. A state-of-the-art about resilient behavior of these materials has been presented in the first article (Rondón and Reyes, 2007.

  14. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  15. Granular dampers: does particle shape matter? (United States)

    Pourtavakoli, Hamzeh; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten


    By means of particle-based numerical simulations using the discrete element method, we address the question of how the performance of granular dampers is affected by the shape of the granular particles. In consistence with previous experiments performed with nearly spherical particles we find that independently of the particles’ shape, the granular system is characterized by a gas-like regime for small amplitudes of the container’s oscillation and by a collect-and-collide regime for large amplitude forcing. Both regimes are separated by an optimal operation mode—the critical amplitude of the damping oscillation for which the energy dissipation is maximal—which is independent of the particle shape for given conditions of particle mass, material properties and number of particles. However, in the gas-like regime, we find that spherical particles lead to more efficient energy dissipation compared to complex shaped particles of the same mass. In this regime, a dependence on the damper’s efficiency on the particle shape is found.

  16. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings (United States)

    Jakšić, Z. M.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Lončarević, I.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Belić, A.


    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Voronoï polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Voronoï cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  17. Morphological clues to wet granular pile stability (United States)

    Scheel, M.; Seemann, R.; Brinkmann, M.; di Michiel, M.; Sheppard, A.; Breidenbach, B.; Herminghaus, S.


    When a granular material such as sand is mixed with a certain amount of liquid, the surface tension of the latter bestows considerable stiffness to the material, which enables, for example, sand castles to be sculpted. The geometry of the liquid interface within the granular pile is of extraordinary complexity and strongly varies with the liquid content. Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of the pile are largely independent of the amount of liquid over a wide range. We resolve this puzzle with the help of X-ray microtomography, showing that the remarkable insensitivity of the mechanical properties to the liquid content is due to the particular organization of the liquid in the pile into open structures. For spherical grains, a simple geometric rule is established, which relates the macroscopic properties to the internal liquid morphologies. We present evidence that this concept is also valid for systems with non-spherical grains. Hence, our results provide new insight towards understanding the complex physics of a large variety of wet granular systems including land slides, as well as mixing and agglomeration problems.

  18. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware (United States)


    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Force transmission in cohesive granular media (United States)

    Radjai, Farhang; Topin, Vincent; Richefeu, Vincent; Voivret, Charles; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azéma, Emilien; El Youssoufi, Said


    We use numerical simulations to investigate force and stress transmission in cohesive granular media covering a wide class of materials encountered in nature and industrial processing. The cohesion results either from capillary bridges between particles or from the presence of a solid binding matrix filling fully or partially the interstitial space. The liquid bonding is treated by implementing a capillary force law within a debonding distance between particles and simulated by the discrete element method. The solid binding matrix is treated by means of the Lattice Element Method (LEM) based on a lattice-type discretization of the particles and matrix. Our data indicate that the exponential fall-off of strong compressive forces is a generic feature of both cohesive and noncohesive granular media both for liquid and solid bonding. The tensile forces exhibit a similar decreasing exponential distribution, suggesting that this form basically reflects granular disorder. This is consistent with the finding that not only the contact forces but also the stress components in the bulk of the particles and matrix, accessible from LEM simulations in the case of solid bonding, show an exponential fall-off. We also find that the distribution of weak compressive forces is sensitive to packing anisotropy, particle shape and particle size distribution. In the case of wet packings, we analyze the self-equilibrated forces induced by liquid bonds and show that the positive and negative particle pressures form a bi-percolating structure.

  20. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa


    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Klose; Arndt-Peter Schinkel


    The transport mechanisms of momentum, mass, species, and energy are investigated in detail for the rotary kiln process. The residence time prediction of the granular bed is well improved by considering different flow patterns in the drum. Introducing a mixed flow pattem of the basic slipping and slumping behaviour has the most important effect on the improvement of the residence time prediction. The granular bed is assumed to behave as a Bingham fluid in the active layer of the bed. The transport mechanisms of momentum, species, and energy are modelled on the basis of this assumption and using the kinetic gas theory. Additionally, a mathematical transformation is presented to save computational time. The model results of the temperature field are in very good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Fluorescence histochemical study of the localisation and distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the chicken. (United States)

    Bondok, A A; Botros, K G; el-Mohandes, E A


    The distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites has been studied in chicken spinal cord and cerebellum using a fluorescent analogue of propranolol, 9-amino-acridin-propranolol (9-AAP). In the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, beta-adrenoceptor sites were concentrated on cell bodies of alpha-motor neurons of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral nuclear groups of the ventral horn. In the thoracic region, they were present on cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus (dorsal commissural nucleus). In the dorsal horn, the receptor sites were present mainly on cell bodies of columna dorsalis magnocellularis. Sparse distribution of fluorescence was present in other regions of the gray matter. In the cerebellum, a dense distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites was observed on Purkinje cell bodies and their apical dendrites. Sparse distribution of receptor sites was present on fine ramifications of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. Receptor sites were absent in the granule cell layer and the white matter. These observations indicate that alpha-motor neurons, preganglionic sympathetic neurons, neurons of columna dorsalis magnocellularis, and Purkinje cells are adrenoceptive, while granule cells are non-adrenoceptive.

  3. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  4. An intact action-perception coupling depends on the integrity of the cerebellum. (United States)

    Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Sultan, Fahad; Mueller, Oliver M; Goericke, Sophia L; Ilg, Winfried; Timmann, Dagmar


    It is widely accepted that action and perception in humans functionally interact on multiple levels. Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. We addressed this question studying patients with focal cerebellar lesions in a virtual-reality paradigm measuring the effect of action execution on action perception presenting self-generated movements as point lights. We measured the visual sensitivity to the point light stimuli based on signal detection theory. Compared with healthy controls cerebellar patients showed no beneficial influence of action execution on perception indicating deficits in APC. Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. Ipsilateral cerebellar motor representations are thought to support the somatosensory state estimate of ongoing movements, whereas the ventral dentate and the contralateral posterior cerebellum likely support sensorimotor integration in the cerebellar-parietal loops. Both the correct somatosensory as well as the multisensory state representations are vital for an intact APC.

  5. Effects of Cinnamon Extract on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Diabetic Rats’ Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati


    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: In pregnant women, maternal diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, so glucose increases in the mother's blood and the blood of the fetus therefore causing many complications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on morphometric histologic changes on fetal cerebellum of diabetic rats at days 18 and 20. Methods: In this study, 32 healthy female Wistar rats were prepared and randomly divided into four groups, normal control, diabetic, healthy subjects treated with cinnamon and cinnamon extract-treated diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were subjected by intraperitoneal of streptozotocin. All groups were charged with natural mating and they received a dose of 60 mg/ kg of cinnamon at the first day off pregnancy. After formation of the nervous system, in the eighteenth and twentieth day of pregnancy, the mother of the four mice were anesthetized and the fetus was removed for sampling. The histological slides were prepared and various parameters were studied in the cerebellum. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. Results: The thickness of gray matter, and the gray matter white cells in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to other groups tested at days of18 and 20 and embryonic cells in the white matter of the cerebellum at day 18 was significantly decreased (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of cinnamon extract reduces mothers’ blood sugar levels therefore preventing the complications of diabetes on the fetal cerebellum. Key words: cinnamon extract, Diabetes, cerebellum, Rat.

  6. Granular computing analysis and design of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold


    Information granules, as encountered in natural language, are implicit in nature. To make them fully operational so they can be effectively used to analyze and design intelligent systems, information granules need to be made explicit. An emerging discipline, granular computing focuses on formalizing information granules and unifying them to create a coherent methodological and developmental environment for intelligent system design and analysis. Granular Computing: Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems presents the unified principles of granular computing along with its comprehensive algo

  7. White matter of the cerebellum demonstrated by computed tomography: normal anatomy and physical principles. (United States)

    Maravilla, K R; Pastel, M S; Kirkpatrick, J B


    Although computed tomography (CT) delineation of normal white matter of the cerebral hemispheres has been well documented, there has been no description of white matter within the cerebellum. Through the use of phantom studies, CT number correlations between cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres, and anatomic correlation with in vitro specimens, the ability to visualize cerebellar white matter is demonstrated. Thin sections decrease volume averaging and enable consistent imaging of these structures. Size and shape of the corpus medullaris on CT scan may vary with the scan angle and level of section. Representative examples of various normal appearances are illustrated.

  8. Granular Solid-liquid Transition: Experiment and Simulation (United States)

    Fei, M.; Xu, X.; Sun, Q.


    Granular media are amorphous materials, which differs from traditional solid or liquid. In different circumstance, granular behavior varies from solid-like to liquid-like, and the transitions between these regimes are always related to many complex natural progresses such as the failure of soil foundation and the occurrence of landslide and debris flow. The mechanic of elastic instability during the transition from solid-like to liquid-like regime, and the quantitative description of irreversible deformation during flow are the key problems to interpret these transition phenomena. In this work, we developed a continuum model with elastic stable condition and irreversible flow rule of granular material based on a thermal dynamical model, the Two-Granular-Temperature model (TGT). Since infinitesimal elastic deformation in solid-like regime and significant plastic large deformation in liquid-like regime can coexist in the granular solid-liquid transition process, the material point method (MPM) was used to build an effective numerical model. Collapse of rectangular granular pile contains both the transition from granular solid to granular liquid and the inverse process, thus in this work we carried out collapse experiment with clay particles, and simulated the experiment with our continuum model and an open-source DEM model YADE to study the transition processes. Results between experiment and simulations were compared and good agreements on collapse shape and velocity profiles were achieved, and the new model proposed in this work seems to work well on the description of granular solid-liquid transition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a tumor derived from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and it can occur throughout the body. About 5% of granular cell tumors occur in breast and are mostly benign in nature. We report a case of 30 year old female who presented with a swelling in right breast which on histo pathological examination revealed features consistent with granular cell tumor. This case is highlighted to reveal the importance of histopathology in differentiating granular cell tumor from carcinoma breast which is difficult based on clinical, radiological and cytological examination alone.

  10. Modeling the Mechanics of Dynamic Triggering of Earthquakes in Granular Fault Gouge (United States)

    Payne, R. M.; Sparks, D. W.


    On faults where the static stress state is near but below the failure criterion, dynamic stress perturbations from passing seismic waves may initiate earthquakes. To study how these transient stresses can cause failure, we perform Discrete Element Method numerical simulations of shear failure in a layer of non-cohesive granular material. The granular material mimics crushed gouge in the fault core - the weakest part of the fault and the region most likely to initiate slip. The applied shear stress is slowly increased until failure (a slip event) to determine the frictional strength of the granular layer under non-perturbed conditions. Pre-failure states of the gouge layer are saved during the loading process and used as initial conditions in triggering experiments: one boundary of the gouge is subjected to a transient pulse in boundary stresses, to simulate a passing seismic waves. Various amplitudes and frequencies of the stress pulse are tested on layers at different static stress levels from 0.95 to 0.99 of the failure strength. In order to trigger an immediate failure, the pulse must increase the normal stress ratio to reach the previously measured frictional strength of the layer. However, we find that this is not a sufficient condition for immediate failure. The stress state must be above the frictional strength threshold long enough to allow for significant grain shifting (~ 0.1 grain diameters). This introduces a frequency dependence in addition to the amplitude dependence of the pulse. For low pre-stress levels, high frequency pulses do not remain above the threshold long enough and are incapable of causing immediate triggering. This frequency cutoff is directly proportional to the stress level, meaning lower frequencies can cause immediate triggering at a wider range of initial stress levels. Systems that are not immediately triggered may still experience "delayed triggering" - slip induced by the pulse after a time delay. This implies that transient

  11. Prediction of permeability of monodisperse granular materials with a micromechanics approach (United States)

    Yang, Rongwei; Lemarchand, Eric; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Li, Kefei


    Prediction of the permeability of porous media is of vital importance to such fields as petroleum engineering, agricultural engineering and civil engineering. The liquid water within unsaturated granular materials is distinguished as the intergranular layer, the wetting layer and the water film. By means of the micromechanics approach, a physical conceptual model is developed to predict the permeability (intrinsic and relative permeabilities) of the monodisperse granular materials. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the available experimental data and the empirical models, and has been used to re-interpret the Kozeny-Carman's relation in particular. The results obtained with this model show that the intergranular water will dominate the flow transport when the saturation degree is higher than the residual saturation degree; when the saturation degree is below the residual saturation degree, the wetting layer will govern the flow transport and the relative permeability will decrease by 3 to 8 orders of magnitude depending on the connectivity of the wetting layer.

  12. Theta synchronization between medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum is associated with adaptive performance of associative learning behavior. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Yi-jie; Yang, Li; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Zhi-an; Hu, Bo


    Associative learning is thought to require coordinated activities among distributed brain regions. For example, to direct behavior appropriately, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) must encode and maintain sensory information and then interact with the cerebellum during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC), a commonly-used associative learning model. However, the mechanisms by which these two distant areas interact remain elusive. By simultaneously recording local field potential (LFP) signals from the mPFC and the cerebellum in guinea pigs undergoing TEBC, we found that theta-frequency (5.0-12.0 Hz) oscillations in the mPFC and the cerebellum became strongly synchronized following presentation of auditory conditioned stimulus. Intriguingly, the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) with adaptive timing occurred preferentially in the trials where mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence was stronger. Moreover, both the mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence and the adaptive CR performance were impaired after the disruption of endogenous orexins in the cerebellum. Finally, association of the mPFC -cerebellum theta coherence with adaptive CR performance was time-limited occurring in the early stage of associative learning. These findings suggest that the mPFC and the cerebellum may act together to contribute to the adaptive performance of associative learning behavior by means of theta synchronization.

  13. fMRI Activities in the Emotional Cerebellum: A Preference for Negative Stimuli and Goal-Directed Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K. Schraa-Tam (Caroline); W.J.R. Rietdijk (Wim); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); R.C. Dietvorst (Roeland); W.E. van den Berg (Wouter); R.P. Bagozzi (Richard); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)


    textabstractSeveral studies indicate that the cerebellum might play a role in experiencing and/or controlling emphatic emotions, but it remains to be determined whether there is a distinction between positive and negative emotions, and, if so, which specific parts of the cerebellum are involved in t

  14. Soliton-Like Pulses in Vertical Granular Chain Under Gravity: Particle-Like or Wave-Like?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ai-Guo; HONG Jongbae


    We numerically study the propagation, reflection and collision of soliton-like pulses in the vertical granular chain under gravity. For the pure granular chain system, during the propagation and reflection processes at the fixed end, it behaves like a particle. When it is reflected at the free end, it behaves as neither particle-like nor wave-like.When the strengths of the two colliding soliton-like pulses are close, they collide just like particles. When their strengths are greatly different, they collide just like waves. For the soliton behavior in the collision process, from particle-like to wave-like, there is a critical value θC for the ratio θ of the strengths of the two initial pulses. For the two-layer granular chain, if the mass of the grains in the second layeris less than that in the first layer, the soliton-like pulse in the first layer usually excites about [1/m] soliton-like pulses in the second layer.``

  15. Expression of a novel member of the ATP1G1/PLM/MAT8 family, phospholemman-like protein (PLP) gene, in the developmental process of mouse cerebellum. (United States)

    Saito, S; Matoba, R; Kato, K; Matsubara, K


    We have identified a new member of the ATP1G1/PLM/MAT8 family, named phospholemman-like protein (PLP), from a mouse cerebellum cDNA library. The family consists of small transmembrane proteins that modulate the activities of some ion channels. The deduced amino acid sequence of PLP consists of 93 residues that contain the ATP1G1/PLM/MAT8 motif and a single transmembrane domain, and is most similar to the sequence of mouse phospholemman. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the PLP gene is highly expressed in cerebellar granule cells. PLP expression is elevated in the postnatal developing cerebellum. Thus, it may be implicated in the proliferation, differentiation, and axon elongation of granule cells as they mature and migrate to the internal granule layer.

  16. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.


    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  17. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaroslav Cvach; on behalf of the CALICE Collaboration


    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA algorithm based up to now on the simulated data only. Next, the properties of hadron showers were compared to different physics lists of GEANT4 version 9.3.

  18. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  19. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)


    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  20. Starting to move through a granular medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, D. J. [Pennsylvania State University; Scheidemantel, T. [Pennsylvania State University; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Conger, C. [Pennsylvania State University; Klein, K. [Pennsylvania State University; Lohr, M. [Pennsylvania State University; Modig, Z. [Pennsylvania State University; Schiffer, P. [Pennsylvania State University


    We explore the process of initiating motion through a granular medium by measuring the force required to push a flat circular plate upward from underneath the medium. In contrast to previous measurements of the drag and penetration forces, which were conducted during steady state motion, the initiation force has a robust dependence on the diameter of the grains forming the pile. We attribute this dependence to the requirement for local dilation of the grains around the circumference of the plate, as evidenced by an observed linear dependence of the initiation force on the plate diameter.

  1. Longitudinal Viscous Flow in Granular Gases


    Santos, Andres


    The flow characterized by a linear longitudinal velocity field $u_x(x,t)=a(t)x$, where $a(t)={a_0}/({1+a_0t})$, a uniform density $n(t)\\propto a(t)$, and a uniform temperature $T(t)$ is analyzed for dilute granular gases by means of a BGK-like model kinetic equation in $d$ dimensions. For a given value of the coefficient of normal restitution $\\alpha$, the relevant control parameter of the problem is the reduced deformation rate $a^*(t)=a(t)/\

  2. Archimedes' principle in fluidized granular systems. (United States)

    Huerta, D A; Sosa, Victor; Vargas, M C; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    We fluidize a granular bed in a rectangular container by injecting energy through the lateral walls with high-frequency sinusoidal horizontal vibrations. In this way, the bed is brought to a steady state with no convection. We measured buoyancy forces on light spheres immersed in the bed and found that they obey Archimedes' principle. The buoyancy forces decrease when we reduce the injected energy. By measuring ascension velocities as a function of gamma, we can evaluate the frictional drag of the bed; its exponential dependence agrees very well with previous findings. Rising times of the intruders ascending through the bed were also measured, they increase monotonically as we increase the density.

  3. Structure and cluster formation in granular media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Luding


    The two most important phenomena at the basis of granular media are excluded volume and dissipation. The former is captured by the hard sphere model and is responsible for, e.g., crystallization, the latter leads to interesting structures like clusters in non-equilibrium dynamical, freely cooling states. The freely cooling system is examined concerning the energy decay and the cluster evolution in time. Corrections for crystallization and multi-particle contacts are provided, which become more and more important with increasing density.

  4. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer. (United States)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E; Pöschel, Thorsten


    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  5. Kinetics of Nitrogen Diffusion in Granular Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-zhu; XU Chu-shao; ZHAO Yue-ping


    The kinetics and the influence of time on granular manganese nitriding were studied by means of a vacuum resistance furnace, X-ray diffraction technique, and LECO TC-436 oxygen/nitrogen determinator. The longer the nitriding time, the more the nitrogen pickup. Except for a trace of oxide MnO that developed, the metal manganese could thoroughly be nitrided to form Mn4N and a little ζ-phase (the stoichiometric components as Mn2N) with the nitriding time lasting. A kinetic model is developed to reveal the nitriding situation and agrees well with the experimental results.

  6. Nonlinear Phononic Periodic Structures and Granular Crystals (United States)


    of the advanced delay equation (13) and they compared the numerically obtained solutions with those of approximated PDEs. Recently, Starosvetsky... KdV ), a nonlinear partial differential equation , and have been discovered in myriad systems and discrete nonlinear lattices of all the above types...granular chain, and derived the following KdV equation : t 0 0 1/2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0, 2 6 , , . 6 xx x xc uc A R c R c Rc m σξ ξ γξ ξξ ξ δ γ σ δ

  7. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  8. Automatic segmentation of the fetal cerebellum using spherical harmonics and gray level profiles (United States)

    Velásquez-Rodríguez, Gustavo; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando; Escalate Ramírez, Boris


    The cerebellum is an important structure to determine the gestational age, cerebellar diameter obtained by ultrasound volumes of the fetal brain has shown a high correlation with gestational age, therefore is useful to determine fetal growth restrictions. The manual annotation of 3D surfaces from the fetal brain is time consuming and needs to be done by a highly trained expert. To help with the annotation in the evaluation of cerebellar diameter, we developed a new automatic scheme for the segmentation of the 3D surface of the cerebellum in ultrasound volumes, using a spherical harmonics model and the optimization of an objective function based on gray level voxel profiles. The results on 10 ultrasound volumes of the fetal brain show an accuracy in the segmentation of the cerebellum (mean Dice coefficient of 0.7544). The method reported shows potential to effectively assist the experts in the assessment of fetal growth in ultrasound volumes. We consider the proposed cerebellum segmentation method a contribution for the SPHARM segmentations models, because it is capable to run without hardware restriction, (GPU), and gives adequate results in a reasonable amount of time.

  9. Reliability of Visual and Somatosensory Feedback in Skilled Movement: The Role of the Cerebellum. (United States)

    Mizelle, J C; Oparah, Alexis; Wheaton, Lewis A


    The integration of vision and somatosensation is required to allow for accurate motor behavior. While both sensory systems contribute to an understanding of the state of the body through continuous updating and estimation, how the brain processes unreliable sensory information remains to be fully understood in the context of complex action. Using functional brain imaging, we sought to understand the role of the cerebellum in weighting visual and somatosensory feedback by selectively reducing the reliability of each sense individually during a tool use task. We broadly hypothesized upregulated activation of the sensorimotor and cerebellar areas during movement with reduced visual reliability, and upregulated activation of occipital brain areas during movement with reduced somatosensory reliability. As specifically compared to reduced somatosensory reliability, we expected greater activations of ipsilateral sensorimotor cerebellum for intact visual and somatosensory reliability. Further, we expected that ipsilateral posterior cognitive cerebellum would be affected with reduced visual reliability. We observed that reduced visual reliability results in a trend towards the relative consolidation of sensorimotor activation and an expansion of cerebellar activation. In contrast, reduced somatosensory reliability was characterized by the absence of cerebellar activations and a trend towards the increase of right frontal, left parietofrontal activation, and temporo-occipital areas. Our findings highlight the role of the cerebellum for specific aspects of skillful motor performance. This has relevance to understanding basic aspects of brain functions underlying sensorimotor integration, and provides a greater understanding of cerebellar function in tool use motor control.

  10. Gating of Long-Term Potentiation by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Cerebellum Input Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Prestori (Francesca); C. Bonardi (Claudia); L. Mapelli (Lisa); P. Lombardo (Paola); R. Goselink (Rianne); M.E. de Stefano (Maria Egle); D. Gandolfi (Daniela); J. Mapelli (Jonathan); D. Bertrand (Daniel); M. Schonewille (Martijn); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); E. D'Angelo (Egidio)


    textabstractThe brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor plasticity in human lateral cerebellum : Dual effect on saccadic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panouilleres, Muriel; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Gutteling, Tjerk P.; Salemme, Romeo; van der Stigchel, Stefan; van der Geest, Josef N.; Frens, Maarten A.; Pelisson, Denis


    The cerebellum is a key area for movement control and sensory-motor plasticity. Its medial part is considered as the exclusive cerebellar center controlling the accuracy and adaptive calibration of saccadic eye movements. However, the contribution of other zones situated in its lateral part is unkno

  12. Monitoring the native phosphorylation state of plasma membrane proteins from a single mouse cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    Neuronal processing in the cerebellum involves the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of various plasma membrane proteins such as AMPA or NMDA receptors. Despite the importance of changes in phosphorylation pattern, no global phospho-proteome analysis has yet been performed. As plasma membrane...

  13. Differential effects of the Huntington's disease CAG mutation in striatum and cerebellum are quantitative not qualitative. (United States)

    Fossale, Elisa; Seong, Ihn Sik; Coser, Kathryn R; Shioda, Toshi; Kohane, Isaac S; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min


    Huntington's disease (HD) involves marked early neurodegeneration in the striatum, whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared despite the ubiquitous expression of full-length mutant huntingtin, implying that inherent tissue-specific differences determine susceptibility to the HD CAG mutation. To understand this tissue specificity, we compared early mutant huntingtin-induced gene expression changes in striatum to those in cerebellum in young Hdh CAG knock-in mice, prior to onset of evident pathological alterations. Endogenous levels of full-length mutant huntingtin caused qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different gene expression changes in the two brain regions. Importantly, the quantitatively different responses in the striatum and cerebellum in mutant mice were well accounted for by the intrinsic molecular differences in gene expression between the striatum and cerebellum in wild-type animals. Tissue-specific gene expression changes in response to the HD mutation, therefore, appear to reflect the different inherent capacities of these tissues to buffer qualitatively similar effects of mutant huntingtin. These findings highlight a role for intrinsic quantitative tissue differences in contributing to HD pathogenesis, and likely to other neurodegenerative disorders exhibiting tissue-specificity, thereby guiding the search for effective therapeutic interventions.

  14. Localization and functional roles of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 in the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gounko, Natalia V.; Gramsbergen, Albert; van der Want, Johannes J. L.


    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 receptor has three splice variants alpha, beta, and gamma. In the rodent brain only CRF-R2 alpha is present. In the cerebellum, CRF-R2 alpha has two different isoforms: a full-length form (fl) and truncated (tr). Both forms CRF-R2 have a unique cellula

  15. Cerebellum segmentation in MRI using atlas registration and local multi-scale image descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, F.; de Bruijne, M.; Hoogendam, Y.Y.


    We propose a novel cerebellum segmentation method for MRI, based on a combination of statistical models of the structure's expected location in the brain and its local appearance. The appearance model is obtained from a k-nearest-neighbor classifier, which uses a set of multi-scale local image...

  16. A case of illusory own-body perceptions after transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Kammers, M.P.M.; Enter, D.; Honk, E.J. van


    Illusory own-body perceptions are 'body in space' misinterpretations of the brain and belong to the class of out-of-body experiences wherein the angular gyrus seems importantly implicated. In the present study additional cerebellum involvement in illusory own-body perceptions was investigated in a h


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Zelda De Vidovich


    Full Text Available The borderline personality disorder (BPD is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity, and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design. BPD patients (n=8 and healthy controls (HC; n=9 performed an Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN assessing information processing biases for positive and negative stimuli before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 1 Hz/10 min, 80% RMT over the left lateral cerebellum. The AGN task consisted of four blocks requiring associative capacities of increasing complexity. BPD patients performed significantly worse than the HC, especially when cognitive demands was high (3rd and 4th block, but their performace approached that of HC after rTMS (rTMS was almost ineffective in HC. The more evident effect of rTMS in complex associative tasks might have occurred since the cerebellum is deeply involved in integration and coordination of different stimuli. We hypothesize that, in BPD patients, cerebello-thalamo-cortical communication is altered, resulting in emotional dysregulation and disturbed impulse control. The rTMS over the left cerebellum might have interfered with existing functional connections exerting a facilitating effect on PFC control.

  18. Extinction as New Learning versus Unlearning: Considerations from a Computer Simulation of the Cerebellum (United States)

    Mauk, Michael D.; Ohyama, Tatsuya


    Like many forms of Pavlovian conditioning, eyelid conditioning displays robust extinction. We used a computer simulation of the cerebellum as a tool to consider the widely accepted view that extinction involves new, inhibitory learning rather than unlearning of acquisition. Previously, this simulation suggested basic mechanistic features of…

  19. Impaired Motor Learning in a Disorder of the Inferior Olive: Is the Cerebellum Confused? (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Wong, Aaron L; Optican, Lance M; Zee, David S


    An attractive hypothesis about how the brain learns to keep its motor commands accurate is centered on the idea that the cerebellar cortex associates error signals carried by climbing fibers with simultaneous activity in parallel fibers. Motor learning can be impaired if the error signals are not transmitted, are incorrect, or are misinterpreted by the cerebellar cortex. Learning might also be impaired if the brain is overwhelmed with a sustained barrage of meaningless information unrelated to simultaneously appearing error signals about incorrect performance. We test this concept in subjects with syndrome of oculopalatal tremor (OPT), a rare disease with spontaneous, irregular, roughly pendular oscillations of the eyes thought to reflect an abnormal, synchronous, spontaneous discharge to the cerebellum from the degenerating neurons in the inferior olive. We examined motor learning during a short-term, saccade adaptation paradigm in patients with OPT and found a unique pattern of disturbed adaptation, quite different from the abnormal adaption when the cerebellum is involved directly. Both fast (seconds) and slow (minutes) timescales of learning were impaired. We suggest that the spontaneous, continuous, synchronous output from the inferior olive prevents the cerebellum from receiving the error signals it needs for appropriate motor learning. The important message from this study is that impaired motor adaptation and resultant dysmetria is not the exclusive feature of cerebellar disorders, but it also highlights disorders of the inferior olive and its connections to the cerebellum.

  20. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.


    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  1. Rapid evolution of the cerebellum in humans and other great apes. (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris


    Humans' unique cognitive abilities are usually attributed to a greatly expanded neocortex, which has been described as "the crowning achievement of evolution and the biological substrate of human mental prowess". The human cerebellum, however, contains four times more neurons than the neocortex and is attracting increasing attention for its wide range of cognitive functions. Using a method for detecting evolutionary rate changes along the branches of phylogenetic trees, we show that the cerebellum underwent rapid size increase throughout the evolution of apes, including humans, expanding significantly faster than predicted by the change in neocortex size. As a result, humans and other apes deviated significantly from the general evolutionary trend for neocortex and cerebellum to change in tandem, having significantly larger cerebella relative to neocortex size than other anthropoid primates. These results suggest that cerebellar specialization was a far more important component of human brain evolution than hitherto recognized and that technical intelligence was likely to have been at least as important as social intelligence in human cognitive evolution. Given the role of the cerebellum in sensory-motor control and in learning complex action sequences, cerebellar specialization is likely to have underpinned the evolution of humans' advanced technological capacities, which in turn may have been a preadaptation for language.

  2. Characterization of granular flows from seismic signal: insights from laboratory experiments (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.


    Landslides, rock avalanche and debris flows represent a major natural hazard in steep landscapes. Recent studies showed that the seismic signal generated by these events can provide quantitative information on their location and amplitude. However, owing to the lack of visual observations, the dynamics of gravitational events is still not well understood. A burning challenge is to establish relations between the characteristics of the landslide (volume, speed, runout distance,...) and that of the emitted seismic signal (maximum amplitude, seismic energy, frequencies,...) Laboratory experiments of granular columns collapse are conducted on an inclined plane. The seismic signal generated by the collapse is recorded by piezoelectric accelerometers sensitive in a wide frequency range (1 Hz - 56 kHz). The granular column is constituted with steel beads of same diameter, between 1 mm and 3 mm that are initially contained in a cylinder. The column collapses when the cylinder is removed. A layer of steel beads is glued on the surface of the plane to provide basal roughness. For horizontal granular flows, we show that it is possible to distinguish the phases of acceleration and deceleration of the flow in the emitted seismic signal. Indeed, the signal envelope is symmetrical with respect to its maximum, separating the acceleration from the deceleration. When the slope angle increases, we observe that the signal envelope looses its symmetry: it stays unchanged during the acceleration but it is significantly extended during the deceleration. In addition, we propose a semi-empirical scaling law to describe the increase of the elastic energy radiated by a granular flow when the slope angle increases. The fit of this law with the seismic data allows us to retrieve the friction angle of the granular material, which is a crucial rheological parameter. Finally, we show that the ratio of the radiated elastic energy over the potential energy lost of granular flows, i.e. their seismic

  3. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David


    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  4. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater (United States)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.


    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  5. Large mid-esophageal granular cell tumor: benign versus malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Roselil Christopher


    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms, among which only 2% are malignant, arising from nervous tissue. Here we present a case of a large esophageal granular cell tumor with benign histopathological features which metastasized to the liver, but showing on positron emission tomography-computerized tomography standardized uptake value suggestive of a benign lesion.


    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  7. Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; Meer, van der R.M.; Lohse, D.; Alam, M.


    The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic shak

  8. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.


    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  9. Bioconversion of Selenate in Methanogenic Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astratinei, V.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The capacity of anaerobic granular sludge to remove selenate from contaminated wastewater was investigated. The potential of different types of granular sludge to remove selenate from the liquid phase was compared to that of suspended sludge and contaminated soil and sediment samples. The selenate r

  10. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. Convective and segregative mechanisms in vibrofluidised granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, C.R.


    Granular materials display a host of fascinating behaviours both remarkably similar to and strikingly different from those exhibited by classical solids, liquids and gases. Due to the ubiquity of granular materials, and their far-reaching importance in multitudinous natural and industrial processes,

  12. An investigation into clustering and segregation in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, J.S.L.


    In this thesis, I studied the dynamics of granular matter by means of theory, simulations, and experiments. I studied how patterns emerge from a seemly unrelated ensemble of grains in different configurations. I focused on cluster formations in free cooling granular gases, developed an algorithm for

  13. A Granular Computing Model Based on Tolerance relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-yin; HU Feng; HUANG Hai; WU Yu


    Granular computing is a new intelligent computing theory based on partition of problem concepts. It is an important problem in Rough Set theory to process incomplete information systems directly. In this paper, a granular computing model based on tolerance relation for processing incomplete information systems is developed. Furthermore, a criteria condition for attribution necessity is proposed in this model.

  14. Granularity of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter studied through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Hernandez, Anabel Cristina


    A small study, done through simulations, of the energy resolution of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter dependence on granularity is presented. The results could indicate that finer granularity of the calorimeter gives better energy resolution, although it would require better statistics to be sure.

  15. Statistics of large contact forces in granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerd, A.R.T.


    Granular materials such as sand have both liquid-like and solid-like properties similar to both liquids and solids. Dry sand in an hour-glass can flow just like water, while sand in a sand castle closely resembles a solid. Because of these interesting properties granular matter has received much att

  16. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Micha-Klaus


    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by diss

  17. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem. (United States)

    Wang, Jun Yi; Ngo, Michael M; Hessl, David; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M


    Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation) to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation) for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large-scale neuroimaging studies, and potentially for segmenting other neural regions as

  18. Viewing the cerebellum through the eyes of Ramón Y Cajal. (United States)

    Sotelo, Constantino


    The modern age in the study of the cerebellum started 120 years ago when Cajal published his first paper with Golgi-impregnated material. In this publication, he selected the cerebellum to initiate his gigantic work aimed at unraveling the complexity of the CNS organization. It was not by chance that he selected the cerebellum but because of the occurrence of specific types of fibers, particularly climbing and mossy afferents and basket fibers. The peculiarity of these fibers offered Cajal one of the clearest situations to envision his "neuron doctrine", which proposes that between the nerve cell processes there is no continuity, only contiguity. In 4 years of intense investigation, Cajal was able to untangle the whole cerebellar circuit, providing the roots of our present knowledge on cerebellar organization. This knowledge has greatly expanded in the last 40 years mainly because the application of new techniques, such as electron microscopy, axonal connection tracing techniques based upon axoplasmic transports, and especially modern immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques allowing the correlation of the chemical constituents of the cells with their structural counterparts, as a valuable approach to better appraise function and organization of the cerebellum. These post-Cajal discoveries are briefly discussed to conclude that, even though we are still far from a complete understanding of its function, new important concepts have been developed, for instance that through its connections with the prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum does not only contribute to the planning and execution of the movement, but that has access also to higher cognitive functions.

  19. Self-burrowing seeds: drag reduction in granular media (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Choi, Sung Mok; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young


    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drag reduction of self-burrowing seeds in granular media. In response to environmental changes in humidity, the awn (a tail-like appendage of seed) of Pelargonium carnosum exhibits coiling-uncoiling deformation which induces the thrust and rotary motions of the head of the seed against the surface of the soil. Using various sizes of glass beads that mimic the granular soil, we measure the thrust forces required for the seed of Pelargonium carnosum to penetrate into granular media with and without rotation. Our quantitative measurements show that the rotation of the seed remarkably reduces the granular drag as compared to the drag against the non-spinning seed. This leads us to conclude that the hygroscopically active awns of Pelargonium carnosum enables its seed to dig into the relatively coarse granular soils.

  20. Formalization for Granular Computing Based on Logical Formulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yan; Qing Liu


    In order to make formalization for granular computing, some kinds of formulas are constructed on a universe by a logical method. Every formula expresses a property, and can separate a semantic set which consists of all of the objects satisfying the formula. Therefore a granular space on the universe is produced based on the formulas,and the semantic sets separated by the formulas are taken as a formal definition for granules ,and are called abstract granules. Furthermore, it is proved that any specific granule from an extended mathematical system can be formalized into an abstract granule ,the conclusions is obtained that specific granules from approximate spaces and information systems can also be formalized into abstract granules. Based on a granular space and abstract granules, granular computing is defined, which finally realizes the goal of formalization for granular computing.

  1. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.


    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impac......The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  2. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media (United States)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel


    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  3. Compaction and shear settlement of granular materials (United States)

    Morland, L. W.


    S HEARING of granular materials causes rearrangement of the granular structure which induces irreversible volume decrease and shear strain, in addition to reversible strain. A model is presented which describes the reversible strain by a hypoelastic law, and the irreversible compaction and shear by evolutionary laws. The latter are differential relations defining the progress of irreversible strain as an appropriate time-independent monotonic loading parameter increases, which incorporate dependence on the current state, and which require a direction for the irreversible shear strain increment. Such a model allows a variety of choices and combinations for the loading parameter, shear increment direction and arguments reflecting the current state. A wide selection of possible choices is incorporated in a systematic analysis of the initial shearing response of an unstressed material. It is shown that a physically sensible response restricts the choice to essentially two forms of dependence, and further restricts the initial shapes of the constitutive functions. The simpler model form reduces to three coupled non-linear differential equations for shearing, from which some general conclusions can be drawn, and numerical illustrations for shear stress and shear strain cycling are presented for simple valid model functions.

  4. Congenital granular cell epulis of a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij O Bang


    Full Text Available The congenital granular cell epulis (CGCE is a rare tumor, which is apparent at birth. The histogenesis is still uncertain, but several theories, including origin from epithelial, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and nerve-related cells have been proposed. This case report describes management of a 2-day-old baby girl having a large, round, soft, single 3 × 4 cm, pedunculated swelling, on the lower anterior ridge, which was causing difficulty in feeding. Clinical diagnosis of congenital epulis (CE was made and lesion was excised under conscious sedation. A vessel running over the surface of the lesion was continuous on the alveolar ridge. To reduce intra-operative hemorrhage transfixion suture was passed around the vessel on the alveolar ridge. Then the lesion was excised from the base of peduncle with a scalpel. Histopathologically, the diagnosis of a congenital granular cell lesion of the jaw was given. Follow up of 3 months shows no signs of recurrence. CGCE may interfere with feeding, requiring a conservative excision as soon as the child is fit to undergo surgery. Tendency for recurrence and malignant transformation has not been documented.

  5. Granular motions near the threshold of entrainment (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, athanasios-Theodosios


    Our society is continuously impacted by significant weather events many times resulting in catastrophes that interrupt our normal way of life. In the context of climate change and increasing urbanisation these "extreme" hydrologic events are intensified both in magnitude and frequency, inducing costs of the order of billions of pounds. The vast majority of such costs and impacts (even more to developed societies) are due to water related catastrophes such as the geomorphic action of flowing water (including scouring of critical infrastructure, bed and bank destabilisation) and flooding. New tools and radically novel concepts are in need, to enable our society becoming more resilient. This presentation, emphasises the utility of inertial sensors in gaining new insights on the interaction of flow hydrodynamics with the granular surface at the particle scale and for near threshold flow conditions. In particular, new designs of the "smart-sphere" device are discussed with focus on the purpose specific sets of flume experiments, designed to identify the exact response of the particle resting at the bed surface for various below, near and above threshold flow conditions. New sets of measurements are presented for particle entrainment from a Lagrangian viewpoint. Further to finding direct application in addressing real world challenges in the water sector, it is shown that such novel sensor systems can also help the research community (both experimentalists and computational modellers) gain a better insight on the underlying processes governing granular dynamics.

  6. Drop floating on a granular raft (United States)

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protiere, Suzie


    When a droplet comes in contact with a bath of the same liquid, it coalesces to minimize the surface energy. This phenomenon reduces emulsion stability and is usually fought with surfactant molecules. Another way to slow down coalescence is to use colloidal solid particles. In this case the particles spontaneously migrate to the interface to form ``Pickering'' emulsions and act as a barrier between droplets. Here we use dense, large particles (~ 500 μm) which form a monolayer at an oil/water interface that we call a granular raft. When a droplet is placed on top of such a raft, for a given set of particle properties (contact angle/size), the raft prevents coalescence indefinitely. However, in contrast to what happens when a droplet is placed on a hydrophobic surface and never wets the surface, here the droplet is strongly anchored to the raft and deforms it. We will use this specific configuration to probe the mechanical response of the granular raft: by controlling the droplet volume we can impose tensile or compressive stresses. Finally we will show that the drop, spherical at first, slowly takes a more complex shape as it's volume increases. This shape is not reversible as the drop volume is decreased. The drop can become oblate or prolate with wrinkling of the raft.

  7. Origin of Rigidity in Dry Granular Solids (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Bi, Dapeng; Zhang, Jie; Behringer, R. P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul


    Solids are distinguished from fluids by their ability to resist shear. In traditional solids, the resistance to shear is associated with the emergence of broken translational symmetry as exhibited by a nonuniform density pattern. In this work, we focus on the emergence of shear rigidity in a class of solids where this paradigm is challenged. Dry granular materials have no energetically or entropically preferred density modulations. We show that, in contrast to traditional solids, the emergence of shear rigidity in these granular solids is a collective process, which is controlled solely by boundary forces, the constraints of force and torque balance, and the positivity of the contact forces. We develop a theoretical framework based on these constraints, which connects rigidity to broken translational symmetry in the space of forces, not positions of grains. We apply our theory to experimentally generated shear-jammed states and show that these states are indeed characterized by a persistent, non-uniform density modulation in force space, which emerges at the shear-jamming transition.

  8. Characteristics of a UASB reactor granular sludge at low ascending rate; Caracterizacion de lodo granular de un reactor de UASB operando a bajas velocidades ascensionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obraya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Cuellar Marrero, A.


    Some structural, physical and chemical characteristics of a granular sludge, from a pilot plant for the treatment of alcohol distillery wastewater at suboptimal reactor performance, was investigated. From scanning electron microscopic observations it was possible to infer that these granules have a definite layered structure formed by two layers of different kind of microorganisms, a dense outer of diverse morphology, surrounding a loosely inner center which contain predominantly Methanosaeta sp. Because of the low ascending a rate and low biogas production, the sludge be remain almost static,the reactions rates and biomass-substates contact were deficient, producing cellular lysis in the core of the granules. The limitations of mass transfer can significantly affect the biological activity of the granules and this could be the reason of the low specific methanogenic activity encountered. (Author) 24 refs.

  9. Mechanisms for axial band formation in a rotating drum of granular material (United States)

    Newey, Michael K.

    We study granular particles, like sand or glass beads, that are mixed in a partially filled, horizontal, cylindrical drum. When the drum is rotated, it is observed that there is a flowing layer of grains on the free surface of the granular medium. In addition, if the particles have different sizes, spatial segregation of the particles by size is observed. This segregation occurs in two phases. During the first phase, called radial segregation, the smaller particles form a radial core. In the second, called axial segregation, particles segregate into alternating bands along the axis of the drum. We perform a detailed study of the characteristics of the flow to determine the physical mechanisms driving axial segregation. We characterize the top surface of the flowing layer by tracking particles using a high speed camera. We then extract average quantities such as velocity and diffusion. The average velocities show surprising behavior: Particles in small particle bands have a higher downhill flow velocity than particles in large particle bands. We also observe that there is a pattern of sideways velocity as a function of position down the flow. Particles flow into small particle bands in the middle of the flow but flow out of small particle bands at the bottom. We present the framework for a new model based on our experimentally observed results. We explain the axial band formation in terms of the observed surface flow patterns. We show how two physical processes could contribute to the band formation: (A) Accelerating granular material does not necessarily collide while decelerating granular material requires collisions. (B) Different size particles flow at different velocities. Our framework connects differences in flow velocities on the surface of the drum with the radial segregation in the bulk of the drum. We compare these results to current models, including models by Savage, Zik, Aranson, and Elperin. We test the general model assumption that the particles

  10. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.


    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  11. Review and outlook: from single nanoparticles to self-assembled monolayers and granular GMR sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Weddemann


    Full Text Available This paper highlights recent advances in synthesis, self-assembly and sensing applications of monodisperse magnetic Co and Co-alloyed nanoparticles. A brief introduction to solution phase synthesis techniques as well as the magnetic properties and aspects of the self-assembly process of nanoparticles will be given with the emphasis placed on selected applications, before recent developments of particles in sensor devices are outlined. Here, the paper focuses on the fabrication of granular magnetoresistive sensors by the employment of particles themselves as sensing layers. The role of interparticle interactions is discussed.

  12. Effects of Estrogen on ER, NGF, and ChAT Expression in Cerebellum of Aging Female Sprague-Dawley Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zheng-li; FAN Guang-li; LUO Qi-hui; ZHU Chun-mei; HUANG Yi-dan


    This article discusses the effects of estrogen on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), nerve growth factor (NGF), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the cerebellum of rats. The model of aging female rat was established to study the expression and distribution of ER, NGF, and ChAT in the cerebellum following 17β-estradiol treatment using the technique of immunohistochemical ultrasensitive SP in sprague-dawley rat. The immunoreactive productions were distributed in stratum Purkinje cell, nucleus dentatus, nucleus interpositus, and nucleus fastigii of cerebellum, and the ER positive production was mainly located in the plasma, cytoplasmic membrane, and neurite, and also existed in nucleus. The general tendency of the expression of ER, NGF, and ChAT positive production in the cerebellum cortex and nuclei of aging rat significantly decreases, while the intensity and quantity of the immunoreactive production ascends predominantly after 17β-estradiol treatment. Simultaneously, the positive neurite of Purkinje cell shows a similar tendency. The abovementioned results suggest that the estrogen upregulates the expression of NGF and ChAT, and plays a vital role in sustaining and protecting the structure and function of cerebellum neurons. Furthermore, the similarity of their changing tendency implies that they were correlated and cooperated during the course in effect of estrogen on cerebellum. It also showed that the action of estrogen in cerebellum could be via genomic and nongenomic mechanism.

  13. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex. (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan


    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  14. Real-Time Simulation of Passage-of-Time Encoding in Cerebellum Using a Scalable FPGA-Based System. (United States)

    Luo, Junwen; Coapes, Graeme; Mak, Terrence; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tin, Chung; Degenaar, Patrick


    The cerebellum plays a critical role for sensorimotor control and learning. However, dysmetria or delays in movements' onsets consequent to damages in cerebellum cannot be cured completely at the moment. Neuroprosthesis is an emerging technology that can potentially substitute such motor control module in the brain. A pre-requisite for this to become practical is the capability to simulate the cerebellum model in real-time, with low timing distortion for proper interfacing with the biological system. In this paper, we present a frame-based network-on-chip (NoC) hardware architecture for implementing a bio-realistic cerebellum model with  ∼ 100 000 neurons, which has been used for studying timing control or passage-of-time (POT) encoding mediated by the cerebellum. The simulation results verify that our implementation reproduces the POT representation by the cerebellum properly. Furthermore, our field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based system demonstrates excellent computational speed that it can complete 1sec real world activities within 25.6 ms. It is also highly scalable such that it can maintain approximately the same computational speed even if the neuron number increases by one order of magnitude. Our design is shown to outperform three alternative approaches previously used for implementing spiking neural network model. Finally, we show a hardware electronic setup and illustrate how the silicon cerebellum can be adapted as a potential neuroprosthetic platform for future biological or clinical application.

  15. The contribution of delta subunit-containing GABAA receptors to phasic and tonic conductance changes in cerebellum, thalamus and neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Brickley


    Full Text Available We have made use of the delta subunit-selective allosteric modulator DS2 (4-chloro-N-[2-(2-thienylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-yl benzamide to assay the contribution of delta-GABAARs to tonic and phasic conductance changes in the cerebellum, thalamus and neocortex. In cerebellar granule cells, an enhancement of the tonic conductance was observed for DS2 and the orthosteric agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol. As expected, DS2 did not alter the properties of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic synaptic currents (IPSCs supporting a purely extrasynaptic role for delta-GABAARs in cerebellar granule cells. DS2 also enhanced the tonic conductance recorded from thalamic relay neurons of the visual thalamus with no alteration in IPSC properties. However, in addition to enhancing the tonic conductance DS2 also slowed the decay of IPSCs recorded from layer II/III neocortical neurons. A slowing of the IPSC decay also occurred in the presence of the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker TTX. Moreover, under conditions of reduced GABA release the ability of DS2 to enhance the tonic conductance was attenuated. These results indicate that delta-GABAARs can be activated following vesicular GABA release onto neocortical neurons and that the actions of DS2 on the tonic conductance may be influenced by the ambient GABA levels present in particular brain regions.

  16. Numerical modeling of geophysical granular flows: 1. A comprehensive approach to granular rheologies and geophysical multiphase flows (United States)

    Dartevelle, SéBastien


    Geophysical granular materials display a wide variety of behaviors and features. Typically, granular flows (1) are multiphase flows, (2) are very dissipative over many different scales, (3) display a wide range of grain concentrations, and (4), as a final result of these previous features, display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies. Therefore the objectives of this manuscript are twofold: (1) setting up a hydrodynamic model which acknowledges the multiphase nature of granular flows and (2) defining a comprehensive rheological model which accounts for all the different forms of viscous dissipations within granular flows at any concentration. Hence three important regimes within granular flows must be acknowledged: kinetic (pure free flights of grain), kinetic-collisional, and frictional. The momentum and energy transfer will be different according to the granular regimes, i.e., strain rate dependent in the kinetic and kinetic-collisional cases and strain rate independent in the frictional case. A "universal" granular rheological model requires a comprehensive unified stress tensor able to adequately describe viscous stress within the flow for any of these regimes, and without imposing a priori what regime will dominate over the others. The kinetic-collisional viscous regime is defined from a modified Boltzmann's kinetic theory of dense gas. The frictional viscous regime is defined from the plastic potential and the critical state theories which account for compressibility of granular matter (e.g., dilatancy, consolidation, and critical state). In the companion paper [, 2004] we will introduce a multiphase computer code, (G)MFIX, which accounts for all the granular regimes and rheology and present typical simulations of diluted (e.g., plinian clouds) and concentrated geophysical granular flows (i.e., pyroclastic flows and surges).

  17. Effect of Cerebellum Radiation Dosimetry on Cognitive Outcomes in Children With Infratentorial Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sharma, Shelly [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)


    Purpose: Cognitive decline is a recognized effect of radiation therapy (RT) in children treated for brain tumors. The importance of the cerebellum and its contribution to cognition have been recognized; however, the effect of RT on cerebellum-linked neurocognitive deficits has yet to be explored. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six children (39 males) at a median 3.3 years of age (range, 1-17 years old) were irradiated for infratentorial ependymoma from 1997 to 2008. The total prescribed dose was 54 to 59.4 Gy administered to the postoperative tumor bed with 5- or 10-mm clinical target volume margin. Age-appropriate cognitive and academic testing was performed prior to the start of RT and was then repeated at 6 months and annually throughout 5 years. The anterior and posterior cerebellum and other normal brain volumes were contoured on postcontrast, T1-weighted postoperative magnetic resonance images registered to treatment planning computed tomography images. Mean doses were calculated and used with time after RT and other clinical covariates to model their effect on neurocognitive test scores. Results: Considering only the statistically significant rates in longitudinal changes for test scores and models that included mean dose, there was a correlation between mean infratentorial dose and intelligence quotient (IQ; −0.190 patients/Gy/year; P=.001), math (−0.164 patients/Gy/year; P=.010), reading (−0.137 patients/Gy/year; P=.011), and spelling scores (−0.147 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), where Gy was measured as the difference between the mean dose received by an individual patient and the mean dose received by the patient group. There was a correlation between mean anterior cerebellum dose and IQ scores (−0.116 patients/Gy/year; P=.042) and mean posterior cerebellum dose and IQ (−0.150 patients/Gy/year; P=.002), math (−0.120 patients/Gy/year; P=.023), reading (−0.111 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), and spelling (−0.117 patients/Gy/year; P=.015

  18. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter (United States)

    Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, A.


    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter poured into a silo. The experiments are conducted in two regimes where: (i) the volume fraction of the fluid (liquid) is small and it forms liquid bridges between particles thus giving rise to cohesive forces, and (ii) the particles are completely immersed in the fluid. The data is obtained by imaging the pile formed inside a quasi-two-dimensional silo through the transparent glass side walls and using color-coded particles. In the first series of experiments, the angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturates at a value that depends on the size of the particles. We systematically study the effect of viscosity by using water-glycerol mixtures to vary it over at least three orders of magnitude while keeping the surface tension almost constant. Besides surface tension, the viscosity of the fluid is observed to have an effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. The sharp initial change and the subsequent saturation in the extent of segregation and angle of repose occurs over similar volume fraction of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We calculate the azimuthal correlation function of particle density inside the pile to characterize the extent of layering. In the second series of experiments, particles are poured into a container filled with a fluid. Although the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged, segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. The viscosity at which segregation decreases to zero depends on the size ratio of the particles.

  19. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor of the Oral Cavity. (United States)

    Solomon, Lynn W; Velez, Ines


    Classic granular cell tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm that commonly occurs on the skin, but is not infrequently found in the oral cavity, primarily on the dorsal tongue. Diagnosis is usually straightforward with hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. Immunohistochemical studies on classic granular cell tumor shows positive immunostaining for S-100 and vimentin, while CD68 is variably positive. We report a case of otherwise unremarkable oral granular cell tumor that was immunohistochemically negative for S-100, and positive for vimentin and CD68, and discuss the differential diagnosis. The results of the immunohistochemical studies in our case are compared with those of classic S-100 positive oral granular cell tumors, as well as cutaneous and oral S-100 negative granular cell tumors. Classic S-100 positive granular cell tumors and S-100 negative granular cell tumors of the oral cavity can only be distinguished by immunohistochemical studies; however, the necessity of this distinction is unclear, as both are benign lesions in which recurrence is unlikely.

  20. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon


    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  1. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.


    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  2. Gaussian kinetic model for granular gases. (United States)

    Dufty, James W; Baskaran, Aparna; Zogaib, Lorena


    A kinetic model for the Boltzmann equation is proposed and explored as a practical means to investigate the properties of a dilute granular gas. It is shown that all spatially homogeneous initial distributions approach a universal "homogeneous cooling solution" after a few collisions. The homogeneous cooling solution (HCS) is studied in some detail and the exact solution is compared with known results for the hard sphere Boltzmann equation. It is shown that all qualitative features of the HCS, including the nature of overpopulation at large velocities, are reproduced by the kinetic model. It is also shown that all the transport coefficients are in excellent agreement with those from the Boltzmann equation. Also, the model is specialized to one having a velocity independent collision frequency and the resulting HCS and transport coefficients are compared to known results for the Maxwell model. The potential of the model for the study of more complex spatially inhomogeneous states is discussed.

  3. Laws of granular solids: geometry and topology. (United States)

    DeGiuli, Eric; McElwaine, Jim


    In a granular solid, mechanical equilibrium requires a delicate balance of forces at the disordered grain scale. To understand how macroscopic rigidity can emerge in this amorphous solid, it is crucial that we understand how Newton's laws pass from the disordered grain scale to the laboratory scale. In this work, we introduce an exact discrete calculus, in which Newton's laws appear as differential relations at the scale of a single grain. Using this calculus, we introduce gauge variables that describe identically force- and torque-balanced configurations. In a first, intrinsic formulation, we use the topology of the contact network, but not its geometry. In a second, extrinsic formulation, we introduce geometry with the Delaunay triangulation. These formulations show, with exact methods, how topology and geometry in a disordered medium are related by constraints. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a divergence-free, symmetric stress tensor in two and three dimensions.

  4. Multiple impacts in dissipative granular chains

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Ngoc Son


    The extension of collision models for single impacts between two bodies, to the case of multiple impacts (which take place when several collisions occur at the same time in a multibody system) is a challenge in Solid Mechanics, due to the complexity of such phenomena, even in the frictionless case. This monograph aims at presenting the main multiple collision rules proposed in the literature. Such collisions typically occur in granular materials, the simplest of which are made of chains of aligned balls. These chains are used throughout the book to analyze various multiple impact rules which extend the classical Newton (kinematic restitution), Poisson (kinetic restitution) and Darboux-Keller (energetic or kinetic restitution) approaches for impact modelling. The shock dynamics in various types of chains of aligned balls (monodisperse, tapered, decorated, stepped chains) is carefully studied and shown to depend on several parameters: restitution coefficients, contact stiffness ratios, elasticity coefficients (...

  5. Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming


    The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...

  6. Blow up Analysis for Anomalous Granular Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Thomas


    We investigate in this article the long-time behaviour of the solutions to the energy-dependent, spatially-homogeneous, inelastic Boltzmann equation for hard spheres. This model describes a diluted gas composed of hard spheres under statistical description, that dissipates energy during collisions. We assume that the gas is "anomalous", in the sense that the energy dissipation increases when the temperature decreases. This allows the gas to cool down in finite time. We study the existence, uniqueness and attractiveness of blow up profiles for this model and the cooling law associated, generalizing the classical Haff's Law for granular gases. To this end, we give some new estimates about the third order moment of the inelastic Boltzmann equation with drift term and we introduce new strongly "non-linear" self-similar variables

  7. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.


    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  8. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  9. Segmentation of the C57BL/6J mouse cerebellum in magnetic resonance images. (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Keller, Marianne D; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Richards, Kay; Paxinos, George; Egan, Gary F; Petrou, Steven; Bartlett, Perry; Galloway, Graham J; Reutens, David C


    The C57BL mouse is the centerpiece of efforts to use gene-targeting technology to understand cerebellar pathology, thus creating a need for a detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas of the cerebellum of this strain. In this study we present a methodology for systematic delineation of the vermal and hemispheric lobules of the C57BL/6J mouse cerebellum in magnetic resonance images. We have successfully delineated 38 cerebellar and cerebellar-related structures. The higher signal-to-noise ratio achieved by group averaging facilitated the identification of anatomical structures. In addition, we have calculated average region volumes and created probabilistic maps for each structure. The segmentation method and the probabilistic maps we have created will provide a foundation for future studies of cerebellar disorders using transgenic mouse models.

  10. Microscopic study on stress-strain relation of granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU SiHong; YAO YangPing; SUN QiCheng; LI TieJun; LIU MinZhi


    A biaxial shearing test on granular materials is numerically simulated by distinct element method (DEM). The evolution of the microstructures of granular materials during isotropic compression and shearing is investigated, on which a yield function is derived. The new yield function has a similar form as the one used in the modified Cam-clay model and explains the yield characteristics of granular materials under the isotropic compression and shear process through the change of the contact distribution N(θ) defining the contacts at particle contact angle θ.

  11. Granular flow over inclined channels with linear contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tunuguntla, D R; Thornton, A R; Bokhove, O


    We consider dry granular flow down an inclined chute with a localised contraction theoretically and numerically. The flow regimes are predicted through a novel extended one-dimensional hydraulic theory. A discrete particle method validated empirical constitutive law is used to close this one-dimensional asymptotic model. The one-dimensional model is verified by solving the two-dimensional shallow granular equations through discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM). For supercritical flows, the one-dimensional asymptotic theory surprisingly holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel.

  12. Tunnel magnetoresis-tance(TMR) in ferromagnetic metalinsulator granular films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We review the recently discovered tunnel-type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in ferromagnetic metal- insulator granular thin films, which is the magnetoresistance (MR) associated with the spin-dependent tunneling between two ferromagnetic metal particles. The theoretical and ex-perimental results including electrical resistivity, magnetore-sistance and their temperature dependence are described. Limitations to the applications of the ferromagnetic metal- insulator granular films are also discussed. Additionally, a brief survey of another two magnetic properties, high- fre-quency property and giant Hall effect (GHE) associated strongly with the granular structures is also presented.

  13. Some fundamental aspects of the continuumization problem in granular Media (United States)

    Peters, John F.

    The central problem of devising mathematical models of granular materials is how to define a granular medium as a continuum. This paper outlines the elements of a theory that could be incorporated in discrete models such as the Discrete-Element Method, without recourse to a continuum description. It is shown that familiar concepts from continuum mechanics such as stress and strain can be defined for interacting discrete quantities. Established concepts for constitutive equations can likewise be applied to discrete quantities. The key problem is how to define the constitutive response in terms of truncated strain measures that are a practical necessity for analysis of large granular systems.

  14. Activity-dependent repression of Cbln1 expression: mechanism for developmental and homeostatic regulation of synapses in the cerebellum. (United States)

    Iijima, Takatoshi; Emi, Kyoichi; Yuzaki, Michisuke


    Cbln1, which belongs to the C1q/tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is released from cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in forming and maintaining excitatory synapses between parallel fibers (PFs; axons of granule cells) and Purkinje cells not only during development but also in the adult cerebellum. Although neuronal activity is known to cause morphological changes at synapses, how Cbln1 signaling is affected by neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we show that chronic stimulation of neuronal activity by elevating extracellular K(+) levels or by adding kainate decreased the expression of cbln1 mRNA within several hours in mature granule cells in a manner dependent on L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and calcineurin. Chronic activity also reduced Cbln1 protein levels within a few days, during which time the number of excitatory synapses on Purkinje cell dendrites was reduced; this activity-induced reduction of synapses was prevented by the addition of exogenous Cbln1 to the culture medium. Therefore, the activity-dependent downregulation of cbln1 may serve as a new presynaptic mechanism by which PF-Purkinje cell synapses adapt to chronically elevated activity, thereby maintaining homeostasis. In addition, the expression of cbln1 mRNA was prevented when immature granule cells were maintained in high-K(+) medium. Since immature granule cells are chronically depolarized before migrating to the internal granule layer, this depolarization-dependent regulation of cbln1 mRNA expression may also serve as a developmental switch to facilitate PF synapse formation in mature granule cells in the internal granule layer.

  15. Impaired structural and functional development of cerebellum following gestational exposure of deltamethrin in rats: role of reelin. (United States)

    Kumar, Kamendra; Patro, Nisha; Patro, Ishan


    Reelin is an extracellular matrix molecule that is involved in the normal development of the cerebellar lamination, Bergmann glial fibres alignment, Purkinje cell monolayer arrangement and granule cell migration. In this study, we have examined the effects of maternal exposure of deltamethrin (DLT), a type II pyrethroid insecticide, on the structural and functional development of rat cerebellum during postnatal life. DLT (0.75 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide) was administered in timed pregnant rats during two different gestational time periods, i.e. gestational days of 7-10 and 11-14, respectively. In DLT exposed rats, a significant overexpression of reelin was observed in the cells of the external granule cell layer (EGL) and internal granule cell layer along with an ectopic expression of reelin in the EGL as well as in the migrating granule cells just below the EGL, revealing an arrest of granule cell migration in this zone. Mis-orientation and hypertrophy of the Bergmann glial fibres further hampered the journey of the granule cells to their final destination. Possibly reelin overexpression also caused misalignment of the Purkinje cells and inhibited the neurite growth leading to a significant decrease in the spine density, main dendritic length and width of the dendritic arbour. Thus, it is proposed that the DLT exerts its neurotoxic effects possibly via the intracellular accumulation and low release of reelin leading to an impaired granule cell and Purkinje cell migration, inhibition of neurite outgrowth and reduced spine density. Such impaired cerebellar development leads to motor coordination deficits.

  16. Influence of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the Cerebellum on Standing Posture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Inukai


    Full Text Available Damage to the vestibular cerebellum results in dysfunctional standing posture control. Patients with cerebellum dysfunction have a larger sway in the center of gravity while standing compared with healthy subjects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique for selectively exciting or inhibiting specific neural structures with potential applications in functional assessment and treatment of neural disorders. However, the specific stimulation parameters for influencing postural control have not been assessed. In this study, we investigated the influence of tDCS when applied over the cerebellum on standing posture control. Sixteen healthy subjects received tDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the scalp 2 cm below the inion. In experiment 1, all 16 subjects received tDCS under three stimulus conditions, Sham, Cathodal, and Anodal, in a random order with the second electrode placed on the forehead. In experiment 2, five subjects received cathodal stimulation only with the second electrode placed over the right buccinator muscle. Center of gravity sway was measured twice for 60 s before and after tDCS in a standing posture with eyes open and legs closed, and average total locus length, locus length per second, rectangular area, and enveloped area were calculated. In experiment 1, total locus length and locus length per second decreased significantly after cathodal stimulation but not after anodal or sham stimulation, while no tDCS condition influenced rectangular or enveloped areas. In experiment 2, cathodal tDCS again significantly reduced total locus length and locus length per second but not rectangular and enveloped areas. The effects of tDCS on postural control are polarity-dependent, likely reflecting the selective excitation or inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Cathodal tDCS to the cerebellum of healthy subjects can alter body sway (velocity.

  17. Models of basal ganglia and cerebellum for sensorimotor integration and predictive control (United States)

    Jabri, Marwan A.; Huang, Jerry; Coenen, Olivier J. D.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.


    This paper presents a sensorimotor architecture integrating computational models of a cerebellum and a basal ganglia and operating on a microrobot. The computational models enable a microrobot to learn to track a moving object and anticipate future positions using a CCD camera. The architecture features pre-processing modules for coordinate transformation and instantaneous orientation extraction. Learning of motor control is implemented using predictive Hebbian reinforcement-learning algorithm in the basal ganglia model. Learning of sensory predictions makes use of a combination of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) adaptation rules within the cerebellum model. The basal ganglia model uses the visual inputs to develop sensorimotor mapping for motor control, while the cerebellum module uses robot orientation and world- coordinate transformed inputs to predict the location of the moving object in a robot centered coordinate system. We propose several hypotheses about the functional role of cell populations in the cerebellum and argue that mossy fiber projections to the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) could play a coordinate transformation role and act as gain fields. We propose that such transformation could be learnt early in the brain development stages and could be guided by the activity of the climbing fibers. Proprioceptor mossy fibers projecting to the DCN and providing robot orientation with respect to a reference system could be involved in this case. Other mossy fibers carrying visual sensory input provide visual patterns to the granule cells. The combined activities of the granule and the Purkinje cells store spatial representations of the target patterns. The combinations of mossy and Purkinje projections to the DCN provide a prediction of the location of the moving target taking into consideration the robot orientation. Results of lesion simulations based on our model show degradations similar to those reported in cerebellar lesion

  18. GABAρ subunits confer a bicuculline-insensitive component to GFAP+ cells of cerebellum


    Pétriz, Adriana; Reyes-Haro, Daniel; González-González, María Alejandra; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo


    Early postnatal development of the cerebellum involves a number of events that require signaling via the neurotransmitter GABA, which acts on specific receptors anchored in the plasma membrane. GABAergic transmission regulates the proliferation and migration of neuronal precursors of astrocytic lineage. Glial cells are known to express GABA-A receptors that include GABAρ subunits, but their expression pattern, functional properties, and trafficking dynamics remain unknown. This study found th...

  19. ‘Motor cognition’ – what is it and is the cerebellum involved?


    Fuentes, Christina T.; Bastian, Amy J.


    Motor cognition encompasses how we understand our own movement, and how movement helps us to understand the world. Here, the role of the cerebellum is discussed in two processes that could be considered aspects of motor cognition: predicting movement outcomes and understanding the meaning of movements. Recent behavioral, anatomical, and neurophysiological findings related to these processes are discussed. There are data to support a cerebellar role in predicting movement outcomes, which could...

  20. The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia: from cognition to molecular pathways


    Peyman Yeganeh-Doost; Oliver Gruber; Peter Falkai; Andrea Schmitt


    Beside its role in motor coordination, the cerebellum is involved in cognitive function such as attention, working memory, verbal learning, and sensory discrimination. In schizophrenia, a disturbed prefronto-thalamo-cerebellar circuit has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology. In addition, a deficit in the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAf) receptor has been hypothesized. The risk gene neuregulin 1 may play a major role in this process. We demonstrated a higher expressio...

  1. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko


    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  2. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cerebellum of aging Ts65Dn mice. (United States)

    Necchi, Daniela; Lomoio, Selene; Scherini, Elda


    In the cerebellum of adult-aging Ts65Dn mice, a murine model of Down syndrome, Purkinje cells undergo degeneration. Searching for the cause of Purkinje cell degeneration, we have studied the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the cerebellum of aging Ts65Dn mice. Inhibition of UPS is sufficient to induce neuron degeneration and death. Proteasome chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity was reduced by 35% in the cerebellum of Ts65Dn mice in comparison with euploid animals. Accordingly, Western blot analysis of ubiquitin showed an increase in ubiquitinated proteins. Immunocytochemistry for ubiquitin revealed strongly positive intranuclear inclusions in Purkinje cells and large neurons of cerebellar nuclei. The Western blot analysis of ubiquitin in nuclear protein extracts confirmed the increase of ubiquitinated proteins in the cell nuclei. After FUS immunocytochemistry, large intranuclear inclusions were visible in Purkinje cells and large neurons of cerebellar nuclei in Ts65Dn mice. Together, data indicate a possible role for proteasome inhibition in the cerebellar neurodegeneration in Ts65Dn mice.

  3. Brain stem and cerebellum volumetric analysis of Machado Joseph disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Camargos


    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(MJD/SCA3, is the most frequent late onset spinocerebellar ataxia and results from a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 gene. Previous studies have found correlation between atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem with age and CAG repeats, although no such correlation has been found with disease duration and clinical manifestations. In this study we test the hypothesis that atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem in MJD/SCA3 is related to clinical severity, disease duration and CAG repeat length as well as to other variables such as age and ICARS (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Whole brain high resolution MRI and volumetric measurement with cranial volume normalization were obtained from 15 MJD/SCA3 patients and 15 normal, age and sex-matchedcontrols. We applied ICARS and compared the score with volumes and CAG number, disease duration and age. We found significant correlation of both brain stem and cerebellar atrophy with CAG repeat length, age, disease duration and degree of disability. The Spearman rank correlation was stronger with volumetric reduction of the cerebellum than with brain stem. Our data allow us to conclude that volumetric analysis might reveal progressive degeneration after disease onset, which in turn is linked to both age and number of CAG repeat expansions in SCA 3.

  4. The mutant Moonwalker TRPC3 channel links calcium signaling to lipid metabolism in the developing cerebellum. (United States)

    Dulneva, Anna; Lee, Sheena; Oliver, Peter L; Di Gleria, Katalin; Kessler, Benedikt M; Davies, Kay E; Becker, Esther B E


    The Moonwalker (Mwk) mouse is a model of dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3. Here, we report impairments in dendritic growth and synapse formation early on during Purkinje cell development in the Mwk cerebellum that are accompanied by alterations in calcium signaling. To elucidate the molecular effector pathways that regulate Purkinje cell dendritic arborization downstream of mutant TRPC3, we employed transcriptomic analysis of developing Purkinje cells isolated by laser-capture microdissection. We identified significant gene and protein expression changes in molecules involved in lipid metabolism. Consistently, lipid homeostasis in the Mwk cerebellum was found to be disturbed, and treatment of organotypic cerebellar slices with ceramide significantly improved dendritic outgrowth of Mwk Purkinje cells. These findings provide the first mechanistic insights into the TRPC3-dependent mechanisms, by which activated calcium signaling is coupled to lipid metabolism and the regulation of Purkinje cell development in the Mwk cerebellum.

  5. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  6. An electrophysiological link between the cerebellum, cognition and emotion: Frontal theta EEG activity to single-pulse cerebellar TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van


    Early intracranial electrical stimulation studies in animals demonstrated cerebellar connectivity to brain structures involved in cognitive and emotive functions. Human electrophysiological data to support cerebellum involvement in the latter functions are however lacking. In the present study, elec

  7. Development of granular pial cells and granular perithelial cells in the spinal cords of mouse and rabbit.



    Free cells containing large dense granules first appear in the leptomeninges of spinal cord at E14 in the mouse and at E16 in the rabbit. These ages represent a similar stage of development of the spinal cord and meninges. Despite the early appearance of granular pial cells, granular perithelial cells are not found around blood vessels in the spinal cord until 5 days postnatum in the mouse and E28 in the rabbit. The first appearance of granular perithelial cells coincides with the development...

  8. Involvement of the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebellum in the acquisition of unilateral classical eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo HU; Xi LIN; Lushuai HUANG; Li YANG; Hua FENG; Jianfeng SUI


    Aim:The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebellum to the acquisition of unilateral classical eyeblink conditioning (EBCC).Methods: The unilateral EBCC was achieved using a binaural tone conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a left airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US).A high-resolution potentiometer was used to monitor eyeblink responses.Guinea pigs received one CS-US session followed by three CS-US sessions (sessions 2 to 4),during which microinjections of muscimol,a GABAA receptor agonist,were performed to reversibly inactivate the cerebellum unilaterally prior to training.To test whether any learning had occurred during these inactivation sessions,training was continued for six more CS-US sessions (sessions 5 to 10) without any inactivation.Results: Animals with inactivation of the left cerebellum had no signs of left conditioned response (CR) during sessions 2 to 4,and their CR acquisition during sessions 5 to 10 was not distinguishable from that of control animals during sessions 2 to 7.In contrast,animals with inactivation of the right cerebellum acquired left CRs during sessions 2 to 4,although their CR acquisition was significantly retarded during session 2.In addition,microinjections of muscimol into the right cerebellum did not affect left neuro-behavioral activity.Finally,microinjections of muscimol into either the left or the right cerebellum did not affect the performance of tone-airpuff evoked unconditioned response (UR).Conclusion: In contrast to the essential role of the ipsilateral cerebellum,the contralateral cerebellum is potentially involved in the acquisition of unilateral EBCC during the early stage of training.

  9. Cerebellum to motor cortex paired associative stimulation induces bidirectional STDP-like plasticity in human motor cortex


    Lu, Ming-Kuei; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Ziemann, Ulf


    The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-like modifications of motor cortex (M1) excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS)...

  10. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou


    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  11. Role of 3D force networks in linking grain scale to macroscale processes in sheared granular debris (United States)

    Mair, K.; Jettestuen, E.; Abe, S.


    Active faults, landslides and subglacial tills contain accumulations of granular debris that evolve during sliding. The macroscopic motion in these environments is at least to some extent determined by processes operating in this sheared granular material. A valid question is how the local behavior at the individual granular contacts actually sums up to influence macroscopic sliding. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling can potentially help elucidate this. Observations of jamming (stick) and unjamming (flow) as well as concentrated shear bands on the scale of 5-10 grains suggest that a simple continuum description may be insufficient to capture important elements of the behavior. We therefore seek a measure of the organization of the granular fabric and the 3D structure of the load bearing skeleton that effectively demonstrates how the individual grain interactions are manifested in the macroscopic sliding behavior we observe. Contact force networks are an expression of this. Here we investigate the structure and variability of the most connected system spanning force networks produced in 3D discrete element models of granular layers under shear. We use percolation measures to identify, characterize, compare and track the evolution of these strongly connected contact force networks. We show that specific topological measures used in describing the networks, such as number of contacts and coordination number, are sensitive to grain size distribution (and likely the grain shape) of the material as well as loading conditions. Hence, faults of different maturity would be expected to accommodate shear in different ways. Distinct changes in the topological characteristics i.e. the geometry of strong force networks with accumulated strain are directly correlated to fluctuations in macroscopic shearing resistance. This suggests that 3D force networks play an important bridging role between individual grain scale processes and macroscopic sliding behavior.

  12. Investigation of granular impact using positron emission particle tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.


    We present results from an experimental study of granular impact using a combination of high-speed video and positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The PEPT technique exploits the annihilation of photons from positron decay to determine the position of tracer particles either inside a small granular bed or attached to the object which impacts the bed. We use dense spheres as impactors and the granular beds are comprised of glass beads which are fluidised to achieve a range of different initial packing states. For the first time, we have simultaneously investigated both the trajectory of the sphere, the motion of particles in a 3-D granular bed and particles which jump into the resultant jet, which arises from the collapse of the cavity formed by the impacting sphere.

  13. An Emotional Agent Model Based on Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu


    Full Text Available Affective computing has a very important significance for fulfilling intelligent information processing and harmonious communication between human being and computers. A new model for emotional agent is proposed in this paper to make agent have the ability of handling emotions, based on the granular computing theory and the traditional BDI agent model. Firstly, a new emotion knowledge base based on granular computing for emotion expression is presented in the model. Secondly, a new emotional reasoning algorithm based on granular computing is proposed. Thirdly, a new emotional agent model based on granular computing is presented. Finally, based on the model, an emotional agent for patient assistant in hospital is realized, experiment results show that it is efficient to handle simple emotions.

  14. Instationary compaction wave propagation in highly porous cohesive granular media (United States)

    Gunkelmann, Nina; Ringl, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.


    We study the collision of a highly porous granular aggregate of adhesive \\upmu m-sized silica grains with a hard wall using a granular discrete element method. A compaction wave runs through the granular sample building up an inhomogeneous density profile. The compaction is independent of the length of the aggregate, within the regime of lengths studied here. Also short pulses, as they might be exerted by a piston pushing the granular material, excite a compaction wave that runs through the entire material. The speed of the compaction wave is larger than the impact velocity but considerably smaller than the sound speed. The wave speed is related to the compaction rate at the colliding surface and the average slope of the linear density profile.

  15. Wave propagation and energy dissipation in viscoelastic granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In terms of viscoelasticity, the relevant theory of wave in granular media is analyzed in this paper.Under the conditions of slight deformation of granules, wave equation, complex number expressions of propagation vector and attenuation vector, attenuation coefficient expressions of longitudinal wave and transverse wave,etc, are analyzed and deduced. The expressions of attenuation coefficients of viscoelastic longitudinal wave and transverse wave show that the attenuation of wave is related to frequency. The higher the frequency is, the more the attenuation is, which is tested by the laboratory experiment. In addition, the energy dissipation is related to the higher frequency wave that is absorbed by granular media. The friction amongst granular media also increase the energy dissipation. During the flowing situation the expression of transmission factor of energy shows that the granular density difference is the key factor which leads to the attenuation of vibrating energy.This has been proved by the experiment results.

  16. The propagation of blast pulses through dampened granular media (United States)

    Badham, Henry; Chalmers, Max; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William Graham


    The propagation of stress through granular and dampened granular material has been reported previously, the addition of significant amounts of liquid in granular beds causes the mechanism of transmission of blast from one of percolation through the bed pores to one of stress transmission through the granules of the bed. It has been shown, however, that limited amounts liquid can retard propagation within blast-loaded beds by approximately an order of magnitude. This paper presents data on percolation through dampened granular beds using a shock tube as the pressure driver. The effect of particle shape and size was investigated using angular grains of quartz sand as well as smooth glass microspheres. The effect of addition of small amounts of liquids is presented.

  17. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  18. Cobalt toxicity in anaerobic granular sludge: influence of chemical speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Fermoso, F.G.; Baldo-Urrutia, A.M.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The influence of cobalt speciation on the toxicity of cobalt to methylotrophic methanogenesis in anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The cobalt speciation was studied with three different media that contained varying concentrations of complexing ligands [carbonates, phosphates and ethylenedi

  19. Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der;


    Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock hav...

  20. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang


    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Similitude study of a moving bed granular filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Huawei Shi; Gerald Colver; Saw-Choon Soo [Iowa State University, IA (United States)


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving bed granular filter designed for hot gas clean up. This study used similitude theory to devise experiments that were conducted at near-ambient conditions while simulating the performance of filters operated at elevated temperatures and pressures (850{sup o}C and 1000 kPa). These experiments revealed that the proposed moving bed granular filter can operate at high collection efficiencies, typically exceeding 99%, and low pressure drops without the need for periodic regeneration through the use of a continuous flow of fresh granular filter media in the filter. In addition, important design constraints were discovered for the successful operation of the proposed moving bed granular filter.

  2. Is the cerebellum the optimal reference region for intensity normalization of perfusion MR studies in early Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lacalle-Aurioles

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in Alzheimer's disease (AD studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI, patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization.

  3. Is the Cerebellum the Optimal Reference Region for Intensity Normalization of Perfusion MR Studies in Early Alzheimer’s Disease? (United States)

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan Adán; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Olazarán, Javier; Mateos-Pérez, José María; Martino, María Elena; Desco, Manuel


    The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization. PMID:24386081

  4. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by <0.01. These results suggest that the combination of automated segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large

  5. Swirling flows in horizontally vibrated beds of dense granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Bakhshinejad; Piroz Zamankhan


    In a series of experiments,a granular material in a rectangular container with two hollow cylinders was studied as it underwent horizontal vibrations.At the peak values of acceleration,novel swirling granular flows were observed in the cylinders while the grains cascaded down the outer surface of the piles that formed outside the cylinders.Computer simulations were performed that supported our interpretation of the behaviour observed in the experiments.

  6. The Microstructural Response of Granular Soil Under Uniaxial Strain (United States)


    contacts or granular motions will provide insight into more accurate modeling of the material response. The microstructural theory can be directly...use of a flow rule, the ramifications of using an associated or nonassociated flow rule for modeling the response of granular materials will also be...plasticity-based models has been developed over the past 30 yr. Common variations include perfect (ideal) plasticity, hypoelasticity , and viscoplasticity

  7. Technology of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis


    Острога, Руслан Алексеевич; Юхименко, Николай Петрович; Михайловский, Яков Эммануилович; Литвиненко, Андрей Владимирович


    The possibility of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis due to disposal of organic waste of poultry farms is proved. It is shown that such waste has a form of very liquid suspensions. Therefore, to minimize power consumption for their processing, granulation in the fluidized bed apparatus is the optimum technology of producing a granular product. Temperature conditions and operating parameters of organic suspension granulation process are experimentally determined. The existence...

  8. Energy-Consistent Multiscale Algorithms for Granular Flows (United States)


    8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 30-07-2014 Final 01-MAY-2011 - 30-APR-2014 AFOSR YIP Energy-Consistent Multiscale Algorithms for Granular...document the achievements made as a result of this Young Investigator Program ( YIP ) project. We worked on the development of multi scale energy... YIP ) project. We worked on the development of multi scale energy-consistent algorithms to simulate and capture flow phenomena in granular

  9. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics and Hydrodynamics for a Granular Fluid


    Dufty, James W.


    Granular fluids consist of collections of activated mesoscopic or macroscopic particles (e.g., powders or grains) whose flows often appear similar to those of normal fluids. To explore the qualitative and quantitative description of these flows an idealized model for such fluids, a system of smooth inelastic hard spheres, is considered. The single feature distinguishing granular and normal fluids being explored in this way is the inelasticity of collisions. The dominant differences observed i...

  10. Nonergodic dynamics of force-free granular gases


    Bodrova, Anna; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf


    We study analytically and by event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the nonergodic and aging properties of force-free cooling granular gases with both constant and velocity-dependent (viscoelastic) restitution coefficient $\\varepsilon$ for particle pair collisions. We compare the granular gas dynamics with an effective single particle stochastic model based on an underdamped Langevin equation with time dependent diffusivity. We find that both models share the same behavior of the ensembl...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Li; Shen Lansun; Zhu Qing


    An improved FGS (Fine Granular Scalability) coding method is proposed in this letter, which is based on human visual characteristics. This method adjusts FGS coding frame rate according to the evaluation of video sequences so as to improve the coding efficiency and subject perceived quality of reconstructed images. Finally, a fine granular joint source channel coding is proposed based on the source coding method, which not only utilizes the network resources efficiently, but guarantees the reliable transmission of video information.

  12. Particle deposition in granular media. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, C.


    Studies performed under Contract DE-AC02-79-ER10386.A000 Particle Deposition in Granular Media during the period June 1, 1979 to date are described. These studies include the design and construction of apparatus for filtration experiments and a complete trajectory analysis for the calculation of the initial collection efficiency of granular media. The results of the trajectory analysis have been used to develop a generalized correlation of the collection efficiency.

  13. Knowledge Granularity and Representation of Knowledge: Towards Knowledge Grid


    Mach, Maria A.; Owoc, Mieczyslaw L.


    International audience; Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between knowledge granularity as a result of different ways of a knowledge representation are considered. The paper deals with the problem of developing knowledge grid in the context of encapsulation of knowledge including different dimensions and measures. The origin of the pro...

  14. Study of Network Traffic Analysis Model Based on Time Granularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan,Xi-aoling; Xu,Yong; Mei,Chenggang; Liu,Lan


    An analytic research on establishing different traffic models on the traffic nature of different time granularity can provide necessary academic foundation for network design and simulation as well as ensuring the quality of service and network management. This paper aims to make simulant predication by means of corresponding math tools on the modeling of real traftic of the different time granularity. The experimental results indicate that the predicated traffic is close to the real traffic distribution.

  15. Dynamic Properties of Two-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We propose a two-dimensional model of polydisperse granular mixtures with a power-law size distribution in the presence of stochastic driving. A fractal dimension D is introduced as a measurement of the inhomogeneity of the size distribution of particles. We define the global and partial granular temperatures of the multi-component mixture. By direct simulation Monte Carlo, we investigate how the inhomogeneity of the size distribution influences the dynamic properties of the mixture, focusing on the granular temperature, dissipated energy, velocity distribution, spatial clusterization, and collision time. We get the following results: a single granular temperature does not characterize a multi-component mixture and each species attains its own "granular temperature"; The velocity deviation from Gaussian distribution becomes more and more pronounced and the partial density of the assembly is more inhomogeneous with the increasing value of the fractal dimension D; The global granular temperature decreases and average dissipated energy per particle increases as the value of D augments.

  16. Scalar conservation laws with nonconstant coefficients with application to particle size segregation in granular flow

    CERN Document Server

    May, Lindsay B H; Daniels, Karen E


    Granular materials will segregate by particle size when subjected to shear, as occurs, for example, in avalanches. The evolution of a bidisperse mixture of particles can be modeled by a nonlinear first order partial differential equation, provided the shear (or velocity) is a known function of position. While avalanche-driven shear is approximately uniform in depth, boundary-driven shear typically creates a shear band with a nonlinear velocity profile. In this paper, we measure a velocity profile from experimental data and solve initial value problems that mimic the segregation observed in the experiment, thereby verifying the value of the continuum model. To simplify the analysis, we consider only one-dimensional configurations, in which a layer of small particles is placed above a layer of large particles within an annular shear cell and is sheared for arbitrarily long times. We fit the measured velocity profile to both an exponential function of depth and a piecewise linear function which separates the she...

  17. Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo Models with a Highly Granular Scintillator-Steel Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J J; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Buanes, T; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Uzhinskiy, V; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Gottlicher, P; Gunter, C; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Marchesini, I; Ramilli, M; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Bartsch, V; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Kirikova, N; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Gotze, M; Hartbrich, O; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C


    Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8GeV to 100GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.

  18. Transient behavior of granular materials with symmetric conditions for tumbler shapes and fill fractions (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Si, Yun


    The typical granular motion in circular tumblers is considered steady-state since there are no features to disrupt the top surface layer dimension. In polygon tumblers, however, the flowing layer is perpetually changing length, which creates unsteady conditions with corresponding change in the flow behavior. Prior work showed the minimization of free surface energy is independent of tumbler dimension, particle size, and rotation rate. This subsequent research reports on experiments where dimensional symmetry of the free surface in triangular and square tumblers with varying fill fractions do not necessarily produce the symmetric flow behaviors. Results of the quasi-2D tumbler experiment show that other dimensions aligned with gravity and the instantaneous free surface influence the phase when extrema for angle of repose and other flow features occur. The conclusion is that 50% fill fraction may produce geometric symmetry of dimensions, but the symmetry point of flow likely occurs at a lower fill fraction.

  19. Determination of the percolation threshold in Fe/MgO magnetic granular multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-GarcIa, A; Algarabel, P A; De Teresa, J M; Morellon, L; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, 50009-Zaragoza (Spain); Vovk, A; Strichovanec, P; Pardo, J A; Magen, C, E-mail: vovk@imag.kiev.u [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)


    The evolution of the morphology, magnetic and transport properties of Fe(t nm)/MgO(3.0 nm) multilayers with respect to the nominal metallic layer thickness was investigated. A comparison with existing experimental data on discontinuous metal-insulator multilayers, ultrathin epitaxial Fe films on MgO substrates and granular cermet films is made. It is confirmed that the deposition conditions and the material composition play a crucial role in the percolation process. Nominal thicknesses of Fe layers at which an infinite metallic cluster is formed and the conditions for continuous Fe coverage were determined. Different methods of percolation threshold detection were analysed. We show that investigation of the temperature dependence of resistance in nanostructures could lead to an overestimation of the percolation threshold value, while magnetic measurements alone could lead to its underestimation.

  20. Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo models with a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter (United States)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargilière, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Benyamna, M.; Cârloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Dauncey, P. D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Götze, M.; Hartbrich, O.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.


    Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8 GeV to 100 GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.

  1. Shear flow of dense granular materials near smooth walls. I. Shear localization and constitutive laws in the boundary region. (United States)

    Shojaaee, Zahra; Roux, Jean-Noël; Chevoir, François; Wolf, Dietrich E


    We report on a numerical study of the shear flow of a simple two-dimensional model of a granular material under controlled normal stress between two parallel smooth frictional walls moving with opposite velocities ± V. Discrete simulations, which are carried out with the contact dynamics method in dense assemblies of disks, reveal that, unlike rough walls made of strands of particles, smooth ones can lead to shear strain localization in the boundary layer. Specifically, we observe, for decreasing V, first a fluidlike regime (A), in which the whole granular layer is sheared, with a homogeneous strain rate except near the walls, then (B) a symmetric velocity profile with a solid block in the middle and strain localized near the walls, and finally (C) a state with broken symmetry in which the shear rate is confined to one boundary layer, while the bulk of the material moves together with the opposite wall. Both transitions are independent of system size and occur for specific values of V. Transient times are discussed. We show that the first transition, between regimes A and B, can be deduced from constitutive laws identified for the bulk material and the boundary layer, while the second one could be associated with an instability in the behavior of the boundary layer. The boundary zone constitutive law, however, is observed to depend on the state of the bulk material nearby.

  2. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization (United States)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.


    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  3. Dynamic aerofracture or hydrofracture of dense granular packing: pressure and viscosity control of the fracture patterns (United States)

    Niebling, Michael J.; Toussaint, Renaud; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Jørgen Måløy, Knut


    Stress induced by fluid or gases can cause diverse materials to break and fracture. Such hydraulic fractures are a natural and common phenomenon in the field of volcanism and are artificially initiated to enhance the recovery of natural gas and mineral oil by fracturing the reservoir rock with pressurized fluids. A procedure also known as fracking. Recently a new perspective on hydrofractures was added with the storage of supercritical CO2. In this respect two scenarios are considered. First it is one option to inject CO2 into existing hydrofractures, and second the injection of the CO2 can create additional fractures. The typical components for such fractures are a porous material and a compressible gas. The dynamics of such fractures and displacement patterns are simulated and studied in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell filled with a dense but permeable two-dimensional granular layer. The model used, mixing highly deformable solid and fluid components, can simulate sedimentation problems [1,2], as well as hydrofracture or aerofracture ones. The emerging displacement patterns and fractures variate according to the properties of the injected fluid or gas and the characteristics of the granular phase [3]. The physics behind these variations is discussed and explained. The role of the fluid viscosity and system size shows to lead to a transition from fracturing to compaction, depending on the dynamics of convection versus diffusion of overpressure. The dependence of the obtained patterns on the injection pressure is also explored [4]. References: [1] Niebling, M.J., E.G. Flekkøy, K.J. Måløy, R. Toussaint, Sedimentation instabilities: impact of the fluid compressibility and viscosity, Phys. Rev. E 82, 051302, 2010. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.051302 [2] Niebling, M.J., E.G. Flekkøy, K.J. Måløy, R. Toussaint, Mixing of a granular layer falling through a fluid, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011301 (2010) doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011301 [3] Niebling, M., R. Toussaint, E.G. Flekk

  4. Effect of horizontal vibration on pile of cylinder avalanches as a pseudo-two dimensional granular system (United States)

    Mardiansyah, Y.; Yulia; Khotimah, S. N.; Suprijadi; Viridi, S.


    Dynamics of pseudo-two dimensional granular material consisted of two layers cylinder piles positioned on top of a horizontally vibrated plate is reported in this work. It is aimed to observe structural change of the cylinder pile vibrated in certain frequency and amplitude. Dimensionless acceleration Γ= 4π2f2A/g (with g is gravitational acceleration), which is generally used in granular materials to observe transition between states, e.g. stable, rotating without slipping, rolling and slipping in Γ-f plane, does not work well for this system. For this system additional states for the piles can also be observed, e.g. stable and flowing states. Observations parameters are frequency f (measured in Hz) and amplitude A (measured in cm). These parameters are used to construct the A-f plane instead of Γ-f one.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Sphere in a Sheared Granular Fluid: A Granular Stokes Experiment (United States)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Khakhar, D. V.


    We study, computationally, the sedimentation of a sphere of higher mass in a steady, gravity-driven granular flow of otherwise identical spheres, on a rough inclined plane. Taking a hydrodynamic approach at the scale of the particle, we find the drag force to be given by a modified Stokes law and the buoyancy force by the Archimedes principle, with excluded volume effects taken into account. We also find significant differences between the hydrodynamic case and the granular case, which are highlighted.

  6. 2D transient granular flows over obstacles: experimental and numerical work (United States)

    Juez, Carmelo; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Murillo, Javier; García-Navarro, Pilar


    the material is traditionally oriented in a predominant longitudinal direction and the layer of the mass is thin in comparison to the scale of interest, the depth-averaged procedure can be performed in the mass and momentum equations. Regarding the friction theory embedded in the landslide motion, a Coulomb-like basal friction law can be assumed as a first attempt of reproducing the phenomena. On the other hand, the presence of obstacles, involves the study of the development of schock waves imposing the simulation of the granular behavior by means of a schock-tracking numerical scheme. The numerical scheme employed, is based on an approximate solvers based on Roe approaches, devoting especial attention to the frictional source terms. This work was partially funded by the ITN-Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN under REA grant agreement n_607394-SEDITRANS. The granular experiments were funded by DGA, Diputación General de Aragón, España.

  7. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio


    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  8. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.


    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  9. Granular gas in a periodic lattice (United States)

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.


    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration Γ of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low accelerations, the grains remain in their compartment, and the system is frozen. For very large accelerations, the grains bounce out of the compartments and behave as a 'binomial gas': the system is homogeneous. For intermediate accelerations, grains form clusters, i.e. grains gather in some particular compartments. In that regime, the probability for a bead to escape from a site depends on the number of beads contained in the concerned compartment. The escape probability has been measured with respect to the number of beads in a compartment. Above a given number of beads, the beads remain trapped in the compartment. A basic numerical model reproduces some of the results and allows us to explore the dependence on the initial conditions.

  10. Modeling density segregation in granular flow (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Lueptow, Richard; Umbanhowar, Paul


    A recently developed continuum-based model accurately predicts segregation in flows of granular mixtures varying in particle size by considering the interplay of advection, diffusion and segregation. In this research, we extend the domain of the model to include density driven segregation. Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of density bidisperse flows of mono-sized particles in a quasi-2D bounded heap were performed to determine the dependence of the density driven segregation velocity on local shear rate, particle concentration, and a segregation length which scales with the particle size and the logarithm of the density ratio. With these inputs, the model yields theoretical predictions of density segregation patterns that quantitatively match the DEM simulations over a range of density ratios (1.11-3.33) and flow rates (19.2-113.6 cm3/s). Matching experiments with various combinations of glass, steel and ceramic particles were also performed which reproduced the segregation patterns obtained in both the simulations and the theory.

  11. Collision Statistics of Driven Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Duan-Ming; LI Zhong-Ming; YANG Feng-Xia; GUO Xin-Ping


    We present a dynamicai model of two-dimensional polydisperse granular gases with fractal size distribution, in which the disks are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and driven by standard white noise. The inhomogeneity of the disk size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension df. By Monte Carlo simulations, we have mainly investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity on the statistical properties of the system in the same inelasticity case. Some novel results are found that the average energy of the system decays exponentiaUy with a tendency to achieve a stable asymptotic value, and the system finally reaches a nonequilibrium steady state after a long evolution time. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity has great influence on the steady-state statisticai properties. With the increase of the fractal dimension df, the distributions of path lengths and free times between collisions deviate more obviously from expected theoretical forms for elastic spheres and have an overpopulation of short distances and time bins. The collision rate increases with df, but it is independent of time. Meanwhile, the velocity distribution deviates more strongly from the Gaussian one, but does not demonstrate any apparent universal behavior.

  12. Penetration of projectiles into granular targets (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.


    Energetic collisions of subatomic particles with fixed or moving targets have been very valuable to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. But the mysteries are quite intriguing when projectiles and targets are macroscopically immense. We know that countless debris wandering in space impacted (and still do) large asteroids, moons and planets; and that millions of craters on their surfaces are traces of such collisions. By classifying and studying the morphology of such craters, geologists and astrophysicists obtain important clues to understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System. This review surveys knowledge about crater phenomena in the planetary science context, avoiding detailed descriptions already found in excellent papers on the subject. Then, it examines the most important results reported in the literature related to impact and penetration phenomena in granular targets obtained by doing simple experiments. The main goal is to discern whether both schools, one that takes into account the right ingredients (planetary bodies and very high energies) but cannot physically reproduce the collisions, and the other that easily carries out the collisions but uses laboratory ingredients (small projectiles and low energies), can arrive at a synergistic intersection point.

  13. Autophagy in granular corneal dystrophy type 2. (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Eung Kweon


    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that is essential for cellular homeostasis and metabolic stress adaptation. Defective autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases including granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). GCD2 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by substitution of histidine for arginine at codon 124 (R124H) in the transforming growth factor β-induced gene (TGFBI) on chromosome 5q31. Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) is degraded by autophagy, but mutant-TGFBIp accumulates in autophagosomes and/or lysosomes, despite significant activation of basal autophagy, in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy induces cell death of GCD2 corneal fibroblasts through active caspase-3. As there is currently no pharmacological treatment for GCD2, development of novel therapies is required. A potential strategy for preventing cytoplasmic accumulation of mutant-TGFBIp in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts is to enhance mutant-TGFBIp degradation. This could be achieved by activation of the autophagic pathway. Here, we will consider the role and the potential therapeutic benefits of autophagy in GCD2, with focus on TGFBIp degradation, in light of the recently established role of autophagy in protein degradation.

  14. Wave propagation in random granular chains. (United States)

    Manjunath, Mohith; Awasthi, Amnaya P; Geubelle, Philippe H


    The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation.

  15. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material (United States)

    Kouraytem, N.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Marston, J. O.


    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ =0.5 D0 and δ =7 D0 , which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H =h +δ , as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [ds˜O (30 ) μ m ] were added to the larger particles [dl˜O (200 -500 ) μ m ] , with a size ratio, ɛ =dl/ds , larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  16. Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Murray


    Full Text Available We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstrate that the model exhibits clogging, intermittent and continuous flow, and that it can be used as a tool for further investigations in granular flow. Received: 22 November 2015, Accepted: 19 February 2016; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; Reviewed by: C. M. Carlevaro, Instituto de Física de Líquidos y Sistemas Biológicos, La Plata, Argentina; DOI: Cite as: A Murray, F Alonso-Marroquin, Papers in Physics 8, 080003 (2016

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of vibrated granular gases. (United States)

    Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel


    We present molecular dynamics simulations of monodisperse or bidisperse inelastic granular gases driven by vibrating walls, in two dimensions (without gravity). Because of the energy injection at the boundaries, a situation often met experimentally, density and temperature fields display heterogeneous profiles in the direction perpendicular to the walls. A general equation of state for an arbitrary mixture of fluidized inelastic hard spheres is derived and successfully tested against numerical data. Single-particle velocity distribution functions with non-Gaussian features are also obtained, and the influence of various parameters (inelasticity coefficients, density, etc.) are analyzed. The validity of a recently proposed random restitution coefficient model is assessed through the study of projected collisions onto the direction perpendicular to that of energy injection. For the binary mixture, the nonequipartition of translational kinetic energy is studied and compared both to experimental data and to the case of homogeneous energy injection ("stochastic thermostat"). The rescaled velocity distribution functions are found to be very similar for both species.

  18. Mechanics of coupled granular/fluid flows (United States)

    Vinningland, J.; Toussaint, R.; Johnsen, O.; Flekkoy, E. G.; Maloy, K. J.


    We introduce a hybrid numerical model for coupled flow of solid grains and intersticial fluid, which renders for complex hydrodynamic interactions between mobile grains. This model treats the solid phase as discrete particles, interacting mechanically with the other particles and with the intersticial flowing fluid. The fluid is described by continuum equations rendering for its advection by the local grains, superposed to a pressure diffusion ruled by a Darcy flow with a permeability depending on the local solid fraction. This model is aimed at describing accurately such coupled flow. This model is tested for two model situations, where it is compared to experimental results: 1/ Injection of a localized overpressure in a grain/fluid filled cell lying horizontally, where gravity is unimportant. 2/ Sedimentation of heavy grains falling into an initially grain-free fluid region. The development of pattern-forming instabilities is obtained in these two situations, corresponding to granular/fluid equivalents of the two-fluids Saffman-Taylor and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Numerical and experimental results are shown to be consistent with each other.

  19. Hydrodynamics of nearly smooth granular gases. (United States)

    Goldhirsch, I; Noskowicz, S H; Bar-Lev, O


    Hydrodynamic equations of motion for a monodisperse collection of nearly smooth homogeneous spheres have been derived from the corresponding Boltzmann equation, using a Chapman-Enskog expansion around the elastic smooth spheres limit. Because in the smooth limit the rotational degrees of freedom are uncoupled from the translational ones, it turns out that the required hydrodynamic fields include (in addition to the standard density, velocity, and translational granular temperature fields) the (infinite) set of number densities, n(s,r, t), corresponding to the continuum of values of the angular velocities. The Chapman-Enskog expansion was carried out to high (up to 10th) order in a Sonine polynomial expansion by using a novel computer-aided method. One of the consequences of these equations is that the asymptotic spin distribution in the homogeneous cooling state for nearly smooth, nearly elastic spheres, is highly non-Maxwellian. The simple sheared flow possesses a highly non-Maxwellian distribution as well. In the case of wall-bounded shear, it is shown that the angular velocity injected at the boundaries has a finite penetration length.

  20. Granular discharge rate for submerged hoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wilson


    Full Text Available The discharge of spherical grains from a hole in the bottom of a right circular cylinder is measured with the entire system underwater. We find that the discharge rate depends on filling height, in contrast to the well-known case of dry non-cohesive grains. It is further surprising that the rate increases up to about twenty five percent, as the hopper empties and the granular pressure head decreases. For deep filling, where the discharge rate is constant, we measure the behavior as a function of both grain and hole diameters. The discharge rate scale is set by the product of hole area and the terminal falling speed of isolated grains. But there is a small-hole cutoff of about two and half grain diameters, which is larger than the analogous cutoff in the Beverloo equation for dry grains. Received: 11 September 2014, Accepted: 10 October 2014; Reviewed by: L. Staron, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Le Rond d'Alembert, Paris, France; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; DOI: Cite as: T J Wilson, C R Pfeifer, N Meysingier, D J Durian, Papers in Physics 6, 060009 (2014