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Sample records for cerebellopontine angle

  1. Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M

    1996-01-01

    Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was

  2. [Cerebellopontine angle meningeal melanocytoma: a benign tumor?].

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    González-Tortosa, J; Ferri-Níguez, B; Ros de San Pedro, J

    2009-08-01

    We report a case of a rare meningeal melanocytoma in the cerebellopontine angle. One year after tumor gross total removal, the patient suffered a sudden and devastating meningeal melanomatosis. The relevant literature is reviewed looking for the keys to establish preoperative diagnosis and to obtain information about its treatment and postsurgical management.

  3. Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur; Sonmez, Erkin; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2010-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas and epidermoids account for a vast majority of the lesions occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA. The aim of this study was to reveal our experience in the treatment of the rare lesions of the CPA. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA. We have excluded those patients with a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma, schwannoma and epidermoids. Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.

  4. Primary cerebello-pontine angle malignant melanoma : a case report.

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    Desai K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle, in a 17 year old girl is presented. The patient presented with one month history of headache, diplopia, facial asymmetry and ataxia. The computerised tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large cerebello-pontine angle mass with features suggestive of a melanoma. The typical black coloured, solid and vascular melanoma was excised completely. Cerebello-pontine angle melanoma are extremely rare tumours with dismal long term outcome in majority of these cases.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions

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    Pratiksha Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA tumors are usually benign, and they are divided into extra-axial, intra-axial, extradural, and petrous axis tumors. CPA pathologies can be asymptomatic or it may present with vertigo, tinnitus, or unilateral hearing loss depending upon the site of tumor origin and displacement of the neurovascular structure. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aided with contrast-enhanced MRI as an imaging modality for diagnosis of CPA lesions. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 36 patients of CPA lesions over a period of 2 years was done. MRI was performed on Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto Machine. Conclusion: There are spectrums of pathologies, which can present with these symptoms, which includes tumors, vascular malformations, and vascular loop compressing vestibulocochlear nerve or mastoid pathology so it is important to investigate the patient by MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive investigation in the evaluation of the CPA lesions, its characteristic, and its extent.

  6. Study of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in cerebellopontine angle.

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    Hong, WenMing; Cheng, HongWei; Wang, XiaoJie; Hu, XiaoPeng; Feng, ChunGuo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare soft tissue sarcomas, usually arising from somatic soft tissues or peripheral nerves. Primary MPNST of the cerebellopontine angle is extremely rare, with only a single case reported so far. Here, we report an unusual case of MPNST in cerebellopontine angle in a 25-year-old man presented with dizziness, left facial numbness, and tinnitus. After hospitalization, the tumor was treated with complete surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Histologically, the tumor showed malignant spindle cells, which were with focal S-100 positivity on immunohistochemistry, and a diagnosis of the MPNST was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and presence in cerebellopontine and illustrated the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of MPNST, which to the best of our knowledge, has not been described before in the soft tissue sarcomas.

  7. Intratentorial lipomas with Meckel's cave and cerebellopontine angle extension.

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    Ruocco, M J; Robles, H A; Rao, K C; Armonda, R A; Ondra, S L

    1995-08-01

    An unusual case of bilateral intratentorial lipomas with extension into Meckel's caves and the cerebellopontine angle is described. Surgical and histopathologic correlation demonstrate that the lipoma encased the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's caves. The origin of the lipoma from the anteromedial margins of the tentorium is discussed and correlated with a recently proposed theory for the development of intracranial lipomas.

  8. Tumors of the cerebellopontine angle; Tumoren des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Schulze, Maximilian [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Reimann, Katrin [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). HNO Klinik; Soares Tatagiba, Marcos [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie; Bisdas, Sotirios [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2016-12-15

    The diagnostic imaging of lesions in the cerebellopontine angle is mainly challenged by the possible differential diagnoses and their therapeutic relevance. As classification of tumors in contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing allows for a primary differentiation, MRI holds pivotal role in diagnosis and therapy planning on the basis of its quantitative and qualitative methods as volumetry, diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy.

  9. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  10. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

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    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  11. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region

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    F. Menezes Braga

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor was found to be rare when literature is looked up.

  12. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Cerebello-Pontine Angle

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    Biggs, Nigel D.; Fagan, Paul A.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Doust, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A case is presented of solitary fibrous tumor occurring in the cerebello-pontine angle. There have been only two other reported cases of a solitary fibrous tumors in this region. Imaging studies showed the tumor to be characteristic in shape and position of an acoustic tumor. However, at surgery the tumor was found to have a “rock hard” consistency. Solitary fibrous tumor differs from acoustic schwannoma and meningioma in its histopathological features and in this case, regrowth, after incomplete excision, was extremely rapid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171119

  13. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

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    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  14. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

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    Joseph B

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  15. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

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    Borges, Rafael S. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Brito, Cecilia Castelo Branco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Carvalho, Gustavo A. [Clinica Bambina, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Neurocirurgia; Hospital Silvestre, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  16. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle; Vaskulaere Erkrankungen des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2006-03-15

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [German] Gegenueber den Raumforderungen stellen vaskulaere Veraenderungen des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels eher eine Ausnahme dar. Trigeminusneuralgie, hemifazialer Spasmus und Schwindel oder Tinnitus koennen bei Irritationen des Nervus trigeminus, facialis und vestibulocochlearis auftreten. Schlingenbildungen der Gefaesse in den Kleinhirnzisternen koennen eine Kompression der Eintritts- oder Austrittszonen der Hirnnerven V, VII und VIII am Hirnstamm hervorrufen, was als ''Vascular-loop-Syndrom'' bezeichnet wird. Zu Verlagerungen und Kompressionen von Hirnnerven und Hirnstamm koennen, wenn auch seltener, die Megadolichobasilaris und Aneurysmen des vertebrobasilaeren Systems fuehren. Bezueglich der Bildgebung ist die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Methode der Wahl. Die 3D-CISS-Sequenz und die MR-Angiographie sind hilfreich zur Darstellung der neurovaskulaeren Kompression. Die Methode der mikrovaskulaeren Dekompression ist eine wirkungsvolle Methode zur Beseitigung gefaessbedingter Kompressionen der Hirnnerven V, VII und VIII. (orig.)

  17. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography

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    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Fujii, Toshiharu; Ito, Haruhide; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Nagata, Izumi

    1985-04-01

    A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed an irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor.

  18. Unusual magnetic resonance characteristics of a cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst with upper cervical spinal canal extension.

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    Teo, Beng-Tiong; Lin, Chao-chun; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chen, Shang-Chi; Yen, Pao-Sheng

    2006-08-01

    We present a 27-year-old woman with an epidermoid cyst at the cerebellopontine (CP) angle with caudal extension into the upper cervical spinal canal. The lesion showed unusual hyperintensity on T1-weighted images, and hypointensity on T2-weighted images. We used microneurosurgical techniques for tumour dissection and excision. To our knowledge, this is the fifth example in Index Medicus/MEDLINE of histopathologically proven CP angle epidermoid with cervical spine extension.

  19. Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.

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    Devi B

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.

  20. Imaging diagnosis of various small lesions in the cerebellopontine angle by Suboccipital air CT cisternography

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    Tsukahara, Kaoru (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-11-01

    A modified air CT cisternography technique, characterized by suboccipital air infusion was carried out in a total of 180 patients over the past 5 years. The patients were divided into two groups according to their suspected lesions. The first group consisted of 151 patients who were diagnosed as having retrolabyrinthine lesions by neurootological examinations; 29 patients with facial twitching or trigeminal neuralgia were classified in the second group. In the first group, air CT cisternography revealed 21 cases of small acoustic tumors including intracanalicular tumors. Additionally, several unexpected small lesions were detected in the cerebellopontine angle. These included small meningiomas, osteoma, osteogenic tumor, nodulated acoustic nerve in neurofibromatosis, primary acoustic nerve atrophy, adhesive arachnoiditis, elongated basilar artery and patulous acoustic meatus. In the second group, the causative artery of neurovascular compression at the nerve exit zone failed to be confirmed in many cases, but satisfactory preoperative information concerning nerves and vessels in the cerebellopontine angle were provided by air CT cisternography. The advantages and disadvantages of air CT cisternography and MRI-CT for the diagnosis of small lesions in the cerebellopontine angle are also discussed. (author).

  1. A Case of Bell's Palsy with an Incidental Finding of a Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma.

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    Lagman, Carlito; Choy, Winward; Lee, Seung J; Chung, Lawrance K; Bui, Timothy T; Yang, Isaac; Goldman, Howard W

    2016-08-24

    This case report illustrates the potential fallacy of attributing a patient's symptoms to an incidental finding. Serial imaging of small, asymptomatic cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipomas is favored. It is imperative to accurately diagnose CPA lipoma on imaging and differentiate it from more common CPA lesions. We herein present a patient with symptoms consistent with Bell's palsy and an incidental finding of a CPA lipoma. Additionally, we performed a review of the literature for case reports of patients presenting with facial symptoms and diagnosed with a CPA lipoma.

  2. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: postoperative complication in tumours of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery.

  3. Lipoma do ângulo pontocerebelar: relato de caso Lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle: case report

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    WALTER JOSÉ FAGUNDES-PEREYRA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os lipomas do ângulo pontocerebelar são tumores muito raros. Em geral são assintomáticos, achados fortuitos em autópsia, tomografia computadorizada (TC de crânio ou ressonância nuclear magnética do encéfalo. Os autores apresentam o caso de paciente, feminina, branca, 14 anos, há três anos com diminuição da audição à esquerda e há um ano com cefaléia, tipo hemicrânia à esquerda. A TC de crânio evidenciou lesão hipodensa, sem captação de contraste, no ângulo pontocerebelar esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia por via retrossigmóidea para abordagem da lesão, que se apresentou de coloração amarelada, característica de tecido adiposo. Tendo em vista o envolvimento de estruturas nervosas (VII e VIII nervos cranianos, optou-se pela exérese parcial da lesão. A paciente evoluiu com melhora da cefaléia, sem piora do déficit auditivo. Após três anos de seguimento, mantém o quadro estável. Conclui-se que os lipomas do ângulo pontocerebelar, quando assintomáticos, podem ser tratados conservadoramente. Entretanto aqueles associados a sintomatologia persistente e progressiva devem ser operados. A exérese total ou parcial vai depender do envolvimento ou não das estruturas neurovasculares adjacentes.Lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle is a very rare tumor. We report the case of a 14-years-old female, with left side deafness during three years, associated with headache. CT scan showed an hypodense mass, without enhancement at the cerebellopontine angle. The patient was treated surgically by left retrosigmoid approach. The lesion involved the eighth and seventh cranial nerves and only a partial removal was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. She had no more headache; the deafness of the left side remained unchanged. Asymptomatic lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle can be treated conservatively, although those with progressive symptoms should be treated surgically, with total or partial remove

  4. Chronic Lyme disease with an expansive granulomatous lesion in the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Mokry, M; Flaschka, G; Kleinert, G; Kleinert, R; Fazekas, F; Kopp, W

    1990-09-01

    Expansive granulomatous lesions in the posterior cranial fossa are rare and have not been reported in conjunction with Lyme disease. We report a patient with verified Borrelia burgdorferi infection who developed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. Rapid growth of the tumor led to signs of cerebral compression and to hydrocephalus. Surgical intervention was required despite florid meningitis. The histological examination showed inflammatory, nonspecific granulation tissue. The origin of this tissue is almost certainly causally related to the B. burgdorferi infection. Signs of inflammation resolved rapidly after subtotal resection. The clinical, radiological, and biochemical course is documented. This is the first report of an expansive cerebral lesion in the chronic phase of Lyme disease.

  5. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Following Translabyrinthine Resection of Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Report of Two Cases

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    Li, Peter M.M.C.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Do, Huy M.; Blevins, Nikolas H.

    2011-01-01

    We describe two cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) developing in a delayed fashion after translabyrinthine resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Two patients in an academic tertiary referral center, a 46-year-old woman and a 67-year-old man, underwent translabyrinthine resection of a 2-cm left vestibular schwannoma and a 4-cm left petrous meningioma, respectively. Both patients subsequently developed DAVF, and in each case the diagnosis was delayed despite serial imaging follow-up. In one patient, cerebrospinal fluid diversion before DAVF was identified as the cause of her intracranial hypertension; the other patient was essentially asymptomatic but with a high risk of hemorrhage due to progression of cortical venous drainage. Endovascular treatment was effective but required multiple sessions due to residual or recurrent fistulas. Dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication of translabyrinthine skull base surgery. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and an understanding of subtle imaging findings that may be present on follow-up studies performed for tumor surveillance. Failure to recognize this complication may lead to misguided interventions for treatment of hydrocephalus and other complications, as well as ongoing risks related to venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage. As this condition is generally curable with neurointerventional and/or surgical methods, timely diagnosis and treatment are essential. PMID:23984203

  6. Epidermoid cyst causing hemifacial spasm epidermoid cyst in cerebellopontine angle presenting with hemifacial spasm

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    Murat Alemdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemifacial Spasm (HS occurs idiopathically or secondary to the lesions compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve symptomatically. Symptomatic HS is generally due to vascular compression. We report on a 23-year-old male with right sided HS for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a well-demarcated epidermoid cyst in the right cerebellopontine cistern. It was hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging without contrast enhancement, hyperintense on DWI, and slightly hypointense on ADC relative to the brain. Although it caused shifting of the pons and medulla to the left side and compression of the right cerebellar peduncles and fourth ventricle, the sole symptom of the patient was HS. Clinicians are advised to request MRI/scan for brainstem lesions from the patients with HS. Epidermoid cysts in cerebellopontine cistern may present with HS as the sole symptom.

  7. Trauma-induced auditory nerve degeneration due to cerebellopontine(CP) angle manipulations:clinical and experimental experience

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    Tetsuji Sekiya

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for trauma-induced hearing disturbances due to auditory nerve degeneration, we established for the first time a rat experimental model in which auditory nerve degeneration due to compression injury of the cerebellopontine (CP) angle portion of the auditory nerve can be quantitatively evaluated. In this paper, Ⅰ demonstrate our clinical experience in CP angle surgery and some of the results of our experiments performed onthis rat experimental model. Trauma-induced hearing loss in CP angle operations has long been regarded as a sort of unavoidable "natural course"and therefore hopeless.I believe that this pessimistic view should be challenged and changed through new approaches in scientific research.

  8. Symptomatic ependymal cysts of the perimesencephalic and cerebello-pontine angle cisterns.

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    Sharma, R R; Pawar, S J; Kharangate, P P; Delmendo, A

    2000-11-01

    Primary intracranial ependymal cysts are extremely rare. These are congenital, benign ependyma lined, commonly intraparenchymal and uncommonly extraparenchymal cysts in leptomeningeal location of variable size seen in the adult life. The authors report two cases of symptomatic ependymal cysts: one in the perimesencephalic cistern in a 10-month-old infant presenting with delayed mile stones and another in the cerebello-pontine cistern in a morbidly obese 35-year-old woman with known benign intracranial hypertension now presenting with hemifacial spasm. Neurosurgical intervention was curative in both cases. Interesting clinical, radiological and histological features are presented and discussed.

  9. Metastatic Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma to the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Debebe Theodros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC are rare malignancies with poor patient prognoses. We present the case of a 63-year-old male who underwent surgical resection of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma, likely from a small intestinal primary tumor that metastasized to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA. A 63-year-old male presented with mild left facial paralysis, hearing loss, and balance instability. MRI revealed a 15 mm mass in the left CPA involving the internal auditory canal consistent with a vestibular schwannoma. Preoperative MRI eight weeks later demonstrated marked enlargement to 35 mm. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and the mass was grossly different visually and in consistency from a standard vestibular schwannoma. The final pathology revealed a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma. Postoperative PET scan identified avid uptake in the small intestine suggestive of either a small intestinal primary tumor or additional metastatic disease. The patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy and at last follow-up demonstrated improvement in his symptoms. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are potential treatment options to improve survival in patients diagnosed with NET brain metastases. We present the first documented case of skull base metastasis of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma involving the CPA.

  10. Does the location of a vascular loop in the cerebellopontine angle explain pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus?

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    Nowe, V.; Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.; Goethem, J.Van; Oezsarlak, Oe.; De Schepper, A.M.; Parizel, P.M. [University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Ridder, D. De [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium); Heyning, P.H.Van de [University of Antwerp, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose was to investigate patients with unexplained pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus by means of MR imaging of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and to correlate the clinical subtype of tinnitus with the location of a blood vessel (in the internal auditory canal or at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve). Clinical presentation of tinnitus and perceptive hearing loss were correlated. In 47 patients with unexplained tinnitus, an MR examination of the CPA was performed. Virtual endoscopy reconstructions were obtained using a 3D axial thin-section high-resolution heavily T2-weighted gradient echo constructive interference in steady state (CISS) data-set. High-resolution T2-weighted CISS images showed a significantly higher number of vascular loops in the internal auditory canal in patients with arterial pulsatile tinnitus compared to patients with non-pulsatile tinnitus (P<0.00001). Virtual endoscopy images were used to investigate vascular contacts at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve in patients with low pitch and high pitch non-pulsatile tinnitus. A significantly different distribution of the vascular contacts (P=0.0320) was found. Furthermore, a correlation between the clinical presentation of non-pulsatile tinnitus (high pitch and low pitch) and the perceptive hearing loss was found (P=0.0235). High-resolution heavily T2-weighted CISS images and virtual endoscopy of the CPA can be used to evaluate whether a vascular contact is present in the internal auditory canal or at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve and whether the location of the vascular contact correlates with the clinical subtype of tinnitus. Our findings suggest that there is a tonotopical structure of the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve. A correlation between the clinical presentation of tinnitus and hearing loss was found. (orig.)

  11. MRI of the cerebellopontine angle in patients with cleido-cranial dysostosis; MRT der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelregion bei Patienten mit Dysostosis cleido-cranialis

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    Scherer, A.; Engelbrecht, V.; Nawatny, J.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Messing-Juenger, M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Reifenberger, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuropathologie

    2001-04-01

    Purpose: Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD) is an autosomal dominant bone disorder in which deafness is common secondary to malformation of the middle ear structures. The study aimed at MRI evaluation of the cerebellopontine angle in 7 patients with a history of CCD - two generation spanned relatives. Material and methods: Cranial MRI in 7 patients with CCD (4 women/3 men aged between 8 and 46 years) was performed. In two patients hearing disorders were present. The examinations encompassed multi-planar spinecho sequences of the cerebellopontine angle in 3-mm slice thickness before and after administration of contrast medium. Results: The clinically most conspicuous female patient (hearing loss, ataxia, headache) showed a strongly contrast-enhancing tumor in MRI that was histologically proved to be an acoustic schwannoma. Concerning the other family members, no pathological findings were noted except for non-pneumatized mastoids. Conclusion: The first report of a patient with CCD and an acoustic schwannoma shows that in case of hearing loss in these patients also a retrocochlear cause must be considered. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Dysostosis cleido-cranialis (DCC) ist eine autosomal-dominant erbliche Knochenerkrankung, bei der aufgrund von Mittelohrmissbildungen gehaeuft Hoerstoerungen beobachtet werden. Wir ueberpruefen bei 7 von diesem Syndrom betroffenen Verwandten 1. und 2. Grades, ob sich kernspintomographisch Auffaelligkeiten der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelregion nachweisen lassen. Material und Methoden: MRT-Untersuchungen des Schaedels bei 7 Patienten mit DCC (4 Frauen, 3 Maenner im Alter zwischen 8 und 46 Jahren). Bei zwei Patienten lagen klinisch Hoerstoerungen vor. Die Bildgebung umfasste multiplanare Spin-Echo-Sequenzen und wurde im Bereich des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels in 3 mm Schichtdicke vor und nach Gadoliniumgabe durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die klinisch auffaelligste Patientin (progredienter Hoerverlust, Ataxie, Cephalgien) zeigte in der MRT einen kraeftig

  12. Epidermoid cyst in the cerebellopontine angle cistern presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnostic values of the orbicularis oculi reflex and metrizamide CT cisternography - case report -

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    Ueda, Takashi; Goya, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Kazuo (Miyazaki Medical College, Miyazaki (Japan)); Fukui, Masashi

    1983-05-01

    This 29-year-old male had been suffering from left trigeminal neuralgia one year prior to admission. Admission was prompted by the development of pain in the third division of the left trigeminal nerve. Physical and neurological examinations were not remarkable except for the facial pain. The orbicularis oculi reflex showed delayed latency of R/sub 1/ on the affected side. CT scans performed pre- and post-contrast enhancement revealed a low density area in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern. Metrizamide CT cisternography clearly revealed the margin of the lesion as the contrast media did not enter into the low density area. A left suboccipital craniectomy was performed. The trigeminal nerve was surrounded by a thin-capsulated mass and cholesteatoma materials. Histological diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. Since this surgical procedure, the trigeminal neuralgia has not recurred for one year. Without objective neurological deficits, it is difficult to distinguish symptomatic trigeminal from idiopathic neuralgia. Therefore, minor change of the orbicularis oculi reflex should help in objectively detecting dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve. Metrizamide CT cisternography is also useful in diagnosis of cystic lesions.

  13. MRI对桥小脑角池占位病变的诊断价值分析%Analysis of Diagnostic Value of MRI for Occupied Lesions in Cerebellopontine Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋君军; 罗庆华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the radiological appearances and diagnostic value of MRI of occupied lesions in cerebellopon-tine angle, and to provide effective diagnostic basis for clinic. Methods 35 cases of patients with cerebellopontine angle proved surgically and pathologically in our hospital from January 2010 to May 2014 were selected, the preoperative MRI of these patients were retrospectively investigated. Results 15 cases were meningeoma, accounting for 43%;10 cases were acoustic neuroma, accounting for 29%;5 cases were epidermoid cyst, accounting for 14%;2 cases were arachroid cyst, 2 cases were dermoid cyst and 1 case was lipoma, which totally accounted for 14%. Conclusions As MRI can clearly reflect the shape, size and scope of the occupied lesions in cerebellopontine angle, we can make a qualitative diagnosis combining with MRI, thus to provide effective basis for clinical surgery.%目的:探讨桥小脑角池内占位病变的M砸陨影像学表现及诊断价值,为临床提供有效的诊断依据。方法收集我院2010年1月至2014年5月共35例经手术及病理证实桥小脑角池内占位病变,回顾分析患者术前的M砸陨检查图像。结果15例为脑膜瘤,占43豫;10例为听神经瘤,占29豫;5例为表皮样囊肿,占14豫;2例为蛛网膜囊肿,2例为皮样囊肿,1例为脂肪瘤,共占14豫。结论M砸陨影像可清楚地反映桥小脑角池占位病灶的形态、大小、范围等。结合M砸陨影像学表现可以做出定性诊断,为临床手术治疗提供有效的依据。

  14. pc-ASL 技术在桥小脑角区肿瘤术后复发评估%The diagnostic value of PCASL MRI technique in evaluating post-operative recurrence of cerebellopontine angle tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石凤祥; 王玉凤; 王海辉; 徐田勇; 荣凡令

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨3D FSE 的 pc-ASL 技术对桥小脑角区肿瘤术后复发的诊断价值。方法:选取21例桥小脑角区占位性病变术后患者,行常规平扫及增强序列,在增强前扫描 pc-ASL 序列。将 pc-ASL 功能图像与增强后 Ax 3D T1 WI 融合,测量异常强化区域及对侧正常脑组织的 CBF 值,评价是否存在肿瘤复发。结果:全部21例手术区出现异常强化区患者,13例为复发。17例患者行 DSC-PWI 失败,图像无法满足诊断需求。全部21例 pc-ASL 检查成功。肿瘤复发区域的CBF 值为(64.2±3.03)mL/100g/min,对侧正常脑实质的 CBF 值为(52.5±1.89)mL/100g/min。肿瘤复发区域的 CBF值明显高于对照侧脑组织,两者之间差异有统计学意义(t=12.498,P <0.05)。结论:基于3D FSE 的 pc-ASL 序列安全无创,无需注射对比剂,磁敏感效应影响小,可以用于评估桥小脑角区肿瘤有无术后复发。%Objective:The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 3D FSE pseudo-continuous arte-rial spin labeling (pCASL)technique in evaluating post-operative recurrence of cerebellopontine angle tumor.Methods:21 post-operative patients with cerebellopontine angle tumor underwent pre-and post-contrast MRI scans.Perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI)with pCASL technique was performed before contrast injection.The CBF maps generated from pCASL were fused with post-contrast 3D T1 WI.The CBF values of abnormal enhanced area and contralateral normal brain tissue were measured and statistically analyzed to assess whether there was a recurrence of the neoplasm.Results:The neoplasm recurrence was found in 13/21 cases.DSC-PWI failed to generate functional maps in 17/21 cases due to the susceptibility ar-tifact;however,all 21 cases successfully underwent pCASL scan using 3D-FSE sequence.The mean CBF values were (64.2 ±3.03)mL/100g/min for the recurrent neoplasm and (52.5 ±1.89)mL/100g/min for

  15. 桥小脑角区小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效分析%Surgical outcome after resection of small cerebellopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶传元; 魏攀; 庄进学; 陈登奎; 程宏炜; 宋朝理; 李海龙; 薛峰; 张炜; 郑小强

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估桥小脑角区(CPA)小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效.方法 回顾分析我科自2005年1月~2010年12月期间该类患者的临床资料,包括年龄、症状及体征、影像学表现、手术方式、疗效及并发症.结果 6年期间手术治疗三叉神经痛372例,其中CPA区小型病变(最大直径<3cm)致继发性三叉神经痛23例,约占6.2%;病种包括胆脂瘤12例、神经鞘瘤6例、脑膜瘤3例、蛛网膜囊肿2例;所有患者行乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除病变,3例另行三叉神经感觉根部分切断术;术后疼痛消失20例,面部麻木3例;术后并发症包括无菌性脑膜炎、脑脊液漏、颅内感染、短暂耳鸣及面瘫,均恢复,无死亡.随访1~5年,无疼痛复发.结论 CPA区小型占位所致继发性三叉神经痛患者由于病变小、易于全切,加之镜下暴露充分,手术疗效满意;术中若发现病变与三叉神经无确切关系,则需行微血管减压或三叉神经部分感觉根切断术.%Objective To evaluate the surgical outcome after resection of small cerebel-lopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods Clinical data including age, symptom and sign, image manifestation, surgical modality, surgical outcome and complications in patients diagnosed secondary TN resulted from small cerebellopontine angle lesions are analyzed retrospectively between 2005. 1 and 2010. 12. Results Of 6 years duration, 372 cases of TN underwent operations. There were 23 cases of such kind (the largest diameter less than 3cm) accounting for 6. 2% among them which involved 12 cholesteatomas, 6 schwanno-mas, 3 meningiomas and 2 arachnoid cysts. All lesions were resected under microscope through retrosigmoid approach and additional partial sensory rhizotomy was performed in 3 cases. After operation, 20 cases got complete pain relief and the rest had facial numbness. Postoperative complications included aseptic

  16. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report Metástase tardia de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de caso

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    Edilson Marques

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.Um caso de metástase de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar é apresentado. A metástase ocorreu após 16 anos do tumor primário ter sido tratado com cirurgia e radioterapia. A paciente de 66 anos foi considerada curada de sua doença primária, quando apresentou perda auditiva de progressão rápida associada a paralisia facial intermitente. Ressonância magnética demonstrou uma lesão expansiva intra e extracanalicular, cujo aspecto radiológico lembrava schwannoma do vestibular. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia e investigação histopatológica confirmou tratar-se de metástase. Metástase é uma rara ocorrência dentro do canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar. História clínica de paralisia facial severa aumentará a suspeita de lesão maligna apesar dos achados radiológicos.

  17. Clinicopathologic features of endolymphatic sac tumor at cerebellopontine angle%桥脑小脑角区内淋巴囊肿瘤五例临床病理分析及鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜江; 王军梅; 崔云; 李桂林

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and normal endolymphatic sac. Methods The clinical and histologic features were evaluated in 5 cases of ELST. Eight cases of choroid plexus papilloma at cerebellopontine angle and 2 cases of normal endolymphatic sac were used as controls. Immunohistochemical study for vimentin,AE1/AE3, CK8/18, CK5/6, EMA, GFAP, synaptophysin, S-100 protein, CEA, TTF-1, VEGF, D2-40,calponin, calretinin and Ki-67 was carried out. Results The age of onset of ELST ranged from 23 to 35years ( median =24 years ). The male-to-female ratio was 2 ∶ 3. The clinical presentation was tinnitus,otalgia, hearing loss, otorrhagia with effusion and headache. The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 months to 10 years. Local recurrences were noted in 3 cases. Radiologically, the tumors were located at cerebellopontine angle and demonstrated petrous bone destruction. Histologic examination showed that the tumors had a papillary-glandular pattern. The papillae were covered by a single layer of low cuboidal cells. The tumor cells had distinct cell borders and contained eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were slightly atypical and sometimes apically located. Focal dilated glandular structures with colloid-like material were also identified. The surrounding stroma was vascularized. All of the 5 cases had dural or petrous bone infiltration. Immunohistochemical study showed that all of the 5 cases were positive for AE1/AE3, CK8/18,CK5/6 and VEGF, 4 cases for EMA, 3 cases for calponin (focal) , 2 cases for vimentin, 2 cases for S-100protein, 1 case for GFAP and 1 case for synaptophysin (focal and weak). The Ki-67 index measured less than 1%. The staining for D2-40, calretinin, CEA and TTF-1 was negative. The 2 cases of the normal endolymphatic sac were positive for AE1/AE3 and CK8/18, and negative for CK5/6, EMA, S-100 protein,GFAP and synaptophysin. The 8 cases of choroid plexus papilloma were

  18. Neuralgia do trigêmeo bilateral por cisticerco racemoso unilateral no ângulo-ponto cerebelar: relato de caso Unusual cause for bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral racemous cysticercus of cerebellopontine angle. Case report

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    PAULO HENRIQUE AGUIAR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 42 anos portadora de cisticerco racemoso na região do ângulo ponto-cerebelar (APC direito com trigeminalgia bilateral mais intensa no lado ipsilateral à localização do parasita. O cisticerco foi totalmente removido por meio de craniotomia suboccipital. No primeiro dia pós-operatório houve desaparecimento bilateral da dor. Duas hipóteses fisiopatológicas foram aventadas para explicar a sintomatologia: lesões que ultrapassam os limites da cisterna do APC poderão através da cisterna pré-pontina alcançar a cisterna do APC atingindo o trigêmeo contralateral; lesões com grande efeito de massa poderão provocar rotação do tronco cerebral e deslocamento e tração de estruturas ipsi e contralaterais, provocando compressão arteriovenosa sobre o trigêmeo contralateral na porção superior da cisterna do APC. Salientamos a necessidade de exames de imagem ante qualquer algia craniofacial e observamos que, em lesões na região do APC, a cisticercose não pode ser esquecida.We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a racemous cystecercus in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA, who presented with bilateral trigeminal neuralgia. The parasite was completly removed via a right suboccipital craniotomy. On the first postoperative day, the patient indicated that the pain disappeared. The neuralgia was caused by two probable mechanisms: a distortion of the brain stem and compression of the nerve against an arterial loop at the entry zone or arachnoiditis caused by the parasite in the both CPA cisternae. This case demonstrates the advisability of obtaining imaging studies in all patients with trigeminal neuralgia before starting any management. We must always remind that the cysticercus may be a differential diagnosis of CPA lesions.

  19. 神经内镜下桥小脑角区手术入路的解剖学研究%Anatomical study of surgical approach to cerebellopontine angle under neuroendoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋英; 师蔚; 马向科

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of three kinds of approach to the cerebellopontine angle under neuroendoscope. Methods Suboccipital retrosigmoid extracerebellar keyhole approach, suboccipital retrosigmoid infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach and suboccipital retrosigmoid inferior floccular process keyhole approach were simulated under neuroendoscope respectively, and the surgical routes and anatomical landmarks to the root exit/entry zoon (REZ) of the V , Ⅳ, K cranial nerves were defined. Results The REZ of the cranial nerves V, VII and IX were observed through the suboccipital retrosigmoid extracerebellar keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered Meckel cave, internal auditory foramen, jugular foramen and cranial nerves V, Ⅳ, Ⅷ, K. The structure from the REZ of cranial nerve V to Meckel cave were explored through suboccipital retrosigmoid infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered the petrosal vein, cranial nerve V and Meckel cave. The REZ of the cranial nerves K and VD were explored via suboccipital retrosigmoid infrafloccular process keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle and floccular process. Conclusions Infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach is superior to extracerebellar keyhole approach for microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve V, while infrafloccular process keyhole approach is superior to extracerebellar keyhole approach for microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve VD or IX.%目的 探讨神经内镜下桥小脑角区3种手术入路的应用价值.方法 在神经内镜下分别模拟枕下乙状窦后小脑外侧锁孔入路、枕下乙状窦后幕下小脑上锁孔入路、枕下乙状窦后绒球下锁孔入路,确定到三叉神经出入脑干区(REZ)、面神经REZ及舌咽神经REZ的手术路径及解剖定位标志.结果 枕下乙状窦后小脑外侧锁孔入路可探查三叉神经REZ、面神经REZ、舌咽神

  20. 小脑脑桥角海绵状血管畸形三例并文献复习%Cystic cavernous malformations in the cerebellopontine angle: report of three cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金录; 曲丽梅; 李叶; 王柏; 王宏磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical presentation,imaging features and treatment experience of cystic cavernous malformations (CMs) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA).Methods Three patients with the CMs of the CPA between 2005 and 2010 in our institute were summarised.Five patients from MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1985 to 2010 for CMs of the CPA were identified.We reviewed the characteristics of these 5 cases and our cases.Results Their presenting symptoms of 5 cases in the literature included headache,injury of cranial nerves in the CPA and cerebellar symptoms.But they did not show signs of brain stem compression.MRI and/or CT scans showed that the lesions in the eight cases of CMs all had solid and cystic components,and no adhesion with internal auditory canal and skull base dura mater was present in the CPA.Despite the fact that cystic CMs also involved cranial nerves,cerebellum,brainstem and arteries,they could be separated from these surrounding structures thanked to the presence of well - margined adhesion,which was contrary to solid CMs.We reported three cystic CMs of the CPA in our institute that was the same as the above.Conclusion Although cystic CMs of the CPA had no established imaging features,a diagnosis of CMs may be suspected when a cystic lesion is present in the CPA and does not involve internal acoustic meatus or dura matter of the skull base.Skillful microsurgical techniques will secure good outcomes for patients with cystic CMs in the CPA.%目的 总结小脑脑桥角(CPA)区海绵状血管畸形(CMs)的临床表现、影像学特征及治疗特点.方法 2005年6月至2010年6月我科共收治CPA区CMs病例3例,进行报告.搜索MEDLINE上自1985年至2010年文献查到此类病例5例,进行文献复习.结果 文献复习的5例CMs临床表现为脑神经及小脑受累症状,但无脑干受压症状;影像见CMs均呈囊实性,与内听道及颅底硬膜无粘连;术中见CMs与周边结构有粘连,但可进行分

  1. Malformação da transição crânio-vertebral como causa de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de dois casos Cerebello-pontine angle syndrome associated with cranio-vertebral malformation: report of two cases

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    Amauri Batista da Silva

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar nos quais não havia neoplasia nessa região. Ambos os pacientes apresentavam uma associação de impressão basilar com síndrome de Arnold-Chiari. Após cirurgia descompressiva de fossa posterior os casos evoluiram favoravelmente com a diminuição progressiva dos sintomas neurológicos, restando apenas, no segundo paciente, certo grau de paralisia e de espasmo facial, à direita. São feitas considerações em tôrno das causas mais freqüentes da síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar, bem como acêrca dos quadros clínicos mais usualmente encontrados em doentes que apresentam malformações da transição crânio-vertebral. Finalmente, os autores tecem breves considerações a respeito do possível mecanismo lesionai do VIII, do V e do VII nervos cranianos nos dois casos relatados.Two cases of cerebelo-pontine angle syndrome associated with basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation are reported. In both cases neuroradiological studies and surgical exploration failled to demonstrate any space occupying lesion. After surgery the patients progressively recovered disapearing the neurological symptoms except for a slaight hemifacial spasm that remained in case 2. Clinical signs present in cerebello-pontine angle lesions and the occipito-cervical malformations are discussed. A possible mechanism to explain the association of both conditions is discussed.

  2. Imaging findings of cerebellopontine angle cistern melanocytoma : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Mi; Choi, Jin Ok; Joo, Myung Jin [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    Because melanocytes are found throughout the leptomeninges, primary melanotic pigmented tumors such as pigmented meningioma, malignant melanoma, melanoblastosis, and melanocytoma can arise from this region. Melanocytomas have been described in the literature as isodense or hyperdense compared with brain parenchyme, as seen on noncontrast-enhanced CT, and as showing relatively homogeneous enhancement MR imaging demonstrates a high signal on T1-weighted images, and an iso to hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. We report the imaging findings of a melanocytoma that showed hyperdense attenuation on precontrast CT with homogeneous enhancement and hyperintense signal intensity on T1-weighted images and dark signal intensity enhancement on T2-weighted images, and also review the literature. (author)

  3. Cystic angiomatous meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle mimicking hemangioblastoma

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    Deb Prabal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report an extremely unusual case of cystic angiomatous meningioma in the CPA region in a 58-year-old male patient. He presented with complaints of headache, repeated episodes of vomiting and increasing unsteadiness of gait. Neuroimaging showed a large multicystic left-sided tentorial tumor projecting into the cerebellum and CPA with contrast-enhancing peripheral solid rim. He underwent a left retromastoid craniectomy and total excision of the tumor. Histopathology revealed an angiomatous meningioma with predominant microvascular component and extensive cystic changes. Immunopositivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin and S-100 protein proved vital in excluding a hemangioblastoma.

  4. Air cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1984-05-01

    While high-resolution CT/air cisternography is considered the preferred method of investigating non-enhancing or small acoustic neuromas, it is not without pitfalls. Eight such studies were reviewed, emphasizing procedural problems and sources of interpretive error. Two patients presented difficulty in transporting the air bolus due to a spinal cord tumor coexisting with bilaterial acoustic neuromas; spinal cord decompression was required in one case. Three potential false positives were avoided by persistent efforts to fill the internal auditory canal. Of 4 patients thought to have a tiny acoustic neuroma, elective vestibular nerve section in 2 revealed no evidence of tumor.

  5. Enterococcal cerebellopontine angle abscess in a 12-year-old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonavane Alka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in imaging and antibiotic treatment, brain abscess is still encountered occasionally. Various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been reported as causative agents of brain abscess but only a few cases of enterococcal brain abscesses have been reported. Here we report a case of brain abscess in a 12-year-old female patient, who presented with a history of fever, chills, headache, convulsions since seven days and history of altered sensorium and aphasia since the last two days . The patient had chronic suppurative otitis media of both ears following trauma and presented with ear discharge. The diagnosis of brain abscess was done by computerized tomography scan and the pus was aspirated by left suboccipital burr hole operation. Enterococcus species was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment.

  6. Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by Cerebellopontine Angle Arteriovenous Malformation Treated With Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yilmaz, Baran; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakin, Akin; Kiliç, Türker

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a facial pain syndrome characterized as sudden onset and lightening-like sensation over somatosensorial branch(es) of fifth cranial nerve. Rarely, some underlying diseases or disorders could be diagnosed, such as multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and vascular malformations. The authors present a 47-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia over left V2 and V3 dermatomes. He had a previous transarterial embolization and long use of carbamazepine with partial response to treatment. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) was planned. A marginal dose of 15 Gy was given to 50% isodose line. His pain was relieved by GKR in 1.5 years. Treatment of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations causing trigeminal neuralgia, with GKR has a very limited use in the literature. It, however, is obvious that success rate as pain relief, in a very challenging field of functional neurosurgery, is satisfactory. Large series, however, are in need to make a more comprehensive statement about efficacy and safety of the procedure in these pathologies.

  7. A STUDY OF THE INCID ENCE OF CEREBELLOPON TINE ANGLE TUMORS AND THEIR MAN AGEMENT IN A TERTIAR Y CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Kennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON : Cerebellopontine angle tumors are a surgical challenge to many neurosurgeons who want to operate in this space. Although most of these tumors are benign, they are a challenge because of the complex anatomy and important neurovascular structures that traver se this space. Most common cerebellopontine angle tumor is vestibular schwannoma. The management of these cases is essentially surgical. There has been a change in the surgical strategy over the years from simple intratumoral decompression to complete micr osurgical excision, to facial nerve preservation and hearing preservation. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and radiological characteristics, know the pathological types and determine the surgical resectability and outcome of cerebellopontine ang le tumor. MATERIALS AND METHOD : It is a prospective study done in the department of Neurosurgery, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is a Tertiary Care Hospital. 50 patients diagnosed with cerebellopontine angle tumor were recruited in to the study and were managed. RESULTS : 50 cases of cerebellopontine angle tumors accounting for 11% of all intracranial space occupying lesions, of which vestibular schwannoma alone constituted 10%. Most of the tumors were large or giant tumors. Total resection was done in 74% of vestibular sch wannoma and 50% of meningiomas. Anatomical preservation of facial nerve was achieved in 67% of patients. CONCLUSION : C erebellopontine angle tumors show high incidence from 3 rd to 5 th decade with common symptoms being hearing loss and ataxia. Most of the pa tients presented at a delayed stage with large to giant tumors with no useful hearing. Complete excision of tumor preserving facial and lower cranial nerve function is the goal. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak can be managed effectively with conserv ative therapy

  8. A connection between neurovascular conflicts within the cerebellopontine angle and vestibular neuritis, a case controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Loader, B.; Linauer, I.; Korkesch, S.; Krammer-Effenberger, I.; Zielinski, V.; Schibany, N.; Kaider, A.; Vyskocil, E.; Tscholakoff, D.; Franz, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This retrospective, observer blinded case-control study aims to compare the prevalence of neurovascular conflicts (NVCs) of the vestibulocochlear nerve and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in patients presenting with clinical signs of acute vestibular neuritis with and without subsequent objective vestibular function loss (VFL). 58 acute cases of clinically suspected acute vestibular neuritis were investigated with same day cranial MRI at a tertiary referral centre and c...

  9. Massive primary cerebellopontine angle melanocytoma in an 11 year old child: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Bhaganagare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of meningeal melanocytoma in an 11 year-old girl is reported. The tumor was sub-totally resected. She received no adjuvant treatment and is symptom-free at the follow-up of 8 months.

  10. Accuracy of single-sequence MRI for investigation of the fluid-filled spaces in the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerling, M; De Praeter, G; Caemaert, J; Van Cauwemberge, P; De Reuck, J; Vermeersch, H; Kunnen, M

    1999-04-01

    We prospectively studied 163 patients referred for MRI of the temporal bone. A presumed diagnosis was made using only one of three sequences: a single thick (12 mm) slice fast T2-sequence, 3D fourier transform constructive interference in steady state (3DFT-CISS) sequence and a gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence. The visibility of the cochlea, vestibule and superior, lateral and posterior semicircular canals of normal temporal bones was assessed on the T2-weighted images: they were almost always visible (98-100%), with exception of the superior semicircular canal, seen in only 35% of cases. The images were interpreted as abnormal in 34 patients (21%). Using only the fast T2-weighted, 3DFT-CISS and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences a presumed false positive diagnosis was made in 5, 1 and 0 cases and a false negative diagnosis in 2, 2 and 4 cases respectively. The overall reliability of the thick-section fast T2-weighted images is limited. This study suggests that a combination of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted and 3DFT-CISS images can be considered the gold standard for temporal bone MRI and neither sequence performed separately is as accurate as both together.

  11. [Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert-Gonzalez, M; Aran-Echabe, E; Pita-Buezas, L

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales del angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales, y unicamente existen tres casos publicados en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Niña de 14 años, previamente sana, que acude a consultas por presentar cefalea bifrontal de seis semanas de evolucion. La exploracion clinica era normal y la resonancia magnetica craneal mostraba dos lesiones extraaxiales localizadas en ambos angulos pontocerebelosos, siendo ligeramente mayor la izquierda. Las lesiones se comportaban como homogeneamente intensas en T1 e hiperintensas en T2, no captaban contraste y no existia restriccion en las secuencias de difusion. No se indico tratamiento quirurgico. Conclusiones. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales situados en el angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales. La principal indicacion para el tratamiento quirurgico es la presencia de sintomas o signos neurologicos coincidentes con la localizacion de los quistes.

  12. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  13. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  14. Retromastoid-sub occipital: A novel approach to cerebello pontine angle in acoustic neuroma surgery-our experience in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acoustic neuroma surgery poses significant challenges regarding definite management and preservation of hearing and the facial nerve are of great concern. Aim: To analyze the efficacy of the retromastoid approach in acoustic neuroma surgery. Materials and Methods: Tumors operated between January 2002 and December 2008, by the authors, using the retromastoid approach, were analyzed. Twenty-one patients who presented with acoustic tumor were considered for this study. Discussion: Precise knowledge of the neuroanatomy in the cerebellopontine angle is the key to success and microsurgical technique is the sole factor for good outcome. Conclusion: Retromastoid, in fact is the approach to the skull base with minimal or no damage to neurovascular structures, in contrast to the translabyrinthine or presigmoid approach.

  15. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  16. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  17. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  18. Angle-Ply Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.

  19. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  20. Dynamical angled brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.

  1. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  2. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  3. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  4. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  5. Angle-deviation optical profilometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.

  6. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  7. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  8. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  10. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  11. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  12. Oriented angles in affine space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Waliszewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a smooth oriented angle in an arbitrary affine space is introduced. This concept is based on a kinematics concept of a run. Also, a concept of an oriented angle in such a space is considered. Next, it is shown that the adequacy of these concepts holds if and only if the affine space, in question, is of dimension 2 or 1.

  13. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  14. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  15. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  16. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...

  17. Contactless angle detection using permalloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.; Rijk, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of measurements on angle detectors. The detectors consist of a pair of planar-Hall elements opposite to a rotatable magnet. The measurements are performed on a number of planar-Hall elements of different shape and size, and show good agreement with a previously described theoret

  18. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived.......We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  19. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...

  20. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  1. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  2. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  3. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  4. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  5. Device for Measuring Landslide Critical Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueling; Xia Weisheng; Huang Daoyou; Yu Yun

    2016-01-01

    The mountain landslide has high destructive effects, discussion of its landslide critical angle has always been one of the major concerns, and we designed a system that can automatically measure the landslide critical angle. This equipment consists of the

  6. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  8. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  9. Transcription and the Pitch Angle of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Kasper W

    2013-01-01

    The question of the value of the pitch angle of DNA is visited from the perspective of a geometrical analysis of transcription. It is suggested that for transcription to be possible, the pitch angle of B-DNA must be smaller than the angle of zero-twist. At the zero-twist angle the double helix is maximally rotated and its strain-twist coupling vanishes. A numerical estimate of the pitch angle for B-DNA based on differential geometry is compared with numbers obtained from existing empirical data. The crystallographic studies shows that the pitch angle is approximately 38 deg., less than the corresponding zero-twist angle of 41.8 deg., which is consistent with the suggested principle for transcription.

  10. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  11. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.

  12. Contact angle measurements under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Carol; Méndez, Eduardo

    2007-08-01

    The precise control of the ambient humidity during contact angle measurements is needed to obtain stable and valid data. For a such purpose, a simple low-cost device was designed, and several modified surfaces relevant to biosensor design were studied. Static contact angle values for these surfaces are lower than advancing contact angles published for ambient conditions, indicating that thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are needed to avoid drop evaporation during the measurements.

  13. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only

  14. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  15. Automatic cobb angle determination from radiographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Ooijen, van Peter M.A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Met

  16. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  17. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  18. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  19. Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2013-03-26

    Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

  20. Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.

  1. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  2. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  3. Contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Donald L; Brady, Robert F; Lam, Karen; Schmidt, Dale C; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2004-03-30

    Adhesive and marine biofouling release properties of coatings containing surface-oriented perfluoroalkyl groups were investigated. These coatings were prepared by cross-linking a copolymer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate and acrylic acid with a copolymer of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) and methyl methacrylate at different molar ratios. The relationships between contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling were studied. Adhesion was determined by peel tests using pressure-sensitive adhesives. The chemical nature of the surfaces was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Resistance to marine biofouling of an optimized coating was studied by immersion in seawater and compared to previous, less optimized coatings. The adhesive release properties of the coatings did not correlate well with the surface energies of the coatings estimated from the static and advancing contact angles nor with the amount of fluorine present on the surface. The adhesive properties of the surfaces, however, show a correlation with water receding contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (or wetting hysteresis) resulting from surface penetration and surface reconstruction. Coatings having the best release properties had both the highest cross-link density and the lowest contact angle hysteresis. An optimized coating exhibited unprecedented resistance to marine biofouling. Water contact angle hysteresis appears to correlate with marine biofouling resistance.

  4. Globographic visualisation of three dimensional joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    2011-07-07

    Three different methods for describing three dimensional joint angles are commonly used in biomechanics. The joint coordinate system and Cardan/Euler angles are conceptually quite different but are known to represent the same underlying mathematics. More recently the globographic method has been suggested as an alternative and this has proved particularly attractive for the shoulder joint. All three methods can be implemented in a number of ways leading to a choice of angle definitions. Very recently Rab has demonstrated that the globographic method is equivalent to one implementation of the joint coordinate system. This paper presents a rigorous analysis of the three different methods and proves their mathematical equivalence. The well known sequence dependence of Cardan/Euler is presented as equivalent to configuration dependence of the joint coordinate system and orientation dependence of globographic angles. The precise definition of different angle sets can be easily visualised using the globographic method using analogues of longitude, latitude and surface bearings with which most users will already be familiar. The method implicitly requires one axis of the moving segment to be identified as its principal axis and this can be extremely useful in helping define the most appropriate angle set to describe the orientation of any particular joint. Using this technique different angle sets are considered to be most appropriate for different joints and examples of this for the hip, knee, ankle, pelvis and axial skeleton are outlined.

  5. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  6. Intermittent acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic angle closure following topiramate use with plateau iris configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajjoub LZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamise Z Rajjoub, Nisha Chadha, David A Belyea Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: This is a case report describing recurrent intermittent acute angle closure episodes in the setting of topiramate use in a female suffering from migraines. Despite laser peripheral iridotomy placement for the pupillary block component, and the discontinuation of topiramate, the acute angle closure did not resolve in the left eye with chronic angle closure and the patient required urgent trabeculectomy. The right eye responded to laser peripheral iridotomy immediately and further improved after the cessation of topiramate. While secondary angle closure glaucoma due to topiramate use has been widely reported, its effects in patients with underlying primary angle closure glaucoma have not been discussed. Our report highlights the importance of recognizing the often multifactorial etiology of angle closure glaucoma to help guide clinical management. Keywords: angle closure glaucoma, plateau iris, topiramate, secondary glaucoma, drug-induced glaucoma

  7. Nanofluid surface wettability through asymptotic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Saeid; Wen, Dongsheng; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2011-03-15

    This investigation introduces the asymptotic contact angle as a criterion to quantify the surface wettability of nanofluids and determines the variation of solid surface tensions with nanofluid concentration and nanoparticle size. The asymptotic contact angle, which is only a function of gas-liquid-solid physical properties, is independent of droplet size for ideal surfaces and can be obtained by equating the normal component of interfacial force on an axisymmetric droplet to that of a spherical droplet. The technique is illustrated for a series of bismuth telluride nanofluids where the variation of surface wettability is measured and evaluated by asymptotic contact angles as a function of nanoparticle size, concentration, and substrate material. It is found that the variation of nanofluid concentration, nanoparticle size, and substrate modifies both the gas-liquid and solid surface tensions, which consequently affects the force balance at the triple line, the contact angle, and surface wettability.

  8. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  9. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  10. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  11. A microscopic view on contact angle selection

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Andreotti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the equilibrium condition for a liquid that partially wets a solid on the level of intermolecular forces. Using a mean field continuum description, we generalize the capillary pressure from variation of the free energy and show at what length scale the equilibrium contact angle is selected. After recovering Young's law for homogeneous substrates, it is shown how hysteresis of the contact angle can be incorporated in a self-consistent fashion. In all cases the liquid-vapor interface...

  12. Pressure dependence of the contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiyu; Farouk, T; Ward, C A

    2007-06-07

    When a liquid and its vapor contact a smooth, homogeneous surface, Gibbsian thermodynamics indicates that the contact angle depends on the pressure at the three-phase line of an isothermal system. When a recently proposed adsorption isotherm for a solid-vapor interface is combined with the equilibrium conditions and the system is assumed to be in a cylinder where the liquid-vapor interface can be approximated as spherical, the contact-angle-pressure relation can be made explicit. It indicates that a range of contact angles can be observed on a smooth homogeneous surface by changing the pressure at the three-phase line, but it also indicates that the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is negative, and leads to the prediction that the contact angle increases with pressure. The predicted dependence of the contact angle on pressure is investigated experimentally in a system that has an independent mechanism for determining when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. The predictions are in agreement with the measurements. The results provide a possible explanation for contact angle hysteresis.

  13. Winding angles of long lattice walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio /2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio /2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.

  14. Contact angle hysteresis: study by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, A; Eichhorn, K-J; Staudinger, U; Sahre, K; Rogalli, M; Stamm, M; Neumann, A W; Grundke, K

    2004-08-03

    The phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis was studied on smooth films of polyimide, a polymer type used in the microelectronic industry, by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile in combination with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). It was found that both advancing and receding contact angles became smaller with increasing the number of cycles and are, therefore, not a property of the dry solid alone. The changes of the wetting behavior during these dynamic cycling contact angle measurements are attributed mainly to swelling and/or liquid retention. To reveal the water-induced changes of the polymer film, the polyimide surface was studied before and after the contact with a water droplet by VASE. Both the experimental ellipsometric spectrum for Delta and that for Psi as well as the corresponding simulations show characteristic shifts due to the contact with water. The so-called effective medium approximation was applied to recover information about the thickness and effective optical constants of the polymer layer from the ellipsometrically measured values of Delta and Psi. On the basis of these results, the swelling and retention behavior of the polyimide films in contact with water droplets were discussed.

  15. Bioelectric impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle. Aims: To compare the phase angle between patients of breast cancer and their matched control with the help of BIA. Settings and Design: After taking clearance from ethical committee, a total of 34 female cases of histologically proven infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were included from the surgery IPD, department of surgery. Equal numbers of the matched controls were recruited from the friends and relatives of cases. Materials and Methods: Bio Electrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA BODY STAT QUAD SCAN 4000 was used to measure resistance (R and reactance (Xc by recording a voltage drop in applied current. Phase angle is the ratio of reactance to resistance and is a measure of cell vitality. Statistical analysis used: Unpaired "t" test was applied. Results: In control group, the phase angle showed a mean of 5.479 whereas in test group, it showed a mean value of 4.726. The P value showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The smaller the phase angle values were higher was the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging. The phase angles differed significantly from the healthy age matched control values. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that phase angle is a strong predictor of severity of breast cancer and differed significantly between the two groups.

  16. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANA) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-10-14

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves.

  17. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  18. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  19. Three paths toward the quantum angle operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Szafraniec, Franciszek Hugon

    2016-12-01

    We examine mathematical questions around angle (or phase) operator associated with a number operator through a short list of basic requirements. We implement three methods of construction of quantum angle. The first one is based on operator theory and parallels the definition of angle for the upper half-circle through its cosine and completed by a sign inversion. The two other methods are integral quantization generalizing in a certain sense the Berezin-Klauder approaches. One method pertains to Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantization of the plane viewed as the phase space of the motion on the line. It depends on a family of "weight" functions on the plane. The third method rests upon coherent state quantization of the cylinder viewed as the phase space of the motion on the circle. The construction of these coherent states depends on a family of probability distributions on the line.

  20. Tunable contact angle hysteresis on micropatterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Debuisson, Damien; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Micropatterned surfaces composed of concentric circular defects having a smooth trench-like profile are formed using a photoresist (SU-8). When an evaporating droplet encounters the micropatterned surface an evaporation phase is observed consisting of distinct discontinuities and steps in the droplet wetting contact angle and base radius respectively. The addition of gaps into the circular defects enables tuning of the contact angle hysteresis; the receding contact angle of fluorocarbon coated SU-8 can be tuned between 34.6{\\deg} and 89.1{\\deg} and that of SU-8 surfaces from 5.6{\\deg} to 43.3{\\deg} depending on the gap length. In addition, a model is developed which accurately predicts the observed behavior.

  1. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  2. Magic-angle thermal desorption mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Steven W.; Campbell, Charles T.

    1990-02-01

    Accurate quantitative measurements of desorption rates or adsorbate coverages in thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) using line-of-sight mass spectrometers are hindered by the fact that the angular distributions of desorption flux can vary widely from desorbate to desorbate, ranging from cos 1ø to cos 9 ø for most species studied to date (ø = polar angle from surface normal). These differences can easily lead to errors exceeding 400% in measuring the relative desorption rates of different species. We show here that, by placing the mass spectrometer's ion source or entrance aperture at a "magic-angle" ø mthese errors can be reduced to less than 26% maximum deviation (or ± 7% standard deviation). Depending upon the sample-to-detector distance, ø m varies from ~ 42° to 34°. It is recommended that TDS experiments be performed at this "magic-angle" for improvement in the quantitative accuracy of coverage or rate measurements.

  3. Weak lensing using only galaxy position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method for performing a weak lensing analysis using only measurements of galaxy position angles. By analyzing the statistical properties of the galaxy orientations given a known intrinsic ellipticity distribution, we show that it is possible to obtain estimates of the shear by minimizing a $\\chi^2$ statistic. The method is demonstrated using simulations where the components of the intrinsic ellipticity are taken to be Gaussian distributed. Uncertainties on the position angle measurements introduce a bias into the shear estimates which can be reduced to negligible levels by introducing a correction term into the formalism. We generalize our approach by developing an algorithm to obtain direct shear estimators given any azimuthally symmetric intrinsic ellipticity distribution. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to simulations where the ellipticities are taken to follow a log-normal distribution. We compare the performance of the position angle only method with the standard method based on...

  4. Notes on large angle crossing graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat; Wolle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A graph G is an a-angle crossing (aAC) graph if every pair of crossing edges in G intersect at an angle of at least a. The concept of right angle crossing (RAC) graphs (a=Pi/2) was recently introduced by Didimo et. al. It was shown that any RAC graph with n vertices has at most 4n-10 edges and that there are infinitely many values of n for which there exists a RAC graph with n vertices and 4n-10 edges. In this paper, we give upper and lower bounds for the number of edges in aAC graphs for all 0 < a < Pi/2.

  5. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  6. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  7. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  8. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  9. Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-kuo

    2013-01-01

    The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.

  10. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  11. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  12. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  13. Constant Angle Surfaces in the Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan FASTENAKELS; Marian Ioan MUNTEANU; Joeri VAN DER VEKEN

    2011-01-01

    In this article we extend the notion of constant angle surfaces in S2 × R and H2 × R to general Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu spaces. We show that these surfaces have constant Gaussian curvature and we give a complete local classification in the Heisenberg group.

  14. A thin-film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Popma, Theo J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  15. Testing CMB polarization data using position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to CMB polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NVSS point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple $\\sqrt{N_{pix}}$ law. However this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance since the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in...

  16. Statistical analysis of Contact Angle Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, Nachiketa; Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a new statistical approach to determining Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH) by studying the nature of the triple line. A statistical distribution of local contact angles on a random three-dimensional drop is used as the basis for this approach. Drops with randomly shaped triple lines but of fixed volumes were deposited on a substrate and their triple line shapes were extracted by imaging. Using a solution developed by Prabhala et al. (Langmuir, 2010), the complete three dimensional shape of the sessile drop was generated. A distribution of the local contact angles for several such drops but of the same liquid-substrate pairs is generated. This distribution is a result of several microscopic advancing and receding processes along the triple line. This distribution is used to yield an approximation of the CAH associated with the substrate. This is then compared with measurements of CAH by means of a liquid infusion-withdrawal experiment. Static measurements are shown to be sufficient to measure quasistatic contact angle hysteresis of a substrate. The approach also points towards the relationship between microscopic triple line contortions and CAH.

  17. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A

    2009-01-01

    We present recent measurements of the CKM angle alpha using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We present constraints on alpha from B->pipi, B->rhorho and B->rhopi decays.

  18. Contact Angle Effects in Boiling Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Urquiola, Erwin; Fujita, Yasunobu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports boiling experiments with pure water and surfactant solutions of SDS on horizontal heating surface. The static contact angle, rather than the surface tension value, was found to be the leading factor for the results and probably its prev

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying primary open angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex, multigenetic and heterogeneous optic neuropathy. It is an insidious disease that untreated leads to irreversible visual field loss and blindness. Worldwide, glaucoma causes around 12% of blindness. Although various risk factors have been established,

  20. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ±0.015∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi. PMID:28165365

  1. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  2. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  3. On some relations between advancing, receding and Young's contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibowski, Emil

    2007-05-31

    Problems of experimental determination and theoretical verification of equilibrium contact angles are discussed basing on the literature data. A relationship between the advancing and receding contact angles versus the equilibrium contact angle is described and then verified using the literature contact angles determined on paraffin wax and polypropylene. Using the proposed relationship and experimentally determined equilibrium contact angles, obtained by plotting the advancing and receding contact angles versus the contact angle hysteresis or by applying vibration of the system liquid drop/solid surface, it is found that the same value of the surface free energy for paraffin wax is calculated from the contact angles of water and ethylene glycol. However, in the case of polypropylene some inconsistency appears between the equilibrium contact angles of the probe liquid used and the calculated surface free energy. More experimental data of the equilibrium contact angle are needed to verify further the relationship.

  4. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  5. The Contact Angle in Inviscid Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shankar; R Kidambi

    2005-05-01

    We show that in general, the specification of a contact angle condition at the contact line in inviscid fluid motions is incompatible with the classical field equations and boundary conditions generally applicable to them. The limited conditions under which such a specification is permissible are derived;however, these include cases where the static meniscus is not flat. In view of this situation, the status of the many `solutions’ in the literature which prescribe a contact angle in potential flows comes into question. We suggest that these solutions which attempt to incorporate a phenomenological, but incompatible, condition are in some, imprecise sense `weak-type solutions’;they satisfy or are likely to satisfy, at least in the limit, the governing equations and boundary conditions everywhere except in the neighbourhood of the contact line. We discuss the implications of the result for the analysis of inviscid flows with free surfaces.

  6. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  7. Absorbing angles, Steiner minimal trees, and antipodality

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; de Wet, P Oloff; 10.1007/s10957-009-9552-1

    2011-01-01

    We give a new proof that a star $\\{op_i:i=1,...,k\\}$ in a normed plane is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles formed by the edges at o are absorbing [Swanepoel, Networks \\textbf{36} (2000), 104--113]. The proof is more conceptual and simpler than the original one. We also find a new sufficient condition for higher-dimensional normed spaces to share this characterization. In particular, a star $\\{op_i: i=1,...,k\\}$ in any CL-space is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles are absorbing, which in turn holds if and only if all distances between the normalizations $\\frac{1}{\\|p_i\\|}p_i$ equal 2. CL-spaces include the mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_\\infty$ sum of finitely many copies of $R^1$.

  8. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying $A_4$ flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading ...

  9. Picoliter water contact angle measurement on polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Zelzer, Mischa; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-06-19

    Water contact angle measurement is the most common method for determining a material's wettability, and the sessile drop approach is the most frequently used. However, the method is generally limited to macroscopic measurements because the base diameter of the droplet is usually greater than 1 mm. Here we report for the first time on a dosing system to dispense smaller individual droplets with control of the position and investigate whether water contact angles determined from picoliter volume water droplets are comparable with those obtained from the conventional microliter volume water droplets. This investigation was conducted on a group of commonly used polymers. To demonstrate the higher spatial resolution of wettability that can be achieved using picoliter volume water droplets, the wettability of a radial plasma polymer gradient was mapped using a 250 microm interval grid.

  10. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  11. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  12. Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Frikel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

  13. AGN jet physics and apparent opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen-Brown, Eric; Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Lister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to measure Gamma*theta_j in flux-limited samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor and theta_j is the jet's half-opening angle. The Gamma*theta_j parameter is physically important for models of jet launching, and also determines the effectiveness of jet instabilities and magnetic reconnection. We measure Gamma*theta_j by analyzing the observed distribution of apparent opening angles in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) flux-limited samples of jets, given some prior knowledge of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) radio luminosity function. We then apply this method to the MOJAVE flux-limited sample of radio loud objects and find Gamma*theta_j = 0.1 +- 0.03, which implies that AGN jets are subject to a variety of physical processes that require causal connection.

  14. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  15. Black hole microstates from branes at angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive the leading g_s perturbation of the SUGRA fields generated by a supersymmetric configuration of respectively 1, 2 or 4 D3-branes intersecting at an arbitrary angle via the computation of the string theory disk scattering amplitude of one massless NSNS field interacting with open strings stretched between the branes. The configuration with four branes is expected to be relevant for black hole microstate counting in four dimensions.

  16. Target Localization Based on Angle of Arrivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chao Cao

    2007-01-01

    Mobile location using angle of arrival (AOA) measurements has received considerable attention. This paper presents an approximation of maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for localizing a source based on AOA measurements. By introducing an intermediate variable, the nonlinear equations relating AOA estimates can be transformed into a set of equations which are linear in the unknown parameters. It is an approximate realization of the MLE. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous contribution.

  17. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  18. Contact angle hysteresis at the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Mathieu; Monthioux, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Using atomic force microscopy with nonconventional carbon tips, the pinning of a liquid contact line on individual nanometric defects was studied. This mechanism is responsible for the occurrence of the contact angle hysteresis. The presence of weak defects which do not contribute to the hysteresis is evidenced for the first time. The dissipated energy associated with strong defects is also measured down to values in the range of kT, which correspond to defect sizes in the order of 1 nm.

  19. Primary open-angle glaucoma genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of glaucoma has a genetic basis. About 5% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is currently attributed to single-gene or Mendelian forms of glaucoma (ie glaucoma caused by mutations in myocilinor optineurin). Mutations in these genes have a high likelihood of leading to glaucoma and are rarely seen in normal subjects. Other cases of POAG have a more complex genetic basis and are caused by the combined effects of many genetic and environmental risk factors, each of whic...

  20. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  1. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  2. Wide Angle Effects in Galaxy Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2013-01-01

    Current and future galaxy surveys cover a large fraction of the entire sky with a significant redshift range, and the recent theoretical development shows that general relativistic effects are present in galaxy clustering on very large scales. This trend has renewed interest in the wide angle effect in galaxy clustering measurements, in which the distant-observer approximation is often adopted. Using the full wide-angle formula for computing the redshift-space correlation function, we show that compared to the sample variance, the deviation in the redshift-space correlation function from the simple Kaiser formula with the distant-observer approximation is negligible in the SDSS and is completely irrelevant in future galaxy surveys such as Euclid and the BigBOSS, if the theoretical prediction from the Kaiser formula is averaged over the survey volume and the non-uniform distribution of cosine angle between the line-of-sight and the pair separation directions is properly considered. We also find small correctio...

  3. Constitutive modeling of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2008-05-15

    We introduce a phase field model of wetting of surfaces by sessile drops. The theory uses a two-dimensional non-conserved phase field variable to parametrize the Gibbs free energy of the three-dimensional system. Contact line tension and contact angle hysteresis arise from the gradient term in the free energy and the kinetic coefficient respectively. A significant advantage of this approach is in the constitutive specification of hysteresis. The advancing and receding angles of a surface, the liquid-vapor interfacial energy and three-phase line tension are the only required constitutive inputs to the model. We first simulate hysteresis on a smooth chemically homogeneous surface using this theory. Next we show that it is possible to study heterogeneous surfaces whose component surfaces are themselves hysteretic. We use this theory to examine the wetting of a surface containing a circular heterogeneous island. The contact angle for this case is found to be determined solely by the material properties at the contact line in accord with recent experimental data.

  4. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A.

  5. The Brewster angle effect in SAR polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.

    1993-01-01

    For the double bounce case, where the radar signal is reflected twice before returning to the radar antenna, some polarization effects may be observed related to the dielectric constant of the two surfaces causing the reflections. The most noticeable effect would be that the returned signal would be preferentially H polarized. In fact, it may be possible to discern the Brewster angle for both surfaces. The locations of the Brewster angle will depend on the dielectric constant and permittivity of each surface. If it is assumed that both reflections are in the same plane of incidence, and that both surfaces are smooth and flat, there is a straightforward relationship between the degree of linear polarization m and both the dielectric constants of the two reflecting surfaces and the angle of incidence of the illuminating wave: m carat = cos 2(arccot (square root of (R(sub v) / R(sub h)))) where R(sub v,h) are the V and H polarized Fresnel reflection coefficients for two surfaces perpendicular to each other. The degree of linear polarization may be calculated from AIRSAR compressed Stokes data and compared with the given equation. The degree of linear polarization may also be calculated using tree models and compared with AIRSAR data. With further work, it may be possible to use the degree of linear polarization to determine surface parameters of certain imaged areas.

  6. Protein Amyloidogenesis Investigated by Small Angle Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Caterina; Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Ortore, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the study of the mechanisms inducing amyloid fibril formation has involved several experimental and theoretical biophysical approaches. Many efforts have been made by scientist at the borderline between biology, chemistry, biochemistry and physics in order to understand why and in which way a protein starts its amyloidogenic pattern. This fundamental research issue is evolving in parallel to the development of drugs and inhibitors able to modify protein self assembly towards amyloid fibrils. Small angle xray and neutron scattering experiments represent suitable methods to investigate protein amyloidogenesis and the possible effects of inhibitors: they are in-solution techniques, require low amount of sample and their time-resolution makes it possible to follow aggregation pattern. In this paper we review small angle x-ray and neutron scattering studies dedicated to investigate amyloid β peptide and α-synuclein, related to Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases, respectively, together with some other studies that introduced innovative models to describe with small angle scattering techniques amyloid fibrillation processes.

  7. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was

  8. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  9. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  10. A simple method to obtain consistent and clinically meaningful pelvic angles from euler angles during gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mitiguy, Paul C

    2007-08-01

    Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.

  11. Optimum Staging with Varying Thrust Attitude Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1966-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimum staging programme for step rockets of arbitrary number of stages having different specific impulses and mass fractions with stages is derived, the optimization criterion being minimum take-off weight for a desired burntout velocity at an assigned altitude. Variation of thrust attitude angle from stage to stage and effects of gravity factor are taken into account. Analysis is performed for a degenerate problem obtained by relaxing the altitude constraint and it has been shown that problems of Weisbord, Subotowicz, Hall & Zambelli and Malina & Summerfield are the particular cases of the degenerate problem.

  12. Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.

    1989-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.

  13. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  14. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  15. Vertical Crossing Angle in IR8

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer , B J; Alemany, R

    2013-01-01

    The operation of the LHCb spectrometer dipole has a considerably larger and more challenging impact on the geometry of the LHC beams than the magnets in the high luminosity regions [1]. The integrated dipole field of 4 Tm deflects the beams in the horizontal plane, and using a set of three dipole magnets, called "compensators" a closed horizontal orbit bump is created. This paper summarizes the basic layout of the beam geometry in IR8 under the influence of the LHCb dipole and its compensators and shows the theoretically expected beam orbits, envelopes and aperture needs in the originally designed version. LHCb operation with both field polarities leads to unequal net crossing angles between the two beams and affects the experiment acceptance. It had been proposed therefore to establish a LHC operation mode where the originally designed horizontal crossing angle is shifted at high energy into the vertical plane leading to a vertical crossing scheme at luminosity operation. The new scheme has been successfully...

  16. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  17. Hidden topological angles and Lefschetz thimbles

    CERN Document Server

    Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of hidden topological angles (HTAs) in a large class of quantum field theories and quantum mechanical systems. HTAs are distinct from theta-parameters in the lagrangian. They arise as invariant angle associated with saddle points of the complexified path integral and their descent manifolds (Lefschetz thimbles). Physical effects of HTAs become most transparent upon analytic continuation in $n_f$ to non-integer number of flavors, reducing in the integer $n_f$ limit to a $\\mathbb Z_2$ valued phase difference between dominant saddles. In ${\\cal N}=1$ super Yang-Mills theory we demonstrate the microscopic mechanism for the vanishing of the gluon condensate. The same effect leads to an anomalously small condensate in a QCD-like $SU(N)$ gauge theory with fermions in the two-index representation. The basic phenomenon is that, contrary to folklore, the gluon condensate can receive both positive and negative contributions in a semi-classical expansion. In quantum mechanics, a HTA leads to ...

  18. A Hydrodynamic Model of Dynamic Contact Angle Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    contact angle hysteresis is developed in terms of the interaction of capillary, viscous, and...used to obtain the equations which describe the contact angle region and thereby to define the dynamic contact angle . The analysis is limited to...velocity dependence of the receding contact angle and of the thickness of the deposited film of the receding interface of a wetting liquid are determined as functions of the capillary, viscous, and disjoining forces.

  19. Studying of the Contact Angle Hysteresis on Various Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kirichenko E. O.; Gatapova E. Ya.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigation of the contact angle hysteresis on various surfaces. It was carried out by two different methods: measuring the advancing and the receding contact angles and measuring the contact angles at water droplet evaporation under isothermal conditions. Data obtained using two methods have been compared. The influence of the contact angle hysteresis on the mode of the drop evaporation has been shown.

  20. Studying of the Contact Angle Hysteresis on Various Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko E. O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the contact angle hysteresis on various surfaces. It was carried out by two different methods: measuring the advancing and the receding contact angles and measuring the contact angles at water droplet evaporation under isothermal conditions. Data obtained using two methods have been compared. The influence of the contact angle hysteresis on the mode of the drop evaporation has been shown.

  1. Meningioma of the Posterior Skull Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Michael Thomas; Fagan, Paul A.; Sheehy, John P.R.; Bentivoglio, Peter J.; Doust, Bruce D.; Tonkin, John

    1991-01-01

    Combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas are rejatively rare. There are unsolved problems with the stability of the skull and spine and the lower cranial nerves and there is a marked tendency for the tumor to involve the spinal cord. This article reports on five cases of combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. ImagesFigure 1p44-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170820

  2. Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ROUGHNESS ON THE WETTING ANGLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the influence of surface roughness on contact angles in the system of liquid Al wetting solid surfaces of Al2O3 has been studied. It was observed that contact angles of liquid Al vary significantly on different rough surfaces of Al2O3 A model is proposed to correlate contact angles wit

  4. Influence of higher order modes on angled-facet amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Mikkelsen, B.; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the first-order mode on the residual reflectivity of angled-facet amplifiers is analyzed. For a 7 degrees angled-facet ridge waveguide amplifier with a single-layer antireflective (AR) coating, a gain ripple lower than 1-dB at 25-dB gain can be obtained independent...... by increasing the facet angles to 10 degrees...

  5. Surgery for an "Acute Erection Angle," When Counseling Fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Pascal, Astrid L.; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; van Driel, Mels F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. During erection, the penis increases in volume, rigidity, and angle. Textbooks of urology and sexology provide only very limited information about erection angle dysfunction. In some men, this angle is too tight toward their belly, causing problems with intercourse. Aim. We reported tw

  6. Optimal angle reduction - a behavioral approach to linear system approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend; Fuhrmann, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced-order model. This problem is analyz

  7. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  8. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.

  9. Computer simulation of dislocation core structure of metastable left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.Y. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Vailhe, C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Farkas, D. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The atomistic structure of dislocation cores of left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl was simulated using embedded atom method potentials and molecular statics computer simulation. In agreement with previous simulation work and experimental observations, the complete left angle 111 right angle dislocation is stable with respect to the two superpartials of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle separated by an antiphase boundary. The structure of the latter configuration, though metastable, is of interest in the search for ways of improving ductility in this material. The structure of the complete dislocation and that of the metastable superpartials was studied using atomistic computer simulation. An improved visualization method was used for the representation of the resulting structures. The structure of the partials is different from that typical of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle dislocations in b.c.c. materials and that reported previously for the B2 structure using model pair potentials. (orig.)

  10. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  11. Wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Christopher M; Li, Dongfang; Zia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Light emission is defined by its distribution in energy, momentum, and polarization. Here, we demonstrate a method that resolves these distributions by means of wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy. Specifically, we image the back focal plane of a microscope objective through a Wollaston prism to obtain polarized Fourier-space momentum distributions, and disperse these two-dimensional radiation patterns through an imaging spectrograph without an entrance slit. The resulting measurements represent a convolution of individual radiation patterns at adjacent wavelengths, which can be readily deconvolved using any well-defined basis for light emission. As an illustrative example, we use this technique with the multipole basis to quantify the intrinsic emission rates for electric and magnetic dipole transitions in europium-doped yttrium oxide (Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$) and chromium-doped magnesium oxide (Cr$^{3+}$:MgO). Once extracted, these rates allow us to reconstruct the full, polarized, two-dimensional radi...

  12. Intrinsic polarization angle ambiguity in Faraday tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kumazaki, Kohei; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Faraday tomography is a powerful method to diagnose polarizations and Faraday rotations along the line of sight. Quality of Faraday tomography is, however, limited by several conditions. Recently, it is reported that Faraday tomography indicates false signals in some specific situations. In this paper, we systematically investigate the condition of the appearance of false signals in Faraday tomography. We study the situations that we observe two sources within a beam, and change the intrinsic polarization angles, rotation measures, intensities, and frequency coverage. We find that false signals arise when rotation measure between the sources is less than 1.5 times the full width at half maximum of the rotation measure spread function. False signals also depend on the intensity ratio between the sources and are reduced for large ratio. On the other hand, the appearance of false signals does not depend on frequency coverage, meaning that the uncertainty should be correctly understood and taken into consideratio...

  13. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  14. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  15. Small angle electron diffraction and deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron optical system is constructed in order to obtain small angle diffraction and Lorentz deflection of electrons at the order of down to 10-6 radian in the reciprocal space. Long-distance camera length up to 3000 m is achieved in a conventional transmission electron microscope with LaB6 thermal emission type. The diffraction pattern at 5 × 10-6 radian is presented in a carbon replica grating with 500 nm lattice spacing while the magnetic deflection pattern at 2 × 10-5 radian is exhibited in Permalloy elements. A simultaneous recording of electron diffraction and Lorentz deflection is also demonstrated in 180 degree striped magnetic domains of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  16. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Clara I; Brenny, Benjamin; Polman, Albert; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) allows characterizing light emission in bulk and nanostructured materials and is a key tool in fields ranging from materials science to nanophotonics. Previously, CL measurements focused on the spectral content and angular distribution of emission, while the polarization was not fully determined. Here we demonstrate a technique to access the full polarization state of the cathodoluminescence emission, that is the Stokes parameters as a function of the emission angle. Using this technique, we measure the emission of metallic bullseye nanostructures and show that the handedness of the structure as well as nanoscale changes in excitation position induce large changes in polarization ellipticity and helicity. Furthermore, by exploiting the ability of polarimetry to distinguish polarized from unpolarized light, we quantify the contributions of different types of coherent and incoherent radiation to the emission of a gold surface, silicon and gallium arsenide bulk semiconductor...

  17. Narrow-angle astrometry with PRIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Mérand, A; Zimmerman, N; Abuter, R; Chazelas, B; Delplancke, F; Henning, T; Kaminski, A; Köhler, R; Launhardt, R; Mohler, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Reffert, S; Schmid, C; Schuhler, N; Schulze-Hartung, T

    2012-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planet Search with PRIMA project (ESPRI) aims at characterising and detecting extrasolar planets by measuring the host star's reflex motion using the narrow-angle astrometry capability of the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. A first functional demonstration of the astrometric mode was achieved in early 2011. This marked the start of the astrometric commissioning phase with the purpose of characterising the instrument's performance, which ultimately has to be sufficient for exoplanet detection. We show results obtained from the observation of bright visual binary stars, which serve as test objects to determine the instrument's astrometric precision, its accuracy, and the plate scale. Finally, we report on the current status of the ESPRI project, in view of starting its scientific programme.

  18. Pneumatic Rotary Actuator Angle Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 彭光正; 伍清河

    2003-01-01

    Based on the adaptive control method, a kind of parameter adjustor was used to control pneumatic rotary actuator to track the expected output. The system uses electropneumatic proportional valve as control device, which adjusts the gas flow of actuator 's two cavities, then changes the pressure of cavity and pushes the piston of actuator to move, so the rotary actuator 's axis can be made to revolve to the required angle at last. According to the characteristic of pneumatic system, the control system was described with a fourth-order mathematic model. The control rule is deduced by model reference adaptive control method. By the result of experiment, it was proved that by using the adaptive control method, the output of rotary actuator could track the expected value timely and accurately.

  19. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  20. Disequilibrium dihedral angles in dolerite sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Helz, Rosalind T.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, measured by the median dihedral angle Θcpp, is created during solidification. In the solidifying Kilauea Iki (Hawaii) lava lake, the wider junctions between plagioclase grains are the first to be filled by pyroxene, followed by the narrower junctions. The final Θcpp, attained when all clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions are formed, is 78° in the upper crust of the lake, and 85° in the lower solidification front. Θcpp in the 3.5-m-thick Traigh Bhàn na Sgùrra sill (Inner Hebrides) is everywhere 78°. In the Whin Sill (northern England, 38 m thick) and the Portal Peak sill (Antarctica, 129 m thick), Θcpp varies symmetrically, with the lowest values at the margins. The 266-m-thick Basement Sill (Antarctica) has asymmetric variation of Θcpp, attributed to a complex filling history. The chilled margins of the Basement Sill are partially texturally equilibrated, with high Θcpp. The plagioclase grain size in the two widest sills varies asymmetrically, with the coarsest rocks found in the upper third. Both Θcpp and average grain size are functions of model crystallization times. Θcpp increases from 78° to a maximum of ∼100° as the crystallization time increases from 1 to 500 yr. Because the use of grain size as a measure of crystallization time is dependent on an estimate of crystal growth rates, dihedral angles provide a more direct proxy for cooling rates in dolerites.

  1. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  2. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  3. Measurement of dihedral angles by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutaramayya, G.; Scott, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The extension of Hoover's (1971) technique to the case of dihedral-angle measurement is described. Dihedral angles are often determined by interferometry on thermally grooved grain boundaries to obtain information on relative interfacial energies. In the technique considered the measured angles approach the true angles as the tilt angle approaches 90 deg. It is pointed out that the scanning electron microscopy method provides a means of seeing the real root of a groove at a lateral magnification which is higher than that obtainable with interferometry.

  4. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  5. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  6. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy; Kuznetsov, Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  7. Development of a Contact Angle Measurement Method Based Upon Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Su; Pyo, Na Young; Seo, Seung Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Woo Jin [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea); Kwon, Young Shik [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    A new way of contact angle measurement is derived based on simple geometrical calculation. Without using complicated contact angle measurement instrument, just measuring the diameter and height of liquid lens made it possible to calculate the contact angle value with a reasonable reliability. To validate the contact angle value obtained by this method, contact angle of the same liquid lens is measured using conventional goniometer and it is verified that two values are nearly same within the limit of observational error. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  9. A robust polynomial fitting approach for contact angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Ehsan; Mann, J Adin; Tavana, Hossein

    2013-05-14

    Polynomial fitting to drop profile offers an alternative to well-established drop shape techniques for contact angle measurements from sessile drops without a need for liquid physical properties. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of contact angles resulting from fitting polynomials of various orders to drop profiles in a Cartesian coordinate system, over a wide range of contact angles. We develop a differentiator mask to automatically find a range of required number of pixels from a drop profile over which a stable contact angle is obtained. The polynomial order that results in the longest stable regime and returns the lowest standard error and the highest correlation coefficient is selected to determine drop contact angles. We find that, unlike previous reports, a single polynomial order cannot be used to accurately estimate a wide range of contact angles and that a larger order polynomial is needed for drops with larger contact angles. Our method returns contact angles with an accuracy of contact angles in a wide range with a fourth-order polynomial. We show that this approach returns dynamic contact angles with less than 0.7° error as compared to ADSA-P, for the solid-liquid systems tested. This new approach is a powerful alternative to drop shape techniques for estimating contact angles of drops regardless of drop symmetry and without a need for liquid properties.

  10. Note: A gel based imaging technique of the iridocorneal angle for evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoj, V. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, T.

    2014-06-01

    Noninvasive medical imaging techniques have high potential in the field of ocular imaging research. Angle closure glaucoma is a major disease causing blindness and a possible way of detection is the examination of the anterior chamber angle in eyes. Here, a simple optical method for the evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma is proposed and illustrated. The light propagation from the region associated with the iridocorneal angle to the exterior of eye is considered analytically. The design of the gel assisted probe prototype is carried out and the imaging of iridocorneal angle is performed on an eye model.

  11. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  12. Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2008-10-01

    To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

  13. The correlation of multi-angle thermal infrared data and the choice of optimal view angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Wenjie; XU; Xiru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the matrix formula of thermal infrared radiant system, the components temperature can be retrieved by the inversive matrix. Around the stability problem of retrieved result, the research work we did was focused on (i) the correlation of (wk,j) which is the key to affect the retrieval accuracy, (ii) a general method which can help us find the number of retrievable parameters and evaluate the retrieval error before its performance, (iii) the choice of "optimal viewing angle group" based on the formula of absolute error propagation. The row winter wheat field was chosen as an example. The results can provide a theoretical basis for multi-angle thermal infrared remote sensing and components temperature retrieval.

  14. Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balezeau, Fabien; Saint-Jalmes, Herve [LTSI, INSERM U642, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Eliat, Pierre-Antoine [PRISM, IFR 140, Universite Rennes 1 (France); Cayamo, Alejandro Bordelois, E-mail: fabien.balezeau@gmail.com [Centro De BiofIsika Medica, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2011-10-21

    Errors in the flip angle have to be corrected in many magnetic resonance imaging applications, especially for T1 quantification. However, the existing methods of B1 mapping fail to measure lower values of the flip angle despite the fact that these are extensively used in dynamic acquisition and 3D imaging. In this study, the nonlinearity of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain, especially for very low flip angles, is investigated and a simple method is proposed to accurately determine both the gain of the RF transmitter and the B1 field map for low flip angles. The method makes use of the spoiled gradient echo sequence with long repetition time (TR), such as applied in the double-angle method. It uses an image acquired with a flip angle of 90{sup 0} as a reference image that is robust to B1 inhomogeneity. The ratio of the image at flip angle alpha to the image at a flip angle of 90{sup 0} enables us to calculate the actual value of alpha. This study was carried out at 1.5 and 4.7 T, showing that the linearity of the RF supply system is highly dependent on the hardware. The method proposed here allows us to measure the flip angle from 1{sup 0} to 60{sup 0} with a maximal uncertainty of 10% and to correct T1 maps based on the variable flip angle method.

  15. Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C N C; Wu, R; Li, D; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2002-02-25

    Two types of experiments were used to study the behavior of both advancing and receding contact angles, namely the dynamic one-cycle contact angle (DOCA) and the dynamic cycling contact angle (DCCA) experiments. For the preliminary study, DOCA measurements of different liquids on different solids were performed using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P). From these experimental results, four patterns of receding contact angle were observed: (1) time-dependent receding contact angle; (2) constant receding contact angle; (3) 'stick/slip'; (4) no receding contact angle. For the purpose of illustration, results from four different solid surfaces are shown. These solids are: FC-732-coated surface; poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl methacrylate) [P(MMA/nBMA)]; poly(lactic acid) (DL-PLA); and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) 50/50 (DL-PLGA 50/50). Since most of the surfaces in our studies exhibit time dependence in the receding contact angle, a more extended study was conducted using only FC-732-coated surfaces to better understand the possible causes of decreasing receding contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. Contact angle measurements of 21 liquids from two homologous series (i.e. n-alkanes and 1-alcohols) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCMTS) on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. It is apparent that the contact angle hysteresis decreases with the chain length of the liquid. It was found that the receding contact angle equals the advancing angle when the alkane molecules are infinitely large. These results strongly suggest that the chain length and size of the liquid molecule could contribute to contact angle hysteresis phenomena. Furthermore, DCCA measurements of six liquids from the two homologous series on FC-732-coated surfaces were performed. With these experimental results, one can construe that the time dependence of contact angle hysteresis on relatively smooth and homogeneous surfaces is mainly caused by liquid retention

  16. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  17. Magic angle spinning NMR of paramagnetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michael J; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta; Emsley, Lyndon; Pintacuda, Guido

    2013-09-17

    Metal ions are ubiquitous in biochemical and cellular processes. Since many metal ions are paramagnetic due to the presence of unpaired electrons, paramagnetic molecules are an important class of targets for research in structural biology and related fields. Today, NMR spectroscopy plays a central role in the investigation of the structure and chemical properties of paramagnetic metalloproteins, linking the observed paramagnetic phenomena directly to electronic and molecular structure. A major step forward in the study of proteins by solid-state NMR came with the advent of ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) and the ability to use (1)H detection. Combined, these techniques have allowed investigators to observe nuclei that previously were invisible in highly paramagnetic metalloproteins. In addition, these techniques have enabled quantitative site-specific measurement of a variety of long-range paramagnetic effects. Instead of limiting solid-state NMR studies of biological systems, paramagnetism provides an information-rich phenomenon that can be exploited in these studies. This Account emphasizes state-of-the-art methods and applications of solid-state NMR in paramagnetic systems in biological chemistry. In particular, we discuss the use of ultrafast MAS and (1)H-detection in perdeuterated paramagnetic metalloproteins. Current methodology allows us to determine the structure and dynamics of metalloenzymes, and, as an example, we describe solid-state NMR studies of microcrystalline superoxide dismutase, a 32 kDa dimer. Data were acquired with remarkably short times, and these experiments required only a few milligrams of sample.

  18. Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, S.J. [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.j.wilkinson@dl.ac.uk; Rogers, K.D. [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Hall, C.J. [Darebury Research Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lewis, R.A. [Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Round, A. [Darebury Research Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Pinder, S.E. [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Boggis, C. [Withington Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hufton, A. [Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    Current work in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a means of determining the disease state of tissue biopsy samples is showing encouraging results. Statistical analyses of SAXS patterns have identified components of the data which correlate well with the presence or absence of cancer in breast tissue. A study has now been started which attempts to create images of macroscopic scale samples using this information. One way of building up a two-dimensional map of this SAXS information on such a sample would be to raster scan a small X-ray beam. However, the time taken to perform such a scan is likely to make this technique impractical, especially if it would be considered for use in a clinical environment. Some initial work using a wide, thin X-ray beam, has shown that it is possible to deconvolve a model SAXS pattern from the smeared out SAXS pattern and is verified using slightly modified methods. Three distinct tissue types were successfully distinguished and imaged from a single scan of the beam. We are continuing this work by building a more sophisticated phantom and using a higher quality SAXS facility on the SRS in the UK. The results of the first steps towards disease specific imaging are presented. The possibility of making tomographic SAXS images is also being pursued. Techniques for data analysis on SAXS from blocks of tissues are discussed.

  19. Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Hall, C. J.; Lewis, R. A.; Round, A.; Pinder, S. E.; Boggis, C.; Hufton, A.

    2005-08-01

    Current work in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a means of determining the disease state of tissue biopsy samples is showing encouraging results. Statistical analyses of SAXS patterns have identified components of the data which correlate well with the presence or absence of cancer in breast tissue. A study has now been started which attempts to create images of macroscopic scale samples using this information. One way of building up a two-dimensional map of this SAXS information on such a sample would be to raster scan a small X-ray beam. However, the time taken to perform such a scan is likely to make this technique impractical, especially if it would be considered for use in a clinical environment. Some initial work using a wide, thin X-ray beam, has shown that it is possible to deconvolve a model SAXS pattern from the smeared out SAXS pattern and is verified using slightly modified methods. Three distinct tissue types were successfully distinguished and imaged from a single scan of the beam. We are continuing this work by building a more sophisticated phantom and using a higher quality SAXS facility on the SRS in the UK. The results of the first steps towards disease specific imaging are presented. The possibility of making tomographic SAXS images is also being pursued. Techniques for data analysis on SAXS from blocks of tissues are discussed.

  20. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; Barco, Enrique del, E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Springell, Ross [H. H. Will Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom); Miller, Casey W., E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  1. Apparent contact angle of an evaporating drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    In experiments by Poulard et al. (2005), a sessile drop of perfectly wetting liquid evaporates from a non-heated substrate into an under-saturated mixture of vapour with an inert gas; evaporation is limited by vapour diffusion. The system exhibits an apparent contact angle θ that is a flow property. Under certain conditions, the apparent contact line was stationary relative to the substrate; we predict θ for this case. Observed values of θ are small, allowing lubrication analysis of the liquid film. The liquid and vapour flows are coupled through conditions holding at the phase interface; in particular, vapour partial pressure there is related to the local value of liquid pressure through the Kelvin condition. Because the droplet is shallow, the interfacial conditions can be transferred to the solid-liquid interface at y = 0 . We show that the dimensionless partial pressure p (x , y) and the film thickness h (x) are determined by solving ∇2 p = 0 for y > 0 subject to a matching condition at infinity, and the conditions - p = L hxx +h-3 and (h3px) x + 3py = 0 at y = 0 . The parameter L controls the ratio of Laplace to disjoining pressure. We analyse this b.v.p. for the experimentally-relevant case L --> 0 .

  2. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  3. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nikhiles

    2016-10-01

    Angle Resolved Photo Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a very effective tool to study the electronic states of solids, from simple metals to complex systems like cuprate superconductors. For photon energy in the range of 10 - 100 eV, it is a surface sensitive process as the free path of the photo emitted electrons is of the order of a few lattice parameters. However to interpret the experimental data one needs to have a theoretical foundation for the photoemission process. From the theory of photoemission it may be seen that one can get information about the state from which the electron has been excited. As the translational periodicity is broken normal to the surface, a new type of electron state in the forbidden energy gap can exist localized in the surface region. ARPES can reveal the existence and the property of such surface states. We shall also discuss briefly how the electromagnetic field of the photons are influenced by the presence of the surface and how one can try to take that into account in photoemission theory.

  4. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, D M

    2015-01-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...

  5. Luminosity Anti-leveling with Crossing Angle (MD 1669)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Ponce, Laurette; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the LHC luminosity ($\\sim$30\\% in 2016) is lost due to the presence (and necessity) of the crossing angles at the IPs. At the LHC the crossing angle is typically set to a value that provides sufficient separation of the beams at the start of fills for the peak bunch intensities. As the bunch intensity decays during a fill, it is possible to reduce the crossing angle and recover some luminosity. A smooth crossing angle reduction procedure must be developed to take advantage of this option during stable beam operation. During this MD a smooth procedure for luminosity leveling with crossing angle was tested. It was demonstrated that the orbit was well controlled, beam losses were low and the offset leveled experiments ALICE and LHCb were not affected by crossing angle leveling in ATLAS and CMS.

  6. As-placed contact angles for sessile drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Rafael; Yadav, Preeti S

    2008-01-01

    As-placed contact angle is the contact angle a drop adapts as a result of its placement on a surface. As expected, the as-placed contact angle, thetaAP, of a sessile drop on a horizontal surface decreases with the drop size due to the increase in hydrostatic pressure. We present a theoretical prediction for thetaAP which shows that it is a unique function of the advancing contact angle, thetaA, drop size, and material properties (surface tensions and densities). We test our prediction with published and new data. The theory agrees with the experiments. From the relation of the as-placed contact angle to drop size the thermodynamic equilibrium contact angle is also calculated.

  7. Variable angle transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We focus on investigating the optical transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) in variable angle view theoretically and experimentally, rather than the optical transmittance under the normal incidence. The variable angle transmittance (VAT) values of SGTEs are measured on a home-made experimental setup. The experimental results about difference of the transmittance difference under different angles are small and negligible, although the measured angle is changed. Theoretically, the physical mechanism on nearly constant transmittance for different angle view can be well explained according to the theory of geometrical optics. This study provides an approach for investigating the VAT values of SGTEs in a controllable fashion and the influence of viewing angle of the touch screen.

  8. Study of the course of the incidence angle during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, P; Gomez, D; Senegas, J

    1997-01-01

    Standing posture is made possible by hip extension and lumbar lordosis. Lumbar lordosis is correlated with pelvic parameters, such as the declivity angle of the upper surface of the sacrum and the incidence angle, which determine the sagittal morphotype. Incidence angle, which is different for each individual, is known to be very important for up-right posture, but its course during life has not yet been established. Incidence angle was measured on radiographs of 30 fetuses, 30 children and 30 adults, and results were analysed using the correlation coefficient r and Student's t test. A statistically significant correlation between age and incidence angle was observed. Incidence angle considerably increases during the first months, continues to increase during early years, and stabilizes around the age of 10 years. Incidence is a mark of bipedism, and its role in sagittal balance is essential.

  9. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-11

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  10. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova Evgenija; Feoktistov Dmitriy; Kuznetsov Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It...

  11. UPPER LIMITS FOR THE CONTACT ANGLES OF LIQUIDS ON SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    available on equilibrium contact angles . These data were obtained under well- controlled and comparable experimental conditions for many liquids on...Earlier systematic studies of the angle of contact (theta) exhibited by drops of liquid on plane solid surfaces of low surface energy have made data...From the parameters defining this straight line, estimates can be made of the limiting contact angles for each liquid.

  12. Dynamic contact angle at nano-scale: a unified view

    OpenAIRE

    Lukyanov, Alex V.; Likhtman, Alexei E.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of dynamic contact angle in the course of wetting is a fundamental phenomenon of nature. Dynamic wetting processes have a direct impact on flows at nano-scale, and therefore their understanding is exceptionally important to emerging technologies. Here, we reveal the microscopic mechanism of dynamic contact angle generation. It has been demonstrated using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of bead-spring model fluids that the main cause of local contact angle variations is t...

  13. Shape, gravity, and the perception of the right angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Past efforts to determine whether orientation-dependent sensitivity to right angles is due to retinal or environmental/gravitational frames of reference have produced conflicting conclusions. I attempt to show that the chief factor underlying this phenomenon is, rather, the shape of the object containing the angle. This shape mediates the typical orientation of the object in a ground- gravity context and the consequent force-structure of the incorporated angle-a force structure that is reflected in the percept.

  14. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendic...

  15. Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma after dexfenfluramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, P; Charpentier, D; Berros, P; Touameur, S

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with narrow angles who had an attack of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma precipitated by dexfenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug developed for appetite suppression. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, the pupillary block observed in our case may be the result of the serotoninergic or indirect parasympatholytic properties of the drug on the iris sphincter muscle. Serotonergic psychoactive drugs should be prescribed cautiously in patients with known narrow angles and should be monitored by an ophthalmologist.

  16. Mechanism and Etiology of Primary Chronic Angle Closure Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The ocular anatomic features, pupil-blocking force, status of angle synechiae closure and positivity of provocative tests were compared between the primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG) and primary a-cute angle closure glaucoma (PAACG) by using ultrasonic biometry, computerized anterior ocular segment image processing technique, gonioscopy and provocative tests. The studies showed that the anterior chamber depth of PAACG was shallower than that of PCACG; the pupil-blocking force of PAACG was st...

  17. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  18. Chapman Solar Zenith Angle variations at Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Emilie M.; Ajello, Joseph; Holsclaw, Gregory; West, Robert; Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, Eric Todd

    2016-10-01

    Solar XUV photons and magnetospheric particles are the two main sources contributing to the airglow in the Titan's upper atmosphere. We are focusing here on the solar XUV photons and how they influence the airglow intensity. The Cassini-UVIS observations analyzed in this study consist each in a partial scan of Titan, while the center of the detector stays approximately at the same location on Titan's disk. We used observations from 2008 to 2012, which allow for a wide range of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Spectra from 800 km to 1200 km of altitude have been corrected from the solar spectrum using TIMED/SEE data. We observe that the airglow intensity varies as a function of the SZA and follows a Chapman curve. Three SZA regions are identified: the sunlit region ranging from 0 to 50 degrees. In this region, the intensity of the airglow increases, while the SZA decreases. Between SZA 50 and 100 degrees, the airglow intensity decreases from it maximum to its minimum. In this transition region the upper atmosphere of Titan changes from being totally sunlit to being in the shadow of the moon. For SZA 100 to 180 degrees, we observe a constant airglow intensity close to zero. The behavior of the airglow is also similar to the behavior of the electron density as a function of the SZA as observed by Ågren at al (2009). Both variables exhibit a decrease intensity with increasing SZA. The goal of this study is to understand such correlation. We demonstrate the importance of the solar XUV photons contribution to the Titan airglow and prove that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by solar fluorescence rather than the particle impact that predominates at night.

  19. Influence of Atmospheric Refraction on Horizontal Angle Surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenglu; DENG Yong; LUO Changlin; MEI Wensheng

    2006-01-01

    Side-refraction is the main error source of horizontal angle surveying, but it has little influence on the sides by analyzing the influence of atmospheric-infraction on the ultrahigh-precision side and angle surveying. Choosing oriented direction is crucial to distance and angle measurement in triangulateration network. How to select the oriented direction during angle measurement is presented, and the means to check the quality of auto-surveying with Georobot is brought forward as well. At last some solutions to reduce the influence of side-refraction while disposing and surveying ultrahigh-precision triangulateration network are put forward.

  20. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  1. Tibial and fibular angles in homozygous sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamaguna, A.I.; Odita, J.C.; Ugbodaga, C.I.; Okafor, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    Measurements of the tibial and fibular angles made on ankle radiographs of 34 patients with sickle cell disease were compared with those of 36 normal Nigerians. Widening of the fibular angle, which is an indication of tibiotalar slant, was demonstrated in about 79% of sickle cell disease patients. By using fibular angle measurements as an objective method of assessing subtle tibiotalar slant, it is concluded that the incidence of this deformity is much higher among sickle cell disease patients than previously reported. The mean values of tibial and fibular angles in normal Nigerians are higher than has been reported amongst Caucasians.

  2. Creation of a multi-reference-angle comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bručas, Domantas; Giniotis, Vytautas

    2009-03-01

    Many geodetic and industrial instruments utilize precise angle determination. Metrological calibration and testing of such devices is very complicated, due to the large number of angular position values generated, and often cannot be accomplished using classical means of angle determination. Therefore a special comparator (test rig) capable of calibration geodetic and other angle-measuring instruments and implementing multiple references for angle determination has been created. Several modernized optical devices were used on the test rig, together with the implementation of a special calibration method. In this paper the construction of the rig, modernization of the optical devices, calibration, and some results of measurements are presented.

  3. Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Newton, M I

    2004-11-09

    The relationship between perturbations to contact angles on a rough or textured surface and the super-hydrophobic enhancement of the equilibrium contact angle is discussed theoretically. Two models are considered. In the first (Wenzel) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle and the droplet completely contacts the surface upon which it rests. In the second (Cassie-Baxter) case, the super-hydrophobic surface has a very high contact angle, but the droplet bridges across surface protrusions. The theoretical treatment emphasizes the concept of contact-angle amplification or attenuation and distinguishes between the increases in contact angles due to roughening or texturing surfaces and perturbations to the resulting contact angles. The theory is applied to predicting contact-angle hysteresis on rough surfaces from the hysteresis observable on smooth surfaces and is therefore relevant to predicting roll-off angles for droplets on tilted surfaces. The theory quantitatively predicts a "sticky" surface for Wenzel-type surfaces and a "slippy" surface for Cassie-Baxter-type surfaces.

  4. Orientation angle workspaces of planar serial three-link manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Jian; S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a classification on the workspaces of planar serial three-link manipulators, that is, position workspace and orientation angle workspace. Position workspace indicates the region reached by the reference point on the end-effector. Orientation angle workspace indicates a set of angle ranges by which the end-effector can reach with certain orientation for every point in the reachable position workspace. By introducing a virtual equivalent mechanism, reachable position workspace can be di- vided into several Grashof intervals and non-Grashof intervals. The calculation equations of orientation angle workspace are deduced in three situations according to the relationships among four link lengths in the virtual four-bar chain. Three examples are given for three kinds of relationship of link lengths. The orientation angle workspace of extended groups, that is, two of the three link lengths equal, and the orientation angle workspace when the reference point on the end-effector moves along a non-radial direction are also discussed. A program is developed to calculate orientation angle workspaces and output variation curves of orientation angle workspace and key data within the position workspace. The approach and program in this paper can be used for fast calculation and identification of the variation rule of the orientation angle workspace of any given planar serial three-link manipulator on the basis of its link parameters, and for the design of a highly dexterous serial manipulator with proposed link rela- tions.

  5. Orientation angle workspaces of planar serial three-link manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI RuiQin; DAI Jian S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a classification on the workspaces of planar serial three-link manipulators, that is,position workspace and orientation angle workspace. Position workspace indicates the region reached by the reference point on the end-effector. Orientation angle workspace indicates a set of angle ranges by which the end-effector can reach with certain orientation for every point in the reachable position workspace. By introducing a virtual equivalent mechanism, reachable position workspace can be divided into several Grashof intervals and non-Grashof intervals. The calculation equations of orientation angle workspace are deduced in three situations according to the relationships among four link lengths in the virtual four-bar chain. Three examples are given for three kinds of relationship of link lengths.The orientation angle workspace of extended groups, that is, two of the three link lengths equal, end the orientation angle workspace when the reference point on the end-effector moves along a non-radial direction are also discussed. A program is developed to calculate orientation angle workspaces and output variation curves of orientation angle workspace and key data within the position workspace. The approach and program in this paper can be used for fast calculation and identification of the variation rule of the orientation angle workspace of any given planar serial three-link manipulator on the basis of its link parameters, and for the design of a highly dexterous serial manipulator with proposed link relations.

  6. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  7. Simulation of Canopy Leaf Inclination Angle in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-cui; LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; ZHANG Qi-jun; DAI Qi-gen

    2013-01-01

    A leaf inclination angle distribution model, which is applicable to simulate leaf inclination angle distribution in six heights of layered canopy at different growth stages, was established by component factors affecting plant type in rice. The accuracy of the simulation results was validated by measured values from a field experiment. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured values were 0.9472 and 3.93%, respectively. The simulation results showed that the distribution of leaf inclination angles differed among the three plant types. The leaf inclination angles were larger in the compact variety Liangyoupeijiu with erect leaves than in the loose variety Shanyou 63 with droopy leaves and the intermediate variety Liangyou Y06. The leaf inclination angles were distributed in the lower range in Shanyou 63, which matched up with field measurements. The distribution of leaf inclination angles in the same variety changed throughout the seven growth stages. The leaf inclination angles enlarged gradually from transplanting to booting. During the post-booting period, the leaf inclination angle increased in Shanyou 63 and Liangyou Y06, but changed little in Liangyoupeijiu. At every growth stage of each variety, canopy leaf inclination angle distribution on the six heights of canopy layers was variable. As canopy height increased, the layered leaf area index (LAI) decreased in all the three plant types. However, while the leaf inclination angles showed little change in Liangyoupeijiu, they became larger in Shanyou 63 but smaller in Liangyou Y06. The simulation results used in the constructed model were very similar to the actual measurement values. The model provides a method for estimating canopy leaf inclination angle distribution in rice production.

  8. Revisiting the Force-Joint Angle Relationship After Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Molly C; Allen, David L; Batliner, Matthew E; Byrnes, William C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate force-angle curve fitting techniques pre-eccentric exercise, quantify changes in curve characteristics postexercise, and examine the relationship between curve changes and markers of muscle damage. Fourteen males unaccustomed to eccentric exercise performed 60 eccentric muscle actions of the elbow flexors. Maximal voluntary isometric force was measured throughout a range of angles pre- (Pre1 and Pre2), immediately post (IP), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days postexercise. Force-angle curves for each visit were constructed using second-order polynomials. Changes in curve characteristics (optimal angle, peak force, curve height), range of motion, soreness, and creatine kinase activity were quantified. Optimal joint angle and force at optimal angle were significantly correlated from Pre1 to Pre2 (ICC = 0.821 and 0.979, respectively). Optimal angle was significantly right shifted (p = 0.035) by 10.4 ± 12.9° from Pre2 to IP and was restored by 1 day post exercise. Interestingly, the r value for curve fit was significantly decreased (p exercise (r = 0.750). Curve height was significantly decreased (39%) IP and restored to pre-exercise height by 4 days postexercise. There was no correlation between optimal angle or curve height and other damage markers. In conclusion, force-angle relationships can be accurately described using second-order polynomials. After eccentric exercise, the force-angle curve is flattened and shifted (downward and rightward), but these changes are not correlated to other markers of muscle damage. Changes in the force-angle relationship are multifaceted, but determining the physiological significance of these changes requires further investigation.

  9. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  10. In situ assessment of the contact angles of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid interfaces by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Antonio; Su, Ge; Nobili, Maurizio; In, Martin; Wang, Dayang

    2014-09-28

    Here multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry was successfully applied to in situ assess the contact angle and surface coverage of gold nanoparticles as small as 18 nm, coated with stimuli-responsive polymers, at water-oil and water-air interfaces in the presence of NaCl and NaOH, respectively. The interfacial adsorption of the nanoparticles was found to be very slow and took days to reach a fairly low surface coverage. For water-oil interfaces, in situ nanoparticle contact angles agree with the macroscopic equilibrium contact angles of planar gold surfaces with the same polymer coatings, whilst for water-air interfaces, significant differences have been observed.

  11. Virtuts castrenses de l'angle recte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bustamante

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Está muy arraigada la idea de que, en una postura sedente sana, los segmentos corporales han de orientarse en ángulo recto. La desinformación que encierra esta idea es demasiado evidente y puede parecer fácil, a primera vista, retirar de la circulación esta paradójica receta; pero no es así. La pertinaz veneración de lo ortogonal que, en lo postural, se encuentra por doquier, ha hecho sospechar al autor que la fuerza de los 90° no se debe a errores de apreciación biomecánica, sino a simbologías cuyo origen, si no se pierde en la noche de los tiempos, sí que aparece en la aurora del Neolítico. Este artículo trata de mostrar que si lo ortogonal está justificado por la cultura para la construcción de objetos, no lo está para la adopción de posturas sedentes. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ L’idée est profondément ancrée dans les esprits que dans une position assise correcte les segments corporaux doivent former entre eux une série d’angles droits. L’ignorance qui se cache derrière cette conception semble à priori trop évidente et devrait être facile à combattre, or tel n’est pas le cas. La vénération persistante de la position orthogonale est si étendue qu’elle a amené l’auteur à soupçonner que le culte des 90 degrés n’est pas dû à des erreurs d’appréciation biomécaniques mais à une forte symbologie dont les origines si elles ne remontent pas à la nuit des temps, renvoient au moins à l’aube du Néolithique. L’article essaie de démontrer que si la position orthogonale est culturellement justifiée pour la fabrication d’objets elle ne l’est pas de façon systématique pour ce qui de s’asseoir.The idea is well-rooted that in a healthy sitting position the segments of the body have to adopt a right angle. The disinformation surrounding this idea is

  12. Showers with large zenith angles observed in emulsion chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敬儒; 陆穗苓; 解卫; 王承瑞; 何瑁; 张乃健

    1997-01-01

    Showers with large zenith angles are observed in emulsion chambers exposed at Mt.Kanbala.The intensity of high energy muons is given and the multicore showers with large zenith angles are found.It is indicated that a new phenomenon may exist in the high energy nuclear interactions of cosmic rays.

  13. Properties of tangential and radial angles of muons in EAS

    OpenAIRE

    Zabierowski, J.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.

    2002-01-01

    Tangential and radial angles of muons in EAS, a useful concept in investigation of the muon production height, can be used also for the investigation of the muon momenta. A parameter zeta, being a combination of tangential and radial angles, is introduced and its possible applications in investigation of muons in showers are presented.

  14. The effective take-off angle in PHI Quantera systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Marel, C.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that for quantitative analysis of XPS results theeffective take-off angle of the electrons is an important parameter.In the report is shown that the effective take-off angle i n PHI Quantera systems deviates significanlty from the set value. This is NOT a consequence of inadequa

  15. Investigation of Polarimetric SAR Data Acquired at Multiple Incidence Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Skriver, Henning; Thomsen, A.

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of different polarimetric parameters on the incidence angles in the range of 30° to 60° is investigated for a number of different crops using airborne SAR data. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the effect of the variation of incidence angle within a SAR image when...

  16. Hierarchically structured superoleophobic surfaces with ultralow contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Arun K; Li, Yongxin; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

    2012-11-14

    Hierarchically structured, superoleophobic surfaces are demonstrated that display one of the lowest contact angle hysteresis values ever reported - even with extremely low-surface-tension liquids such as n-heptane. Consequently, these surfaces allow, for the first time, even ≈2 μL n-heptane droplets to bounce and roll-off at tilt angles. ≤ 2°.

  17. Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, H.B.; Mannetje, 't D.J.C.M.; Oh, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate a description of contact angle hysteresis into physical models. To clarif

  18. Bite angle effects of diphosphines in carbonylation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.N.M. van Leeuwen; Z. Freixa

    2008-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation o Introduction o Steric Bite Angle Effect and Regioselectivity o Electronic Bite Angle Effect and Activity o Isotope Effects [24] * Platinum-Catalyzed Alkene Hydroformylation * Palladium-Catalyzed CO/Ethene Co

  19. V-shaped nematogens with the "magic bent angle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Jens; Müller, Kathrin; Klein, Susanne; Lehmann, Matthias

    2011-06-21

    V-shaped nematogens 1a-c and 2a-b with benzodithiophene bending units have been synthesised. The derivatives 1a-c comprise a flat core with a bending angle of 109°, which is almost the tetrahedral angle proposed to be optimal in the realization of mesogens forming a biaxial nematic thermotropic mesophase.

  20. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  1. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha; Ravi Shankar; Naveen; Roopa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to ...

  2. Dynamic aspects of contact angle measurements on adsorbed protein layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, van der At; Smolders, Cees A.

    1978-01-01

    Contact angle measurements using drops of paraffin oil have been performed on polystyrene (PS) substrates, coated with human serum albumin (HSA) or human fibrinogen (HFb), immersed in buffer solution. The contact angle appeared to be time dependent. The final value for HSA-coated substrates was 50°

  3. Engineering sidewall angles of silica-on-silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Burned photoresist is used as etch mask when producing silica-onsilicon waveguides. The sidewall angle of the optical glass waveguides is engineered by varying photoresist thickness and etch selectivity. The principle for the formation of the angles is introduced and very promising experimental...

  4. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF. Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars.

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  6. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modif...

  7. Optimal handle angle of the fencing foil for improved performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Tsan

    2004-06-01

    Improperly designed hand tools and sports equipment contribute to undesired injuries and accidents. The idea of bending the tool, not the wrist, has been applied to sports equipment. According to Bennett's idea, the design of an ideal handle angle should be in the range of 14 degrees to 24 degrees. Thus design of the handle angle in the sport of fencing is also important. A well-designed handle angle could not only reduce ulnar deviation to avoid wrist injury but also enhance performance. An experiment with several different handle angles was conducted to analyze the effect on performance. Analysis showed an angle of 18 degrees to 21 degrees provided best overall performance in fencing.

  8. Poincare duality angles for Riemannian manifolds with boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Shonkwiler, Clayton

    2009-01-01

    On a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary, the absolute and relative cohomology groups appear as certain subspaces of harmonic forms. DeTurck and Gluck showed that these concrete realizations of the cohomology groups decompose into orthogonal subspaces corresponding to cohomology coming from the interior and boundary of the manifold. The principal angles between these interior subspaces are all acute and are called Poincare duality angles. This paper determines the Poincare duality angles of a collection of interesting manifolds with boundary derived from complex projective spaces and from Grassmannians, providing evidence that the Poincare duality angles measure, in some sense, how "close" a manifold is to being closed. This paper also elucidates a connection between the Poincare duality angles and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator for differential forms, which generalizes the classical Dirichlet-to-Neumann map arising in the problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography. Specifically, the Poincare duality...

  9. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque.

  10. Association of known common genetic variants with primary open angle, primary angle closure, and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Ayub, H.; Khan, M.I.; Bakker, B.; Schoenmaker-Koller, F.E.; Ali, M.; Akhtar, F.; Khan, W.A.; Qamar, R.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the different etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), several studies have suggested that these forms of glaucoma have overlapping genetic risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to eval

  11. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  12. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  13. Performance analysis of CO2 laser polished angled ribbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Choi, Hun-Kook; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Man-Seop; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-min; Ahsan, Md. Shamim

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates CO2 laser assisted simultaneous polishing of angled ribbon fibers consisting eight set of optical fibers. The ribbon fibers were rotated vertically at an angle of 12° and polished by repetitive irradiation of CO2 laser beam at the end faces of the fibers. Compared to mechanically polished sharp edged angled fibers, CO2 laser polishing forms curve edged angled fibers. Increase in the curvature of the end faces of the ribbon fibers causes the increase of the fibers' strength, which in turn represents great robustness against fiber connections with other devices. The CO2 laser polished angled fibers have great smoothness throughout the polished area. The smoothness of the fiber end faces have been controlled by varying the number of laser irradiation. After CO2 laser polishing, the average value of the fiber angle of the ribbon fibers is ∼8.28°. The laser polished ribbon fibers show low insertion and return losses when connecting with commercial optical communication devices. The proposed technique of polishing the angled ribbon fibers is highly replicable and reliable and thus suitable for commercial applications.

  14. Going round the bend: Persistent personal biases in walked angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetzschke, Simon; Ernst, Marc O; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Boeddeker, Norbert

    2016-03-23

    For navigation through our environment, we can rely on information from various modalities, such as vision and audition. This information enables us for example to estimate our position relative to the starting position, or to integrate velocity and acceleration signals from the vestibular organ and proprioception to estimate the displacement due to self-motion. To better understand the mechanisms that underlie human navigation we analysed the performance of participants in an angle-walking task in the absence of visual and auditory signals. To this end, we guided them along paths of different lengths and asked them to turn by an angle of ±90°. We found significant biases in turn angles, i.e. systematic deviations from the correct angle and that these were characteristic for individual participants. Varying path length, however, had little effect on turn accuracy and precision. To check whether this idiosyncrasy was persistent over time and present in another type of walking task, we performed a second experiment several weeks later. Here, the same participants were guided to walk angles with varying amplitude. We then asked them to judge whether they had walked an angle larger or smaller than 90° in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The personal bias was highly correlated between the two experiments even though they were conducted weeks apart. The presence of a persistent bias in walked angles in the absence of external directional cues indicates a possible error component for navigation, which is surprisingly time stable and idiosyncratic.

  15. Dynamic angle selection in X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabravolski, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.dabravolski@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost, E-mail: joost.batenburg@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sijbers, Jan, E-mail: jan.sijbers@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We propose the dynamic angle selection algorithm for CT scanning. • The approach is based on the concept of information gain over a set of solutions. • Projection angles are selected based on the already available projection data. • The approach can lead to more accurate results from fewer projections. - Abstract: In X-ray tomography, a number of radiographs (projections) are recorded from which a tomogram is then reconstructed. Conventionally, these projections are acquired equiangularly, resulting in an unbiased sampling of the Radon space. However, especially in case when only a limited number of projections can be acquired, the selection of the angles has a large impact on the quality of the reconstructed image. In this paper, a dynamic algorithm is proposed, in which new projection angles are selected by maximizing the information gain about the object, given the set of possible new angles. Experiments show that this approach can select projection angles for which the accuracy of the reconstructed image is significantly higher compared to the standard angle selections schemes.

  16. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-16

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  17. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  18. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  19. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  20. Determination of basic friction angle using various laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The basic friction angle of rock is an important factor of joint shear strength and is included within most shear strength criteria. It can be measured by direct shear test, triaxial compression test and tilt test. Tilt test is mostly used because it is the simplest method. However, basic friction angles measured using tilt test for same rock type or for one sample are widely distributed and often do not show normal distribution. In this research, the basic friction angles for the Hangdeung granite form Korea and Berea sandstone from USA are measured accurately using direct shear test and triaxial compression test. Then basic friction angles are again measured using tilt tests with various conditions and are compared with those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test to determine the optimum condition of tilt test. Three types of sliding planes, such as planes cut by saw and planes polished by #100 and #600 grinding powders, are prepared. When planes are polished by #100 grinding powder, the basic friction angles measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test are very consistent and show narrow ranges. However, basic friction angles show wide ranges when planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder. The basic friction angle measured using tilt test are very close to those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test when plane is polished by #100 grinding powder. When planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder, basic friction angles measured using tilt test are slightly different. This indicates that tilt test with plane polished by #100 grinding powder can yield an accurate basic friction angle. In addition, the accurate values are obtained not only when planes are polished again after 10 times of tilt test, but values are averaged by more 30 times of tests.

  1. Remote logo detection using angle-distance histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sungwook; Ok, Jiheon; Baek, Sangwook; Woo, Seongyoun; Lee, Chulhee

    2016-05-01

    Among all the various computer vision applications, automatic logo recognition has drawn great interest from industry as well as various academic institutions. In this paper, we propose an angle-distance map, which we used to develop a robust logo detection algorithm. The proposed angle-distance histogram is invariant against scale and rotation. The proposed method first used shape information and color characteristics to find the candidate regions and then applied the angle-distance histogram. Experiments show that the proposed method detected logos of various sizes and orientations.

  2. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  3. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  4. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough.

  5. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  6. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  7. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Vinay; Gupta, Shilpa; Singh, Chanjyot

    2010-04-01

    Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  8. The modified Cassie’s equation and contact angle hysteresis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xianmin

    2012-08-29

    In this paper, we derive a modified Cassie\\'s equation for wetting on chemically patterned surfaces from a homogenization approach. The derivation reveals that effective contact angle is a local average of the static contact angle along the contact line which describes all possible equilibrium states including the local minimum of the free energy of the system. The usual Cassie\\'s state which corresponds to the global minimum is only a special case. We then discuss the contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned surfaces. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Research of the Pressure Angle for Whole Cycloidal Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling-tao; WANG Jian-hua

    2011-01-01

    The working profile of whole cycloidal gear is made up of epicycloid and hypocycloid entirely, according to the theory of meshing of gears and the properties of the cycloid, deals with the derivation of the pressure angle formula for the whole cycloidal gear in theory, and reveals changes of the pressure angle of whole cycloidal gear through examples, finds the application relationships between the pressure angle and other design parameters of the whole cycloidal gear, proves the possibility that the whole cycloidal gear can be used in internal parallel move gear mechanism, also provides theoretic fundament for designing internal parallel move whole cycloidal gear correctly.

  10. Characteristics of Rotary Electromagnet with Large Tooth-pitch Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Jian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the conventional electro-mechanical converter of 2D valve had problems of step lose due to its small tooth-pitch angle, a novel rotary electromagnet with large tooth-pitch angle and coreless rotor structure was proposed. Combined with the approaches of magnetic circuit analysis, finite element simulation and experimental study, the static and dynamic characteristics of electromagnet including torque-angle characteristics, frequency response and step response were studied. The experimental results are in a close agreement with the simulated results. The electromagnet has sinusoidal torque-angle characteristics and good dynamic response. The maximum static torque is approximately 0.083N.M, and its frequency width is about 125Hz/-3dB, 130Hz/-90°, respectively, and the rise time is about 5.5 ms. It is appropriate to be used as the electro-mechanical converter of 2D proportional valve.

  11. Bond Angles in the Crystalline Silicon/Silicon Nitride Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert H.; Bachlechner, Martina E.

    2006-03-01

    Silicon nitride deposited on a silicon substrate has major applications in both dielectric layers in microelectronics and as antireflection and passivation coatings in photovoltaic applications. Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to investigate the influence of temperature and rate of externally applied strain on the structural and mechanical properties of the silicon/silicon nitride interface. Bond-angles between various atom types in the system are used to find and understand more about the mechanisms leading to the failure of the crystal. Ideally in crystalline silicon nitride, bond angles of 109.5 occur when a silicon atom is at the vertex and 120 angles occur when a nitrogen atom is at the vertex. The comparison of the calculated angles to the ideal values give information on the mechanisms of failure in silicon/silicon nitride system.

  12. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  13. Setting of angles on machine tools speeded by magnetic protractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, L. B.

    1964-01-01

    An adjustable protractor facilitates transference of angles to remote machine tools. It has a magnetic base incorporating a beam which can be adjusted until its shadow coincides with an image on the screen of a projector.

  14. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  15. First statistics of the isopistonic angle for long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, A.; Elhalkouj, T.; Petrov, R. G.; Borgnino, J.; Lazrek, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Martin, F.; Elazhari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    To reach a suitable limiting magnitude with a multi-aperture interferometer, we need to cophase the different telescopes using a reference source. The latter should be located in the same isopistonic domain as the science source. We developed a direct analytical expression of deducing the isopistonic angle from atmospheric optical parameters as seeing, isoplanatic angle and outer scale. All of these atmospheric turbulence parameters are measured by the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM). The first statistics of the isopistonic angle obtained from the GSM data are presented and comparison between the major sites over the world are discussed (La Silla, Cerro Pachon, Paranal, San Pedro, Mt Palomar, Mauna Kea, La Palma, Oukaïmeden, Maydanak, Dome C). Implications of these isopistonic angle statistics on large interferometers cophasing in terms of sky coverage and limiting magnitude are discussed.

  16. Generalized parton distributions and wide-angle exclusive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, P

    2004-01-01

    The handbag mechanism for wide-angle exlusive scattering reactions is discussed and compared with other theoretical approaches. Its application to Compton scattering, meson photoproduction and two-photon annihilations into pairs of hadrons is reviewed.

  17. "Angle" Operator Conjugate to Photon's Intrinsic Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪义

    2001-01-01

    We find the correct "angle" operator conjugate to the intrinsic angular momentum of the photon by introducing a suitable representation which involves both left-handed and right-handed polarization photon operators.

  18. Modeling contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaatmaja, H; Yeomans, J M

    2007-05-22

    We investigate contact angle hysteresis on chemically patterned and superhydrophobic surfaces, as the drop volume is quasistatically increased and decreased. We consider both two (cylindrical drops) and three (spherical drops) dimensions using analytical and numerical approaches to minimize the free energy of the drop. In two dimensions, we find, in agreement with other authors, a slip, jump, stick motion of the contact line. In three dimensions, this behavior persists, but the position and magnitude of the contact line jumps are sensitive to the details of the surface patterning. In two dimensions, we identify analytically the advancing and receding contact angles on the different surfaces, and we use numerical insights to argue that these provide bounds for the three-dimensional cases. We present explicit simulations to show that a simple average over the disorder is not sufficient to predict the details of the contact angle hysteresis and to support an explanation for the low contact angle hysteresis of suspended drops on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Can dynamic contact angle be measured using molecular modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malani, Ateeque; Raghavanpillai, Anilkumar; Wysong, Ernest B; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2012-11-02

    A method is presented for determining the dynamic contact angle at the three-phase contact between a solid, a liquid, and a vapor under an applied force, using molecular simulation. The method is demonstrated using a Lennard-Jones fluid in contact with a cylindrical shell of the fcc Lennard-Jones solid. Advancing and receding contact angles and the contact angle hysteresis are reported for the first time by this approach. The increase in force required to wet fully an array of solid cylinders (robustness) with decreasing separation distance between cylinders is evaluated. The dynamic contact angle is characterized by partial slipping of the three phase contact line when a force is applied.

  20. Bistatic MIMO Radar Clutter Suppression by Exploiting the Transmit Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transmit angle of bistatic radars can be obtained by introducing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO radar techniques. The Three-Dimensional (3D clutter spectra, that is, the transmit angle, receive angle, and Doppler frequency, are introduced using the additional angle information to Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP. This study reviews the researches on bistatic MIMO-STAP. 3D space-time adaptive processing methods for airborne bistatic side-looking MIMO radars, such as 3D-LCMV, 3D-ACR, 3D-JDL, and 3D projection-based reduced dimensional STAP methods, are discussed. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can improve the small-sample support performance of range-dependent clutter suppression in bistatic side-looking MIMO radar. Finally, the results are summarized and the prospects of bistatic MIMO-STAP are discussed.

  1. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Anna-Lea

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the t...

  2. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    -sets. These features of the investigated sonic anemometers make them unsuitable for measuring vertical velocities over highly turbulent forested terrain. By comparing the sonic anemometer results to that of a conically scanning Doppler lidar (Dellwik et al., 2010b), sonic anemometer accuracy for measuring mean flow...... distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies......An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero...

  3. Dynamic contact angle analysis of silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Michael Leonard; Morgan, Philip Bruce; Kelly, Jeremiah Michael; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2011-07-01

    Contact angle measurements are used to infer the clinical wetting characteristics of contact lenses. Such characterization has become more commonplace since the introduction of silicone hydrogel contact lens materials, which have been associated with reduced in vivo wetting due to the inclusion of siloxane-containing components. Using consistent methodology and a single investigator, advancing and receding contact angles were measured for 11 commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lens types with a dynamic captive bubble technique employing customized, fully automated image analysis. Advancing contact angles were found to range between 20° and 72° with the lenses falling into six statistically discrete groupings. Receding contact angles fell within a narrower range, between 17° and 22°, with the lenses segregated into three groups. The relationship between these laboratory measurements and the clinical performance of the lenses requires further investigation.

  4. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  5. Uncertainty Relation between Angular Momentum and Angle Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C. L.; Sannigrahi, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses certain pitfalls regarding the uncertainty relation between angular momentum and the angle variable from a pedagogic point of view. Further, an uncertainty relation has been derived for these variables in a simple and consistant manner. (Author/HM)

  6. Aerial wetting contact angle measurement using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesna, Jacob W.; Wiedmaier, Bob F.; Wang, Jinlin; Samara, Ayman; Leach, Richard K.; Her, Tsing-Hua; Smith, Stuart T.

    2016-12-01

    A method is presented in which the wetting contact angle of a sessile drop is acquired aerially using confocal techniques to measure the radius and the height of a droplet deposited on a planar surface. The repeatability of this method is typically less than 0.25°, and often less than 0.1°, for droplet diameters less than 1 mm. To evaluate accuracy of this method, an instrument uncertainty budget is developed, which predicts a combined uncertainty of 0.91° for a 1 mm diameter water droplet with a contact angle of 110°. For droplets having diameters less than 1 mm and contact angles between 15° and 160°, these droplets approach spherical shape and their contact angles can be computed analytically with less than 1% error. For larger droplets, gravitational deformation needs to be considered.

  7. Polarization Position Angle Swings caused by Relativistic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polarization position angle swings of ~ 180° observed in extragalacticradio sources are a regular behavior of variability in polarization. They shouldbe due to some kind of physically regular process. We consider relativistic shocksproducing polarization angle swing events. Two magnetic field configurations (force-free field and homogeneous helical field) are considered to demonstrate the results.It is shown that the properties of polarization angle swings and the relationshipbetween the swings and variations in total and polarized flux density are criticallydependent on the configuration of magnetic field and the dynamical behavior of theshock. In particular, we find that in some cases polarization angle swings can occurwhen the total and polarized flux densities only vary by a very small amount. Theseresults may be useful for understanding the polarization variability with both longand short timescales observed in extragalactic radio sources.

  8. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Friot, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella Fc functions.

  9. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS)...

  10. Projections, Birkhoff Orthogonality and Angles in Normed Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZHI-ZHI; LIN WEI; Luo Lü-LIN; Ji You-qing

    2011-01-01

    Let X be a Minkowski plane,i.e.,a real two dimensional normed linear space.We use projections to give a definition of the angle Aq(x,y) between two vectors x and y in X,such that x is Birkhoff orthogonal to y if and only if Aq(x,y) =π/2.Some other properties of this angle are also discussed.

  11. Determining pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from test particle simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ivascenko, A.; S. Lange; Spanier, F.; R. Vainio

    2016-01-01

    Transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media is a topic of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering with the pitch-angle coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasi-linear...

  12. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  13. The wave vane - A device to measure the breaker angle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.

    11 February 1992; accepted after revision 11 November 1992) ABSTRACT Estimation of the breaker angle in the littoral environmental observation (LEO) programme is still based on visual methods and therefore is subjective in nature. In the absence... directional wave gauge at a considerable cost. For economic and practical considerations, visual measurements on the breaker height, the breaker period and the breaker angle are generally made in the LEO pro- gramme. The breaker height is recorded...

  14. A spin- and angle-resolving photoelectron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Berntsen, M H; Leandersson, M; Hahlin, A; hlund, J \\AA; Wannberg, B; nsson, M M\\aa; Tjernberg, O

    2010-01-01

    A new type of hemispherical electron energy analyzer that permits angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has been developed. The analyzer permits standard angle resolved spectra to be recorded with a two-dimensional detector in parallel with spin detection using a mini-Mott polarimeter. General design considerations as well as technical solutions are discussed and test results from the Au(111) surface state are presented.

  15. Landweber Iterative Methods for Angle-limited Image Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-rong Qu; Ming Jiang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a general itcrative scheme for angle-limited image reconstruction based on Landwe-ber's method. We derive a representation formula for this scheme and consequently establish its convergence conditions. Our results suggest certain relaxation strategies for an accelerated convergcnce for angle-limited im-age reconstruction in L2-norm comparing with alternative projection methods. The convolution-backprojection algorithm is given for this iterative process.

  16. Pitch angle scattering of energetic particles by oblique whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    First order cyclotron or Landau resonant pitch angle scattering of electrons by oblique whistler waves propagating at large angles to the ambient field are found to be at least as large as that due to parallel propagating waves. Commonly observed precipitation of more than 40 keV electrons in association with ducted whistlers may thus be accompanied by substantial fluxes of lower energy (10 eV-40 keV) electrons precipitated by the nonducted components.

  17. Angle-resolved neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, A; Turecek, F; McLafferty, F W

    1991-12-01

    Neutralization -reionization mass spectra of 2-propenal, isomeric butenes, and isomeric n-hexenes have been found to depend significantly on the z-axis scattering angle of the neutralization event. As shown by Cooks for ion dissociations, increasing scattering angles generally favor products of higher activation-energy reactions. For isomeric butenes and n-hexenes, these reactions provide more definitive information for isomeric characterization.

  18. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  19. Angle-Resolved Plasmonic Properties of Single Gold Nanorod Dimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wu; Xuxing Lu; Qiannan Zhu; Junwei Zhao; Qishun Shen; Li Zhan; Weihai Ni

    2014-01-01

    Through wet-chemical assembly methods, gold nanorods were placed close to each other and formed a dimer with a gap distance*1 nm, and hence degenerated plasmonic dipole modes of individual nanorods coupled together to produce hybridized bonding and antibonding resonance modes. Previous studies using a condenser for illumination result in averaged signals over all excitation angles. By exciting an individual dimer obliquely at different angles, we demonstrate that these two new resonance modes are highly tunable and sensitive to the angle between the excitation polarization and the dimer orientation, which follows cos2u dependence. Moreover, for dimer structures with various structure angles, the resonance wavelengths as well as the refractive index sensitivities were found independent of the structure angle. Cal-culated angle-resolved plasmonic properties are in good agreement with the measurements. The assembled nanostructures investigated here are important for fundamental researches as well as potential applications when they are used as building blocks in plasmon-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    In several crystal growth processed based on capillarity, a melt comes into contact with a crucible wall at an angle defined as the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, this contact angle is dependent upon both the crucible and melt material and typical values fall in the range 80-170deg. However, on a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the melt and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously over a distance of up to several micrometers. Accurate modeling requires a more advanced treatment of this interaction. The interaction between the melt and solid surfaces can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir force. The Casimir force between the two bodies of complex geometry is calculated using a retarded temperature Green's function (Matsubara type) for the photon in the medium. The governing equations are cast in the form of a set of boundary integral equations which are then solved numerically for the case of molten Ge on SiO2. The shape of the molten surface approaching the flat solid body is determined, and the contact angle is defined as the angle between the two surfaces at the microscopically asymptotic distance of 1-2 micrometers. The formulation of this model and the results of the numerical calculations will be presented and discussed.

  1. An efficient magic state approach to small angle rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Earl T.; O'Gorman, Joe

    2016-12-01

    Standard error-correction techniques only provide a quantum memory and need extra gadgets to perform computation. Central to quantum algorithms are small angle rotations, which can be fault-tolerantly implemented given a supply of an unconventional species of magic state. We present a low-cost distillation routine for preparing these small angle magic states. Our protocol builds on the work of Duclos-Cianci and Poulin (2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 042315) by compressing their circuit. Additionally, we present a method of diluting magic states that reduces costs associated with very small angle rotations. We quantify performance by the expected number of noisy magic states consumed per rotation, and compare with other protocols. For modest-sized angles, our protocols offer a factor 24 improvement over the best-known gate synthesis protocols and a factor 2 over the Duclos-Cianci and Poulin protocol. For very small angle rotations, the dilution protocol dramatically reduces costs, giving several orders magnitude improvement over competitors. There also exists an intermediary regime of small, but not very small, angles where our approach gives a marginal improvement over gate synthesis. We discuss how different performance metrics may alter these conclusions.

  2. Guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Youan; Ma Guoxin; Liu Aili

    2013-01-01

    A novel closed-form guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints is proposed for salvo attack of anti-ship missiles,which employs missile's normal acceleration (not jerk) as the control command directly.Firstly,the impact time control problem is formulated as tracking the designated time-to-go (the difference between the designated impact time and the current flight time) for the actual time-to-go of missile,and the impact angle control problem is formulated as tracking the designated heading angle for the actual heading angle of missile.Secondly,a biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) law with designated heading angle constraint is constructed,and the actual time-to-go estimation for this BPNG is derived analytically by solving the system differential equations.Thirdly,by adding a feedback control to this constructed BPNG to eliminate the time-to-go error-the difference between the standard time-to-go and the actual time-to-go,a guidance law with adjustable coefficients to control the impact time and impact angle simultaneously is developed.Finally,simulation results demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  3. Contact angle hysteresis on regular pillar-like hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Li-Jen; Chang, Jeng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    A series of pillar-like patterned silicon wafers with different pillar sizes and spacing are fabricated by photolithography and further modified by a self-assembled fluorosilanated monolayer. The dynamic contact angles of water on these surfaces are carefully measured and found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions of the Cassie model and the Wenzel model. When a water drop is at the Wenzel state, its contact angle hysteresis increases along with an increase in the surface roughness. While the surface roughness is further raised beyond its transition roughness (from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state), the contact angle hysteresis (or receding contact angle) discontinuously drops (or jumps) to a lower (or higher) value. When a water drop is at the Cassie state, its contact angle hysteresis strongly depends on the solid fraction and has nothing to do with the surface roughness. Even for a superhydrophobic surface, the contact angle hysteresis may still exhibit a value as high as 41 degrees for the solid fraction of 0.563.

  4. Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefan; Urbassek, Herbert M; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2014-11-18

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150,000 particles. For particle numbers below 10,000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of θ = 90° is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed that describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature, and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.

  5. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  6. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  7. Equilibrium contact angles of liquid droplets on ideal rough solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hie Chan; Jacobi, Anthony M

    2011-12-20

    This work proposes a theoretical model for predicting the apparent equilibrium contact angle of a liquid on an ideal rough surface that is homogeneous and has a negligible body force, line tension, or contact angle hysteresis between solid and liquid. The model is derived from the conservation equations and the free-energy minimization theory for the changes of state of liquid droplets. The work of adhesion is expressed as the contact angles in the wetting process of the liquid droplets. Equilibrium contact angles of liquid droplets for rough surfaces are expressed as functions of the area ratios for the solid, liquid, and surrounding gas and the roughness ratio and wetting ratio of the liquid on the solid for the partially and fully wet states. It is found that the ideal critical angle for accentuating the contact angles by the surface roughness is 48°. The present model is compared with existing experimental data and the classical Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models and agrees with most of the experimental data for various surfaces and liquids better than does the Wenzel model and accounts for trends that the Wenzel model cannot explain.

  8. Capillary rise with velocity-dependent dynamic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Ralston, J; Sedev, R

    2008-11-04

    The classic description of the rate of capillary rise given by the Washburn equation, which assumes that the contact angle preserves the equilibrium value at all times, has been recently questioned in the light of the known experimental dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the velocity of the contact line. For a number of such proposed functions of velocity for the dynamic contact angle, we analyze the resulting dependences of the contact angle and of the time of rise, respectively, on the height of the capillary rise. By applying our results to the particular cases of a high-viscosity silicone oil and water, respectively, in a glass capillary, we show that, in general, strong similarities arise between the various approaches and the classic theory in what concerns the time dependence of the capillary rise, which explains the lack of consistent experimental evidence for deviations in the rate of capillary rise from the Washburn equation. However, for a strong dependency of the contact angle on the velocity in the range of small velocities, as in the case of water on glass, one of the models predicts significant deviations even for the time dependence of the capillary rise. Moreover, our results show that the time or height dependence of the contact angle during the capillary rise can clearly discriminate between the various models.

  9. Measuring static and dynamic contact angles using a liquid needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanedrin, Raymond; Jin, Ming; Frese, Daniel; Scheithauer, Carsten; Willers, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The optical determination of static and advancing contact angle is made on drops applied or extended, respectively, onto a substrate through the use of thin solid needles. Although this method has been used extensively, this method of dosing can be time consuming, cumbersome and if not meticulously performed can lead to erroneous contact angle results. Herein, we present an alternative way of applying drops onto substrates using a small liquid jet, which is produced by a liquid pressure dosing system acting as a "liquid needle." A comparative static contact angle study on 14 different surfaces with two different liquids were performed utilizing two different ways of dosing: the conventional solid and a novel liquid needle based technique. We found, for all but one sample, that the obtained results were highly comparable. Observed differences can be explained by the characteristics of either way of dosing. In addition, we used the liquid pressure based dosing system for optical advancing contact angle measurement on two different samples. The liquid needle based method facilitates the expansion of a drop from 0.1 to 22 μL within less than 1.2 seconds, which provided constant contact angle versus drop base diameter curves. The obtained results were highly comparable with dynamic Wilhelmy contact angle measurements.

  10. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  11. Limbus Impact on Off-angle Iris Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of iris recognition depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Off-angle iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics that tries to address several issues including corneal refraction, complex 3D iris texture, and blur. In this paper, we present an additional significant challenge that degrades the performance of the off-angle iris recognition systems, called the limbus effect . The limbus is the region at the border of the cornea where the cornea joins the sclera. The limbus is a semitransparent tissue that occludes a side portion of the iris plane. The amount of occluded iris texture on the side nearest the camera increases as the image acquisition angle increases. Without considering the role of the limbus effect, it is difficult to design an accurate off-angle iris recognition system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the limbus effect in detail from a biometrics perspective. Based on results from real images and simulated experiments with real iris texture, the limbus effect increases the hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 depending upon the limbus height.

  12. A Universal Formula for Extracting the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the authors completed a study of the Davenport angles, which are a generalization of the Euler angles for which the initial and final Euler axes need not be either mutually parallel or mutually perpendicular or even along the coordinate axes. During the conduct of that study, those authors discovered a relationship which can be used to compute straightforwardly the Euler angles characterizing a proper-orthogonal direction-cosine matrix for an arbitrary Euler-axis set satisfying n(sub 1) x n(sub 2) = 0 and n(sub 3) x n(sub 1) = 0, which is also satisfied by the more usual Euler angles we encounter commonly in the practice of Astronautics. Rather than leave that relationship hidden in an article with very different focus from the present Engineering note, we present it and the universal algorithm derived from it for extracting the Euler angles from the direction-cosine matrix here. We also offer literal "code" for performing the operations, numerical examples, and general considerations about the extraction of Euler angles which are not universally known, particularly, the treatment of statistical error.

  13. OCULAR BIOMETRY IN ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND SENILE CATARACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-lan; SHENG Yao-hua; YE Xiang-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare ocular biometric values in angle closure glaucoma and cataract in senile population.Methods Ocular biometry was performed in eyes classified to have angle closure glaucoma (29 eyes) and senile cataract (31 eyes). Ocular biometry readings between two groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Intraocular pressure was also recorded before and after lens extraction.Results Anterior chamber depth was shallower in patients with angle closure glaucoma group [(1.79±0.56) mm] compared with senile cataract group [(2.69±0.40) mm] (P<0.01). Lens thickness was greater in angle closure glaucoma group [(5.30±0.61) mm] than that in senile cataract group [(3.84±0.61) mm] (P<0.01). Phacoemusification was performed in 5 patients with persistent acute attack of angle closure glaucoma. IOPs were controlled in all five cases after lens extraction.Conclusion Eyes with angle closure glaucoma seems to have significantly shallow anterior chamber and greater lens thickness compared to senile cataract eyes in the same age. Lens extraction might be effective in those cases with such anatomy features.

  14. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Luo, K. H.; Kang, Q. J.; Chen, Q.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio ρL/ρV=500 . The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevE.49.2941] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions, the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles θ static contact angles close to 180∘. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles θ >90∘ as compared with the two other types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.

  15. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle of the Komarapalayam population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohila Kandhasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic features are different from one race to another, and this should be considered during the treatment planning. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment. The nose-lip-chin relationships are exceedingly important in determining the facial esthetics. One important soft tissue parameter in orthodontic diagnosis is the nasolabial angle. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for nasolabial angle as proposed by Fitzgerald for the Komarapalayam population. Normative data for the three nasolabial parameters were produced from a sample of 40 (20 male and 20 female adults determined by the authors to have well-balanced faces. Mean and standard deviation values from this pooled sample demonstrated a lower border of the nose to Frankfort horizontal plane angle of 18° ± 7°, upper lip to Frankfort horizontal plane angle of 98° ± 5°, and nasolabial angle of 116° ± 10°. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the values for men and women in this study, but men did have a slightly larger nasolabial angle.

  16. Influence of Contact Angle, Growth Angle and Melt Surface Tension on Detached Solidification of InSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2000-01-01

    We extended the previous analysis of detached solidification of InSb based on the moving meniscus model. We found that for steady detached solidification to occur in a sealed ampoule in zero gravity, it is necessary for the growth angle to exceed a critical value, the contact angle for the melt on the ampoule wall to exceed a critical value, and the melt-gas surface tension to be below a critical value. These critical values would depend on the material properties and the growth parameters. For the conditions examined here, the sum of the growth angle and the contact angle must exceed approximately 130, which is significantly less than required if both ends of the ampoule are open.

  17. Assessment of angle velocity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejero Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been demonstrated that the peak height velocity (PHV is a predictive factor of progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, little is known about the usefulness of angle progression in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between height and angle velocities, as well as to determine if peak angle velocity (PAV occurs at the same time than PHV. Methods A retrospective study of a cohort of girls with idiopathic scoliotic curves greater than 10°. Data of 132 girls who participated in a previous retrospective study about growth in AIS were used to calculate height and angle velocities. Relationship between height and angle velocities was estimated by the use of a Linear Mixed Model. Results PHV and PAV take place simultaneously 1 year before menarche in progressive curves managed with a brace in AIS. Changes in angle velocity are influenced by changes in height growth velocity, in such a way that as from 6 months post-menarche, height growth velocity in this group of girls estimates curve progression velocity (β-coefficient -0.88, p = 0.04. Conclusion As from 6 months post-menarche, there is an inverse relationship between height velocity and curve progression in the group of AIS girls with progressive curves managed with a brace. Because height velocity is decreasing from 1 year before menarche, this finding corroborates that at the end of puberty, there is still a risk of progression in this group of girls despite bracing. The assessment of both height and angle velocity might be useful in clinical practice at the time of assessing brace effectiveness and how long bracing has to be indicated.

  18. Reliability of the ATD Angle in Dermatoglyphic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Emily K; Hohnan, Darryl J; Giovas, Christina M

    2015-09-01

    The "ATD" angle is a dermatoglyphic trait formed by drawing lines between the triradii below the first and last digits and the most proximal triradius on the hypothenar region of the palm. This trait has been widely used in dermatoglyphic studies, but several researchers have questioned its utility, specifically whether or not it can be measured reliably. The purpose of this research was to examine the measurement reliability of this trait. Finger and palm prints were taken using the carbon paper and tape method from the right and left hands of 100 individuals. Each "ATD" angle was read twice, at different times, by Reader A, using a goniometer and a magnifying glass, and three times by a Reader B, using Adobe Photoshop. Inter-class correlation coefficients were estimated for the intra- and inter-reader measurements of the "ATD" angles. Reader A was able to quantify ATD angles on 149 out of 200 prints (74.5%), and Reader B on 179 out of 200 prints (89.5%). Both readers agreed on whether an angle existed on a print 89.8% of the time for the right hand and 78.0% for the left. Intra-reader correlations were 0.97 or greater for both readers. Inter-reader correlations for "ATD" angles measured by both readers ranged from 0.92 to 0.96. These results suggest that the "ATD" angle can be measured reliably, and further imply that measurement using a software program may provide an advantage over other methods.

  19. Controlling Compressor Vane Flow Vectoring Angles at Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Matthew; Rempfer, Dietmar; Williams, David; Acharya, Mukund

    2003-11-01

    The ability to control flow separation angles from compressor inlet guide vanes with a Coanda-type actuator is demonstrated using both wind tunnel experiments and finite element simulations. Vectoring angles up to 40 degrees from the uncontrolled baseline state were measured with helium schlieren visualization at transonic Mach numbers ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and with airfoil chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 89,000 to 710,000. The magnitude of the vectoring angle is shown to depend upon the geometry of the trailing edge, and actuator slot size, and the momentum flux coefficient. Under certain conditions the blowing has no effect on the vectoring angle indicating that the Coanda effect is not present. DNS simulations with the finite element method investigated the effects of geometry changes and external flow. Continuous control of the vectoring angle is demonstrated, which has important implications for application to rotating machinery. The technique is shown to reduce the stall flow coefficient by 15 percent in an axial flow compressor.

  20. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  1. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sebastian; Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dependence of the enhancement of optical near-fields at nanometric tips on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm the strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature ≥slant 5 nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ∼ 35 for Au and ∼ 12 for W for large opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials featuring a wide variety in their dielectric response. For dielectrics, the opening angle dependence is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement and shifts the maximum field enhancement to smaller opening angles.

  2. Determination of the Contact Angle Based on the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    On a macroscopic scale, a nonreactive liquid partially covering a homogeneous solid surface will intersect the solid at an angle called the contact angle. For molten metals and semiconductors, the contact angle is materially dependent upon both the solid and liquid and typical values fall in the range 80-170 deg, depending on the crucible material. On a microscopic scale, there does not exist a precise and sharp contact angle but rather the liquid and solid surfaces merge smoothly and continuously. Consider the example of the so called detached Bridgman crystal growth process. In this technique, a small gap is formed between the growing crystal and the crucible. At the crystal/melt interface, a meniscus ring is formed. Its width can be in the range of a few micrometers, approaching a microscopic scale. It then becomes questionable to describe the shape of this meniscus by the contact angle. A more advanced treatment of the interface is needed and here we propose such a refined model. The interaction of the liquid surface with the solid can be calculated by considering two forces: a short-range repulsive force and a longer range (up to a few micrometers) Casimir or van der Waals force.

  3. Contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2015-02-21

    The contact angle of a cylindrical nanodrop on a nanorough solid surface is calculated, for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, using the density functional theory. The emphasis of the paper is on the dependence of the contact angle on roughness. The roughness is modeled by rectangular pillars of infinite length located on the smooth surface of a substrate, with fluid-pillar interactions different in strength from the fluid-substrate ones. It is shown that for hydrophobic substrates the trend of the contact angle to increase with increasing roughness, which was noted in all previous studies, is not universally valid, but depends on the fluid-pillar interactions, pillar height, interpillar distance, as well as on the size of the drop. For hydrophilic substrate, an unusual kink-like dependence of the contact angle on the nanodrop size is found which is caused by the change in the location of the leading edges of the nanodrop on the surface. It is also shown that the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations can not explain all the peculiarities of the contact angle of a nanodrop on a nanorough surface.

  4. Fabrication of zero contact angle ultra-super hydrophilic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Prakash, C G; Clement Raj, C; Prasanth, R

    2017-01-05

    Zero contact angle surfaces have been created with the combined effect of nanostructure and UV illumination. The contact angle of titanium surface has been optimized to 3.25°±1°. with nanotubular structures through electrochemical surface modification. The porosity and surface energy of tubular TiO2 layer play critical role over the surface wettability and the hydrophilicity of the surface. The surface free energy has been enhanced from 23.72mJ/m(2) (bare titanium surface) to 87.11mJ/m(2) (nanotubular surface). Similar surface with TiO2 nanoparticles coating shows superhydrophilicity with contact angle up to 5.63°±0.95°. This implies liquid imbibition and surface curvature play a crucial role in surface hydrophilicity. The contact angle has been further reduced to 0°±0.86° by illuminating the surface with UV radiation. Results shows that by tuning the nanotube morphology, highly porous surfaces can be fabricated to reduce contact angle and enhance wettability. This study provides an insight into the inter-relationship between surface structural factors and ultra-superhydrophilic surfaces which can help to optimize thermal hydraulic and self cleaning surfaces.

  5. Repulsion-based model for contact angle saturation in electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Abdelmoumen Abdellah; Mohamed, Hany Ahmed; Abdelgawad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new model for contact angle saturation phenomenon in electrowetting on dielectric systems. This new model attributes contact angle saturation to repulsion between trapped charges on the cap and base surfaces of the droplet in the vicinity of the three-phase contact line, which prevents these surfaces from converging during contact angle reduction. This repulsion-based saturation is similar to repulsion between charges accumulated on the surfaces of conducting droplets which causes the well known Coulombic fission and Taylor cone formation phenomena. In our model, both the droplet and dielectric coating were treated as lossy dielectric media (i.e., having finite electrical conductivities and permittivities) contrary to the more common assumption of a perfectly conducting droplet and perfectly insulating dielectric. We used theoretical analysis and numerical simulations to find actual charge distribution on droplet surface, calculate repulsion energy, and minimize energy of the total system as a function of droplet contact angle. Resulting saturation curves were in good agreement with previously reported experimental results. We used this proposed model to predict effect of changing liquid properties, such as electrical conductivity, and system parameters, such as thickness of the dielectric layer, on the saturation angle, which also matched experimental results.

  6. Magnetically induced decrease in droplet contact angle on nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Ristenpart, William D; Stroeve, Pieter

    2011-10-04

    We report a magnetic technique for altering the apparent contact angle of aqueous droplets deposited on a nanostructured surface. Polymeric tubes with embedded superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles were prepared via layer-by-layer deposition in the 800 nm diameter pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes. Etching away the original membrane yields a superparamagnetic film composed of mostly vertical tubes attached to a rigid substrate. We demonstrate that the apparent contact angle of pure water droplets deposited on the nanostructured film is highly sensitive to the ante situm strength of an applied magnetic field, decreasing linearly from 117 ± 1.3° at no applied field to 105 ± 0.4° at an applied field of approximately 500 G. Importantly, this decrease in contact angle did not require an inordinately strong magnetic field: a 15° decrease in contact angle was observed even with a standard alnico bar magnet. We interpret the observed contact angle behavior in terms of magnetically induced conformation changes in the film nanostructure, and we discuss the implications for reversibly switching substrates from hydrophilic to hydrophobic via externally tunable magnetic fields.

  7. Modeling liquid bridge between surfaces with contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Amirfazli, A; Tang, T

    2013-03-12

    This paper presents the behaviors of a liquid bridge when being compressed and stretched in a quasi-static fashion between two solid surfaces that have contact angle hysteresis (CAH). A theoretical model is developed to obtain the profiles of the liquid bridge given a specific separation between the surfaces. Different from previous models, both contact lines in the upper and lower surfaces were allowed to move when the contact angles reach their advancing or receding values. When the contact angles are between their advancing and receding values, the contact lines are pinned while the contact angles adjust to accommodate the changes in separation. Effects of CAH on both asymmetric and symmetric liquid bridges were analyzed. The model was shown to be able to correctly predict the behavior of the liquid bridge during a quasi-static compression/stretching loading cycle in experiments. Because of CAH, the liquid bridge can have two different profiles at the same separation during one loading and unloading cycle, and more profiles can be obtained during multiple cycles. The maximum adhesion force generated by the liquid bridge is found to be influenced by the CAH of surfaces. CAH also leads to energy cost during a loading cycle of the liquid bridge. In addition, the minimum separation between the two solid surfaces is shown to affect how the contact radii and angles change on the two surfaces as the liquid bridge is stretched.

  8. Shoulder and elbow joint angle tracking with inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Mahmoud; McNames, James

    2012-09-01

    Wearable inertial systems have recently been used to track human movement in and outside of the laboratory. Continuous monitoring of human movement can provide valuable information relevant to individuals' level of physical activity and functional ability. Traditionally, orientation has been calculated by integrating the angular velocity from gyroscopes. However, a small drift in the measured velocity leads to increasing integration error over time. To compensate that drift, complementary data from accelerometers are normally fused into tracking systems using the Kalman or extended Kalman filter. In this study, we combine kinematic models designed for control of robotic arms with state-space methods to continuously estimate the angles of human shoulder and elbow using two wearable inertial measurement units. We use the unscented Kalman filter to implement the nonlinear state-space inertial tracker. Shoulder and elbow joint angles obtained from 8 subjects using our inertial tracker were compared to the angles obtained from an optical-tracking reference system. On average, there was an RMS angle error of less than 8° for all shoulder and elbow angles. The average correlation coefficient for all movement tasks among all subjects was r ≥ 0.95 . This agreement between our inertial tracker and the optical reference system was obtained for both regular and fast-speed movement of the arm. The same method can be used to track movement of other joints.

  9. Estimation of crank angle for cycling with a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, B E; Shultz, A; Ledoux, E; Goldfarb, M

    2014-01-01

    In order for a prosthesis to restore power generation during cycling, it must supply torque in a manner that is coordinated with the motion of the bicycle crank. This paper outlines an algorithm for the real time estimation of the angular position of a bicycle crankshaft using only measurements internal to an intelligent knee and ankle prosthesis. The algorithm assumes that the rider/prosthesis/bicycle system can be modeled as a four-bar mechanism. Assuming that a prosthesis can generate two independent angular measurements of the mechanism (in this case the knee angle and the absolute orientation of the shank), Freudenstein's equation can be used to synthesize the mechanism continuously. A recursive least-squares algorithm is implemented to estimate the Freudenstein coefficients, and the resulting link lengths are used to reformulate the equation in terms of input-output relationships mapping both measured angles to the crank angle. Using two independent measurements allows the algorithm to uniquely determine the crank angle from multi-valued functions. In order to validate the algorithm, a bicycle was mounted on a trainer and configured with the prosthesis using an artificial hip joint attached to the seat post. Motion capture was used to monitor the mechanism for forward and backward pedaling and the results are compared to the output of the presented algorithm. Once the parameters have converged, the algorithm is shown to predict the crank angle within 15° of the externally measured value throughout the entire crank cycle during forward rotation.

  10. The Influence of Dynamic Contact Angle on Wetting Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Steven

    2005-01-01

    When surface tension forces dominate, and regardless of whether the situation is static or dynamic, the contact angle (the angle the interface between two immiscible fluids makes when it contacts a solid) is the key parameter that determines the shape of a fluid-fluid interface. The static contact angle is easy to measure and implement in models predicting static capillary surface shapes and such associated quantities as pressure drops. By contrast, when the interface moves relative to the solid (as in dynamic wetting processes) the dynamic contact angle is not identified unambiguously because it depends on the geometry of the system Consequently, its determination becomes problematic and measurements in one geometry cannot be applied in another for prediction purposes. However, knowing how to measure and use the dynamic contact angle is crucial to determine such dynamics as a microsystem throughput reliably. In this talk we will present experimental and analytical efforts aimed at resolving modeling issues present in dynamic wetting. We will review experiments that show the inadequacy of the usual hydrodynamic model when a fluid-fluid meniscus moves over a solid surface such as the wall of a small tube or duct. We will then present analytical results that show how to parametrize these problems in a predictive manner. We will illustrate these ideas by showing how to implement the method in numerical fluid mechanical calculations.

  11. Dynamic contact angles in oil-aqueous polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shareef, Amer; Neogi, P; Bai, Baojun

    2017-01-25

    Polymer flooding is an important process in enhanced oil recovery. The displacement front is unstable when low viscosity brine displaces the heavy crude oil in the reservoir. Water-soluble polymers are added to the brine to increase its viscosity which stabilizes the displacement process. To analyze the displacement process at the micro-level, we have investigated the dynamic contact angles in silicone oil-polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution and for the first time. The dynamic contact angle is the apparent contact angle at the three-phase contact line which governs the capillary pressure, and thus is important for the displacement process. The data show no obvious signs of either shear thinning or elastic behavior, although for some systems with highest elastic effects some unexplained effects on dynamic contact angles are observed that correlate with elastic effects. Overall, dynamic contact angles are explained well using existing models for two Newtonian fluids, when the zero shear viscosity is used for the polymer solution.

  12. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  13. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  14. Determination of refractive index of various materials on Brewster angle

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Studied experimentally the origin of the non-zero reflection of p-polarized radiation (TM) of Brewster's angle. The results have shown the residual reflected light in the vicinity of Brewster angle occurs due to inaccessibility 100% polarization degree the incident linearly-polarized radiation and installation of the zero azimuthal angle. These factors create the s-component of the radiation reflected from the examined surface indeed. A smooth change of reflected light polarization in the vicinity of Brewster angle in the sequence p-s-p appears due to the changing power proportion of reflected p-, and s-components but not is the result of the atomically thin transitional layer at the border of the material/environment according to Drude model. Metrological aspects of refractive index measurement by Brewster angle are investigated: due to the above-mentioned factors, as well as due to the contribution of the reflected scattered light caused by on residual roughness of the optical surface. Advantages of Brewste...

  15. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  16. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  17. Low frequency seabed scattering at low grazing angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) seabed scattering at low grazing angles (LGA) is almost impossible to directly measure in shallow water (SW), except through inversion from reverberation. The energy flux method for SW reverberation is briefly introduced in this paper. The closed-form expressions of reverberation in an isovelocity waveguide, derived from this method, indicate that in the three-halves law range interval multimode/ray sea bottom scattering with different incident and scattering angles in forming the reverberation may equivalently be represented by the bottom backscattering at a single range-dependent angle. This equivalent relationship is used to derive the bottom backscattering strength (BBS) as a function of angle and frequency. The LF&LGA BBS is derived in a frequency band of 200-2500 Hz and in a grazing angle range of 1.1°-14.0° from reverberation measurements at three sites with sandy bottoms. This is based on three previous works: (1) The closed-form expressions of SW reverberation [Zhou, (Chinese) Acta Acustica 5, 86-99 (1980)]; (2) the effective geo-acoustic model of sandy bottoms that follows the Biot model [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)] and (3) A quality database of wideband reverberation level normalized to source level [Zhou and Zhang, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 30, 832-842 (2005)].

  18. Assessing manual lifting tasks based on segment angle interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Chi; Xu, Xu; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the number of interpolation points on the prediction accuracy of segment angle trajectory during lifting. Ten participants performed various lifting tasks while a motion tracking system recorded their movements. Two-point through ten-point equal time-spaced segment angles extracted from major segment trajectory data captured by the motion tracking system were used to re-generate the whole body lifting motion by using polynomial and cubic spline interpolation methods. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the reference (motion tracking system) and the estimated (interpolation method) segment angle trajectories were calculated to quantify the prediction accuracy. The results showed that the cubic spline interpolation will yield a smaller RMSE value than one based on the polynomial interpolation. While increasing the number of interpolation points can reduce the RMSE of the estimated segment angle trajectories, there was a diminishing advantage in continuing to add interpolation points. A sensitivity analysis suggests that if the estimation of the segment angles at each interpolation point deviates considerably from the real value, and cannot be controlled at a low level (interpolation points will not improve the estimation accuracy.

  19. Analysis of the changing Solar Radiation Angle on Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only tropical provinces in China, Hainan province has advantageous geographical location, and abundant solar energy resources. But because of Local ideas and habits, especially the lack of theoretical research on local solar resources, development and application of solar energy in Hainan is almost blank. In this paper, we studied the variation regularity of sunlight angle on Hainan tropical island, analyzed the revolution and rotation of the earth, and the change rule of sunlight angle caused by the sun’s movement between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn, deduced the change rule of sunlight angle in the spring equinox, the autumnal equinox, summer solstice and winter solstice day, and got the movement rules of solar elevation angle throughout the year. Theoretic analysis is consistent with field measurement results. These rules are of importance and can effectively guide the local People’s daily life and production, such as the reasonable layout of the buildings, floor distance between different heights of buildings, the direction of the lighting windows of tall buildings, installation angle of photovoltaic panels, and other similar solar energy absorbing and conversion equipment.

  20. Determining pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from test particle simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivascenko, A; Spanier, F; Vainio, R

    2016-01-01

    Transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media is a topic of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering with the pitch-angle coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasi-linear theory, the determination of this coefficient from numerical simulations has, therefore, become more important. So far these simulations yield particle tracks for small-scale scattering, which can then be interpreted using the running diffusion coefficients. This method has a limited range of validity. This paper presents two new methods that allow for the calculation of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient from numerical simulations. These methods no longer analyse particle trajectories, but the change of particle dist...

  1. Large mixing angles for neutrinos from infrared fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, J A; Navarro, I

    2003-01-01

    Radiative amplification of neutrino mixing angles may explain the large values required by solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Implementation of such mechanism in the Standard Model and many of its extensions (including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) to amplify the solar angle, the atmospheric or both requires (at least two) quasi-degenerate neutrino masses, but is not always possible. When it is, it involves a fine-tuning between initial conditions and radiative corrections. In supersymmetric models with neutrino masses generated through the Kahler potential, neutrino mixing angles can easily be driven to large values at low energy as they approach infrared pseudo-fixed points at large mixing (in stark contrast with conventional scenarios, that have infrared pseudo-fixed points at zero mixing). In addition, quasi-degeneracy of neutrino masses is not always required.

  2. Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Johnson, Steven G; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Structural coloration produces some of the most brilliant colors in nature and has many applications. However, sharp color (narrow frequency response) and wide viewing angle (broad angular response) are competing properties and have not been achieved simultaneously in previous studies. Here, we use numerical optimization to discover geometries where the structural color is sharp, yet the hue, saturation, and brightness all remain the same over broad viewing angles (0-90$^\\circ$) under directional illumination. Our model system consists of dipole scatterers arranged into several rings; interference among the scattered waves is optimized to yield the wavelength-selective and angle-insensitive response. Such designs can be useful for display, painting, and biosensing applications.

  3. Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-04-01

    Structural coloration produces some of the most brilliant colors in nature and has many applications. However, the two competing properties of narrow bandwidth and broad viewing angle have not been achieved simultaneously in previous studies. Here, we use numerical optimization to discover geometries where a sharp 7% bandwidth in scattering is achieved, yet the peak wavelength varies less than 1%, and the peak height and peak width vary less than 6% over broad viewing angles (0--90$^\\circ$) under a directional illumination. Our model system consists of dipole scatterers arranged into several rings; interference among the scattered waves is optimized to yield the wavelength-selective and angle-insensitive response. Such designs can be useful for the recently proposed transparent displays that are based on wavelength-selective scattering.

  4. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  5. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sebastian; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate optical near-fields at nanometric tips. We systematically study the dependence of field enhancement on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm a strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a remarkably strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature $\\geq 5\\,$nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ${\\sim}35$ (Au) and ${\\sim}12$ (W) for wide opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials studying the dependence of the field enhancement at nanotips on the dielectric response function. For dielectrics, the increase in field enhancement is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement ...

  6. Laser transillumination imaging for determining wood defects and grain angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Sari; Heikkinen, Jorma; Räty, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Wood defects and grain angle correlate strongly with timber strength and grading. In this study a laser transillumination imaging method was developed to determine wood defects and grain angle. The method uses a near infrared laser light source which illuminates a wood sample with a round beam and the image generated by the light transmitted through the sample is captured for further analysis. In basic and flawless wood, the transmitted light pattern is an ellipse and wood defects and grain angle deviation will change the shape, size and location of the ellipse. The method could be used for determining the strength of wood, grading sawn timber, studying finger and glue joints, estimating moisture and differentiating between heartwood and sapwood.

  7. Generalised action-angle coordinates defined on island chains

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Robert L; Gibson, Ashley M

    2012-01-01

    Straight-field-line coordinates are very useful for representing magnetic fields in toroidally confined plasmas, but fundamental problems arise regarding their definition in 3-D geometries because of the formation of islands and chaotic field regions, ie non-integrability. In Hamiltonian dynamical systems terms these coordinates are a form of action-angle variables, which are normally defined only for integrable systems. In order to describe 3-D magnetic field systems, a generalisation of this concept was proposed recently by the present authors that unified the concepts of ghost surfaces and quadratic-flux-minimising (QFMin) surfaces. This was based on a simple canonical transformation generated by a change of variable $\\theta = \\theta(\\Theta,\\zeta)$, where $\\theta$ and $\\zeta$ are poloidal and toroidal angles, respectively, with $\\Theta$ a new poloidal angle chosen to give pseudo-orbits that are a) straight when plotted in the $\\zeta,\\Theta$ plane and b) QFMin pseudo-orbits in the transformed coordinate. Th...

  8. Water contact angles and hysteresis of polyamide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W

    2002-04-01

    The wetting behavior of a series of aliphatic polyamides (PAs) has been examined. PAs with varying amide content and polyethylene (PE) were molded against glass to produce surfaces with similar roughness. After cleaning, chemical composition of the surfaces was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Advancing and receding contact angles were measured from small sessile water drops. Contact angles decreased with amide content while hysteresis increased. Hysteresis arose primarily from molecular interactions between the contact liquid and the solid substrates, rather than moisture absorption, variations in crystallinity, surface deformation, roughness, reorientation of amide groups, or surface contamination. Free energies of hysteresis were calculated from contact angles. For PE, which is composed entirely of nonpolar methylene groups, free energies were equivalent to the strength of dispersive van der Waals bonds. For PAs, free energies corresponded to fractional contributions from the dispersive methylene groups and polar amide groups.

  9. Effect of Mean Angle of Attack Modulation on Dynamic Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Kyle; Corke, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments at M = 0 . 2 were conducted on a cambered airfoil instrumented with surface pressure transducers that was oscillated with two independent frequencies. The primary input, f1, corresponds to a range of reduced frequencies, while the slower, secondary input, f2, drives the modulation of the mean angle of attack, thus varying the stall-penetration angle, αpen. Various combinations transitioned different regimes of dynamic stall from "light" to "deep". Results suggest that when αpen is falling between consecutive cycles, the aerodynamic loads do not fully recover to the values seen when αpen is rising, even though the airfoil recedes to αpen load coefficients, aerodynamic damping, and their phase relationships to pitch angle. APS Fellow.

  10. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    ) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... vertical velocity, whereas the error due to flow inhomogeneity on the horizontal mean wind speed is independent of the lidar beam angle. For the presented measurements over forest, it is evaluated that the systematic error due to the inhomogeneity of the flow is less than 0.2°. The results of the vertical...... conical scans were promising, and yielded positive flow angles for a sector where the forest is fetch-limited. However, more data and analysis are needed for a complete evaluation of the lidar technique....

  11. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, I.; Stilling, M.

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic method for measuring diagnostic angles of hip dysplasia is presented. The method consists of the automatic segmentation of CT images and detection of anatomical landmarks on the femur and acetabulum. The standard angles used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia are subsequently....... These values correspond to values found in evaluating interobserver and intraobserver variation for manual measurements. The method can be used in clinical practice to replace the current manual measurements performed by radiologists. In the future, the method will be integrated into an intraoperative surgical...... automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet...

  12. Constraints on Contact Angles for Multiple Phases in Thermodynamic Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Martin J.

    2001-07-01

    For three or more fluid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium and in contact with a solid surface, the Young equation can be used to find relations between the contact angles for different pairs of fluids. For an n-fluid-phase system, n(n-1)/2 contact angles can be defined, but there are (n-1)(n-2)/2 constraints between them, leaving only n-1 independent values of the contact angle. These constraints are very powerful in limiting and determining possible types of wetting behavior. The consequences are discussed for three- and four-phase flow. They have important applications for the understanding of gas injection processes in petroleum reservoirs. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Contact line and contact angle dynamics in superhydrophobic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Kwok, Daniel Y

    2006-05-23

    The dynamics of the wetting and movement of a three-phase contact line confined between two superhydrophobic surfaces were studied using a mean-field free-energy lattice Boltzmann model. Principle features of superhydrophobic surfaces, such as trapped vapor/air between rough microstructures, high contact angles, reduced contact angle hysteresis, and low resistance to fluid flow, were all observed. Movement of the three-phase contact line over a well-patterned superhydrophobic surface displays a periodic stick-jump-slip behavior, while the dynamic contact angle changes accordingly from maximum to minimum. Two regimes were found for the flow velocity as a function of surface roughness and can be related directly to the balance between driving force and flow resistance. This work provides a better understanding of dynamic wetting and fluid flow behaviors over superhydrophobic surfaces and hence could be useful in related applications.

  14. Digital holographic metrology based on multi-angle interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhai

    2016-09-15

    We propose a multi-angle interferometry method for digital holographic metrology. In an application of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the hologram corresponding to a different illumination angle is recorded as the illumination angle with a single wavelength tilted at regular intervals by an electronically controlled rotating stage. A Fourier-transform-based axial depth scanning algorithm formed by the reconstructed phase is used to obtain the height point by point over the whole field of view. Hence, the 3D reconstruction can be obtained effectively; even the object has large depth discontinuities resulting from the difficulty of the phase unwrapping. Due to a monochrome source only being used, the method is available for objects with wavelength-dependent reflectivity and those that are free of chromatic aberration caused by the different wavelengths.

  15. A new angle on microscopic suspension feeders near boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Rachel E; Roper, Marcus; Ryu, Sangjin; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Nagai, Moeto; Stone, Howard A

    2013-10-15

    Microscopic sessile suspension feeders are a critical component in aquatic ecosystems, acting as an intermediate trophic stage between bacteria and higher eukaryotic taxa. Because they live attached to boundaries, it has long been thought that recirculation of the feeding currents produced by sessile suspension feeders inhibits their ability to access fresh fluid. However, previous models for the feeding flows of these organisms assume that they feed by pushing fluid perpendicular to surfaces they live upon, whereas we observe that sessile suspension feeders often feed at an angle to these boundaries. Using experiments and calculations, we show that living suspension feeders (Vorticella) likely actively regulate the angle that they feed relative to a substratum. We then use theory and simulations to show that angled feeding increases nutrient and particle uptake by reducing the reprocessing of depleted water. This work resolves an open question of how a key class of suspension-feeding organisms escapes physical limitations associated with their sessile lifestyle.

  16. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  17. Communicability Angle and the Spatial Efficiency of Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of communicability angle between a pair of nodes in a graph. We provide strong analytical and empirical evidence that the average communicability angle for a given network accounts for its spatial efficiency on the basis of the communications among the nodes in a network. We determine characteristics of the spatial efficiency of more than a hundred real-world complex networks that represent complex systems arising in a diverse set of scenarios. In particular, we find that the communicability angle correlates very well with the experimentally measured the relative packing efficiency of proteins that are represented as residue networks. We finally show how we can modulate the spatial efficiency of a network by tuning the weights of the edges of the networks. This allows us to predict effects of external stresses on the spatial efficiency of a network as well as to design strategies to improve important parameters in real-world complex systems.

  18. Interstellar Refractive Scintillation and Intraday Polarization Angle Swings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Jie Qian; Xi-Zhen Zhang; A. Kraus

    2005-01-01

    Intraday polarization angle swings of ~180° observed in two sources (QSO 0917+624 and QSO 1150+812) are discussed in the framework of refractive interstellar scintillation by a continuous interstellar medium. Model-fits to the I-,Q- and U- light curves were made for both sources. It is shown that for the case of 0917+624 both the intraday intensity variations and the polarization angle swing of ~180° could be explained consistently in terms of a four-component model, which comprises one steady and two scintillating polarized components and one further non-polarized scintillating component. The polarization angle swing of ~180° observed in 1150+812, which occurred when the polarized flux density was almost constant, could not be explained in terms of refractive scintillation by a continuous medium and might be due to other mechanisms (e.g., scintillation by interstellar clouds).

  19. Large-area, wide-angle, spectrally selective plasmonic absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chihhui; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple metamaterial-based wide-angle plasmonic absorber is introduced, fabricated, and experimentally characterized using angle-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The metamaterials are prepared by nano-imprint lithography, an attractive low-cost technology for making large-area samples. The matching of the metamaterial's impedance to that of vacuum is responsible for the observed spectrally selective "perfect" absorption of infrared light. The impedance is theoretically calculated in the single-resonance approximation, and the responsible resonance is identified as a short-range surface plasmon. The spectral position of the absorption peak (which is as high as 95%) is experimentally shown to be controlled by the metamaterial's dimensions. The persistence of "perfect" absorption with variable metamaterial parameters is theoretically explained. The wide-angle nature of the absorber can be utilized for sub-diffraction-scale infrared pixels exhibiting spectrally selective absorption/emissivity.

  20. Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR prism is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. In bubble measurement, we can count the number of bubbles passing through the cross section of the laser beam and measure the bubble size from the phase pulse signal.

  1. Importance of static adjustment of knee angle to determine saddle height in cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Jacques, Tiago Canal; R Bini, Rodrigo; Felipe P. Carpes

    2016-01-01

    Knee flexion angle is used to determine saddle height during pedaling. However, it is unclear if knee flexion angle at upright standing posture affects measures and interpretation of knee flexion angle during cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of adjusting knee angle during pedaling according to the knee angle at upright posture. Seventeen cyclists performed three 10 min cycling trials at different saddle heights to induce knee flexion angles (40º, 30º or 20º wh...

  2. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, A.-L.; Wiedemann, G.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. Aims: We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. Methods: The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the tilt or a cross-correlation analysis. Results: For stars with large apparent diameter and using a spectrograph with a small plate scale, we show that it is possible to determine the stellar position angle directly within 10° with a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 6. Under less favourable conditions, i.e. larger plate scale or smaller stellar diameter, the cross-correlation method yields comparable results. Conclusions: We show that with the currently existing instruments, it is possible to determine the stellar position angle of at least 50 stars precisely, mostly K-type giants with apparent diameter down to 5 milliarcseconds. If we consider errors of around 10° still acceptable, we may include stars with apparent diameter down to 2 mas in the sample that then comprises also some main sequence stars.

  3. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Luo, K H; Kang, Q J; Chen, Q

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio ρ_{L}/ρ_{V}=500. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)10.1103/PhysRevE.49.2941] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions, the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles θstatic contact angles close to 180^{∘}. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles θ>90^{∘} as compared with the two other types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.

  4. Polarization properties of retroreflecting right-angle prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A; Khanfar, H K

    2008-01-20

    The cumulative retardance Delta(t) introduced between the p and the s orthogonal linear polarizations after two successive total internal reflections (TIRs) inside a right-angle prism at complementary angles phi and 90 degrees - phi is calculated as a function of phi and prism refractive index n. Quarter-wave retardation (QWR) is obtained on retroreflection with minimum angular sensitivity when n=(sqr rt 2+1)(1/2)=1.55377 and phi =45 degrees. A QWR prism made of N-BAK4 Schott glass (n=1.55377 at lambda=1303.5 nm) has good spectral response (<5 degrees retardance error) over the 0.5-2 microm visible and near-IR spectral range. A ZnS-coated right-angle Si prism achieves QWR with an error of < +/- 2.5 degrees in the 9-11 microm (CO(2) laser) IR spectral range. This device functions as a linear-to-circular polarization transformer and can be tuned to exact QWR at any desired wavelength (within a given range) by tilting the prism by a small angle around phi =45 degrees. A PbTe right-angle prism introduces near-half-wave retardation (near-HWR) with a < or =2% error over a broad (4< or =lambda< or =12.5 microm) IR spectral range. This device also has a wide field of view and its interesting polarization properties are discussed. A compact (aspect ratio of 2), in-line, HWR is described that uses a chevron dual Fresnel rhomb with four TIRs at the same angle phi =45 degrees. Finally, a useful algorithm is presented that transforms a three-term Sellmeier dispersion relation of a transparent optical material to an equivalent cubic equation that can be solved for the wavelengths at which the refractive index assumes any desired value.

  5. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2002-03-01

    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter in two experimental systems. In the regime where the volume fraction of the introduced fluid (liquid) is small, liquid bridges between particles are formed thus giving rise to cohesive forces between particles. In the first series of experiments, we pour the mixture of granular matter and liquid from a reservoir into a silo and imaging the resulting pile through the transparent glass side walls [1]. The angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturate at a value that depends on the size of the particles. The viscosity of the fluid is observed to have a significant effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. Similar phenomena is observed in both the angle of repose and the maximum angle of stability, when the granular-fluid mixture is placed inside a horizontal cylindrical container and rotated. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We also report experiments in which the particles are poured into a silo filled with a fluid to understand the limit of maximum volume fraction of the fluid. In this case the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged from the dry case. However, the segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. * Work in collaboration with Azadeh Samadani, and funded by NSF under Grant No. DMR-9983659. [1]: A. Samadani and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5102 (2000); Phys. Rev. E 64, 051301 (2001).

  6. Precise predictions of neutrino mixing angles and $CP$ phase

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mixing parameters are studied using renormalization-group evolution of Dirac neutrinos with recently proposed parameterization of the neutrino mixing angles referred as `high-scale mixing relations'. The correlations among all neutrino mixing and $CP$ violating parameters are investigated. The predictions for the neutrino mixing angles and the $CP$ phase are precise and could be easily tested by ongoing and future experiments. We observe that the high scale mixing unification hypothesis is incompatible with Dirac neutrinos due to updated experimental data.

  7. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Gersabeck, M

    2009-01-01

    The precise measurement of the CKM unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ is a key goal of the LHCb physics programme. The uncertainty on $\\gamma$, the currently least-well known of the three angles, will be reduced dramatically. Complementary measurements will be made in tree-level processes, and modes where loop diagrams play an important role. The tree-level measurements will cover time-integrated as well as time- dependent measurements in both the $B^0_d$ and the $B^0_s$ sectors. The ensemble of these measurements will provide a powerful test of whether new physics phases contribute to heavy-flavour transitions.

  8. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G., E-mail: tom.purdie@rmp.uhn.ca; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Levinshtein, Alex [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Pekar, Vladimir [Philips Healthcare, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  9. Angle closure glaucoma following a combined blepharoplasty and ectropion repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Ledford, J K

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports an occurrence of angle closure glaucoma following a combined blepharoplasty and ectropion repair. We are unaware of any previous reports of such an incident. Specific to this case was the coexistence of a cataract that contributed to the narrowing of the anterior chamber. This condition, along with pupil dilation secondary to the anesthetic, precipitated a phacomorphic angle closure glaucoma attack, necessitating emergency cataract surgery. Because other procedures involve pupillary dilation as a potential side effect, we recommend an increased awareness of this potential postoperative complication.

  10. Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, K; Dittmore, A; Santos, D; Spenko, M; Cutkosky, M

    2006-09-01

    Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion

  11. Metamaterials with angle selective emissivity in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Jeremy A; Werner, Douglas H

    2013-03-11

    Metamaterials have been previously studied for their ability to tailor the dispersive IR emissivity of a surface. Here, we investigate two metamaterial structures based on an electromagnetic band-gap surface and a dielectric resonator array for use as near-IR emitters with custom angle selectivity. A genetic algorithm is successfully employed to optimize the metamaterial structures to have minimum emissivity in the normal direction and high emissivity at custom off-normal angles specified by the designer. Two symmetry conditions are utilized to achieve emissivity patterns that are azimuthally stable or distinct in the two orthogonal plane cuts.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF PONTOCEREBELLAR ANGLE TUMOR AND AUDIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the size ofpontocerebellar angle tumor and audiology.Methods: Retrospective analysis of accoustically evoked brainstem response (ABR) waveforms and pure tone threshold in 27 subjects with tumor of pontocerebellar angle.Results: ABR wave forms and pure tone threshold were significantly affected statistically by the size of tumors,especially those tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter.Conclusion: The primary symptom of the patient was unilateral hearing loss.Early discovery of the lesion is important and ABR is a sensitive tool for early diagnose of the tumor.

  13. Effect of contact angle hysteresis on moving liquid film integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the formation and breakdown of a water film moving over solid surfaces (teflon, lucite, stainless steel, and copper). The flow rate associated with film formation was found to be higher than the flow rate at which film breakdown occurred. The difference in the flow rates for film formation and film breakdown was attributed to contact angle hysteresis. Analysis and experiment, which are in good agreement, indicated that film formation and film breakdown are functions of the advancing and receding angles, respectively.

  14. Contact angle hysteresis of a drop spreading over metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Geniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental data on the contact angle hysteresis of the distilled water drop spreading over the surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The measurements of the advancing and receding contact angles were carried out by method of sitting drop on the horizontal surface during increasing and decreasing drop volume with a syringe pump. It was found that the contact line speed has a great influence on the hysteresis of the polished non-elastic substrates. The mechanism of spreading was described using the balance of the forces from the physical point of view.

  15. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M;

    2008-01-01

    controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have......Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...

  16. Quantifying Stream Bed Gravel Mobility from Friction Angle Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M. A.; Dunne, T.

    2012-12-01

    A method to measure friction angles using force gauges was field tested to determine its utility at quantifying critical shear stress in a gravel bedded reach of the San Joaquin River in California. Predictions of mobility from friction angles were compared with observations of the movement of tagged particles from locations for which local shear stress was quantified with a validated 2-D flow model. The observations of movement, distance of travel, and location of the end of travel were made after extended flow releases from Friant dam. Determining the critical shear stress for gravel bed material transport currently depends upon bedload sampling or tracer studies. Often, such measurements can only be made during occasional and untimely flow events, and at limited, suboptimal locations. Yet, theoretical studies conclude that the friction angle is an important control on the critical shear stress for mobility of any grain size, and therefore of the excess shear stress which strongly influences bedload transport rate. The ability to predict bed mobility at ungauged and unmonitored locations is also an important requirement for planning of flow regimes and channel design. Therefore, a method to measure friction angles that can be performed quickly in low flow conditions would prove useful for river management and research. To investigate this promising method friction angle surveys were performed at two riffle sites where differences in bed material size and distribution, and channel slope were observed. The friction angle surveys are sensitive enough to detect differences between the sites as well as spatially and temporally within a single riffle. Low friction angles were observed along the inside of a long bend where sand content was greater (by ~20%) than other surveyed locations. Friction angles decreased slightly after a depositional event associated with transient large woody debris and bank erosion, and increased again after a 5 year return interval flow

  17. Variable angle of strabismus related to timing of opiate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jonathan J; Brown, Valerie; Fern, Alasdair I

    2009-04-01

    Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opiate with potential for misuse. A small number of reports have linked the commencement of heroin misuse to acute exotropia with diplopia and subsequent withdrawal to esotropia in individuals without previous symptoms.(1-5) We describe a young adult who sought strabismus surgery to correct a large-angle exotropia. Detailed patient history and orthoptic measurements at different times of the day revealed a fluctuating angle of divergence relating to the timing of opiate ingestion, rendering surgery inappropriate. We suggest that opiate misuse, which may not willingly be disclosed by patients, should be specifically asked about before acquired-strabismus surgery is undertaken in adults.

  18. Drop impact on soft surfaces: beyond the static contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioboo, Romain; Voué, Michel; Adão, Helena; Conti, Joséphine; Vaillant, Alexandre; Seveno, David; De Coninck, Joël

    2010-04-06

    The wettability of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer films and of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers with water has been measured and compared using various methods. Contact angle hysteresis values were compared with values reported in the literature. A new method to characterize advancing, receding contact angles, and hysteresis using drop impact have been tested and compared with usual methods. It has been found that for the rigid surfaces the drop impact method is comparable with other methods but that for elastomer surfaces the hysteresis is function of the drop impact velocity which influences the extent of the deformation of the soft surface at the triple line.

  19. Static contact angle in lattice Boltzmann models of immiscible fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latva-Kokko, M; Rothman, Daniel H

    2005-10-01

    We study numerically the capillary rise between two horizontal plates and in a rectangular tube, using a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. We derive an equation for the static fluid-solid contact angle as a function of the wetting tendency of the walls and test its validity. We show that the generalized Laplace law with two independent radii of curvature is followed in capillary rise in rectangular tubes. Our method removes the history dependence of the fluid-solid contact angle that had been present in earlier LB schemes.

  20. Off-Angle Iris Correction using a Biological Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This work implements an eye model to simulate corneal refraction effects. Using this model, ray tracing is performed to calculate transforms to remove refractive effects in off-angle iris images when reprojected to a frontal view. The correction process is used as a preprocessing step for off-angle iris images for input to a commercial matcher. With this method, a match score distribution mean improvement of 11.65% for 30 degree images, 44.94% for 40 degree images, and 146.1% improvement for 50 degree images is observed versus match score distributions with unmodi ed images.

  1. Off-Angle Iris Correction using a Biological Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This work implements an eye model to simulate corneal refraction effects. Using this model, ray tracing is performed to calculate transforms to remove refractive effects in off-angle iris images when reprojected to a frontal view. The correction process is used as a preprocessing step for off-angle iris images for input to a commercial matcher. With this method, a match score distribution mean improvement of 11.65% for 30 degree images, 44.94% for 40 degree images, and 146.1% improvement for 50 degree images is observed versus match score distributions with unmodified images.

  2. Confocal supercritical angle fluorescence microscopy for cell membrane imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Mayet, Céline; Dupuis, Guillaume; Fort, Emmanuel; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate sub-wavelength sectioning on biological samples with a conventional confocal microscope. This optical sectioning is achieved by the phenomenon of supercritical angle fuorescence, wherein only a fluorophore next to the interface of a refractive index discontinuity can emit propagating components of radiation into the so-called forbidden angles. The simplicity of this technique allows it to be integrated with a high numerical aperture confocal scanning microscope by only a simple modi?cation on the detection channel. Confocal-SAF microscopy would be a powerful tool to achieve high resolution surface imaging, especially for membrane imaging in biological samples

  3. Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khmou, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources. The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

  4. Investigation of Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers With Variable Chevron Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muthuraman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available - Experiments to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop in brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs were performed with the refrigerants R410A and R22. Brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron angles of 45°, 35°, and 20° were used. Varying the mass flux, the condensation temperature, and the vapor quality of the refrigerant, we measured the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drops. Both the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop increased proportionally with the mass flux and the vapor quality and inversely with the condensation temperature and the chevron angle.

  5. Canaloplasty versus Viscocanalostomy in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Faried Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty versus viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. Methods Canaloplasty surgery was applied for thirty eyes of thirty patients (45–55 years) with a mean age of 48 years (Group A) and viscocanalostomy surgery was applied also for thirty eyes of thirty patients (43–54 years) with a mean age of 46 years (group B). All patients were with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma by maximally tolerated medical therapy. Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both surgeries was significantly reduced through follow up period (p glaucoma (POAG) with medication.

  6. Measuring the Stop Mixing Angle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we use ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop ~t_1 to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we show that, depending on the scenario, one can achieve accuracies in the range of a few percent for determining the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase.

  7. Computer programs for calculation of sting pitch and roll angles required to obtain angles of attack and sideslip on wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Two programs have been developed to calculate the pitch and roll angles of a wind-tunnel sting drive system that will position a model at the desired angle of attack and and angle of sideslip in the wind tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs from on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented in the report and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.

  8. Feasibility of laser trabeculoplasty in angle closure glaucoma: a review of favorable histopathological findings in narrow angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Alexis Galeno; Asrani, Sanjay G; Paula, Jayter Silva

    2017-02-28

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has been indicated as a safe and efficient treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma; however, recent studies have also shown positive results with the use of SLT in some clinical conditions related to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Despite the potential benefits of SLT in selected cases of PACG, the mechanisms underlying the modifications in the trabecular meshwork tissue of patients with PACG are poorly understood. This narrative review approached both the current, limited knowledge about the histological changes observed in different forms of PACG and the clinical results of SLT treatment for PACG. Favorable outcomes of SLT in patients with PACG, specifically in areas of non-occluded angle, need further substantiation through large controlled clinical trials. A deeper understanding of the biomolecular changes of those areas is essential to improve both laser technical details and the clinical efficacy of SLT therapy.

  9. Effect of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in angle closure eyes with or without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Golshan; Moghimi, Sasan; Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-21

    Purpose. To evaluate the anatomic effects of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods. A total of 62 eyes of 58 patients underwent cataract surgery in Farabi Rye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were examined postoperatively on day 1, week 1, and week 6. Indentation gonioscopy and AS-OCT were performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measures were angle and anterior segment parameters by AS-OCT and amount of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) by gonioscopy. Thirty-five eyes had PAS =180 degrees (group 1) and 27 eyes had >180-degree synechial closure (group 2). Results. Mean age of the patients was 64.3±9.0 years. The mean extent of PAS was significantly reduced from 45.9 to 32.2 degrees (p180 degrees.

  10. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P U Sastry; V K Aswal; A G Wagh

    2008-11-01

    The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature and the average radius of the platinum particles is about 2.5 nm. The fractal dimension as well as the size distribution parameters of platinum particles varies markedly with the platinum content and annealing temperature. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples corroborate the SANS and SAXS results.

  11. Combined multiaxial deformation of polymers with in situ small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, B; Thio, Y S; Bucknall, D G

    2009-12-01

    A unique multiaxial deformation device has been designed and built specifically for simultaneous synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements. The device can operate at strain rates of 0.0005-0.3 s(-1) and induce strains up to stretch ratios of 5. Measurements can either be made at ambient or at elevated temperatures (up to approximately 150 degrees C), the latter using a heating unit. The capabilities of the device coupled with simultaneous SAXS/WAXS measurements have been demonstrated by studying the morphological evolution of a number of polymers and their nanocomposites.

  12. Angling for ecological effects of marine protection (SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Multivariate analyses of the abundance of fish caught by size class found significant effects of protection in shore angling total weight (higher values in MPA. Lack of significant effects of protection may be due to the fact that MPAs are still recent. Replication in time, within a monitoring programme, is recommended to assess the ecological effects of these conservation measures.

  13. Angle- and Polarization-Insensitive Metamaterial Absorber using Via Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daecheon; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an angle- and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber. We design a metamaterial unit cell that is based on a split ring cross resonator (SRCR). We observe that the absorption frequency and absorption ratio are insensitive to incident angles when a via array surrounds the SRR. We demonstrate the effect of the via array using full-wave simulations by comparing the absorptivity of the SRCR with and without the via array. Because of the symmetric geometry, we also realize polarization insensitivity. We build the proposed absorber on a printed-circuit-board with 30 × 30 unit cells, and we demonstrate its performance experimentally in free space. Under normal incidence, the fabricated absorber shows 99.6% absorptivity at 11.3 GHz for all polarization angles, while for oblique incidence, the fabricated absorber maintains an absorptivity higher than 90% for incident angles up to 70° and 60° for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively.

  14. Angles-only relative navigation in highly elliptical orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jia; CUI Nai-gang

    2010-01-01

    For angles-only relative navigation system only measures line-of-sight information,there are inherent problems in the ability to determine the range between Chaser and Target.Angles-only relative navigation is an at tractive alternative for inspecting or rendezvous with noncooperative target,if adequate accuracy can be achieved.Angles-only relative navigation model considering J2 perturbation is presented for tracking and rendezvous with nonco operative target in highly elliptical orbit.Impulsive out-of-plane maneuvers of the Chaser axe used to improve the navigation accuracy.The frrst impulse burns in cross-track directions to change the orbit inclination of the Chaser.The second impulse burns after one orbit period to change the orbit of the Chaser back.The simulation results show that the relative navigation system without maneuvers can' t correct the initial state errors,while impulsive out-of plane maneuvers of the Chaser improves the navigation accuracy.Angles-only relative navigation with chaser vehicle maneuvers to improve observability is effective when the spacecrafts are in highly elliptical orbits.

  15. Entrainment Characteristics for variable-angle plunging liquid jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj; Trujillo, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Simulations based on an algebraic VoF method are used to study the entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent pool at angles ranging from 10 to 90 deg. with pool. Our previous study of shallow plunging jets (Deshpande et al. 2012) revealed a discernible frequency in the formation of large air cavities. This contrasts the well-documented chaotic entrainment at steeper inclinations, suggesting a different entrainment mechanism exists for shallow angles. Quantitatively, it is found that larger cavities and greater volume of entrained air occur at shallower angles (10, 12 deg.). A precursor to the formation of these large cavities is the presence of a stagnation region in the zone of impingement. Using a local mass and momentum balance, we show that this stagnation region deflects the incoming jet at wide angles producing large air cavities. Entrainment in shallow jets is similar to the initial impact of the jet with a pool, but it occurs periodically. The recurrence is a consequence of jet disruption by traveling waves on the pool. Qualitative analysis, supported with simulations, demonstrates linear scaling of entrainment period with Froude number.

  16. Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uca, O

    2003-01-01

    Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) instrument is a novel SANS technique which enables one to characterize distances from a few nanometers up to the micron range. The most striking difference between normal SANS and SESANS is that in SESANS one gets information in real space, whereas i

  17. Imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform and its optical implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 李国强

    1997-01-01

    The concept of imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform is proposed. Its existence and additive operation are proved. With this concept, FRT is expanded to the optical transform of convex lens outside the range of double focal length and that of concave lens.

  18. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle...

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratzl, P. [Vienna Univ., Inst. fuer Materialphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    The basic principles of the application of small-angle neutron scattering to materials research are summarized. The text focusses on the classical methods of data evaluation for isotropic and for anisotropic materials. Some examples of applications to the study of alloys, porous materials, composites and other complex materials are given. (author) 9 figs., 38 refs.

  20. Materials characterisation by angle-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Caspary, Knut; Oppermann, Oliver; Grieb, Tim; Krause, Florian F.; Rosenauer, Andreas; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin; Potapov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Solid-state properties such as strain or chemical composition often leave characteristic fingerprints in the angular dependence of electron scattering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is dedicated to probe scattered intensity with atomic resolution, but it drastically lacks angular resolution. Here we report both a setup to exploit the explicit angular dependence of scattered intensity and applications of angle-resolved STEM to semiconductor nanostructures. Our method is applied to measure nitrogen content and specimen thickness in a GaNxAs1‑x layer independently at atomic resolution by evaluating two dedicated angular intervals. We demonstrate contrast formation due to strain and composition in a Si- based metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with GexSi1‑x stressors as a function of the angles used for imaging. To shed light on the validity of current theoretical approaches this data is compared with theory, namely the Rutherford approach and contemporary multislice simulations. Inconsistency is found for the Rutherford model in the whole angular range of 16–255 mrad. Contrary, the multislice simulations are applicable for angles larger than 35 mrad whereas a significant mismatch is observed at lower angles. This limitation of established simulations is discussed particularly on the basis of inelastic scattering.

  1. View angle dependence of cloud optical thicknesses retrieved by MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether cloud inhomogeneity influences the view angle dependence of MODIS cloud optical thickness (tau) retrieval results. The degree of cloud inhomogeneity is characterized through the local gradient in 11 microns brightness temperature. The analysis of liquid phase clouds in a one year long global dataset of Collection 4 MODIS data reveals that while optical thickness retrievals give remarkably consistent results for all view directions if clouds are homogeneous, they give much higher tau-values for oblique views than for overhead views if clouds are inhomogeneous and the sun is fairly oblique. For solar zenith angles larger than 55deg, the mean optical thickness retrieved for the most inhomogeneous third of cloudy pixels is more than 30% higher for oblique views than for overhead views. After considering a variety of possible scenarios, the paper concludes that the most likely reason for the increase lies in three-dimensional radiative interactions that are not considered in current, one-dimensional retrieval algorithms. Namely, the radiative effect of cloud sides viewed at oblique angles seems to contribute most to the enhanced tau-values. The results presented here will help understand cloud retrieval uncertainties related to cloud inhomogeneity. They complement the uncertainty estimates that will start accompanying MODIS cloud products in Collection 5 and may eventually help correct for the observed view angle dependent biases.

  2. Determination Method of Bridge Rotation Angle Response Using MEMS IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Sekiya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To implement steel bridge maintenance, especially that related to fatigue damage, it is important to monitor bridge deformations under traffic conditions. Bridges deform and rotate differently under traffic load conditions because their structures differ in terms of length and flexibility. Such monitoring enables the identification of the cause of stress concentrations that cause fatigue damage and the proposal of appropriate countermeasures. However, although bridge deformation monitoring requires observations of bridge angle response as well as the bridge displacement response, measuring the rotation angle response of a bridge subject to traffic loads is difficult. Theoretically, the rotation angle response can be calculated by integrating the angular velocity, but for field measurements of actual in-service bridges, estimating the necessary boundary conditions would be difficult due to traffic-induced vibration. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a method for determining the rotation angle response of an in-service bridge from its angular velocity, as measured by a inertial measurement unit (IMU. To verify our proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS IMUs and two contact displacement gauges. The results showed that our proposed method provided high accuracy when compared to the reference responses calculated by the contact displacement gauges.

  3. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  4. Simulation of capillary flow with a dynamic contact angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, S; Veldman, AEP; Dreyer, ME

    2005-01-01

    A number of theoretical and empirical dynamic contact angle (DCA) models have been tested in a numerical simulation of liquid reorientation in microgravity for which experimental validation data are available. It is observed that the DCA can have a large influence on liquid dynamics in microgravity.

  5. Surface free energy of a solid from contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibowski, Emil

    2003-04-25

    Nature of contact angle hysteresis is discussed basing on the literature data (Colloids Surf. A 189 (2001) 265) of dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of n-alkanes and n-alcohols on a very smooth surface of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2,-trifluoroethane (FC-732) film deposited on a silicon plate. The authors considered the liquid absorption and/or retention (swelling) processes responsible for the observed hysteresis. In this paper hysteresis is considered to be due to the liquid film left behind the drop during retreating of its contact line. Using the contact angle hysteresis an approach is suggested for evaluation of the solid surface free energy. Molecular spacing and the film structure are discussed to explain the difference in n-alkanes and n-alcohols behaviour as well as to explain the difference between dispersion free energy gamma(s)(d) and total surface free energy gamma(s)(tot) of FC-732, as determined from the advancing contact angles and the hysteresis, respectively.

  6. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR.

  7. Some imaging strategies in multi-angle spatial compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Jensen, M. S.; Brandt, T.;

    2000-01-01

    Multi-angle compound images were generated with four schemes: mean, median, root-mean-square and geometric mean. The in vitro images, based on formalin fixed porcine tissue, were analyzed by visual inspection and by calculation of speckle contrast and contrast between different tissues. The mean...

  8. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  9. Progress in small angle neutron scattering activities in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Aziz Bin Mohamed; Azali Bin Muhamad; Shukri Bin Mohd [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    The current status of SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering facility) activities in Malaysia has been presented. Many works need to be done for system improvement before the system can be confidently used as one of effective quality control tools in materials production and engineering sectors. (author)

  10. Installation of NA62 Large Angle Veto detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the NA62 collaboration has installed the first eight (out of 12) Large Angle Veto detectors for the accurate identification of photons. These subdetectors will re-use 3000 lead glass crystals with attached photomultipliers from the OPAL experiment at LEP – CERN’s former accelerator.

  11. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J

    2002-01-01

    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  12. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the d

  13. Vowel Formants and Angle Measurements in Diachronic Sociophonetic Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2007-01-01

    is well documented in varieties of British English, such as Torgersen and Kerswill [10], including RP, as in Hawkins and Midgley [6]. The paper also demonstrates the versatility of an angle calculation method (Fabricius [3]), used in combination with F1/F2 plots, in producing replicable quantified...

  14. Angle dependence of Andreev scattering at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We study the angle dependence of the Andreev scattering at a semiconductor-superconductor interface, generalizing the one-dimensional theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK),An increase of the momentum parallel to the interface leads to suppression of the probability of Andreev reflection...

  15. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  16. Head Angle and Elevation in Classroom Environments: Implications for Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Todd Andrew; Galster, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's head orientation relative to the arrival angle of competing signals and the sound source of interest in actual school settings. These data were gathered to provide information relative to the potential for directional benefit. Method: Forty children, 4-17 years of age, with and without…

  17. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  18. Tourism English Teaching Techniques Converged from Two Different Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Myeong-Hee

    2001-01-01

    Provides techniques converged from two different angles (learners and tourism English features) for effective tourism English teaching in a junior college in Korea. Used a questionnaire, needs analysis, an instrument for measuring learners' strategies for oral communication, a small-scale classroom study for learners' preferred teaching…

  19. A "Conveyor Belt" Model for the Dynamic Contact Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, C.; Siboni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily…

  20. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces.

  1. Origin of dynamic contact angle at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Alex; Likhtman, Alexei

    2016-11-01

    Generation of a dynamic contact angle in the course of wetting is a fundamental phenomenon of nature. Dynamic wetting processes have a direct impact on flows at the nanoscale, and therefore, understanding them is exceptionally important to emerging technologies. Here, we reveal the microscopic mechanism of dynamic contact angle generation, which is demonstrated using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of bead-spring model fluids. It has been shown that the main cause of local contact angle variations is the distribution of microscopic force acting at the contact line region. We were able to retrieve this force with high accuracy to understand its nature and its characteristic physical parameters. It has been directly established that the force distribution can be solely predicted on the basis of a general friction law for liquid flow at solid surfaces first formulated by Thompson & Troian on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones liquids. The relationship with the friction law provides both an explanation of the phenomenon of dynamic contact angle and a methodology for future predictions. The mechanism is intrinsically microscopic, universal, and irreducible and is applicable to a wide range of problems associated with wetting phenomena. Deceased.

  2. Dynamic Contact Angle at the Nanoscale: A Unified View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Alex V; Likhtman, Alexei E

    2016-06-28

    Generation of a dynamic contact angle in the course of wetting is a fundamental phenomenon of nature. Dynamic wetting processes have a direct impact on flows at the nanoscale, and therefore, understanding them is exceptionally important to emerging technologies. Here, we reveal the microscopic mechanism of dynamic contact angle generation. It has been demonstrated using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of bead-spring model fluids that the main cause of local contact angle variations is the distribution of microscopic force acting at the contact line region. We were able to retrieve this elusive force with high accuracy. It has been directly established that the force distribution can be solely predicted on the basis of a general friction law for liquid flow at solid surfaces by Thompson and Troian. The relationship with the friction law provides both an explanation of the phenomenon of dynamic contact angle and a methodology for future predictions. The mechanism is intrinsically microscopic, universal, and irreducible and is applicable to a wide range of problems associated with wetting phenomena.

  3. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  4. Gluon transport equations with condensate in the small angle approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul [Institut de Physique Théorique (IPhT), CNRS/URA2306, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We derive the set of kinetic equations that control the evolution of gluons in the presence of a condensate. We show that the dominant singularities remain logarithmic when the scattering involves particles in the condensate. This allows us to define a consistent small angle approximation.

  5. Lower extremity angle measurement with accelerometers - error and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Antoon Th.M.; Frigo, Carlo; Boom, Herman B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of accelerometers for angle assessment of the lower extremities is investigated. This method is evaluated by an error-and-sensitivity analysis using healthy subject data. Of three potential error sources (the reference system, the accelerometers, and the model assumptions) the last is found

  6. Impaired Saccadic Eye Movement in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamirel, Cédric; Milea, Dan; Cochereau, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Our study aimed at investigating the extent to which saccadic eye movements are disrupted in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This approach followed upon the discovery of differences in the eye-movement behavior of POAG patients during the exploration of complex visual...

  7. "What's My Angle Here?" An Exercise in Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Susanna Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Each semester the author asks her first-year composition students to write a profile essay. The assignment, based on one in "St Martin's Guide to Writing," requires that students develop a thesis ("dominant impression" or "angle") about a place that they visit. The author is convinced that this essay is one of the most valuable and challenging…

  8. Systemic antihypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between systemic anti hypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: The study population consisted of a subset of 3842 participants of the Rotterdam Study for whom data from identical o

  9. Common genetic variants associated with open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Lemij, Hans G.; Pasutto, Francesca; Cree, Angela J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Janssen, Sarah F.; Jacoline, Ten Brink; Amin, Najaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Walters, G. Bragi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Weisschuh, Nicole; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gibson, Jane; Zegers, Richard H. C.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gramer, Eugen; Welgen-Luessen, Ulrich C.; Kirwan, James F.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Stefansson, Kari; Lotery, Andrew J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma (glaucoma) is a major eye disorder characterized by optic disc pathology. Recent genome-wide association studies identified new loci associated with clinically relevant optic disc parameters, such as the optic disc area and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). We examined to what exte

  10. Genetic architecture of open angle glaucoma and related determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, W.D.; Amin, N.; van Koolwijk, L.M.E.; Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Demirkan, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Wolfs, R.C.W.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Oostra, B.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Vingerling, J.R.; Jansonius, N.M.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) are important determinants of open angle glaucoma (OAG), it is unclear to what extent the genetic origin of these traits overlap with those of OAG. We evaluated whether the same genes that determine VCDR and IOP al

  11. Symmetry constraints for the emission angle dependence of HBT radii

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W; Lisa, M A; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2002-01-01

    We discuss symmetry constraints on the azimuthal oscillations of two-particle correlation (Hanbury Brown--Twiss interferometry) radii for non-central collisions between equal spherical nuclei. We also propose a new method for correcting in a model-independent way the emission angle dependent correlation function for finite event plane resolution and angular binning effects.

  12. Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible angles for quadratic polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruin, Henk

    2012-01-01

    A point $z$ in the Julia set of a polynomial $p$ is called biaccessible if two dynamic rays land at $z$; a point $z$ in the Mandelbrot set is called biaccessible if two parameter rays land at $z$. In both cases, we say that the external angles of these two rays are biaccessible as well. In this paper we give upper and lower bounds for the Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible external angles of quadratic polynomials, both in the dynamical and parameter space. We explicitly describe those quadratic polynomials where this dimension equals 1 (if and only if the Julia set is an interval), and when it equals 0, namely, at finite direct bifurcations from the polynomial $z^2$, as well as limit points thereof. We also show that the Hausdorff dimension of biaccessible dynamical angles depends in a H\\"older sense on the parameter angle, and that this dimension, up to a factor $\\log 2$, equals the {\\em core entropy}, i.e. the topological entropy of the dynamics of the Hubbard tree.

  13. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  14. Angle- and Polarization-Insensitive Metamaterial Absorber using Via Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daecheon; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an angle- and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber. We design a metamaterial unit cell that is based on a split ring cross resonator (SRCR). We observe that the absorption frequency and absorption ratio are insensitive to incident angles when a via array surrounds the SRR. We demonstrate the effect of the via array using full-wave simulations by comparing the absorptivity of the SRCR with and without the via array. Because of the symmetric geometry, we also realize polarization insensitivity. We build the proposed absorber on a printed-circuit-board with 30 × 30 unit cells, and we demonstrate its performance experimentally in free space. Under normal incidence, the fabricated absorber shows 99.6% absorptivity at 11.3 GHz for all polarization angles, while for oblique incidence, the fabricated absorber maintains an absorptivity higher than 90% for incident angles up to 70° and 60° for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. PMID:28000770

  15. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  16. Evaluation of Three Different Osteosynthesis Methods for Mandibular Angle Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de Gorla; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of different rigid fixation methods in mandible angle fractures. Three different plates were tested: one 4-hole grid miniplate, one 8-hole curved grid miniplate, and one 4-hole straight miniplate.For the loading tests, 30 polyurethane ...

  17. IMU-based joint angle measurement for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Thomas; Raisch, Jörg; Schauer, Thomas

    2014-04-16

    This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1) joint axis and position identification; and (2) flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  18. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Changwu; Jia, Zhenhong; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Li, Peng; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  19. Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument at Malaysian TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukri Mohd; Razali Kassim; Zal Uyun Mahmood [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Shahidan Radiman

    1998-10-01

    The TRIGA MARK II Research reactor at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Research (MINT) was commissioned in July 1982. Since then various works have been performed to utilise the neutrons produced from this steady state reactor. One of the project involved the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). (author)

  20. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  1. Improved Angle Potentials for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Goga, Nicolae; Zhao, Wei; Rossi, Giulia; Monticelli, Luca; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D. Peter; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Potentials routinely used in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are not always suitable for modeling systems at coarse-grained resolution. For example, in the calculation of traditional torsion angle potentials, numerical instability is often encountered in the case of very flexible molecules.

  2. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction : A different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, B.A. van; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    This letter describes a novel technique of diffracted beam glancing angle x-ray diffraction by which depth profiles of stresses and transformed phases in structures like implanted materials can be determined. An important feature is that this method may be applied successfully in a standard powder d

  3. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig;

    signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), we show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger...

  4. Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M

    1975-01-01

    The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).

  5. Exploring Dissections of Rectangles into Right-Angled Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we highlight how a simple classroom activity associated with the dissection of rectangles into right-angled triangles can lead on to a number of interesting explorations for students following a post-16 mathematics course. Several results connected with this construction are obtained, and some of the educational benefits of…

  6. Small Angle Crab Compensation for LHC IR Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Akai, K; Dorda, U; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, T

    2007-01-01

    A small angle crab scheme is being considered for the LHC luminosity upgrade. In this paper we present a 400MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We also present a study on the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, with RF noise sources.

  7. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  8. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, A.

    2001-11-01

    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter poured into a silo. The experiments are conducted in two regimes where: (i) the volume fraction of the fluid (liquid) is small and it forms liquid bridges between particles thus giving rise to cohesive forces, and (ii) the particles are completely immersed in the fluid. The data is obtained by imaging the pile formed inside a quasi-two-dimensional silo through the transparent glass side walls and using color-coded particles. In the first series of experiments, the angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturates at a value that depends on the size of the particles. We systematically study the effect of viscosity by using water-glycerol mixtures to vary it over at least three orders of magnitude while keeping the surface tension almost constant. Besides surface tension, the viscosity of the fluid is observed to have an effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. The sharp initial change and the subsequent saturation in the extent of segregation and angle of repose occurs over similar volume fraction of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We calculate the azimuthal correlation function of particle density inside the pile to characterize the extent of layering. In the second series of experiments, particles are poured into a container filled with a fluid. Although the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged, segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. The viscosity at which segregation decreases to zero depends on the size ratio of the particles.

  9. Decoding low dihedral angles in gabbroic layered intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, M. B.; Humphreys, M.; Veksler, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    Texturally equilibrated rocks are granular with a unimodal grain size, smoothly curved grain boundaries, and angles at three-grain junctions of 110-140°. Gabbros are not texturally equilibrated: primocrysts commonly have planar faces whereas later-formed phases fill in the interstitial spaces. Augite-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angles (Θcpp) rarely attain the equilibrium value in gabbros and the population of disequilibrium angles preserves otherwise inaccessible information about rock history. The Θcpp population varies significantly between different basaltic bodies. In a rapidly cooled dolerite Θcpp has a low median (60-70°) and a high standard deviation (20-25°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar. In more slowly cooled gabbros in layered intrusions, the angle populations have a higher median (80-110°) with a low standard deviation (10-15°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar far from the triple junction, but curve within 10 microns of the junction. This curvature is commonly asymmetric. The angle population in solidified gabbros infiltrated by low-temperature melts is similar to that in dolerites, although the low angles are associated with cuspate interstitial grains. The dihedral angle is a function of both the original solidification process and subsequent high-temperature (melt-absent) grain boundary migration. Infilling of a melt pocket by overgrowth of the bounding solid phases necessitates supersaturation, and this is easier to attain for planar faces, resulting in inhibition of augite growth into pores bounded by planar plagioclase grains and an asymmetry of the initial augite-plag-plag junction. If the solidified gabbro is kept sufficiently hot these initial junction geometries can change during textural equilibration. In the Skaergaard, Rum and Bushveld intrusions, the median Θcpp varies with liquidus assemblage, increasing step-wise on the addition of a new liquidus phase. Locally

  10. Using Order Tracking Analysis Method to Detect the Angle Faults of Blades on Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Pengfei; Hu, Weihao; Liu, Juncheng;

    2016-01-01

    The angle faults of blades on wind turbines are usually included in the set angle fault and the pitch angle fault. They are occupied with a high proportion in all wind turbine faults. Compare with the traditional fault detection methods, using order tracking analysis method to detect angle faults...

  11. Mandibular Angle Fractures: Comparison of One Miniplate vs. Two Miniplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hajmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocortical miniplate fixation is an accepted and reliable method for internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Although placement of a second miniplate may theoretically provide more stability; however, the clinical importance of this issue remains controversial.Objectives: The present study assessed the postoperative complications and outcomes associated with the fixation of mandibular angle fractures using 1 and 2 miniplates in patients with favorable mandibular angle fractures.Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 87 patients (73 males, 14 females with favorable mandibular angle fractures was done. In the first group, a 4-hole miniplate was placed at the superior border through an intraoral approach. In group 2, patients were treated with 2 miniplates, one placed at the superior border (similar to group 1 and the other on the lateral aspect of the angle at the inferior border through an intraoral and transcutaneous approach using a trocar. Postoperative complications including malocclusion, malunion and sensory disturbances associated with surgery, additional maxillomandibular fixation (MMF by means of an arch bar and wires for a longer period (for delayed union and infection were assessed in patients of both groups up to 12 months postoperatively. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.Results: In the single miniplate group, 25 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (55.6%, 22 patients required additional use of MMF (48.9% and 3 patients developed infections (6.7%. In the double miniplate group 20 patients showed lip numbness associated with surgery (47.6%, 18 patients required additional use of MMF (42.9% and 1 patient developed infection (2.4%. None of the patients in either group showed malocclusion or malunion. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding overall complication rate.Conclusions: In this study, use of one miniplate or two miniplates for treatment of

  12. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  13. Flight Calibration of the LROC Narrow Angle Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.; Brylow, S. M.; Mahanti, P.; Tran, T. N.; Braden, S. E.; Wiseman, S.; Danton, J.; Eliason, E. M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Characterization and calibration are vital for instrument commanding and image interpretation in remote sensing. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) takes 500 Mpixel greyscale images of lunar scenes at 0.5 meters/pixel. It uses two nominally identical line scan cameras for a larger crosstrack field of view. Stray light, spatial crosstalk, and nonlinearity were characterized using flight images of the Earth and the lunar limb. These are important for imaging shadowed craters, studying ˜1 meter size objects, and photometry respectively. Background, nonlinearity, and flatfield corrections have been implemented in the calibration pipeline. An eight-column pattern in the background is corrected. The detector is linear for DN = 600--2000 but a signal-dependent additive correction is required and applied for DNground-based images taken with the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) at much lower spatial resolution but with the same photometric angles.

  14. The angle property of positive real functions simply derived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsboe, Helge

    1973-01-01

    The angle property of positive real (rational) functionsZ(s), namely, that|arg s | geqq |arg Z(s)|in the right half of thes-plane, can be demonstrated very simply by an examination of the imaginary parts of the functionsln(s/Z(s))andln (sZ(s)), i.e.,arg s mp arg Z(s). In particular, on a contour...... enclosing the entire first quadrant,arg s mp arg Z(s)can rather easily be shown to be nonnegative. The extremum theorem of analytic functions then assures thatarg s mp arg Z(s)cannot be negative inside the first quadrant; thus the angle property is demonstrated in the first quadrant. The same result...

  15. Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, F.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kraemer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mcbride, P.; McHamon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Warner, C.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-07-01

    The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2overlineθw is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e +e - interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb -1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2overlineθw is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries of charged leptons and b-quarks, and the τ-polarization. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The value of sin2overlineθw from a fit to the asymmetries in a model independent method is 0.2321±0.0021 and from a global fit to the data in the Standard Model framework is 0.2328±0.0013.

  16. Improved Image Retrieval with Color and Angle Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi A. Alnabriss

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, new ideas are proposed to enhance content-based image retrieval applications by representing colored images in terms of its colors and angles as a histogram describing the number of pixels with particular color located in specific angle, then similarity is measured between the two represented histograms. The color quantization technique is a crucial stage in the CBIR system process, we made comparisons between the uniform and the non-uniform color quantization techniques, and then according to our results we used the non-uniform technique which showed higher efficiency. In our tests we used the Corel-1000 images database in addition to a Matlab code, we compared our results with other approaches like Fuzzy Club, IRM, Geometric Histogram, Signature Based CBIR and Modified ERBIR, and our proposed technique showed high retrieving precision ratios compared to the other techniques.

  17. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  18. Performance measurement of broadband, wide-angle polarizing beam splitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-bin; ZHENG Zhen-rong; GU Pei-fu; ZHANG Yue-guang

    2007-01-01

    Polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is a critical optical component in projection display system because PBS performance greatly influences the contrast and brightness of the system. PBS performance is usually measured by spectrophotometer after coating and cementing, but the measured result cannot represent the actual performance in practice because people usually change the incident angle in one plane (horizontal plane) and do not consider the other plane (vertical plane). Geometrical polarization rotation occurring at reduced F-number influences the measuring precision of s-polarization transmittance (Ts) and p-polarization reflectance (Rp). A more accurate and practical way to measure the performance of broadband, wide-angle PBS is presented in this paper.

  19. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K-J; Shvyd' ko, Yuri

    2010-08-23

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  20. Mechanical characterization of glancing angle deposited Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Patzig, Christian; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Leipzig (Germany); Fuhrmann, Bodo [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In physical vapour deposition processes the incoming particle flux strikes perpendicular to the surface, whereas a compact film is deposed on the substrate. However, at the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process the sample is tilted with respect to the substrate normal, so the particle flux strikes the surface under an highly oblique angle {beta} (typically {beta}>80 with respect to the substrate normal). Self-shadowing of the deposed particles lead to a non-closed and highly porous film, which is compose of needle-like nanostructures, toward the incoming particle flux. By means of substrate rotation, different structures such as pillars, zigzags, screws or spirals can be obtained. Although in recent years a series of fundamentally findings have been published, mechanical properties remain unknown. Our goal was to determine the mechanical properties (such as hardness, Young's modulus and spring constants of spiral structures) by employing nanoindentation with a flat punch to these 3D silicon nanostructures.

  1. Lorentz Angle Measurement for CO2/Isobutane Gas Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshina, K; Khalatyan, N S; Nitoh, O; Okuno, H; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, M; Kurihara, Y; Kuroiwa, H; Nakamura, Y; Sakieda, K; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, T

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a Lorentz angle measurement system for cool gas mixtures in the course of our R&D for a proposed JLC central drift chamber (JLC-CDC). The measurement system is characterized by the use of two laser beams to produce primary electrons and flash ADCs to read their signals simultaneously. With this new system, we have measured Lorentz angles for CO2/isobutane gas mixtures with different proportions (95:5, 90:10, and 85:15), varying drift field from 0.6 to 2.0 kV/cm and magnetic field up to 1.5 T. The results of the measurement are in good agreement with GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ simulations.

  2. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Reflection Imaging of Acoustic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kilcullen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brewster angle reflection imaging apparatus is demonstrated which is capable of detecting hidden water-filled voids in a rubber tile sample. This imaging application simulates a real-world hull inspection problem for Royal Canadian Navy Victoria-class submarines. The tile samples represent a challenging imaging application due to their large refractive index and absorption coefficient. With a rubber transmission window at approximately 80 GHz, terahertz (THz sensing methods have shown promise for probing these structures in the laboratory. Operating at Brewster’s angle allows for the typically strong front surface reflection to be minimized while also conveniently making the method insensitive to air-filled voids. Using a broadband THz time-domain waveform imaging system (THz-TDS, we demonstrate satisfactory imaging and detection of water-filled voids without complicated signal processing. Optical properties of the tile samples at low THz frequencies are also reported.

  3. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  4. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  5. A wide-angle camera module for disposable endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dongha; Yeon, Jesun; Yi, Jason; Park, Jongwon; Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Nanhee

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle miniaturized camera module for disposable endoscope is demonstrated in this paper. A lens module with 150° angle of view (AOV) is designed and manufactured. All plastic injection-molded lenses and a commercial CMOS image sensor are employed to reduce the manufacturing cost. The image sensor and LED illumination unit are assembled with a lens module. The camera module does not include a camera processor to further reduce its size and cost. The size of the camera module is 5.5 × 5.5 × 22.3 mm3. The diagonal field of view (FOV) of the camera module is measured to be 110°. A prototype of a disposable endoscope is implemented to perform a pre-clinical animal testing. The esophagus of an adult beagle dog is observed. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective and high-performance camera module for disposable endoscopy.

  6. Atomistic aspects of crack propagation along high angle grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The author presents atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration near a high angle {Sigma} = 5 [001](210) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in NiAl. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and embedded atom (EAM) potentials. The cracks are stabilized near a Griffith condition involving the cohesive energy of the grain boundary. The atomistic configurations of the tip region are different in the presence of the high angle grain boundary than in the bulk. Three different configurations of the grain boundary were studied corresponding to different local compositions. It was found that in ordered NiAl, cracks along symmetrical tilt boundaries show a more brittle behavior for Al rich boundaries than for Ni-rich boundaries. Lattice trapping effects in grain boundary fracture were found to be more significant than in the bulk.

  7. Contact angle hysteresis on textured surfaces with nanowire clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Nanowire arrays with various agglomeration patterns were synthesized by adjusting the solvent evaporation rates. Nanowires with 200 nm diameter and 2-25 microm in length were fabricated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous template. Various drying treatments were applied to develop nanostructured surfaces with topological differences. Due to surface tension forces, copper nanowires after thermal and evaporative drying treatments agglomerated into clusters, while supercritical drying technique provided excellent bundled-free and vertically-standing nanowire arrays. Although all dried surfaces exhibited hydrophobic nature, the contact angle hysteresis, or the difference between advancing and receding angles, was found to be larger on those surfaces with bundled nanowire clusters. To explain the difference, the wetted solid fraction on each surface was calculated using the Cassie-Baxter model to show that the hysteresis was contributed by liquid/solid contact area on the textured surfaces.

  8. Simulations of contact angle induced pearling for sliding drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Scott; Mayo, Lisa; Moroney, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Droplets sliding down an incline can develop a corner or a cusp at their rear, or undergo a pearling transition whereby the tail breaks up into a number of smaller satellite droplets. These phenomena have been of interest since the experimental work of. It appears that the experimental investigation of this problem is limited due to the inherent difficulty of minimising contact angle hysteresis, whereby physical or chemical heterogeneities of the substrate cause pinning and distortion of the droplet. By applying a lubrication model with a disjoining pressure term, we investigate these flows numerically in order to further shed light on how certain conditions (such as contact angle) affect the corner-cusp-pearling transition. We acknowledge support from the ARC Linkage Project LP100200476.

  9. Quantification of projection angle in fragment generator warhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.D.DHOTE; K.P.S.MURTHY; K.M.RAJAN; M.M.SUCHEENDRAN

    2014-01-01

    Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) class target neutralization by the fragment spray of a Fragment Generator Warhead (FGW) calls for quantification of fragment projection angle scatter to finalize the end game engagement logic. For conventional axi-symmetric warhead, dispersion is assumed to be normal with a standard deviation of 30. However, such information is not available in case of FGW. Hence, a set of experiments are conducted to determine the dispersion of fragments. The experiments are conducted with a specific configuration of FGW in an identical arena to quantify the scatter and then verified its applicability to other configurations having a range of L/D and C/M ratios, and contoured fragmenting discs. From the experimental study, it is concluded that the scatter in projection angle follows normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.75? at Chi-square significance level of 0.01(c20.99).

  10. Quantification of projection angle in fragment generator warhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Dhote

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM class target neutralization by the fragment spray of a Fragment Generator Warhead (FGW calls for quantification of fragment projection angle scatter to finalize the end game engagement logic. For conventional axi-symmetric warhead, dispersion is assumed to be normal with a standard deviation of 30. However, such information is not available in case of FGW. Hence, a set of experiments are conducted to determine the dispersion of fragments. The experiments are conducted with a specific configuration of FGW in an identical arena to quantify the scatter and then verified its applicability to other configurations having a range of L/D and C/M ratios, and contoured fragmenting discs. From the experimental study, it is concluded that the scatter in projection angle follows normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.75° at Chi-square significance level of 0.01(χ20.99.

  11. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; La Violette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2005-01-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -131 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 10 (syst.) parts per billion, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010 (stat.) +/- 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q^2 = 0.026 GeV^2. Combining this result with the measurements of \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff at the Z^0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6 sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  12. ``DELF'', a large solid angle detection system for heavy fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, R.; Duchon, J.; Gautier, J. M.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Mosrin, P.; Regimbart, R.

    1987-09-01

    To detect the heavy fragments ( Z > 8) emitted at large angle (30° < θ < 150°) in heavy ion collisions at GANIL, a large solid angle detection system has been built. It consists of 18 independent cells surrounding the target, the beam axis being the revolution axis. In each cell, a fragment penetrates at first into a parallel plate avalanche counter with localization which gives velocity, position and {∂E}/{∂x} measurements and then into an ionization chamber with longitudinal field for the residual energy measurement. The Z evaluation is performed over a large range of velocities (0.05 < {E}/{A} < 5 MeV/u) for atomic numbers ranging from 8 to 90.

  13. Searching for the Neutrino Mixing Angle Theta-13 at Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Maury

    2007-01-01

    Two neutrino mixing angles have been measured, and much of the neutrino community is turning its attention to the unmeasured mixing angle, $\\quq$, whose best limit comes from the reactor neutrino experiment CHOOZ.\\cite{bib:chooz} New two detector reactor neutrino experiments are being planned, along with more ambitious accelerator experiments, to measure or further limit $\\quq$. Here I will overview how to measure $\\quq$ using reactor neutrinos, mention some experiments that were considered and are not going forward, and review the current status of four projects: Double Chooz in France, Daya Bay in China, RENO in South Korea and Angra in Brazil. Finally I will mention how the neutrino observer can gauge progress in these projects two years from now as we approach the times corresponding to early estimates for new results.

  14. Large-Angle CMB Suppression and Polarisation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C.J.; Schwarz, D.J.; Starkman, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The anomalous lack of large angle temperature correlations has been a surprising feature of the CMB since first observed by COBE-DMR and subsequently confirmed and strengthened by WMAP. This anomaly may point to the need for modifications of the standard model of cosmology or may show that our Universe is a rare statistical fluctuation within that model. Further observations of the temperature auto-correlation function will not elucidate the issue; sufficiently high precision statistical observations already exist. Instead, alternative probes are required. In this work we explore the expectations for forthcoming polarisation observations. We define a prescription to test the hypothesis that the large-angle CMB temperature perturbations in our Universe represent a rare statistical fluctuation within the standard cosmological model. These tests are based on the temperature-Q Stokes parameter correlation. Unfortunately these tests cannot be expected to be definitive. However, we do show that if this TQ-correlati...

  15. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  16. Serous retinal detachment after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male with 360 degree angle recession after blunt trauma in his right eye developed uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP despite four antiglaucoma medications (AGM with advancing disc damage. He underwent trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-c (MMC application. There was an intraoperative vitreous prolapse which was managed accordingly. On post-surgery day 1, he had shallow choroidal detachment superiorly with non-recordable IOP. This was deteriorated 1 week postoperatively as choroidal detachment proceeded to serous retinal detachment. He was started with systemic steroid in addition to topical route. The serous effusions subsided within 2 weeks time. At the last follow up at 3 months, he was enjoying good visual acuity, deep anterior chamber, diffuse bleb, an IOP in low teens off any AGM and attached retina. This case highlights the rare occurrence of serous retinal detachment after surgical management of angle recession glaucoma.

  17. Reinforced Angle-based Multicategory Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Liu, Yufeng; Wang, Junhui; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-01-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a very popular classification tool with many successful applications. It was originally designed for binary problems with desirable theoretical properties. Although there exist various Multicategory SVM (MSVM) extensions in the literature, some challenges remain. In particular, most existing MSVMs make use of k classification functions for a k-class problem, and the corresponding optimization problems are typically handled by existing quadratic programming solvers. In this paper, we propose a new group of MSVMs, namely the Reinforced Angle-based MSVMs (RAMSVMs), using an angle-based prediction rule with k − 1 functions directly. We prove that RAMSVMs can enjoy Fisher consistency. Moreover, we show that the RAMSVM can be implemented using the very efficient coordinate descent algorithm on its dual problem. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our method is highly competitive in terms of computational speed, as well as classification prediction performance. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. PMID:27891045

  18. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  19. Mixing Angles and Non-Degenerate Systems of Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Duret, Q; Duret, Quentin; Machet, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Defining, in the framework of quantum field theory, their mass eigenstates through their matricial propagator, we show why the mixing matrices of non-degenerate coupled systems should not be parametrized as unitary. This is how, for leptonic binary systems, two-angles solutions with discrete values pi/4 [pi/2] and pi/2 [pi] arise when weak leptonic currents of mass eigenstates approximately satisfy the two properties of universality and vanishing of their non-diagonal neutral components. Charged weak currents are also discussed, which leads to a few remarks concerning oscillations. We argue that quarks, which cannot be defined on shell because of the confinement property, are instead more naturally endowed with unitary Cabibbo-like mixing matrices, involving a single unconstrained mixing angle. The similarity between neutrinos and neutral kaons is outlined, together with the role of the symmetry by exchange of families.

  20. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.